Microwave imaging is the method that used to detect breast cancer. Previous research is done by inverse problem and forward problem solution, but the inverse problem is difficult to solve because there are many unknown constants. Thus in this paper, microwave imaging is solved by different way, i.e. using forward problem solution only with the aim to easier the imaging process without ignoring the resolution. So the malignant breast cancer is easier to detect and this technique can be used as an

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Microwave imaging is the method that used to detect breast cancer. Previous research is done by inverse problem and forward problem solution, but the inverse problem is difficult to solve because there are many unknown constants. Thus in this paper, microwave imaging is solved by different way, i.e. using forward problem solution only with the aim to easier the imaging process without ignoring the resolution. So the malignant breast cancer is easier to detect and this technique can be used as an

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Forward Problem Technique

Arofah, S. L.; Nugroho, A. C.; Sutisna

Department of Physics, Faculty of M athematics and Natural Sciences, Jember University, Indonesia

Abstract— Microwave imaging is the method that used to detect breast cancer. Previous research is done by

inverse problem and forward problem solution, but the inverse problem is difficult to solve because there are

many unknown constants. Thus in this paper, microwave imaging is solved by different way, i.e. using forward

problem solution only with the aim to easier the imaging process without ignoring the resolution. So the

malignant breast cancer is easier to detect and this technique can be used as an easy, safe, and cheap of early

detection of the breast cancer. This process is done by illuminating normal and malignant breast tissue model

using microwave at frequencies 5GHz, 10GHz, and 15GHz. Then the scattered field data are calculated by

Method of Moment. The scattered field data is presented in 2D figure. The results show that normal and

malignant breast tissue produce different scattered field patterns. The normal breast tissue tends to produce

more curve pattern around object. This difference in patterns can be used as a reference to distinguish b etween

normal and malignant breast tissue.

Keywords— Dielectric Constant, Forward Problem, Method of Moment, Microwave Imaging.

Breast cancer is the most often cancer that affects problem solution. This microwave imaging technique is

women and causes many deaths. Early detection can simpler than previous technique, because only using

improve treatment succes and safe patient from the forward problem solution. Therefore the resulting images

deaths. Microwave imaging is the imaging method that can not show the component that exist in the breast tissue,

has been developed for early detection of breast cancer, but only the scattered field around the breast object.

because microwave imaging do not ionize the breast Nevertheles, the result of forward problem solution still

tissue, lower cost, and do not use compression [1], [2]. can be used to detect cancer in the breast tissue. This is

Previous research about microwave imaging have due to the dielectric constant of the breast. The dielectric

been done by using Microwave Tomography (MWT) [3]– constant of the normal breast tissue and malignant breast

[5]. Microwave tomography technique consists of two tissue is different [10]–[12]. Malignant breast tissue has

process, inverse problem solution and forward problem greater dielectric constant than normal breast tissue

solution. Forward problem solution calculates scattered because malignant breast tissue contains more water [13].

field around breast object using Maxwell equation. While The difference in the dielectric constant causes a

inverse problem estimates dielectric properties of the difference in scattering patterns. The pattern of the

breast tissue from the measurable scattered field data scattered field can be used as a reference to distinguish

produced by forward problem [6]. However the researchs between normal breast tissue and malignant breast tissue.

about MWT technique do not develop faster[4], [7]. This So the microwave imaging with forward problem solution

is because the large dielectric contrast of biologist tissue can be used as early detection method.

so that generates the change of inverse problem solution,

that is the appearance of complex permittivity function in II. METHOD

the Maxwell equation thus becoming non linear equation In this section we describe tomography model, object

[8]. Because there are many unknown constants, the model, and mathematical model. The tomography model

inverse problem solution becomes more complicated [9], used is shown in Fig. 1. We can see that antennas are

needs more time [10], and needs adquate computer [4]. located around object. Each antenna can swich as a

Whereas the inverse problem solution is needed to transmitter or receiver antennas. If the first antenna as a

produce accurate solution. transmitter antenna so the other antennas as a receiver

