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“Typically, organizations have trained managers in change process models rather than change

implementation frameworks. Given the track record for failed change interventions, there is an
opportunity for organizational development professionals to provide effective guidance through
the application of a comprehensive change implementation model . . .”

Improving Change
Practical Adaptations of Kotter’s Model

By Nicole Stragalas Introduction research with each stage in Kotter’s design,
specific themes emerge. These themes,
While it is common for corporate man- grouped by stakeholder—leadership,
agement training programs to provide employees, organization—reveal valuable
examples of change process models, discus- insights, enhancing the usefulness of this
sion of change implementation models is model for corporations seeking to improve
infrequent. Given the high percentage of the odds for positive, lasting organizational
failed change management efforts, it is change.
essential for corporations to direct more
attention to the specifics of change execu- Change Process Models in
tion. Managers would also benefit from Corporate Training Programs
the review of broad-scale organization
approaches, rather than primarily focus- A significant number of transformation
ing on process models at the individual models have been introduced and ana-
level, where the emphasis is on employee lyzed within the field of organizational
reaction rather than practical execution development. In corporations, however,
of specific steps. One comprehensive three change models are most commonly
implementation model, developed by John reviewed in leadership development pro-
Kotter, offers clear guidance for large-scale grams. Two, by William Bridges and Edgar
change management efforts. While the Schein, are process models that can be
Kotter framework is more closely related applied at an organizational level, but are
to organizational behavior, in that it targets typically discussed at the individual or team
macro-level organizational theory, it is also level. The third, by Kotter, is more appro-
appropriate as an organizational develop- priately classified as a change implementa-
ment tool, providing a three-dimensional tion model. Certain elements are common
linkage between individuals, groups, and in all three approaches.
the organization. Bridges proposed there are three
Although Kotter’s work has been significant stages in managing transi-
validated through significant research and tions. He defined these stages as “Ending,
is a staple component in graduate manage- Losing, Letting Go; Neutral Zone; and
ment programs, the seemingly limited New Beginning” (Bridges, 2003, p. 5).
use of the model to guide many corporate Individuals begin a change process with
change initiatives suggests there are gaps a certain sense of loss and feelings of dis-
in translation. A cursory examination of comfort, move through a period of “psy-
recent research into successful change chological realignments and repatternings”
management interventions may provide (p. 5), and come through the transition
information that would expand and clarify with a “new identity… new energy… and
Kotter’s implementation model. By match- new sense of purpose that make the change
ing specific recommendations from recent begin to work” (p. 5). Two areas developed

Improving Change Implementation: Practical Adaptations of Kotter’s Model 31

crisis. in larger companies. need to form to enable problem-solving and be 20-50 people learning without loss of identity • Communication must be multi- (p. norm” • Involvement of learner which in turn always demands leadership” • Clarify purpose • Positive role models (p. 3). 324) • Managers must be positive. 101) models • Proactive explanations made showing connections between new approaches and improved performance When “no larger strategy exists” (for a On Refreezing (conditions for On Urgency: “Well over 50% of rapidly developing change situation). • Rebuild trust • Reward and discipline system con­ • Unload “old baggage” sistent with new model (p. Change. 