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TERM PAPER of Business Environment


Challenges in Implementing the Right to Education Act.


Mr. Bhavdeep Singh Kochar BHIM SINGH

I take this opportunity to present my votes of thanks to all those guidepost who
really acted as lightening pillars to enlighten our way throughout this project that
has led to successful and satisfactory completion of this study.

We are really grateful to our Mr. Bhavdeep S Kochar for providing us with an
opportunity to undertake this project in this university and providing us with all the
facilities. We are highly thankful to my friend for her active support, valuable time
and advice, whole-hearted guidance, sincere cooperation and pains-taking
involvement during the study and in completing the assignment of preparing the
said project within the time stipulated.

Lastly, We are thankful to all those, particularly the various friends , who have
been instrumental in creating proper, healthy and conductive environment and
including new and fresh innovative ideas for us during the project, their help, it
would have been extremely difficult for us to prepare the project in a time bound

Right to Education Act:-

Every child between the ages of 6 to 14 years has the right to free and
compulsory education. This is stated as per the 86th Constitution
amendment Act added Article 21A. The government schools shall provide
free education to all the children and the schools will l be managed by
school management committees (SMC). Private schools shall admit at least
25% f of the children in their schools without any fee. The National
Commission for Elementary Education shall be constituted to monitor all
aspects of elementary education including quality.

Act 2010:-

From April 1, 2010 a historic Right to Education (RTE) act will be

enforced in India. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh promised that financial
constrained will not hamper its implementation. The law envisions providing
free and compulsory education for all children between 6 and 14 years of age.
In his address to the nation Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced the
Right to Education becoming a fundamental right. He said that the
Government of India pledges to provide education to every child in India. The
PM said, "Right to Education Act will realize the dreams of many children
across the nation.”

Key elements in Right to Education Act:-

New Delhi, April 1 (IANS) Sixty-three years after independence, India

Thursday enforced a historic Right to Education (RTE) act that promises
freedom from illiteracy for this vast and diverse country. Following are the
key points of the legislation that expects to empower the nation through
* Free and compulsory education to all children of India in the six to 14 age

* No child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board

examination until completion of elementary education (up to class eight);

*A child who completes elementary education (up to Class 8) shall be

awarded a certificate

*Calls for a fixed student-teacher ratio;

* Will apply to all of India except Jammu and Kashmir;

*Provides for 25 percent reservation for economically disadvantaged

communities in all private and minority schools. The reservation to start with
Class One beginning 2011

*Mandates improvement in quality of education;

*School teachers will need adequate professional degree within five years or
else will lose job;

*School infrastructure (where there is problem) to be improved in three years,

else recognition cancelled;

*Financial burden will be shared between state and central government on the
basis of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All).

Highlights of RTE Act

Sixty-three years after independence, India Thursday, the 1st April 2010 enforced a historic
Right to Education (RTE) act that promises freedom from illiteracy for this vast and diverse
country. following are the key points of the legislation that expects to empower the nation
through education:
1. Free and compulsory education to all children of India in the six to 14 age group;
2. No child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until
completion of elementary education (up to class eight);
3. A child who completes elementary education (up to Class 8) shall be awarded a
4. Calls for a fixed student-teacher ratio;
5. Will apply to all of India except Jammu and Kashmir;
6. Provides for 25 percent reservation for economically disadvantaged communities in all
private and minority schools. The reservation to start with Class One beginning 2011
7. Mandates improvement in quality of education;
8. School teachers will need adequate professional degree within five years or else will lose
9. School infrastructure (where there is problem) to be improved in three years, else
recognition cancelled;
10 Financial burden will be shared between state and central government on the basis of
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All)
11. Private schools to face penalty for violating RTE.

