This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
over 5,000 years ago. This civilization originated in the Indus River Valley, hence the name given to it was Indus Valley civilization. It is the origin of many of the ideas, philosophies and movements which have shaped the destiny of mankind. The civilization with its main cities Mohenjadaro and Harappa flourished for over eight centuries. Its people thought to be Dravidians, whose descendants still inhabit the far south of India. Aryan and Greek Invasions The country was influenced by many invasions, the Arya or Aryans (1500BC) as they are known today, are the first invaders. Aryans were a group of nomadic tribes who had originally inhabited the steppes of Central Asia, in particular the region between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. Tall, fair haired, with clear cut features, they spoke a group of languages which have become known as Indo-European. They settled in the region to the north west of India, known as the Punjab. They brought with them new ideas, new technology and new gods, this is one of the most important epochs in Indian history. With time, the Aryans were engaged in struggle with the dark skinned people or Dasyus. The Dasyus were the Dravidians. The superiority of the Aryans resulted in the Dravidian submission. The second great invasion into India occurred around 500 BC, when the Persian kings Cyrus and Darius, pushing their empire eastward, conquered the prized Indus Valley. After centuries of obscurity, doubt and conjecture, India came into the full light of recorded history with the invasion of Alexander the Great of Macedonia in 327 BC. Although Alexander crossed the Indus and defeated an Indian king, he turned back without extending his power into India. Maurya and Gupta Periods The receding tide of Greek power led to a period of confusion and uncertainty in northern India as various rulers tried to make capital of the vacuum that Alexander had left behind. These circumstances saw the rise of Mauryas, India's first imperial dynasty, founded by Chandragupta Maurya. Maurya dynasty reached its peak around 260 BC under the Emperor Ashoka, the most famous figures in Indian History. He left a series of inscriptions on pillars and rocks across the sub-continent. But after his death, the Mauryan empire gradually fell apart because his descendants were not as strong rulers as he was. At the beginning of the fourth century AD, India was fragmented into a lot of small kingdoms. They were often invaded by stronger neighbors like Greeks. They conquered Indus Valley again but they didn't stay for long. Out of this seeming Chaos, King Chandragupta II united all of northern India into a great empire again. The Gupta period has been described as the golden age of Indian history and under their rule of northern India, arts, including poetry and literature, flourished. The exquisite Ajanta and Ellora caves were excavated in this period. Gupta period extended from 320AD to 480AD. But in 455 AD the Huns invaded India from the north and destroyed the Guptan Empire. Again India was split into small kingdoms until the Muslim invasions around 1000 AD.
In South India, great empires rose, entirely independently from those of the north. These included the Kalachuris, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Yadhavas, Hoysalas, Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras and the Vijayanagar kingdom Muslim Invasions The Medieval Period in Indian history began with the Muslim Invasions. While the Hindu kingdoms ruled in the south and Buddhism was fading in the north, Muslim invasions from the Middle East began, towards the end of the 12th century. The Muslim period in India began with the Turkish conquests under Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Ghori. Many famous dynasties such as the the Slave Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, Tughlaq Dynasty, Saiyyid and Lodhi, Bahmani Dynasty, and Others followed. In the16th century, Babur from Fergana (Uzbekistan), a descendant of Genghis Khan swept across the Khyber Pass, defeated Ibrahim Lodi the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate at the battle of Panipat and established the Great Mughal Dynasty which lasted for 200 years. The Mughal (Mogul) period saw a remarkable blend of Indian, Persian and Central Asian influences manifested in an impressive legacy of magnificent palaces, forts, tombs and landscaped gardens-including India's magnificent edifice, the Taj Mahal. The golden era of the Mughal period was under the rule of Akbar the great. European Invasions The country¶s riches in different cultures, wealth in spices and minerals - made it a target for invasion and colonisation by European powers from the fifteenth century onwards. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to settle in India, in Goa, in the fifteenth century (1498). The Europeans arrived even before the Mughals. The Dutch East India company was chartered in 1602 and they established spice trade and factories in Cochin, Nagapatinam and Agra. They did not have any military ambitions for India. In 1613, the British East India Company, a trading company, started its first trading post in Gujarat. Later in the century, the East India Company opened permanent trading stations at Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, each under the protection of native rulers. Meanwhile around 1644, the French established trade with India. Pondicherry was the hub of French settlements. Other French factories and settlements were at Surat, their first trading post in 1666, then Masulipatanam, Karikal, Chandernagore in Bengal and Mahe at the Malabar coast. The struggle for establishing supremacy in trade resulted in wars between the English and the French in the Deccan. The latter of the three successive Carnatic wars between them, from 174648, 1748-54 and 1758-63 moreover sealed the fate of the French possessions in India In 1757, at the Battle of Plassey, Robert Clive, an employee of the British East India Company, defeated the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulah and established their political sovereignty in India. It was an important step towards the eventual British dominance of the country. The First War of Independence (Sepoy Mutiny) or the first major Indian rebellion against the British after the battle of Plassey took place in 1857. Although the rebels succeeded in capturing territories in the Gangetic plain, it was recaptured by the British and the rebellion was completely crushed by