2003) (Schein. Management’s Actions to deal with “non-stop” change Creating Psychological Safety includes 8 mandate is to minimize risk and to keep include: conditions. not solutions (cannot Based model on work of Lewin. Table 1:  Comparison of Change Process and Implementation Models William Bridges Edgar Schein (Lewin) John Kotter Three stages: Three stages: Eight Stages: • Establish Sense of Urgency Ending. causing “anxiety and guilt” than the unknown” • Psychological safety exists in sufficient • Coalitions. etc. help with “short-term sacrifices” thing … need[ed] in order to handle non. 101) • “Learning anxiety must be reduced zones. need for agility. 332-333) • Sell problems. 42 No. such as: the current system operating. requires creating a new system. 331) comes from having too many managers and not enough leaders. the transformative change): companies… fail in this first phase… organization must proactively define the • “Survival anxiety or guilt must be Executives underestimate how hard it can “underlying common purpose” (costs. [Some] become paralyzed by the rather than increasing survival anxiety” downside possibilities… [which] often (p. 2007) Four rules for the New Beginning: Three sub-processes in Unfreezing: Key conditions for success: • Be consistent • Sufficient “disconfirming data” to • All stages are necessary (no shortcuts) • Ensure quick successes create discomfort/imbalance • At least 75% of managers must believe • Symbolize the new identity • Data connected to important goals/ “the status quo is more dangerous • Celebrate the success ideals. 1  2010 .” relearning. 320) channeled and continuous • Thousands of people must be willing to On Simultaneous Change: “The first On Unfreezing: “… Some sense of threat. visible role (p. 106) 32 OD PRACTITIONER  Vol. or dissatisfaction must be present • Need to allow for broader job latitude stop organizational change is an overall before enough motivation is present • Need rewards/performance appraisal design… [where]… the various changes are to start the process of unlearning and to match new vision integrated as component elements. new greater than learning anxiety” be to drive people out of their comfort competitor. by • Make transition to “change as the • A compelling positive vision definition. 2004) Produce More Change • Institutionalize New Approaches (Kotter. Losing. Letting Go Unfreezing/Disconfirmation • Form a Powerful Guiding Coalition • Create a Vision Neutral Zone Cognitive Restructuring • Communicate the Vision • Empower Others to Act on the Vision New Beginning Refreezing • Plan for and Create Short-Term Wins • Consolidate Improvements and (Bridges.” (p.) (p. with sell each change “piecemeal”) modifications (p.

and providing pres. presents a contextual tion of achieved goals (p. tive implementation. guilt. 4). (6) plan for and create short- positive management role models. which in turn pro- vides the proper antecedents for employee For psychological safety to exist. must be established in disconfirming data to create discomfort/ managers typically only learn about the the Refreezing phase (Schein). applications of symbolism linking In the Unfreezing stage. specific conditions of urgency. process: Unfreezing/disconfirmation. nizational change process. 32 view” is instrumental in defining employee ongoing transformations. For example. vate an individual to participate in the orga. Further. establish equilibrium in the new context. visible role models. be greater than learning anxiety” and (2) results expand and inform Kotter’s not solutions” (p. To that end. in stage 1. are addressed (stages 2 and 4) (Kotter. 331). two conditions must be met: Change Implementation Model: Kotter (1) “Survival anxiety… must be greater than learning anxiety” In the third model. Bridges also isfaction must be present before enough framework that may subtly undermine advocated the development of activities that motivation is present to start the process change efforts. 69). The core actions for reinforcing analysis in terms of disequilibrium. tation model. companies (2007). 2004). specific conditions for psychologi. For psychological safety to exist. are (1) the four rules for the Cognitive Restructuring. 71). tions related to the past (old baggage) (p. Another important continuous change must be met: (1) “Survival anxiety… must he identified. statements) (p. 4). Further. his model. additional research to deal with continuous and simultaneous chological approach. Bridges that end.g. crisis. It can be argued that indi.believe the status quo is more dangerous outlines implementation considerations in cal safety. anxiety to motivate an individual to participate in the organizational change process. Using a more traditional psy. process theory: “there must be sufficient execution. (3) create a vision. 