Challenges ahead: -
* The funds required to implement the RTE act of Rs.171, 000 crores.
* 5 lakhs more trained teachers required.
* Playgrounds for every school are the basic needs.
UNESCO, ILO, UNICEF welcome Right To Education Act
UNESCO, ILO and UNICEF applauding the ground-breaking Right to
Education Act, legalizing the right to free and compulsory education for all
children between the ages of 6 and 14 in India. "Tens of millions of children
will benefit from this initiative ensuring quality education with equity," said
Karin Hulshof, UNICEF Representative in India. "RTE will propel India to
even greater heights of prosperity and productivity for all guaranteeing
children their right to a quality education and a brighter future."
There are an estimated eight million Indian children and young people
between the ages of six to 14 out-of-schools, the majority of whom are girls.
Without India, the world cannot reach the Millennium Development Goal
(MDG) of having every child complete primary school by 2015.
"This act is an essential step towards improving each child's accessibility to
secondary and higher education, bringing India closer to achieving national
educational development goals, as well as the MDGs and Education for All
(EFA)," said UNESCO New Delhi Director Armoogum Parsuramen,
commending in particular the Ministry's commitment to implementing the act
in collaboration with the state governments. "UNESCO places the right to
education at the heart of its mission, and stands ready to accompany all
partners in their efforts to ensure its successful implementation."

India joins list of 135 countries in making RTE

With the Right to Education Act coming into force, India has joined the
league of over 130 countries which have legal guarantees to provide free and
compulsory education to children. According to the UNESCO’s ‘Education for
All Global Monitoring Report 2010’, about 135 countries have constitutional
provisions for free and non-discriminatory education for all. However, the
report says that despite the legal guarantee of free education, primary school
fees continue to be charged in some countries.

The Challenges for India’s Education System

• Since Independence, successive Indian governments have had to address a
number of key challenges with regard to education policy, which has always
formed a crucial part of its development agenda. The key challenges are:
• improving access and quality at all levels of education;
• increasing funding, especially with regard to higher education;
• improving literacy rates.
• Currently, while Indian institutes of management and technology are world-
class, primary and secondary schools, particularly in rural areas, face severe
• While new governments commonly pledge to increase spending on education
and bring in structural reforms, this has rarely been delivered in practice.
• Most of the changes undertaken by the previous BJP-led government were
aimed at reforming the national curricula, and have been criticized for
attempting to ‘Hindu-size’
India’s traditionally secular education system.
• Improving the standards of education in India will be a critical test for the
Congress-led government. It will need to resolve concerns over the content of
Curriculum, as well as tackling the underlying challenges to education.
The evolution of India’s education policy, Elitism, Nehruvianism and
Traditional Hindu education served the needs of Brahmin families: Brahmin
teachers would teach boys to read and write. Under the Moguls, education was
similarly elitist, favoring the rich rather than those from high-caste
backgrounds. These pre-existing elitist tendencies were reinforced under
British rule.
British colonial rule brought with it the concept of a modern state, a modern
economy and a modern education system. The education system was first
developed in the three residencies (Bombay, Calcutta and Madras). By linking
entrance and advancement in government service to academic education,
colonial rule contributed to the legacy of an education system geared to
preserving the position and prerogatives of the more privileged.

In the early 1900s, the Indian National Congress called for national education,
placing an emphasis on technical and vocational training. In 1920 Congress
initiated a boycott of government-aided and government-controlled schools
and founded several ‘national’ schools and colleges. These failed, as the
rewards of British-style education were so great that the boycott was largely
ignored. Local elites benefited from the British education system and
eventually used it expel the colonizers. Nehru envisaged India as a secular
democracy with a state-led command economy. Education for all and industrial
development were seen as crucial tools to unite a country divided on the basis
of wealth, caste and religion, and formed the cornerstones of the ant imperial
struggle. Following Independence, school curricula were thus imbued with the
twin themes of inclusiveness and national pride, placing emphasis on the fact
that India’s different communities could live peacefully side by side as one
nation. The legacies of this Nehruvianism approach to education are
considerable; perhaps most notable is the entrenchment of the
pluralist/secularist perspective in the minds of the Indian people. Subsidized
quality higher education through institutions such as the IITs and IIMs formed
a major contribution to the Nehruvianism vision of a self-reliant and modern
Indian state, and they now rank amongst the best higher education institutions
in the world. In addition, policies of positive discrimination in education and
employment furthered the case for access by hitherto unprivileged social
groups to quality education. It has been argued that while access for some
marginalized communities continues to be limited, the upward mobility of a
few Dalit and tribal households resulting from positive discrimination in
educational institutions and state patronage has created role models that help
democracy survive in India.