mid 1858. The British government took over control of India from the East India Company. Britain then ruled India with local rulers for over three hundred years. Indian Independence Eventually demand grew for Indian independence. The socio- religious movements brought forth by various social reformers all over the country inspired national consciousness to improve their social condition and invoked the spirit of patriotism among the Indian masses. A national movement for independence was created. Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad, Subhash Chandra Bosh, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, Mahamana, Sardar Ballabh Bhai Patel, Sarojini Naidu, Chander Shekhar Azad were the notable people of the movement. But the most relevantverent leader of the movement was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, a lawyer who believed in non violent protest (civil disobedience). Gandhi worked with Jawaharlal Nehru, the secretary of the Indian National Congress and transformed the Indian National Congress political party into a mass movement to campaign against the British colonial rule. After several years of struggle, Britain decided to quit India. But a major problem had arisen. A large Muslim minority doubted that an independent India would also mean a Hindu-dominated India. The Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah began to call for an independent Muslim region- Pakistan. On 15th of August, 1947, India became completely independent from colonial rule, ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. Nehru became the first Prime Minister of independent India. Following independence India was divided, to create Pakistan, which initially also included present-day Bangladesh where there were Muslim majorities. The separation escalated the brewing violence into a bloodbath. It is estimated that over one million people were killed in sectarian violence as up to six million Muslims moved towards Pakistan and up to five million Hindus and Sikhs moved towards India. Mahatma Gandhi opposed partition and in 30th January 1948 he himself was gunned down by a Hindu fundamentalist, enraged by his support for the Muslims. On January 26, 1950 India became a republic. The country adopted a new constitution based on the British parliamentary model. Newly independent, India worked to establish strong institutions of justice, media and bureaucracy. Governments of India Nehru governed India until his death in and Lal Bahadur Shastri succeeded him as Prime Minister of India in 1964. He successfully repulsed Pakistan's twin attack on India-in the Rann of Kutch and in Kashmir. After India-Pakistan War of 1965, Shastri met in Tashkent with Pakistan's President and signed a ³no-war´ declaration. After Shastri's death he was succeeded by Nehru's daughter, Indira Gandhi. She rode a wave of success in1971 with India's victory in the second Indo-Pak war (1971), resulting in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh; launching of the India's first satellite into space (1975), nuclear explosion in Pokhran (1974). Other major decisions during her tenure include the nationalization of banks and the abolition of privy purses to the princes. In her attempt to control population growth, she implemented a voluntary sterilization program. But her adversaries criticized it. In 1975, beset with deepening political and economic problems, Mrs. Gandhi
declared a state of emergency and suspended many civil liberties. The Emergency was a dark night in Indian democracy. The people also suffered a lot from this emergency rule. In the same year India acquired Sikkim. Seeking a mandate at the polls for her policies, she called for elections in 1977. Congress party lost the election to the Janata Party and Moraji Desai became India's new prime minister. In 1979 Desai's government crumbled and Charan Singh of the Janata Secular Party formed an interim government. But in 1980, Gandhi's government returned to power. In 1984, Mrs. Gandhi was assassinated by her own Sikh guards in apparent retaliation for dispatching troops to the Sikh Golden Temple. The years following the assassination, saw the Sikh Terrorism in Punjab. The situation has returned to normal after a decade of bitter violence. Within 24 hours, Indira's son Rajiv Gandhi was sworn in as the new prime minister. But his government was brought down in 1989 by allegations of corruption. Two major scandals, the "Spy" and the "Bofors" affairs, tarnished his reputation and he resigned his position. This was followed by opposition coalition governments headed by V.P. Singh and then Chandra Shekhar. That alliance also collapsed, resulting in national elections in 1991. But Rajiv Gandhi who stood for the elections, met with a tragic end in 1991 at Sriperumbudur, near Chennai by an LTTE Suicide Bomber when he was attending an election meeting. In the elections INC becomes the largest party and returned to power at the head of a coalition, under the leadership of P.V. Narasimha Rao. In 1996, he and his cabinet officials were subsequently indicted for major corruption. Religious conflict between Hindus and Muslims lead to bloody riots in 1992. Rao's tenure also marked extensive economic reforms under the Finance Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh in the early 90s, which paved the way for India's economy growth at a high rate. In 1996, When general elections were held Rao and Congress were badly defeated, and he lost the prime minister ship. The Hindu-nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) emerged from national elections as the single-largest party in the Lok Sabha but without a parliamentary majority. Under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, BJP coalition government lasted only 13 days. With all political parties wishing to avoid another round of elections, a 14-party coalition led by the Janata Dal formed