72). Managers three stages and are not provided an oppor. involving the employee This observation links back to Schein’s scope and does not offer concrete steps for learner. 107). strategically selected results in a cognitive restructuring to re. rather analysis.. engagement strategies. but often left out of manage. Overall. To achieve change. for adaptation to occur. rather than stages in change adaptation and organiza- tional transformation: “(1) establish a sense increasing survival anxiety”. Kotter identifies specific conditions sure valves for the expression of frustra. as the other later research preparation action is “selling problems. (refer to Table 1). such as presenting a compelling than the unknown” (Kotter. 2007). delineated in Table 2. basing his model on the vidual employee requirements. 2007. “… Some sense of threat. offering proactive explanations to illustrate in Bridges’ work. and celebra. this framing helps “Learning anxiety must be reduced. tunity to analyze the other facets inherent model are reflected in Kotter’s implemen. but the information is limited in positive vision. 320). Schein’s quick successes that increase morale (p. model... such as presenting a compelling Bridges. These action steps are asking for feedback. (5) empower others to act positive vision. necessary and improved organizational performance original design of Lewin (Schein. and providing positive manage.” at least “75% of managers must change piecemeal” (p. in leadership training. (8) institutional- Refreezing phase. p. and providing on the vision. based on his extensive clarifications of purpose (p. a sufficient envi. Some of these 4). (7) consolidate improvements and produce more change. 111).. Schein posits tive emotional states such as anxiety. learning without loss of identity (Schein. and survival anxiety. imbalance” (2004. Schein discusses his into follower behavior and antecedents change. Kotter defines eight and (2) “Learning anxiety must be reduced. the past and present (p.. He further provides broad action steps processes have been identified as repeated ronment of psychological safety must be within each stage. p. ize new approaches” (Kotter. “Create managers avoid the pitfall of “selling each than increasing survival anxiety” (p. modeling created to support problem-solving and primary research with more than 100 of trustworthiness (e. Organizational imple- ment training. (4) communi- cate the vision. the connection between new approaches Edgar Schein. which define the action steps necessary for effec- messages (p. listening carefully. while sustaining sufficient anxiety to moti. p. To urgency. while sustaining sufficient receptiveness and adaptability to change in the organization. involving the employee learner. and Refreezing mentation must address the needs of the New Beginning to take hold and (2) actions (Schein). following through on 2004). must be established in the term wins. (2) form a powerful guiding for psychological safety.essential for successful transformations. 111). p. Key aspects of Schein’s change process must also be positive. leading to employee acceptance of change helps new beginnings include: consistency in to emotions of anxiety and guilt. Attention also described three stages in a change through the eight stages defined by Kotter should be paid to providing employees Improving Change Implementation: Practical Adaptations of Kotter’s Model 33 . ment role models. individual employees. A more positive “world would ensure companies were primed for of unlearning and relearning” (2004. 109). 2007. or dissat. with its emphasis on arguably nega- 71). two conditions It is important to review the salient factors 111).