The Kothari Commission: education for modernization, national unity

and literacy
Drawing on Nehru’s vision, and articulating most of his key themes, the
Kothari ommission (1964–6) was set up to formulate a coherent education
policy for India.1 According to the commission, education was intended to
increase productivity, develop social and national unity, consolidate
democracy, modernize the country and develop social, moral and spiritual
values. To achieve this, the main pillar of Indian education policy was to be
free and compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14. Other
features included the development of languages (Hindi, Sanskrit, regional
languages and the three-language formula2),

The need for change: the National Policy On Education

In 1986, Rajiv Gandhi announced a new education policy, the National Policy
on Education (NPE), which was intended to prepare India for the 21st century.
The policy emphasized the need for change: ‘Education in India stands at the
crossroads today. Neither normal linear expansion nor the existing pace and
nature of improvement can meet the needs of the situation. ‘According to the
new policy, the 1968 policy goals had largely been achieved: more than 90 per
cent of the country’s rural population was within a kilometer of schooling
facilities and most states had adopted a common education structure. The
prioritization of science and mathematics had also been effective... The key
legacies of the 1986 policy were the promotion of privatization and the
continued emphasis on secularism and science. Another consequence of the
NPE was that the quality of education in India was increasingly seen as a
problem, and several initiatives have been developed since in an attempt to
counter this:

• Operation Blackboard (1987–8) aimed to improve the human and physical

resources available in primary schools.

• Restructuring and Reorganization of Teacher Education (1987) created a

resource for the continuous upgrading of teachers’ knowledge and competence.

• Minimum Levels of Learning (1991) laid down levels of achievement at

various stages and revised textbooks.

• National Programme for Nutritional Support to Primary Education

(1995) provided a cooked meal every day for children in Classes 1–5 of all
government, Government-aided and local body schools. In some cases grain
was distributed on a monthly basis, subject to a minimum attendance.

• District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) (1993) emphasized

decentralized planning and management, improved teaching and learning
materials, and school effectiveness.

• Movement to Educate All (2000) aimed to achieve universal primary

education by 2010 through micro planning and school-mapping exercises,
bridging gender and social gaps.

• Fundamental Right (2001) involved the provision of free and compulsory

education, declared to be a basic right for children aged between 6 and 14
years. Other schemes specifically targeted at marginalized groups, such as
disabled children, and special incentives targeting the parents within scheduled
castes and scheduled tribes have also been introduced. In 1992, when education
policy was re-examined, the NPE was found to be a sound way forward for
India’s education system, although some targets were recast and some re-
formulations were undertaken in relation to adult and elementary education.7
The new emphasis was on the expansion of secondary education, while the
focus on education for minorities and women continued.

The development of non-formal education

Despite Nehru’s visions of universal education, and the intentions of the
Kothari Commission to provide all young children with free and compulsory
schooling, a significant proportion of India’s young population remained
uneducated by the 1970s. To address this problem, the Centrally Sponsored
Scheme of Non Formal Education was set up to educate school dropouts,
working children and children from areas without schools. It started on a pilot
basis in 1979

Problems with the Right to Education Act – II

• Whereas the Act guarantees a right to seek transfer to any other
school where the child is required to move from the one in his/her
neighborhood, there are no measures to ensure that such a transfer will
be a smooth transition for the child. In this regard, the Act seems
blissfully unaware of the major phenomenon of labour migration
between rural and urban areas; consequent to the transfer of their
migrant laborer-parents, children would need specially adapted curricula
that would serve to their linguistic and cultural requirements. It is also
desired that adequate residential facilities be provided to children if they
so require upon migration to an urban area.