a government with H.D. Deve Gowda as Prime Minister but his government collapsed within a year. Another minor party leader, I.K. Gujral replaced Dev Gowda. In November 1997, the Congress Party again withdrew support from the United Front. In new elections in February 1998, the BJP won the largest number of seats in Parliament, but fell far short of a majority. The President inaugurated a BJP-led coalition government under Vajpayee. This coalition fell apart and new elections in 1999 improved the position of the BJP, Vajpayee formed a new coalition. In 1999, Pakistani infiltrators crossed the line of control in Kargil, Kashmir resulting in an armed conflict between the Indian army and Pakistani paramilitary forces, resulting in eventual withdrawal by the Pakistani soldiers. In 2004 elections, Congress formed the government under the former Finance Minister popularly known as the father of Indian Economic Reforms, Dr. Manmohan Singh. INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION
Human inhabitation in the Indian subcontinent is traced to the Paleolithic and Neolithic period. Dated from about 2500 to 1500 BC. This civilization is considered to be at par with the other civilizations of the world . Sir John Marshal, the director general of archaeology with his team excavated sites at Sind and Punjab. The ruins at Mohenjodaro in the Larkana district of Sind in the lower Indus and at Harappa on the banks of the Ravi has brought to light the existence of the Indus valley civilization. These excavations were further supported by the discovery in 1931 at Chanhudaro near Mohenjodaro. Traces of the Indus valley civilization was discovered at Rupar in Ambala district and Rangpur, and Lothal in Saurashtra, Bharatpur in Rajasthan, Kalibangan in the Burdwan district of West Bengal are a proof of the existence of the Indus valley civilization. Harappa being the main source of knowledge about the civilization historians also call this civilization as the Harappan culture. Origin of the Aryans Opinions differ regarding the original home of the Aryans. The most accepted view is that the region between Poland to the Central Asia might have been of the Aryans. They were said to be semi- nomadic people, who started moving from their original home towards the west, south and east. The branch which went to Europe were the ancestors of the Greeks, Romans, Celts and Teutons. Another branch went to Anatolia. The great empire of the Hitties evolved from the mixture of these immigrants with the original people. The branch which remained were the ancestors of the Slavonic people. The group which moved south came to conflict with the west Asian civilization. In course of their journey towards the east or south a group of Aryans had settled in Iran. They crossed the Hindukush and entered India through Afghanistan and captured the greater part of the northern India. They came to be known as Indo-Aryans to distinguish them from the others who spoke a language different from those who settled in western Asia and Europe. The Indo-Aryans entered Punjab and the other north-western part of India. They moved towards south-east and eastwards into the Ganga Valley. The Aryans were pastoral Nomads. They settled in villages. The region which the Aryans occupied was known as Sapta Sindhu. Moving further eastwards they settled along the Ganga and Jamuna. In due course of time the whole of northern India were under the Aryans and it was called Aryavarta or the land of the Aryans. The period of Aryan settlement was between 2500 and 1500BC. The early Aryans were divided into many tribes. A few among them are Anus, Druhyus, Yadus, Turvasas and Purus. They settled on
either side of the river Saraswati. They were involved in fighting among themselves. Besides these tribal warfare the Aryans were engaged in struggles with the dark skinned people or Dasyus. The Dasyus were the Dravidians who occupied the regions of the Indus valley civilization. The superiority of the Aryans resulted in the Dravidian submission and retirement to the south. Political Organization Family served as the basis of the both social and political organization. Families together formed the grama. Villages together formed is and they turn formed the janas. The community was patriarchical and each tribe was under the chief whose position was hereditary. The rastra was ruled by the king which was normally hereditary. The king led the tribe in battle, and protected the people. The Purohita was one of the important signatory. He was the sole associate of the king his friend, philosopher and guide. The Senani the leader of the army, and Gramani the head of the village. The main duty of the king was the protection of his subjects, property, defence and maintenance of peace. The king was not an autocrat he was controlled by two popular assemblies Sabha and Samiti. These assemblies brought forth the people's view on various issues. The Sabhas also discharged legal duties like providing justice. Individual ownership of property was recognized. The land was a property owned by the family. The property passed on in a hereditary manner from father to son. Economic Condition The Aryans who were semi-nomadic people also domesticated animals which helped them in the activities of agriculture and other pastoral and hunting acts. Agriculture consisted the major share of their economy. Canals to provide irrigation was a significant feature of this occupation. Coins were unknown and trade was through the Barter system. Craft was not a popular profession. The lack of good roads might have hampered trade, but river navigation was existing. Specialization in areas such as carpentry, smithy, weaving, pottery, etc had been taking place. LIFE IN THE ARYAN SOCIETY Family being the basis of the Aryan social life needed to be a healthy bond. Monogamy was the usual rule but polygamy was also practiced. Women played an important role in the family. They also excelled in education. Apata Visvara and Ghosa were a few who even composed mantras. Both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food were common. Wheat and barley was the common food grains. Drinks included the Soma and Sura which were intoxicating and was drunk during festivals.