p. p. 37-44). Table 2:  Implementation Steps. 25-30). job motivation. (Soltani. p. p. (Hoover. unload “old baggage” (past frustrations with change processes). 313-334) Establish a sense of Urgency • Communicate specifics regarding expected results. p. affirm the mission. ensure • Create succession plans that identify individuals consistency in leader style and prioritization. 2005. staffing) (Leybourne) • Build high-quality leader-member exchange relationships through increased sharing of information. etc. (Parish et al. 1 table. Drawn from Research. including Actions: establishment of high standards for performance and creative strategies for goals (Choi) • Create a vision that guides transformation • Emphasize what data is now relevant. and action • Recognize followers may respond to charismatic leader because of sense of trust and self- efficacy (Choi) • Allow and officially sanction improvisation. (Van Dam et al. 2007. 32-52). through language. When there are high-quality LMX relationships.g. inspire energy towards that • Develop strategies for turning vision to reality (Brower) • Establish intellectual and emotional actualization (Hoover) Communicate the vision • Communicate expected results in advance (Cowley) Actions: • Signal involvement (senior leaders). envisioning. not solutions (Bridges) 34 OD PRACTITIONER  Vol. which can provide new ways of completing tasks when resources are in limited supply (time. and ensure manager accountability for long- who can carry the vision forward in the long-term term outcomes (Soltani) • Clarify purpose.) Plan for and create short-term wins • Ensure senior manager signals are communicated in order to create sustained employee • Define and proactively promote visible accountability (commitment to see the projects/changes through) (Cowley) improvement successes • Allow and sanction improvisations which can provide new ways of completing tasks when • Recognize and reward employees involved resources are in limited supply (time.. disengagement from outdated commitments (Brower) • Confront “brutal facts” (Brower quoting Collins. 2007.. staffing) (Leybourne) Consolidate improvements and produce more change • Establish and sustain key antecedents to affective commitment to change (employee • Build on credibility from early successes to advance engagement): positive employee-manager relationships. 67-80). all) 2007. 1  2010 . 24-43). old models—nullify information no longer relevant or • Convince 75% of managers status quo is more functional (Brower) dangerous than the unknown • Promote. time tables. materials. (Cowley. p. including change advocacy through informal channels • Communication is multi-channeled and continuous and deployment of resources through formal processes (Cowley) • Coalition managers model the new behaviors/ • Establish behavioral and perceptual actualization (Hoover) actions Empower others to act on the vision • Signal involvement (senior leaders). 2008. getting additional resources. 2008. time tables. mutual trust. and employee change Actions: (Cowley) • Analyze environment for potential crises and • Build understanding before commitment (Brower) opportunities • Break down. (Choi. 73-95). employees are receptive to change (Van Dam et al.) • Build and sustain positive leader-member exchange relationships through increased • Promote/hire individuals who support and can sharing of information. removing autonomy (Parish) barriers. (Van Dam et al. and sell problems. mutual trust. p. and encouraged employee participation (change enact the vision/implementation plans process quality). including change advocacy through informal channels Actions: and deployment of resources through formal processes (Cowley) • Change or eliminate processes and factors • Communicate specifics regarding expected results. and employee changes impeding transformation (Cowley) • Encourage risk-taking. materials. p. including change advocacy through informal channels Actions: and deployment of resources through formal processes (Cowley) • Assemble group with commitment and power to • Build a “linked arm” coalition (senior leaders) (Cowley) lead effort • Encourage them to work as team outside hierarchy Create a vision • Motivate followers through empathy. (Leybourne. 2008. 70) • Establish intellectual and emotional actualization (Hoover) Form a powerful guiding coalition • Signal involvement (senior leaders). and empowerment. innovation. p. through language. and encouragement of employee participation (change process quality).. 1009- 21). 2006. 2006. As Associated with Kotter’s 8 Stages Kotter’s Eight Stages Implementation Steps from Outside Research to Support Stages (Kotter. p.) • Energize the process with additional targets Institutionalize new approaches • Balance use between formal and informal channels necessary for sustainable • Proactively explain connections between new accountability (Cowley) approaches and transformation successes • Control management mobility to manifest benefits of organizational learning. and role more implementation plans (e. 42 No.