• With reference to its treatment of differently able children, the Act

does a complete U-turn in terms of its policy objectives: in brushing
differently-able children under the carpet of the Persons with Disabilities
Act, 1995, the Act has not only institutionalized a separate, ‘non-
inclusive’ treatment, but has failed to commit the Government to
facilities that are simply unavailable beyond the four corners of this
legislation. While the Persons with Disabilities Act provides for
infrastructural resources to be made available to differently able persons
to complete their education, it is clearly diluted in comparison to the Act
of 2009.

• One of the most glaring deficiencies in the Act is the complete

absence of any qualitative enforcement mechanisms during the period of
completing elementary education. While the Act espouses a no-detention
policy such a provision is not backed by any steps to measure the quality
and standard of education (such as child learning levels, competencies

• Even the duties of a teacher are assessed in terms of punctuality

and attendance, and there is no attempt to secure qualitative learning
outcomes from elementary education. In the absence of any student or
faculty assessment, it is not difficult to conclude that the system of
elementary education would produce students who are below par, as has
been substantiated by a recent NCERT study
• The Act makes recognition of schools mandatory: it stipulates that
recognition would be granted in pursuance of the norms and standards
mentioned in its Schedule, and in the instance of violation of the same,
such recognition may be withdrawn. However, such recognition is based
solely on infrastructural capabilities, pupil-teacher ratio and instruction
hours and hence is no benchmark of quality. In addition, the penalties on
operating a de-recognized school fall squarely on the shoulders of
private operators. Whereas non-government entities face fine and
punishment, there is no obligation for the State to enforce such standards
in Government schools. Perhaps a State school may lose its recognition,
but there is no penal consequence that would ensue as a result of failure
on the part of the appropriate authority. Considering the surprisingly
favorable impact that unrecognized, private schools that offer cheap
education have had on the education system, the Act must enforce stop-
gap measures to maintain the level of enrollment and quality in
elementary education.

Current challenges and proposals for reform. Primary and secondary

education: access, quality and literacy
Despite efforts to incorporate all sections of the population into the Indian
education system, through mechanisms such as positive discrimination and
nonformula education, large numbers of young people are still without
schooling. Although enrolment in primary education has increased, it is
estimated that at least 35 million, and possibly as many as 60 million, children
aged 6–14 years are not in school. At the top end are English-language schools
affiliated to the upscale CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education), CISCE
(Council for the Indian Schools Certificates Examination) and IB (International
Baccalaureate) examination boards, offering globally recognized syllabuses
and curricula. Those who cannot afford private schooling attend English-
language government-aided schools, affiliated to state-level examination
boards. In India’s 600,000 villages and multiplying urban slum habitats, ‘free
and compulsory education’ is in fact basic literacy instruction dispensed by
barely qualified ‘Para teachers’. 13 Unsurprisingly, literacy rates vary widely
between states, and between genders. The northern Hindi-belt states, whose
economic performance has been worse than that of western and southern states,
have lower literacy rates. Female literacy varies from around 34 per cent in
Bihar to 88 per cent in Kerala; male literacy varies between 60 per cent in
Bihar and 94 per cent in Kerala. Rajasthan suffers the widest gender difference:
female literacy stands at 44 per cent; male at 77 per cent. One of the main aims
of education policy in the 1990s was to accelerate the progress of literacy and
school attendance and to create an equitable system for girls, as had been
planned by the Kothari Commission in 1964. In recent years, however,
attention has shifted away from the provision of basic literacy skills and
towards debates surrounding the content of school curricula. These debates
have been particularly concerned with the traditionally secular emphasis within
education, which has become vulnerable since the successes of avowedly
Hindu political parties.