The dress consisted of two or three garments- an under garment, garment and a cloak. These were made of wool or skin and colored yellow and red. Gold ornaments such as necklaces, earrings, anklets, and bracelets were common and was worn by both men and women. Women enjoyed equal status and received education with the men. They also freely participated in public life. Religion The Aryans worshipped many gods and goddess. Most of the objects they worshipped were the personification of the forces of nature. The religious beliefs of the Aryans and its essential elements were contained in the Rig Veda. It was based on the beliefs that 1. The numerous gods and goddess were personifications of whatever that was noble splendid and striking in nature . 2. The common people sought refugee under these powers who did good answer as evil. To get the good offerings as food and drinks has to be made. 3. Fire was the means of messengers who carried the offerings to the gods . This was done amidst the chanting of hymns of praise . There were numerous deities, classified under terrestrial, atmospheric, and celestial group. Agni, Indra and varuna were the chief deities. They also included Agni, vayu, surya, prithivi,etc. Gods and goddess were worshipped with simple ceremonials known as Yajna or sacrifices. Extent of Aryans in India The Aryans were said to have been spread into four divisions of the country as portrayed by Manu
y y y y
Brahmavarta Braharishi Desha Madhya Desha Aryavarta
(a) The Brahmavarta or the land of Gods was the region lying between the rivers Saraswati and Drishadwati It also included parts of Kurukshetra as mentioned in the Mahabharatha. (b) The Braharishi Desha or the country of the holy sages. Comprised the territories of the Kurus, Matsya, Panchalas and Swsenas. Today they are known as Thaneshwar, Eastern Rajputana, the Doab and Mathura district. (c) The Madhya Desa or the middle country occupied the region lying between the Himalayas and Vindhyas.
(d) The Aryavarta occupied the region between the Himalayas and the Vindhyas from the east to west. Though a physical terrain segregated North and South India and resulted in the development of a Dravidian culture, yet the Aryans influenced the religious thoughts of the Dravidians LATER ARYAN PERIOD (VEDIC PERIOD) The later vedic period is said to have begun after the composing of the Atharva Veda, Yajur veda and Sama veda. This period indicated changes in the political, social economic and religious conditions of the life of the Aryans. These changes were different from those in the early vedic period during the composition of the Rig Veda. Political Condition The Rig vedic Aryans were divided into several tribes. Their was frequent internal strife among them. The weaker tribes were absorbed into the stronger ones and thus the kingdoms and larger areas of residence emerged. The political influence of the Aryans extended towards the east and south. The Aryan now established a powerful kingdom in the Deccan, to the north of the river Godavari. The mode of succession continued to be hereditary. The expansion of the territory also resulted in the increased domination of the king assisted by a hierarchy of nobility. These nobles were assigned official duties. Thus an administrative machinery developed. The king now had a council of advisers which included the kings relatives, his courtiers, heads of various departments. The purohita (the priest ), the senani (the commander), the suta (the charioteer), the Samgrahitr (the treasurer ), tax collector, etc. were the individuals which assisted in the kings activities. The role of the popular assemblies was important. A notable feature of this period was the extinction of the Samiti. The sabha transformed from being a popular village assembly, continued as a court or judicial assembly. Social Condition The need to perform the ceremonial yajnas required the services of a highly trained priests who were skilled in the religious matters. This group came to assume the title of the Brahmanas. They occupied a high status and were respected and honoured by the king. The constant inter tribal fighting for establishing supremacy, and struggle with the original inhabitants gave birth for the need of persons skilled in the warfare. Thus arose the new class of the Kshatriyas. Remaining people in the Aryan society were called Vaisyas. The group who were not Aryans were called Sudras. These separation in the society was on the basis of the profession they pursued. Gradually the Aryans were divided into the four varnas, succession to these in course of time became hereditary. The caste system became rigid, Education was confined to the upper classes. An Aryan's life was divided into stages which began with Upanayana, which was the inception of the pupil to education. After a period of 12 years study of the Vedas, Brahmanas, Upanishads, Ithihasa, Puranas, Grammer, Ethics etc. the individual could chose one of the four ashramas i.e. Brahmacharya, Grihastha, Sanyasa, Vanaprastha. Religious Condition
