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Activity 1:

Classification,
Nomenclature, and
Identification
BIODIVERSITY
• The number of species
and their range of
behavioral, physiological,
ecological, and other
adaptations in an area.
SYSTEMATICS
• Scientific study of the
kinds and diversity of
organisms and the
relationships among
them.
Aspects of Systematics

PHYLOGENY
– evolutionary history and
relationships of organisms
- Hypothesis about which species
are closely related and in what
order related species evolved.
CLADOGRAM
Aspects of Systematics

TAXONOMY is the:
• Description
• Identification
• Classification, and;
• Nomenclature of organisms
Activities in Taxonomy
• CLASSIFICATION
– Ordering of populations at all levels
by INDUCTIVE procedure
–CATEGORY- rank of level in a
hierarchic classification
–TAXA/ TAXON – taxonomic group
that is sufficiently distinct to be
assigned a definite group of category.
Example: Rice
Category: Taxa
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Oryza
Species: Oryza sativa
Activities in Taxonomy
• NOMENCLATURE
–Theory and practice of naming
–Common/ vernacular names
(problematic: changes in different
areas/social group)
–Scientific names (in latin;
UNIVERSAL)
1700s – “polynomial”

• European honeybee
–Apis pubescens, thorace
subgriseo, abdomine fusco,
pedibus posticis glabris
utrinque margine ciliates
• RULES in NOMENCLATURE
– Indicated by the ICN (International Code of
Nomenclature)
– Binomial/ trinomial : generic name, specific
epithet, author: Oryza sativa L.
– Difference between plants and animals: in
plants, TAUTONOMY is NOT allowed
(tautonomy= repetition of words: Chanos
chanos)
• Genus – generic name (noun)
• Species – specific epithet (adjective)
– Based on/ describes: habitat, location, principal
characteristics, discoverer (named after)
– Allium cepa (onion) – with a bulb which is a
modified leaf
– Uncaria philippinensis (sabilan) – found in the
Philippines
Activities in Taxonomy
• IDENTIFICATION
–Different ways:
• Consulting an expert
• Comparing illustrated manuals/
encyclopedia
• Visiting a herbarium
• Using identification keys
DICHOTOMOUS KEY
• Has 2 contrasting/ opposing
characters (COUPLETS)
• With a lead character (best contrasting
character)
• Taxonomic character – features: form,
structure, appearance, behavior
• Diagnostic/ Key character – most
distinguishing feature
LAB
WORK!