New Challenges Facing the Education Sector in MENA

Globalization, Education, and the Knowledge Economy
Globalization poses challenges for the development of education systems in the
MENA region. This section examines how globalization has changed the role
of human capital formation in development. It explores the international trends
in education that have developed as a consequence, while examining the
degree to which education systems in MENA countries have adopted these

Globalization and the Knowledge Economy

Whether framed as the cause of or the panacea for today’s social, political, and
economic ills, globalization is a phenomenon that changes the fundamentals of
any development strategy. The authorities may avoid the phenomenon or fully
embrace it—and both tacks have their reasonable adherents—but they cannot
ignore its impact on policy making in every sector of the economy. Education
is no exception. One of the most important consequences of this overall trend
is that knowledge (including education, skills, information, and know-how)
and its renewal and application have become critical factors for sustaining
competitiveness and economic growth. For many developing countries, an
abundant supply of low-wage, unskilled labor used to be a route to rapid
growth and national prosperity, but this is no longer so. In today’s world,
characterized by intense global competition and rapid technological change,
the key to prosperity is a well-educated, technically skilled workforce
producing high-value-added, knowledge-intensive goods and services; in
addition, they must be employed in enterprises that have the managerial
capacity to find, adapt, and adopt modern, up-to-date technology and sell
sophisticated goods and services in local and global markets. To measure the
extent to which economies possess this kind of knowledge, the World Bank has
developed a Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) using four indicators. The
indicators attempt to capture whether
(i) An economic and institutional framework that provides
incentives for the efficient creation, dissemination, and use of
knowledge to promote growth and increase welfare is in place;
(ii) An educated and skilled population that can create and use
knowledge has been established;
(iii) An innovation network composed of firms, research centers,
universities, consultants, and other organizations that can tap
into the growing stock of global knowledge, adapt it to local
needs, and transform it into products valued by markets (good
and market effects) has developed.
(iv) A dynamic information infrastructure that can facilitate the
effective communication, dissemination, and processing of
Information has been put in place.

The higher education system in India has grown in a remarkable way,
particularly in the Post-independence period, to become one of the largest
systems of its kind in the world. However, the system has many issues of
concern at present, like financing and management including access, equity
and relevance, reorientation of programmers by Laying emphasis on health
consciousness, values and ethics and quality of higher Education together with
the assessment of institutions and their accreditation. These issues are
important for the country, as it is now engaged in the use of higher education
As a powerful tool to build a knowledge-based information society of the 21st
Century. Recognizing the above and the basic fact, that the Universities have to
perform multiple roles, like creating new knowledge, acquiring new
capabilities and producing an Intelligent human resource pool, through
challenging teaching, research and extension activities so as to balance both the
need and the demand, the University Grants Commission (UGC) had initiated
nation wise discussion on the said issues during its Golden Jubilee Year, 2003.
Eleven Universities located in different regions of the were assigned the task of
conducting Seminars on identified topics in the above areas, during Aug-Nov.,
2003 and come out with their Reports and Recommendations. An Editorial
Committee was constituted by UGC to consider the outcome of these Seminars
and compile them suitably so that an appropriate publication can be brought
out for the use of UGC, higher education planners and the University system

I. Management of Higher Education

 Public/Private Partnership
 Governance
 Access and Equity
 Policy Planning for Export
 Economics of Higher Education