Religion and philosophy in the later Vedic period became more confirmed with elaborate sacrifices. The doctrines of Karma, Maya, soul, Mukti were established. Brahma, Vishnu and Maheswara became the important gods who were worshipped LITERATURE IN THE VEDIC PERIOD The Vedas The vedas were the sources of reconstructing the vedic period. The oldest being the Rigveda, The Samaveda, Yajurveda and Adharvaveda had their own significance. The sama veda contains the verses from the Rigveda. The hymns in it were relevant to the soma sacrifice . The Yajurveda also consist of hymns from the Rig Veda, more than half of this is in prose to facilitate the performance of sacrifices. It depicts the social and religious condition of this period. The Atharva Veda contains philosophic speculations, popular cults and superstitions. The Brahmanas They are prose of the sacrificial ceremonies. These explanatory treatises lay emphasis on ritualism. They mark the transition from Vedic to classical Sanskrit. It also marks the period which marks the advance of the Aryans from the Panchala country to the Vidha (North Bihar). The Vedangas and the Upavedas These are said to be supplementary sections of the Vedic literature. These gives us idea about Jotish (Astronomy), Medicine (Ayurveda), Dhanurveda (war), Gandharvaveda, (music) etc. The Vedanta It is the philosophy taught in most of the Upanishads. The Upanishads This contains the main idea that constitute the intellectual aspect of the Hindu philosophy. They do not lay emphasis to rites, ceremonies and austerities. The Upanishads are dated between 800 BC and 500 BC. The Upanishads are about 100 in number. The Brahadaranyaka Upanishads, Chandogva Upanishad, Aitreya Upanishad are a few. The Upanishads reflects the richness and universality of the Indian culture. They are said to be the thinking power of the Brahmana and the Kshatriyas. LITERATURE IN THE LATER VEDIC PERIOD The Epics They are the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha. They introduce us to a period of transformation in the social and religious institutions of the Vedic age
The Ramayana written by Valmiki is said a poetic legend based on mythology. It portrays the ideal man- god Rama and the ideal woman Sita. The sacrifices made by the characters for the preservation of truth appealed to the people.This was edited by the Brahmanas in course of time to convert it a book of devotion. The Mahabharatha which consist of 18 parvas (sections) contains about 100,000 verses. This is an encyclopedia of history, morals and religion. Puranas These are legends connected with epics and law books. They are 18 in number and are mostly recognized in North India . The Vishnu Purana, for example, should treat of five subjects namely primary creation, secondary creations, Genealogies of gods and patriachs reigns of various Manus and history of ancient dynasties. The Vayupurana is one of the oldest the Puranas. It was edited during the age of Guptas when there was a great revival of the Sanskrit language. The other Puranas include Matsya and Brahmanda which gives us account of the kings up to the imperial Gupta dynasty with other contemporaries. Laws of Manu Also known as Manav Dhramshastra in Sanskrit, it comprises of 2684 couplets arranged in twelve chapters. It is the earliest of law books. The laws of Manu forms the foundation of the court of law in India under the name of Hindu law. The book makes a distinction between varna and jatis. The varnas were in the order of the occupations pursued by the people. This was given as below,
y y y y
the learned, literate and priestly order the fighting or the governing class the trading and agricultural group the common folk, labourers
The composition of this may be between 200BC and 200AD by a sage named Bhrigu. PRE MAURYAN PERIOD Indian history before the seventh century was not dated. The lack of written records and other material certainly breaks the continuity at several points yet the practices of the ancient and the Vedic periods exists till today as traditions. The first recorded date is considered as 326BC, the year of Alexander's invasion. The Mauryan period dates slightly later and historical traditions recorded in literature gives us some information of the kingdoms of Northern India in the seventh century BC. Vast territories in the northern part of India were covered by forest and inhabited by tribes. Civilized settlements existed in the plains of the Indus and the Ganga. Four important kingdoms of this period were the Magadha, the Avadh, the Vatsa and the Malwa. The other small kingdoms were Kasi, Matsya, Kuru and Panchala. Besides these kingdoms there were many non - monarchial clans. The most important was the Virji confederation of eight clans, of which the