to presented by Kotter. example. 2008). it support for change. modeling new behaviors. An 1. organization (system). Accordingly. review was the factor of continuous or (Cowley. and (c) provide practical action steps for directly support the vision and actions asso. In Table 2. steps with Kotter’s stages offers practical success. provide contextual dimension and practical (Brower. will thus be discussed Kotter’s Action Steps mended actions for “dealing with non-stop through the lens of stakeholder groups. another A well-defined implementation plan must An important insight for leadership (see two studies from the leader perspective. including one theoretical sized construct. there is a wealth of empirical support for leadership characteristics across all stages. One area not addressed communicating expected change results ciated with the changes (stages 6 and 7) in Kotter’s model or in the literature and measurements from the beginning (Kotter). ment intervention. Bridges’ recom. p. In relation to the organizational ers carry the keys to unlock the benefits of are matched to the appropriate stage from development professional’s role. projected employee changes (Cowley. Clearly. includ- change management determinants suggest would recommend projects that address ing how performance will be measured. address this reality in many business Figure 1. included two articles by corporate organi- zational development practitioners. To counter this to the Kotter framework. must be managed in groups. behaviors. employee (follower) perspective. with sub. are taking place in concurrent time frames. next page.. Accordingly. and management competencies. encourag. To emphasize that the goal processes addressed simultaneously. but equally These skill sets and behaviors include: presented as directives (action items). the research review finally. From communicating the vision. acknowledgment managers have the most theoretical model. 2007). and signaling tion and insights that significantly enhance tation design (as reviewed in Table 2). (b) bring awareness to ing risk-taking and innovative thinking activities that an organizational develop. including one theoretical model. the actual action steps considerable energy to the design of specific findings are listed in each appli. the matched findings are actions are important in stage 1. value in change management implemen. tation steps. as drawn from Expanding and Refining potential limitation. The relevant findings are While the linking of enhanced action impact in generating change management summarized in Table 2. for summary) is the and finally. these progressive stages. three articles examining change management tional level. significant in the other seven stages. The research analysis yields informa. change” (2003. while transformational change. Essential enhancements simultaneous change. corporate-wide development tools and mea- cable element. For sures that proactively develop core change is the identification of detailed implemen. 2007). the research review. what resources will be committed. Organizational Kotter’s model. but broad. it is beneficial to select studies offering cross-functional perspec- model. Communicating specifics regarding Current evaluations of successful organizational development professional expected change process results. another two studies from the leader perspective. with the gaps in explanation. to rewarding employ- the original action steps and observations can be difficult to gain perspective on ees for innovation and improvisation. and the stages and action steps are clear.more latitude in their job tasks. change inter­ventions are at the organiza. rather than offer a step-by-step perspectives. leadership skills. the presentation of a general environments. the presentation of a general theoretical model. the for stage 8 (refer to Table 2). not all managers). and the central eight-stage framework. To three articles examining change management from the begin developing an updated and synthe. recommendations from individual studies tions that (a) improve language choice 2007). and front-line nizational practitioner’s perspective. the model is it is beneficial to select studies offering cross-functional designed to provide a framework and start- ing points. the relevant over-arching themes represented in the building employee engagement—manag- activities drawn from each research study literature. employees (followers). A business seeking to implement a strate- gic change initiative based on this original information could become frustrated To begin developing an updated and synthesized construct. into the enhanced implementation steps leadership (senior. would need to incorporate further research and guidance based on those findings. and tives. employee antecedents impacting receptive- (Kotter). middle. Improving Change Implementation: Practical Adaptations of Kotter’s Model 35 . and many change initiatives Enhanced Action Steps: Leadership from the employee (follower) perspective. 106) are incorporated The three identified stakeholders are In analyzing Kotter’s model from an orga. A meaningful consultation articles by corporate organizational development practitioners. the research review included two action plan. The reward and performance ment practitioner could use in creating a ness to change (Van Dam et al. appraisal systems must be realigned to comprehensive strategic change manage. As some actions would be the change process may move through development professionals should devote important in more than one stage. and developing training or coaching interven.