II. Reorientation of Higher Education

 Health Consciousness and Physical Fitness

 Professional Ethics and Value Education
 Evaluation and Assessment Systems

III. Quality Assurance in Higher Education

 Sustaining Quality
 Assessment and Accreditation

The University Grants Commission, as a part of its Golden Jubilee
Celebrations, entrusted Eleven Universities located in different regions of the
country to organize Seminars on topical subjects, addressing different issues
and concerns of higher Education in India. The Organizers of the Seminars
were specifically requested to bring out the important recommendations arising
out of the deliberations in the Seminars Leading to new directions in higher
education in the country. The list of Universities and the Seminar topics
assigned to them, together with the related information in this Regard is given
in Annexure. The Seminar topics have been suitably categorized and presented
in three Sections
1) Management of Higher Education
2) Reorientation of Higher Education
3) Quality Assurance in Higher Education. Issues of Public/Private
Partnership Governance, Access and Equity as well as Policy Planning for
Export under WTO and GATT regime and Economics of Higher Education
have been addressed in Section I, whereas Health Consciousness, Physical
Fitness, Professional Ethics, Value Education And Evaluation / Assessment
Systems have been focused in Section II. The most important issue of
Sustaining Quality in Higher Education through periodic Assessment And
Accreditation of institutions has been highlighted in Section III. The new
challenge before the country at the beginning of the twenty first century is to
Become a developed society by the year 2020, which requires that not only a
vibrant economy driven by knowledge has to be ushered in soon, but also a
new society where Justice and human values prevail has to be created.
Moreover, challenges in higher educations are no longer only nation centric.
With the explosive growth of knowledge in the past century and with the
development of handy tools of information and communication technologies as
well as of other scientific innovations, competition has become a hallmark of
growth all over the World. As a result, knowledge is not only going to be the
driver of Indian economy, but also, it is going to permeate into all the strata of
Indian society for a better quality of life and living conditions. Therefore, India
has to rise to the occasion urgently and reorient its higher education system to
be vibrant, competitive, meaningful and purposeful; Besides, there is
absolutely no substitute to quality of higher education, although the country
has been faced for a long time with the serious problem of meeting The
quantity needs of our society. It is, therefore, essential that a careful balancing
of the two is given priority to meet the twin requirements of the society in the
foreseeable Future.

Management of Higher Education

The Indian higher education system is one of the largest such systems in the
World. It is estimated that during the X Five Year Plan period (2002-07),
there will be a tremendous pressure of numbers on this system and a large
number of additional students will be Knocking at the doors of higher
education institutions in the country. There are also new challenges of
management and regulation being faced by these institutions, which require
serious attention, both at the institutions in the public sector and also those in
the Private sector now growing at a fast pace. As a result, the old structures of
Established in pre-independent India and working during most of the twentieth
century Are now required to undergo drastic changes. Besides, the demands of
the society for Equity and accommodation cannot be neglected any more.
The following five sub-sections, cover important aspects of the deliberations,
recommendations and action plans of UGC Golden Jubilee Seminars organized
at different Universities in the country:
• Public/Private Partnership in Higher Education, at University of Calicut,
Kozhikode, Kerala;

• Governance of higher Education, at University of Jammu, Jammu, J&K;

• Access and Equity in Higher Education, at G.C.D .University, Bilaspur,


• Export of Higher Education, at J.N.V. University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan and

• Policy Planning for Higher Education under WTO and GATT regimes at
Bengal University, Darjeeling, West-Bengal.

• Economics of Higher Education, at N. E. Hill University, Shillong,


Public/Private Partnership
Indian higher education system has undergone massive expansion in post-
independent India with a national resolve to establish several Universities,
Technical Institutes, Research Institutions and Professional / Non-professional
Colleges all over the country to generate and disseminate knowledge coupled
with the noble intention of providing easy Access to higher education to the
common Indian. The Public initiatives played a Dominant and controlling role
in this phase. Most of the Universities were Public institutions with powers to
regulate academic activities on their campuses as well as in Their areas of
jurisdiction through the affiliating system. Even the private institutions
Enjoyed large-scale financial support in the form of grants from the public
exchequer. Private funds as well as individuals played key roles in the cause of
higher education. With the public funding being no more in a position to take-
up the challenging task of expansion and diversification of the higher education
system in the country to meet the continuously growing demands at present,
there is little option other than bringing in Private initiatives in a massive way
to meet the various challenges. The deregulating mechanism of controls started
with the granting of “Autonomous Status” to identified
Colleges in the 1970s. Some of these Colleges have graduated further to
receive the “Deemed to be University” status in later years. Now, the country is
on the threshold of The establishment of Private Universities in different
States. These and related issues figured prominently in the discussions at this
Seminar, whose recommendations are as follows:

1. It is the primary responsibility of the State to provide the eligible with good
Quality higher education at reasonable cost. There shall be no withdrawal of
the State from this responsibility. In fact, the investment in this area by the
State shall Be stepped-up to 3% of the GDP. This is essential for the
intellectual strength of The State to address equity concerns.
2. A huge dedicated fund say, National Human Resource Development Fund,
to the tune of at least one- percent of the GDP, may be created to tackle the
equity Problems. It shall be the accepted principle that ‘no talented person shall
be denied access to higher education opportunities on the grounds of economic
and Social backwardness’. This fund may be dedicated to offer direct financial
support in the form of scholarships, partial financial assistance and educational
loans to students directly, based on the criteria of talent and financial and social
Backwardness. A well-designed mechanism to spot talents in different
disciplines Of knowledge is needed for this purpose. Further, foolproof criteria
to determine Financial or any other social backwardness is required.
3. Taxing the individuals, who had the benefit of the State resources in the past
for their education, and the industries, which are likely to derive advantage
from Good human resources are the options for creating such a fund. While it
is difficult to arrive at an ideal solution to the equity problems, the absence of a
credible and efficient method of addressing these problems will lead to
lowering Of the quality of human ware and large-scale scontent. The society
may be the Ultimate looser.
4. Industries may be encouraged to be partners with educational institutions
directly For the development of human resources dedicated to their interests.
This could happen in the areas of creating infrastructure, faculty sharing and
direct support With funds. The UGC may set-up a High Power Committee to
explore these Possibilities and to work out the modalities for such a
5. The industries belonging to a specific discipline or related disciplines shall
be encouraged to establish state of the art Research and Training centre’s to
develop The necessary specialized man power. Automobile industry is a case
point. Existing Public and Private Institutions and possible new Institutions
may Generate ample provisions for partnerships in this regard. A Committee
shall work Out the modalities and norms for this.

6. The areas not capable of attracting private funds shall be supported

sufficiently Well from public funds. This, as indicated earlier, is essential for
the balanced Intellectual growth of the society.
7. Industries and individuals may be encouraged to channel a percentage of
their profits to the higher education sector, with no strings attached to such
Contributions. Viable incentives may be offered for attracting such investments
From the private resources. A Committee may work out the modalities.
8. Strong quality control measures to assure performance above an acceptable
Benchmark is essential for the institutions. We are at the moment weak in this
Regard. The various rating agencies shall evolve scientific, transparent and
Consistent benchmarking techniques for this purpose. A regulatory system to
Ensure compliance to the set bench marking is needed with sufficient powers
to close down non-complying institutions are a need of the hour. The Higher
Education Policy needs to incorporate such features in it in the interest of the
9. A Total Quality Management for courses offered, monitoring the
achievement of the students at all stages of the course, shall be introduced at all
higher education Institutions.
10. An accreditation system for individuals in various disciplines may be
thought of. Indeed, GATE and NET examinations with limited objectives are
forerunners of Such a system. The performance of students in such
examinations may be made an Important parameter for the accreditation of the
11. The idea of allowing students to do Diploma or Certificate courses side by
side with their Degrees, recently put forward by the UGC, is a welcome step
towards empowering the students to take-up work soon after their Degree
courses. This is an area where private initiatives can come up to augment the
activities of the Colleges. The Colleges can develop in-house faculty and other
facilities for this Purpose and make these facilities available at a reasonable
cost. Such a measure will turn around many Colleges from the non-performing
class to the performing class. There shall be a mechanism to accredit these
courses and facilities to ensure quality. This is an area where public/private
partnership has a creative role to play.
12. It is important to realize that we live in a fast changing world, dictated by
the Developments in technology. Quick access to information has made
knowledge Creation fast and the multiplier effect have made it even explosive.
It is increasingly difficult to anticipate changes and respond to them with
creative Purpose. Designing courses with relevance to the future and
developing the Necessary manpower to deliver them is a challenging task. All
this calls for a team of professionals in different areas to come together to
develop proactive strategies for higher education to meet the future demands.
A Strategy Planning Body and an Institution to design and develop futuristic
courses for transferring them to the Universities and Colleges may be created.
13. Good Faculty is a must for any higher education institution aspiring for
Quality. It is high time that an Indian Higher Educational Service, along the
lines of the IAS is formed. This has the advantage of quality control of the
teaching faculty For higher education. A new Human Resource Development
Policy shall be Evolved to facilitate this. This could assure that there is
continuous infusion of Young blood in to the teaching cadre; which is not
happening at the moment. With some restrictions on faculty appointments, the
present evil of inbreeding can be eliminated. The inbreeding has destroyed
many departments at Indian Universities.
14. Private Universities are a reality now and, as such, strong regulatory
mechanisms are to be put in place immediately to monitor and control their
activities with the objective of ensuring quality and social accountability.
Higher education is a public Good and cannot be left to the market forces to
control. Those who venture Investment in this area shall be properly
scrutinized. Those with commercial interests dominating over the interests and
ethics of higher education shall be Eliminated.
15. The present archaic administrative practices need a thorough reform. A
healthy Public/Private partnership can do much in this regard by way of
exchanging good Practices. A management system, lean but professional,
making use of modern communication and information technologies is
required to facilitate quality Higher education.
16. According autonomous status to all performing institutions will facilitate
rapid Development of efficient and state of the art higher education
17. There shall be a dominant role for genuine academics in the governing
structure of higher education institutions. The proposed regulatory mechanism
shall have Instruments to ensure this.