Licchavis, who ruled from Vaisali as their capital was prominent. The others were Sakyas of Kapilavastu and the Mallas. These clans had no hereditary rules. An assembly was in charge of administration helped by a council and an elected chief. The four kingdoms maintained matrimonial relation, though fighting among themselves for supremacy was common. Magadha emerged as the strongest power with an able line of rulers. While Magadha was establishing their way over northern India, the regions of west, Punjab, Sind and Afganistan were divided into many states. Kamboja and Gandhara are two of the sixteen Mahajanapadas mentioned in the Buddhist scriptures. Magadha The history of the Magadha kingdom was unleashed in south Bihar in the 4th century BC and the drama commenced in the Saisungha dynasty by a chieftain named Sisunga in about 642BC. Bimbisara was the fifth king of this kingdom. He contributed extending his dominions by the conquest of Anga the modern Bhagalpur and Monghyr district. He is said to reigned for twenty eight years, according to the puranas. He is regarded as the person who laid the foundation of Magadhan greatness. His policy of diplomacy and war, and able administration made Magadha a great empire. THE MAURYAN EMPIRE (322BC to 188BC) The period of the Mauryan Empire marks a new epoch in the history of India. It is said to be a period when chronology becomes definite. It was a period when politics, art, trade and commerce elevated India to a glorious height. A period of unification of the territories which lay as fragmented kingdoms. Moreover, Indian contact with the outside world was established effectively rule during these period. The source of our knowledge about the Mauryan empire is based on
y y y y y y
Arthashastra of Kautiliya Sanskrit play Mudrarakshasa The Jatakas of the Buddhist The accounts of Megasthenes The Ceylonese Chronicles the Dipavamsa and The Mahavamsa The accounts of the Greeks
Arthashastra by Chanakya or Kautilya is treatise on statecraft. It gives us a picture of administration, society and the economy of the country. Mudrarakshasa is a sanskrit play by Visakadatta. It is said to be a political literature revealing the struggle unleashed by Chandragupta Maurya with the help of Chanakya to overthrow the Nandas. It is also an insight into Chandragupta life. The Jataka and Chronicles of Ceylon gives us an idea that period.
Indika written by Megasthenes gives an account of the Mauryan capital, administrative system and social life. The rock edicts of Ashoka also provides ideas about the Mauryan rule. Indica written by Megasthenes which exists as writings by later writers throw light on the people, and institutions of India under Chandragupta Maurya. His topographical account of the Mauryan capital Pataliputra when he visited it as an ambassador and description of the administrative system are reliable.
The Ceylonese Chronicles, the Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa gives the accounts of the conversion of Ceylon. They also have helped in reconstructing the history of Ashoka. Chanragupta Maurya The Mudrarakshasha describes Chandragupta as Mauryaput. Another account by Somadeva represents him as the son of the last Nanda monarch from his Sudra concubine Maurya by name from which was derived the name Maurya. The Mahavamsatika connects the Mauryans with Sakyas who belong to the solar race of Kshatriyas. According to the Jains tradition Chandragupta was the son of the daughter of the chief of a village of peacock -tamers (Mayur Posakh). The peacock figures that appear in the emblem of the Mauryas in the some punch marked coins and sculptures testify this. Others are of the view that he was a commoner and not a prince. Chandragupta was brought to the limelight of the Mauryan empire by Chanakya who had a grudge against Dhananda who insulted him in the court. The Nanda dynasty had lost all its capability owing to the extravagant life led by the rulers. The tyranny that was unleashed spread an air of discontent. The defeat of Punjab in the struggle with Alexander, set the conditions for having a change in the rule. According to Mudrarakshasha, Buddhist and puranic accounts Chandragupta defeated the Nanda army after invoking a revolution against the Nanda rulers in Patliaputra. He acceded to the throne in 321BC. His empire included Magadha and Punjab. The Junagarh rock inscription of Rudradaman proves the inclusion of the Saurastra in his empire. The Jain tradition also establishes Chandraguta 's connection with north Mysore. It also said to include the Hindukush in the west. The four satrapies also became parts of the Mauryan empire during Chandragupta Maurya. In course of 18 year Chandragupta consolidated his empire. After which he is said to have abdicated the throne and became disciple of the Jain Saint Bhadrabahu, and settled in Shravanabelagola (Mysore). After a reign of 24 years he died in about 297BC. Bindusara Bindusara, also called "Amitrachates" meaning slayer of enemies, by the Greeks, succeeded to the throne of the Mauryan empire after Chandragupta's abdication. He also had the opportunity of having the guidance of Chanakya who continued as minister. The period of his accession to the Mauryan throne witnessed a series of revolt by the people of Taxila. The first revolt was effected owing to the improper administration of prince Susima. To the inherited Mauryan territory of Bindusara he added parts of south.