motivating followers.).). Match reward systems to transformed vision. then promoting disengage. 2008. and leadership behaviors Require an intact management team Support risk-taking and innovation through the transformation Target the identified antecedents for Seek role autonomy. empathy. for creative approaches and sanction trust and emotional bonds. and referential directly relevant to the new vision. participation. Using “building up” and “breaking quality relationships exist when the Enhanced Action Steps: Employees down” language (Brower et al. establishing 3. actions to build trust. affect organizational outcomes through ment from outdated commitments tion. 315) to increase within normal formal channels and Cowley’s research at Eli Lilly supports employee receptivity to change. for encompassing change Engage employees through purpose and challenge ORGANIZAT ION EMPLOYEES Shape effective management practices Want specifics: expected results. and measures Train and coach managers to exhibit the identified skills and behaviors Look for signals from senior management before accepting accountability. and empowerment (Brower et al. Building up language tive results. Managers must signal support organizational performance. and modeling member exchange relationships” (Van activities that do not necessarily fall behaviors others wish to imitate (Choi). where team responses are (Choi. for achievement. p.2. a successful change management relationship with managers. p. Many of the leader recommen- Breaking down language means negat.. 69). processes are improved expe. setting high standards for employee and (2007. High. follows through on The proposed action steps for employees and commitment. Developing high-quality “leader. power through such actions as demonstrat- “affirm[ing] the [company’s] mission and employees feel empowered in the ing innovative strategies to reach goals. leader communicates relevant infor- p. affiliation. processes (Leybourne). 69) to generate understanding mation frequently. 42 No. 2006). where establish. leadership. Dam et al. indicating employees Figure 1:  Recommended Enhanced Action Steps to Kotter Model. investing. and inspir[ing] commitment to it” change implementation (Leybourne. especially those relating to the change dations were based on the evaluation of ing information no longer relevant or process (Van dam et al. 4. impacts. using formal and informal channels Support improvisation Sell problems. and Use employee engagement strategies to connection to vision reinforce organization culture values 36 OD PRACTITIONER Vol. and committing processes. Improvisation can lead to posi. not solutions.. 1 2010 . Choi’s components. 2006). timetables. employees to participate in decisions. Grouped by Stakeholder LEADERSHIP Communicate specifics regarding expected results Use “building up” and “breaking down” language for understanding and commitment Be visible in communications. Charismatic leaders functional. Supporting innovation and improvisa. They meet followers’ needs includes emphasizing information faster. envisioning. and empowers substantively mirror the action steps for ing understanding is the first priority. then rientially during the change process. 2007.

that identify and measure levels stakeholder groups. more detailed action steps that can ensure positively influenced through pro­ and team activities designed to promote appropriate and relevant application of the active employee engagement design and innovation and improvisation. Successful change management. Kotter’s eight- These recommendations are all linked member exchange relationships. ment professionals can use this informa- ognize that managers across the organiza. satisfaction. they will matching change management priorities. programs. Gallup Q12. conclusions used to develop company-wide interventions. Kotter’s design and provides insights into leadership and employees. set up the company tive. Recent research supports to employee engagement. somewhat engaged. managers in change process models rather to initiate the allocation of resources for ing management action planning. it is money. actively disengaged) for organizational development. At the organization level. particu. sustaining employee engagement and Employee stakeholder groups. Employee engagement is the level of employee com. organizations have trained informal and formal organization channels engagement program with correspond. or the action steps related to Leadership and Employee questions. agement and leadership execution. and the use of agenda might include: (1) Employee els. can build a comprehensive list of targets of employee engagement (actively engaged. which is linked to motivation. empathy. the analysis leads larly in continuous changing organizations. employee. and ensuring business com- build a comprehensive list of targets for behavior on a “case by case” basis—this petitive advantage. these goals. The systemic intervention goals on the Dynamic business conditions lead to tive. Organizational develop- implementation. and organization (system) stakeholders. These signals simultaneously. some change initiatives are taking place at change initiatives—saving organizations ining the action steps related to Leadership business unit or departmental levels. not simply for a specific mentation skill sets. This point is significant when considering the Gallup Q12 action process or another design. Concerted management development for success in many change implementa. if successfully (Asplund. the analysis leads to summary mitment to the work and to the organi- zation. com. munication language. identifies twelve elements. can potentially improve implementation company-wide interventions. Many of the factors identified in the current business environment. expected goals. (2) than change implementation frameworks. where change processes are Kotter’s model and through the research occurring continuously and simultaneously.look to senior management for signals the processes are occurring continuously and Conclusion change process is accepted. and associated measures: organizational development professionals ability (assuming the envisioning. 