To solve this problem, we present the alternating antenna, this happens until the last antenna. The

solution of microwave imaging. i.e microwave imaging transmitter antenna illuminates object using microwave

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol -6, Issue-7, Jul- 2019]

https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6766 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)

with frequencies 3 GHz, 9 GHz, and 15 GHz alternately determines the scattered field. Therefore we use Method

and the scattered fields are observed at receiver antennas. of Moment (MoM) to solve this forward problem. MoM

is more efficient that other numerical method, because

MoM use Green function so the boundary condition can

be fulfilled automatically [15]. By applying pulse basic

function, the breast object is divided into N cell that have

same size. So the polarization current density at each cell

can be stated as

N

J r J n ' Pn ' (4)

n ' 1

p n 1 r celln (5)

Fig.1: Tomography Model p n 0 elsewhere

By subtituting equation 4 into equation 3, we can states

Eni Z nn ' J n '

Breast object is modeled by dielectric silinder with

(6)

radius 3 cm. There are two objects, normal breast object

and malignant breast object. Both of them are modeled by Where

Cole-cole equation.

Z nn' 0an J1 k 0 a H 02 k 0 an n'

2

(1)

1 j 0an

1 (7)

j 0 Z nn' H12 k0 a an n'

is the dielectric constant that changed depend on 2

Thus the polarization current density can be calculated.

angular frequency, 0 is relative dielectric constant of Based on the equation 3, the scattered field can be stated

material, is infinite dielectric constant, is the in

E s r jk0 0 J r 'H 02 k0 dr '

1 (8)

reduction between static dielectric constant and infinite

4j

dielectric constant s , is expontial parameter,

By subtituting equation the polarization current density to

is angular frequency, is time constant, and is

equation 8, the scattered field produced by each cell and

material conductivity. The Cole-cole parameters are

each projection can be approximated as

shown in the Table 1.

Table 1. Cole-cole parameters [14]

E Z J

s

m t nn ' n' t (9)

Parameter Normal Malignant Thus the scattered field around breast object can be

calculated and presented in 2D images.

3.00 8.00

1.00 50.50 III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

0.10 0.04 The scattered data around breast object is presented in

20.00 10.50 2D image. Where the magnitude of the scattered field is

0.036 0.90 shown by color as seen in the legend besides. The dark

red color shows the greatest magnitude of scattered field

The mathematical model states the breast object and the dark blue shows the smallest magnitude of

model and electrical field in the mathematical equation. scattered field. The results are shown in Fig. 2. If seen in

The imaging process can be stated in three equation, general, the area that located at opposite transmitter has

scattered field, incident field, and total field. greater magnitude of scattered field than other area. This

Ei r Et r E s r applies to normal and malignant breast tissue at

(2)

frequencies 5GHz, 10GHz, and 15GHz. However, both of

By using vector potential, Green function, and

them has different scattered field patterns. At 5GHz, the

polarization current density principle, the equation 1 can

different pattern between normal and malignant breast

be stated as

tissue is not so visible. But still there is a different pattern

1 1

Ei r J r jk00 J r ' H 02 k0 dr ' (3) at area located in same side with transmitter antenna,

jw 0 4j

where the malignant breast tissue has greater magnitude

The polarization current density in equation 3 is of scattered field than normal breast tissue as seen in

unknown, so the value must be determined first before

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol -6, Issue-7, Jul- 2019]

https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6766 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)

point A, where the normal breast tissue is shown by blue at 10GHz and 15 GHz produce dark and bright pattern,

color and malignant breast tissue is shown by light blue while the malignant breast tissue does not.

color that forming a curve pattern. The difference in dielectric cons tant causes a

At 10GHz the different pattern is clearly visible. difference in scattering patterns. Malignant breast tissue

Normal breast tissue produces four curve pattern around has greater dielectric constant than normal breast tissue.