KINGDOMS AFTER THE MAURYAN EMPIRE The Sungas After the Mauryan rule Pushyamitra, the founder of the Sunga dynasty established his rule. The Sungas ruled for over a hundred years. The extent of the Sunga kingdom under Pushyamitra extended from Punjab and extended to the southern regions of the Narmada. The Sunga dynasty had a line of ten rulers. The last of the Sunga king was Devabhuti The Sunga period though is less reflected as a great role in Indian history yet it significant in the matter of its administration, religion, art and literature. The Sungas administrated the kingdom with the help of a mantriparishad. This council existed in the centre and the provinces. The provinces were governed by viceroys. During the Sunga rule Brahmanism revived its vigour. The Bhagavata form of religion was prevalent. The Bharbat stupa and the ivory works in its exquisite manner proves the promotion of art. Patanjali's Mahabhashya is an example of the flourishing literature of the Sunga. The Kanvas The Kanva dynasty was a Brahman dynasty founded by Vasudeva Kanva, the minister if Devabhuti, the last Sunga king. This period is said to have witnessed the rule of four kings extending to a period about 45 years. The extent of Kanva territory was confined to the areas of Sunga rule. Susarman was the last ruler of the Kanva dynasty. The Kanvas were over thrown by the Satavahanas. Satavahanas The Satavahanas were also called Andhras. The Aitareya Brahmana claims the Andhras as, the exiled and degenerate sons of Viswamitra. Ashoka inscriptions mentions the Andhras as border people. They were Dravidian people who lived between the Godavari and the Krishna. Simuka was the founder of the Satavahana dynasty. He was succeeded by his brother Krishna. Scholars are of the opinion that the original home of the Andhras - Andhra bhrityas was the Bellary district. Others claim their records to be found in the Northern Deccan and central India. Satakarni was the successor after Simuka, and is a considerable figure, known for his performance of two aswamedha sacrifices. His reign was followed by the rule of Gautamiputra satakarni. He is said to have defeated the Yavanas, Sakas and Phalanas and re-established the ancient glory of the Satavahanas. Gautamiputra satkarni was succeeded by his son Vasisthiputra Sri Pulamavi in about 130 AD. He extended his rule towards the Andhra country. Yajna Sri Satakarni was the last great ruler of the Satavahanas. After him the weak successors resulted in the contraction of the territory of the Satavahanas. Hostility with the Saka rulers also led to the ultimate parceling of its territories and decleration of independence . The Satavahana society reflected the existence of four classes. The persons who controlled and administered the districts, followed by the officials. They were followed by the Vaidhya, cultivators. The fourth class were common citizen. The head of the family was the Grihapati.
Both Buddhism and Brahmanism was practiced during the Satavahana rule. A state of religions tolerance existed among of various sects of people following varied faiths. Trade flourished and there existed organisation of workers doing various trades. Broach, Sopara and Kalyan were important trade points. The Satavahana rulers patronised Prakrit which was the common language used on documents. The Satavahana empire is said to be partitioned into five provinces. The western territory of Nasik was possessed by the Abhiras. The Ikshavakus dominated over the eastern part in the Krishna -Guntur region. The Chutus possessed the southwestern parts extended their territory to the north and east. The south eastern parts were under the Pahalvas. The Hathigumpha inscription at Udayagiri near Cuttack speaks of a remarkable rule of a contemporary of the Sungas known as Kharavela of Kalinga. He ruled from about 176Bc to 164 BC. He is said to be the third ruler of the Cheta dynasty. In the first year of his rule he is said to be have furnished and improved his capital Kalinga. In the second year he subdued and destroyed the capital of the Mushikas disregarding the rule of Satakarni. In his eighth year he destroyed the fortification of Gordha and entered as far as Rajagriha in the Gaya district. He also conquered king Brihaspatimittra of the Magadha. He also built the Udayagiri and Khandagiri caves to provide shelter to the Jain monks. It can be concluded that he was as accomplished ruler and a generous guardian of the people. THE GUPTA PERIOD After the downfall of the Kushana empire in about the third century and at the beginning of the 4th century AD, many independent states emerged in North India. One of these states was of the Lichchahavis of Vaisali who dominated portions of North Bengal and South Bihar. This clan obtained possession of Pataliputra, the Capital of the Kushans. Sri Gupta was the first ruler of this dominion. After him his son Ghatokacha ruled with the title of Maharaja. In the fourth century a Lichchavi princess got married to a king in the Magadha who was called Chandragupta I. The reign of Chandragupta I is said to have come to an end in about 330AD. The importance of the rule Chandragupta I centres around the influence of Kumaradevi the Lichchavi princess, coins bearing the figures of the princess speaks of the extent of her influence. Chandragupta became the king of Pataliputra and established a kingdom along the Ganges. Samudragupta Chandragupta I was succeeded by Samudragupta is about 330AD. He reigned for about fifty years. Inscriptions on a pillar erected by Ashoka gives an