2007). Typically. Improving Change Implementation: Practical Adaptations of Kotter’s Model 37 . will help ensure that strategic change initiative. if strategy is inefficient and generally ineffec- successfully achieved. Since and increase the percentage of successful tional development professional. review. The organiza. using change initiative. these goals. collectively viewed as antecedents to effective change management for and worker autonomy. there is an opportunity for commit to the process and take account. interventions. Organizations pursuing achieved. proactive approach to change management to summary conclusions used to develop hinges on systemic improvements in man. high-quality leader. include visible support for the initia. focused on key change imple- tion processes. interventions for leadership. application of a comprehensive change successful). action in coordination with a senior organizational development professional’s rapid corporate change on several lev- management coalition. A At the organization level. appropriate applica. and (3) Management training and coaching to provide effective guidance through the and empowerment activities have been targeting communication messages. outlined process. can difficult to target management skills and and retention. One The organizational development professional. where change change will also be enhanced. 2007). It is important for organizations to rec. can be tion of new reward/recognition systems. in examining specific employee engagement model. and direction of energy. When Re-tooled reward and recognition programs Given the track record for failed change employees register these signals. organizational development. in exam. set up the company for success in many change change implementation success can take action to increase organizational implementation processes. tion to design concurrent development Enhanced Action Steps: Organization tion are at different levels of development. implementation model. This point is change efforts are successful and organiza- significant when considering the current tional performance in projects unrelated to business environment. job design stage process. not simply for a specific strategic levels of employee engagement. the change initiative (Cowley.

She Books. Choi. (2006). P. 16(8-9). Organizational design Journal. The With over 15 years of experience (2007). change. 26(1). S. B. (2007). 25(1). J. C.).org.). Nicole Stragalas is an external OD consultant in Phoenix. E. Schein. L. 21(1). Cadwallader. Harvard Health Care Systems. Perseus Change Management. Total Quality Psychology through the University Leadership and Organizational Studies. 1-10. http://www.. J. masters degrees were earned at of Leadership Studies. 1(3). A motivational theory of Breaking through barriers to TQM she’s working on her PhD in I/O charismatic leadership: Envisioning.. 25(3).D. Her dual (2007). Cowley. Return on investment in engag. Fleming. J. Journal CA. Why change succeeds: work contexts and resistance to An organization self-assessment. The language of leaders. 67-80. MA. P. Asplund. 1009-1021.M. Daily at ncstragalas@mac.S. Lessons from UK financial services. (2007). organisational change: The role of Organization Development Journal. C. (2006).. 26(1). Inc. Journal of Organizational (2nd Ed. J. 73-95. and change process. she has developed national Journal Online. Managing Transitions tional change.. J. Organization Development 42 No. Van Dam.hbr. (2004). Cognitive mapping Psychology: An International Review. currently. and leadership (3rd Ed.. Jossey-Bass. and empowerment.. need to. & Gharneh. ought to: programs in service. climate. E. of Phoenix. 24-43. Applied Hoover. effectiveness: Lack of commitment of empathy. K. Employee commitment to organiza- quality assurance in the health- Bridges. and diagnostic aspects of organizational 57(2). development 25-30. Cambridge.. N. & Emrich.. as a senior manager and advi- ing employees. Services Industries Journal. a Six Sigma Green Belt. Retrieved from (2008). Management. W. AZ specializing in leadership develop- References Leybourne. 38 OD PRACTITIONER  Vol. 313-334. Managing impro- visation within change management: ment and employee engagement. & Busch. 1  2010 . Want to. J. Organizational culture has her SPHR certification and is Brower. S. She can be reached 13(1).com. Lai. care and banking industries. (2005). S. the University of Florida. (2003). & Oreg. 103-109. sor. Retrieved from Development Journal. Leading change: Why Best practice at Johnson and Johnson transformation efforts fail. San Francisco. for a supply chain transformation: Kotter. (2008). Organization Business Review. 32-52. Journal of upper-level management. 1-2. leader–member exchange. The Gallup Management Parish. p. (2008). & Harter. (2007). 37-44. Fiol. sales. Soltani. H. and http://gmj.

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