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Basics of

Scanning Electron Microscopy

SEM
• Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
• is a type of electron microscope capable of
producing high-resolution images of a
sample surface

• Due to the manner in which the
image is created, SEM images
have a characteristic three-
dimensional appearance

History of Microscopy

Zacharias Janssen
1595

History of Microscopy Anton van Leeuwenhoek .

History of Microscopy .

History of Microscopy .

History of Microscopy Created the TEM in 1931 Max Knott and Ernst Ruska .

von Ardenne (1938) added scanning coils to TEM and created the first Scanning Electron Microscope .History of Microscopy M.

History of Microscopy 1951:The First Modern SEM D. McMullan in the Cambridge University Engineering Laboratory .

History of Microscopy 1964: First commercial SEM by Cambridge Instruments 1939: First commercial TEM by Siemens (Ruska. von Borries) .

Binning and H. Rohrer.Ruska (together with G. History of Microscopy Binning Rohrer 1986 Nobel prize for E. who developed the Scanning Tunneling Microscope) .

Eyepiece Coarse and Fine Adjustments Objective Lenses Sample Stage Mirror The Compound Microscope Dissected .

HOW DOES A MICROSCOPE WORK? .

Lens System Magnifies the Image by bending LIGHT! .

Image Formation in Microscope .

Focus vs Out of Focus Out of Focus Focus .

The Function of a MICROSCOPE • Microscopes have two important functions: – Magnify the Image – Resolve the Image Magnification is Resolution is the the increasing in ability to distinguish size of an object between two separate points. .

MAGNIFICATION W/
MAGNIFICATION
RESOLUTION

Why is Illumination Important?
• “For the human eye, seeing objects, in
more and more detail, depends on light.
No light means no seeing!”

Resolution is a
function of the
QUALITY of the
LENS and also
of the
WAVELENGTH
of LIGHT USED

Why is Illumination
Important?
• The Light Microscope is limited to a
maximum of only 2000X magnification with
a resolution of 200 nm

WHY?

The Importance of Illumination ANSWER: BECAUSE it USES WHITE LIGHT which has a wavelength of 400 to 700 nm! .

Electro Magnetic Spectrum .

• How does one improve MAGNIFICATION & RESOLUTION? ANSWER: USE an ILLUMINATION with SMALLER WAVELENGTH! USE an ELECTRON!!! .

then this means that it acts like WAVE white light!! . DUAL NATURE OF ELECTRON PARTICLE Since it moves in a wavelike manner.

Using Electrons as Light Source WAVE Electron Wavelength may even be made smaller simply by increasing the energy of the electron! THIS MEANS BETTER RESOLUTION!!! .

The Electron Microscope Resolution using Electron Beam: 1 to 20 nm! The ELECTRON MICROSCOPE is simply a MICROSCOPE which uses ELECTRONS to ILLUMINATE the SAMPLE! .

Parts of the Electron Microscope Electron Gun CRT Screen Vacuum Column PUMP Sample chamber Column Operations Console Console .

INSIDE the SEM .

ELECTRON GUN Produces electrons that will illuminate the sample Speed of Electrons is controlled by accelerating voltage! .

ELECTRON GUN Wehnelt cap .

Incandescent Bulb vs Gun Filament Produces White Produces Electron Light Beam .

GUN An Electron GUN enclosed in a glass jar BEAM of ELECTRONS .

6192 °F) .Tungsten Used as Filament due to Its High Melting Point (3695 K. 3422 °C.

Lanthanum Hexaboride. LaB6 BRIGHTER but very REACTIVE .

FIELD EMISSION GUNS TUNGSTEN Field Emission is the ability of materials to emit electrons when a huge amount of electric SCHOTTKY POTENTIAL is applied EMITTER .

SEM Cathode Comparison Tungsten LaB6 Schottky (TF) Field Emission filament Apparent 100 5 <100 <100 Angstroms Source Size micrometers micrometers Angstroms 1 A/cm2 20-50 A/cm2 100-500 A/cm2 100-1000 A/cm2 Brightness steradian steradian steradian steradian Vacuum 10-5 Torr 10-6 Torr 10-8 Torr 10-9 Torr Required .

Why is there a need to use HIGH VACUUM in the CHAMBER? ANSWER: • Electrons are so small that these can be easily SCATTERED by gas atoms or molecules • Filament will BURN out if AIR is present! .

INSIDE the SEM .

LENS SYSTEM Optical Magnetic Lenses Lenses .

ELECTROMAGNETIC LENSES Lenses made of magnet to control the size of the electron spray .

How Does the EM Lens Work? LENSES FOCUSES the ELECTRON BEAM to a SPOT SIZE of 2 to 200 nm .

ElectroMagnetic Lens OBJECTIVE LENS .

INSIDE the SEM .

Sample Chamber Z=80 mm X=125 mm 26 Pin Stub Holder 00 1 Y= m m SOME SAMPLE STAGES can actually accommodate MULTIPLE SAMPLES! .

INSIDE the SEM .

How is the IMAGE produced in the SEM? • The electron beam is produced in the Gun • It is focused on the sample by Lenses • Beam is “SCANNED” over the sample surface .

.

What happens when Beam Hits Sample? • The electrons interact with the material to produce different products! .

Secondary Electron 2.electron is knocked out of the atom . Backscattered Electron . Interaction Products 1.incident electron is knocked back .

electron from an atom loses energy and causes the emission of releases x-rays a second electron .primary electron . Auger Electrons . Characteristic X-ray 4.emission of an knocks out electron. Interaction Products 3.

Interaction Volume .

Image Formation in SEM These products are then COLLECTED by a DETECTOR and processed to produce the IMAGE in the CRT Screen! .

Secondary Electrons SE Signals are best for SURFACE TOPOLOGY EXAMINATIONS .

BACKSCATTERED ELECTRONS BSE is best for Compositional Difference Imaging .

SE vs BS Imaging Secondary Backscattered Electron Electron Image Image .

CHARACTERISTIC X-RAYS WDS Spectrum of Salt Crystal .

Interaction of Products • Flash Presentation on SEI. X-ray . BEI.

Advantages of Using SEM • High depth of field: 3-D imaging Image using Compound Image using SEM Microscope .

3-D or STEREO IMAGING .

phase contrast. Advantages of Using SEM • Bulk examination is possible (no thickness limitation) • Different detectors could allow different analytical techniques (compositional. etc) .

Limitations • Inability to reproduce color Helicobacter • Sample must be stable in vacuum (wet or samples that emit gases are not possible to examine) • Sample must be conductive Salt in Water Fly Proboscis .

What Type of Samples can one view with the SEM? • All Samples may be viewed in the SEM! METALS CERAMICS PLASTICS • The only requirement is that sample should be electrically conductive! .

THEN ONE NEEDS TO MAKE IT CONDUCTIVE!!! . What if a Sample is an INSULATOR? CERAMICS & PLASTICS LIVING THINGS TO VIEW THESE.

Charge-up in SEM Imaging Distortion in SEM Imaging caused by build up of electrons in the non-conductive sample .

Methods for non conductive specimen • Metal Coating • Low Voltage • Low Vacuum mode (in the specimen chamber ) .

the solution is to COAT it with a METAL!! Sputter Coat with Gold or Carbon . METAL COATING To make a sample conductive.

Why is GOLD found in this SALT sample? .

LOW VOLTAGE .

Low vacuum Mode • Flash presentation on Low vacuum .

THANKS FOR LISTENING! .