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CHAPTER COMMUNICATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS

• What is communication
• Essential elements of communication
• Communication cycle/ process
• Types of communications
• Kinds and modes of communication
• Barriers of communication
• Skills required for effective communication
• Tips for effective communication with subordinates and seniors
• References

What is communication?

Communication cycle/ process . for example ‘spoken-heard-understood-agreed to-acted on- implemented’  Effective communication is all about conveying your messages to other people clearly and unambiguously. Communication cycle consists of specific stages. with as little distortion as possible. a medium and a receiver. A sender can be individual. A sender is the one who produces and sends a message. group. writing. medium is a mode or means of passing the message. or information by speech. institute or organization. A receiver is the one who receives message.  Communication is the exchange of ideas or feelings from one person to another. Essential elements of communication Essential elements of communication contain a sender. It is the imparting or interchange of thoughts. It's also about receiving information that others are sending to you. opinions. We can explain that communication is a process used to timely and properly exchange information between a sender and a receiver to achieve a desired goal. or signs  Communication is individualistic-we all have our own world view  Communication involves verbal & non-verbal cues.

and feedback. Those components include encoding. decoding. and nonverbal language selected are paramount in ensuring the receiver interprets the message as intended by the sender" (Burnett & Dollar. The sender is an individual. The sender transmits the message In order for the sender to transmit the encoded message. The intent of this phase is to start the process at a time when a sender intentionally decides to send a message to someone else. spoken words. perceptions. and those two factors are present in the form of the sender and the receiver. When encoding one’s idea. from Feedback sender Communication is the process of linking between senders and receivers of the message. Senders can send information . These symbols are varied. So. a medium through which to send the message. All communication begins with the sender. or organization who initiates the communication. This source is initially responsible for the success of the message. The responsibility of the sender to choose a code that will best carry the message is obvious. knowledge. the sender encodes the message. medium of transmission. The communication process has a dynamic of its own. and culture influence the message. Human beings are not a telepathic breed. So. group. skill. 1989). 2. 3. "The written words. attitudes. The sender encodes the idea. The communication process is made up of four key components. Here is a description of those phases. The communication process begins with the sender and ends with the receiver. the sender has to choose a channel. one has to pick the code that will fit the message and that will allow the receiver to understand. The sender has an idea. the sender has an idea. representations of their ideas. Human beings have learned to transmit symbols. The process goes through several phases. 1. There are also two other factors in the process. They do not transmit pure ideas from one’s brain to another. The sender's experiences.

without possibility of feedback. The characteristics of each medium somewhat dictates its ability to serve a given purpose. When choosing a media. Some channels are better suited for some messages than others. DVDs. The richest medium is a face-to-face conversation. Other criteria include the medium’s feedback capacity (telephone conversation versus letter).verbally or nonverbally. etc. These characteristics describe the richness of a medium. and the medium’s level of formality (email versus formal letter) or level of confidentiality (sealed hand-delivered letter versus fax). the medium chosen should be analyzed for its other characteristics. through the tone of voice or the pace of the speech. radios. faxes. In nonverbal communication. and vocally. nonverbally. In addition to its richness. without personal touches. the sender transmits the message. Junk mails send the message only in a written format. and (3) can establish personal focus. messages are sent through gestures. The receiver decodes the message . The ability of the medium to be permanently kept may be criteria for its choice. etc. So. without control of noises. A rich medium is one that (1) can convey a message using more than one type of clue (visual and verbal and vocal). one has to choose one that will convey the message properly to the intended audience. Face-to-face conversations can be personalized by the sender to each receiver involved. Face-to-face conversations allow the receiver to get the sender’s message verbally. CDs. messages are sent through speeches or through documents. The leaner medium is a mass mailing or any kind of unaddressed documents. through the facial expressions or the gestures. 4. the receiver receives the signal sent by the sender. computers. In all case. (2) can facilitate feedback. How quick is a message prepared on a given medium (memo versus formal letter) or delivered (email versus snail mail) may be the reason to choose that medium. 5. The sender is responsible for choosing the medium that will convey the message efficiently and effectively. Face-to-face conversations allow for immediate feedback from the receiver and allow the sender to control some of the environmental noises. The speed of the medium may be criteria for its choice. videocassettes. Whether a record of the message can be kept on a given medium (3M note versus email) may be the reason to choose that medium. tone of voice. use of space. papers. A five- page memo is a poor choice for an invitation to lunch. the medium’s capacity to convey the intensity or the complexity of a message (causal conversation versus formal written report). In verbal communication. messages are sent through a variety of media such a telephones. through the words spoken. The receiver gets the message Unless he or she has a hearing problem or he or she is affected by noises distorting the reception of the message.