The educational changes introduced by the BJP did not play a major role in the
May 2004 general election. While access to education was an issue in some
rural areas, roads, power, water and jobs were more important. The NDA
manifesto on education had changed in emphasis, moving towards a more
‘Communal’ and nationalistic stand. Three points stand out:
• The focus on Indian culture, heritage, and ethical values in syllabuses will be
• The downgrading of Bharatiya languages in school and college education will
be checked. Teaching in the mother tongue will be encouraged.
• Efforts will be intensified for the propagation of Sanskrit. While the Congress
-dominated United Progressive Alliance government remains in power, these
policies will not be implemented. But education will remain a key issue in
Indian politics. The government will have to deal with the inherent problems in
the education system and, for its own long-term political survival; it will need
to reverse the changes introduced by the NDA. As mentioned above, in its
Common Minimum Programme, announced on 28 May 2004, the government
pledged to raise public spending on education to at least 6 per cent of GDP,
impose a cuss on all central taxes to ‘universalize access to quality basic
education’ and reverse the creeping communalization of school syllabuses of
the past five years. Both the budget and the Independence Day address stressed
the importance of education as a key to tackling poverty, one of the main
causes of which is illiteracy. The president, Abdul Kalam, has called for
expenditure on education to be raised by 2–3 per cent of GDP. The government
has already experienced a number of criticisms from its parliamentary
opponents. The Communist Party of India (Marxist) criticized the UPA’s
moves on textbook reform for ‘falling short of what the new government has
incorporated in the Common Minimum Programme in its section on
education’. It also looks as if relations between the central and state
governments will remain strained. In August 2004 the BBC reported that
ministers from five BJP-run states walked out of a meeting called by the
government to devise a new national education policy. Moves to desexualize
Indian education under the previous government were, in part, an attempt to
Strengthen the BJP’s future voter-base. But they also stemmed from a
widespread recognition that India’s. Education system fails large numbers of
its young people, either because education is not available or because it does
not provide students with relevant skills. The Common Minimum Programme
represents a welcome attempt to reassert the traditional vision of education in
India, concentrating on access, quality and secularism. But while these aims
have remained largely unchanged since Nehru’s era, it remains to be seen
whether the current government can become the first administration to confront
and manage the balance between excellence and equity.
Barro, Robert J., and Jong-Wha Lee. 2000. “International Data on Educational
Attainment: Updates and Implications.” Center for International Development
Working Paper No. 42, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
El-Haichour, Houcine. 2005. “Education Reforms in MENA Countries.”
Unpublished background paper.
Nigavekar A., Higher education in India, issues, concerns and new directions.
university grants commission, new Delhi .December 2003
2005c. Project Appraisal Document for Higher Education: Mid-term Review of
Higher Education Project. Washington, DC: World Bank.

he Challenges for India’s Ed