the normal breast tissue which resembles dark and bright When illuminated using microwave, the centroid of the

patterns. But only curve pattern that located at opposite positive and negative charge which is bound will shift

transmitter antenna has greatest magnitude of scattered from its initial position. Thus the atom are polarized with

field. While malignant breast tissue produce one dipole moment and produces polarization current in the

elongated pattern at the area opposite the transmitter breast tissue. The polarization current density is

antenna and one curve pattern at the same side area with influenced by dielectric constant and frequency of

transmitter antenna. If seen in point B, we can see that microwave. Thus the tissue with greater dielectric

normal breast tissue is shown in blue color, while the constant produces more polarization current density. The

malignant breast tissue is shown in green color. This presence of the polarization current density in a dielectric

shows that malignant breast tissue produces greater tissue causes scattered field around it. The greater

magnitude of scattered field than normal breast tissue. polarization current density the greater magnitude of

The different pattern of scattered field at 15GHz also scattered field produced. Suitable with equation 8,

clearly visible. Both of them has similar pattern with polarization current density is directly proportional with

scattered field pattern at 10 GHz, but more complex. scattered field. Therefore the scattered field produced by

Normal breast cancer produce six curve pattern around malignant breast tissue has greater magnitude than normal

breast object. While malignant breast tissue produce one breast tissue.

oval pattern and two small curve pattern. Same with the At different frequency of microwave, the pattern of

image at 5GHz and 10 GHz before, malignant breast scattered field is different, both normal and malignant

tissue also produces greater magnitude as seen in point C breast tissue. The scattered field at 15 GHz has more

which is shown in light blue color. This results show that complex pattern than scattered field at 10 GHz and 5

normal breast tissue tends to produce curve pattern GHz. However, the magnitude of scattered field is

around breast object and has smaller magnitude of smaller. It can be seen from the pattern of scattered field

scattered field than malignant breast tissue. The different at opposite area with transmitter, which is shrinking more

pattern between normal and malignant is better observed when the higher frequencies of microwave used

at 10GHz and 15GHz. This result is due to the difraction (indicated by color around object). This is because

process in the breast tissue. Which the cells in the breast frequency influences the dielectric constant of the breast

tissue are considered as narrow slit. So when the tissue. Suitable with Cole-cole equation, the greater

microwave illuminates the breast tissue, the microwave is frequency used the smaller dielectric constant of the

deflected and become the scattered field. When the breast. So magnitude of the scattered field decreases.This

frequency used is suitable with the slit, so the dark and is suitable with previous research by Winters et al.

bright pattern are produced. Thus the normal breast tissue (2006).

1.5

-0.06 -0.06

1

-0.04 -0.04

0.8

1

-0.02 -0.02

0.6

0

A 0

A

0.02 0.02

0.4 0.5

0.04 0.04

0.2

0.06 0.06

0 0

-0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol -6, Issue-7, Jul- 2019]

https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6766 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)

Ez of Normal Breast Tissue (10 GHz) Ez of Malignant Breast Tissue (10 GHz)

-0.06 2.5 1

-0.06

0.9

-0.04 -0.04

2 0.8

-0.02

B -0.02

B 0.7

0.6

1.5

0 0

0.5

0.3

0.04 0.04

0.5 0.2

0 0

-0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Ez of Normal Breast Tissue (15GHz) Ez of Malignant Breast Tissue (15GHz)

-0.06 -0.06

2.5 1.2

-0.04 -0.04

1

2

-0.02

C

-0.02

C 0.8

0 1.5 0

0.6

0.02 0.02

1

0.4

0.04 0.04

0.5 0.2

0.06 0.06

0

0 -0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

-0.06 -0.04 -0.02 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Fig. 2: Scattered field of normal and malignant breast tissue at 5GHz, 10GHz, and 15GHz

We have been shown the microwave imaging using Sciences for supporting this research.

forward problem solution and MoM. Based on the result,

we can see that the normal and malignant breast tissue REFERENCES

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