the commonly known types of communications are Intra-personal communication: This implies individual reflection. the receiver send a message back to the sender providing information on his or her level of comprehension of the message. as well . It is personal. This implies that the two persons involved are completely aware of the communication happening between them. as well as intimate and permits maximum interaction through words and gestures. Types of communications Communication is generally classified into a couple of types. According to the experts this type of communication encompasses communicating with the divine and with spirits in the form of prayers and rites and rituals. Interpersonal communication: This is direct. It is essentially a dialogue or a conversation between two or more people.The receiver always decodes the message using his or her own knowledge of the code used to encode the message. direct. Unfocused interactions: This occurs when one simply observes or listens to persons with whom one is not conversing. face-to-face communication that occurs between two persons. More fundamentally. The receiver chooses the code he or she will use to decode the message. So. the receiver decodes the message. This usually occurs at stations and bus stops. The receiver has the responsibility of choosing the right code to decode the message. One example of this is transcendental mediation. contemplation and meditation. The receiver sends feedback to the sender Using the same phases as the sender. Interpersonal communications maybe: Focused Interactions: This primarily results from an actual encounter between two persons. The receiver will choose a code based on his or her background and his or her environment. 6. Choosing the wrong code is like using the wrong key: the message will not yield its secret if the wrong code is used. The classifications include: • Verbal and non-verbal • Technological and non-technological • Mediated and non-mediated • Participatory and non-participatory However. the receiver also has the responsibility of listening to the sender.

magazines or leaflets 2. or even advertising of any sort that an organization establishes with the people outside the organization can be termed as external communication Modes of external communication- 1. Telephone. fliers. Kinds and modes of communication  External Communication. setting up hoardings etc  Internal Communication . Non verbal communication: This includes aspects such as body language. as well as the written and typed modes of communications. & catalogues 2. fax. Print Media – Newspaper. at restaurants. Visual communication . magazines. newsletter. Personal Communication – Regular meetings. Television. which also become a part of the communicating process. in-house newsletters. etc. etc. Cultural festivals. Print – Memos. Radio 3. facial expressions.Any exchange of information. gestures. conferences. telephone. fliers.as on the street. brain storming sessions or even informal chats or one on one sessions  Modes of non verbal communication 1. Electronic – Power point presentations. internet 3. emails. brochures. video conferences. Electronic media – Internet. Modes of internal communication- 1. eye contact. Non-conventional – Promotional events.Communication within the organizational structure or a corporate company is called internal organizational communication..

poor or outdated equipment. if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites. which in turn interfere with . Whilst distractions like background noise. Vocal 4. for example. the natural barrier which exists. Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organisation. particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology.2. may also cause problems. Thus. Likewise. poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or cold can all affect people's morale and concentration. Space Barriers of communication Physical barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. Tactical/ Physical 3.

OTHER COMMON BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION INCLUDE: Psychological factors such as people's state of mind. and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them. These may be brought about. by such factors as poor management. System design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organisation. personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate. We all tend to feel happier and more receptive to information when the sun shines. Equally. brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks. for example. . the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work.effective communication. lack of consultation with employees. Examples might include an organisational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know who to communicate with. then this will probably affect them. Attitudinal barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organisation. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems. if someone has personal problems like worries about their health or marriage. a lack of supervision or training. or just resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas.

Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. poor eye sight or hearing difficulties. for example. We can all think of situations where we have listened to something explained which we just could not grasp. Presentation of information is also important to aid understanding. Based on which the message needs to be framed and then transmitted to the receiver. The use of difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent people from understanding the message.Listening to the message received carefully and attentively will give scope for better interpretation of the message sent and preparation for apt feedback to the message received.  Listening carefully and attentively . .  Knowing the appropriate medium to communicate – Choosing appropriate means or mode of communication plays a very important role in helping the receiver understand or interpret as the message was intended while sent by the sender. Individual linguistic ability is also important. Physiological barriers may result from individuals' personal discomfort. Different languages and cultures represent a national barrier which is particularly important for organisations involved in overseas business. caused. by ill health. Skills required for effective communication  Knowing what to communicate – It is very important for a sender to know what he or she intends to communicate to the receiver.

• Clarity in thought & action – while revert after discussion it is important to be clear in thoughts of expectations and next actions.edu/studentleadership/development/forms/send_receive. • Adapt to Diversity of Communication Styles – adopting suitable styles and method to communicate will help the receiver interpret the message correctly.dtd 15-10-09 • http://www. Not being judgemental – It is very important to receive the message without any judgement about the sender or about the message sent.com/images/search?q=SENDER+AND+RECEIVER+IN+COMMUN ICATION+&FORM=SSIR#focal=d142369a1551efb58c7df7ae6f1552b0&furl=http% 3A%2F%2Fwww.htm .htm . On receiving the message or while sending the message being judgemental about the sender or the receiver by either of them would led to misinterpretation of the actual message.edu/~lipuma/352comproc/comproc. Tips for effective communication with subordinates and seniors • Provide Right Climate .environment or atmosphere for the for them to express and discuss with you as team leader or project lead • Back communication with action. • Give and Solicit Meaningful Feedback – appropriate repetition of the message and feedback to the message received from the juniors or seniors during a conversation would make the communication process more effective.njit.On discussing with juniors or seniors plan action chart for execution.jpg – dtd 15-10-09 • http://www.communicationskills.bing.nova.in/types-of-communication-skills.co.pathways.cu.edu.eg%2Fsubpages%2Ftraining_courses%2FCom munications7%2Fimages%2FC_I_Page_01.pdf -dtd 15-10-09 • http://www. • Counseling – the ability to counsel helps people to take positive attitude towards life Reference • http://web.