account of Samudragupta. After succeeding to the throne of the empire he subdued the powers revolting against his authority in the Gangetic plains and brought their dominions to his kingdoms. He is said to have commanded a military campaign across the Deccan, and also subdued the forest tribes of the Vindhya region. He performed the Ashvamedha sacrifice to establish and proclaim his supremacy. His kingdom also included Lower Bengal, upper Assam and Nepal. Tributes and homage was paid by the rulers and clans including the Malwas, the Yaudheyas, Arjunayansas, the Madras, the Abhiras in Punjab and Rajasthan and others in Madhya Pradesh. Samudragupta led an expedition to the south through the forest tracts of Madhya Pradesh to Orissa, Vishakapatnam, Godavari, Krishna and Nellore district. He is also said to have intruded into Kanchi the capital of the Pallavas. Samudragupta maintained diplomatic relations with the Kushana King of North west and the ruler of Ceylon. His friendly relation with Ceylon is proved by the fact that King Meghavarna of Ceylon sent an embassy to Samudragupta. With gifts, seeking permission to erect a splendid monastery near the holy tree at Bodh Gaya for the pilgrims from Ceylon. This structure constructed with the permission of Samudragupta was known as Mahabohi Sangharvama. Samudragupta's personal skill was exceptional especially in music and song. He was also well known for his poetry and had composed many work which had a reputation of a professional author. He was a devotee of Vishnu and thus can be called a Brahmanical Hindu. All these and his role as a monarch qualifies him to be called a hero of hundred battle by a court poet in the Allahabad inscriptions. Vincent Smith has elevated Samudragupta in Indian history as the Napoleon of India. His tradition of (Milito) religious toleration reflects in the Allahabad inscription and speaks thus " put to Shama the preceptor of the lord of the gods. Brahaspati by his sharp and polished intellect and Tamburu and Narad by lovely performance." Samudragupta had several sons. His rule is presumed to have been till about 375AD. Samudragupta was succeeded by his elder son Ramagupta who was said to have been murdered by Chandragupta II, who did so owing to his brother Ramaguptas uncouth act of surrendering his queen Dhruvadevi to the Saka ruler who subdued him. Thus Chandragupta ascended the throne of Patilaputra in about 375AD. On assuming the throne of the Gupta empire he took to the title of Vikramaditya. Chandragupta II was a conquerer like his father Samudragupta. His diplomatic tactics in giving his daughter in marriage to Rudrasena II. TheVakattaka king of Deccan helped greatly in securing the vital territory for himself which could prove advantageous in the event of an attack upon the saka satraps of the west from the north. Chandragupta Vikramaditya's miltary conquests includes the conquest of Malwa, Gujarat and Saurashtra which were under the Saka rule. He defeated Rudrasimha III the last of the western satrap ruler and annexed his territories. This provided exceptional wealth which added to the prosperity of the Guptas. The Guptas at his period had sea trade with the countries of the west. Broach, Sopara, Cambay were ports that facilitated trade. During this period, Ujjain appears to have been the inland centre upon which most of the trade routes converged. Chandragupta occupied the throne for nearly forty years. Pataliputra was a flourishing city. The Gupta administration at this period was mild. Under the Guptas the King assumed a divine
character. Chandragupta II was also identified with Vikramaditya of Ujjain. Raja Bikram of popular legend was also a patron of the nine gems including Kalidsa and Varahamihira. Kumaragupta I was successor of Chandragupta II known as Mahendraditya Kumargupta I, he ruled from 415 AD to 455 AD. He reigned for about 40 years. His empire extended from North Bengal to Kathiawar and from the Himalayas to the Narmada. To the south his kingdom extended as far as the Satara district of the Deccan. He also performed the Ashwameda sacrifice. Towards the end of his rule, the Pushyamitras who were people located near Mekala in the Nerbudda valley became powerful and wealthy. The Pushamitras brought about a temporary eclipse of the Gupta power.This attack on the Guptas were repulsed by Skandagupta who is considered as the last great Gupta ruler. After the succession of Skandagupta he had to subdue the Huns, Skandagupta assumed the title of Vikramaditya. During his campaign against the Huns Skandagupta had to meet great expenses which resulted in the reduction in the issue of gold coins. The Gupta period in Indian history is termed as the Golden Age of India. This period extends from 320 to 480 AD. It extends through the reigns of Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, Chandragupta II, Vikramaditya, Kumaragupta and Skandagupta.The Gupta dynasty continued its existence after the death of Skandagupta. He was succeeded by his son Narasimhagupta followed by Kumaragupta II. Kumaragupta II was followed by Budhagupta. His territory extended from Bengal to central India. The last Gupta ruler was Bhanugupta. During his reign the Hunas wrested Malwas from the Guptas. After his decline in 467Ad the succeeding rulers were weak and could not check the invasion of the Huns and other tribes. After the death of Bhanugupta in 570AD the Gupta empire declined and broke off. The Gupta period has been described as the golden age of Indian history. It extended from the period of 320AD to 480AD. During this period literature, art and science flourished. Religious toleration and freedom of worship speaks greatly of the Guptas. The great writings of Kalidasa which include Ritusamhara and Meghauta in Sanskrit literature at its highest quality. The Gupta period is also regarded as a period of Hindu renaissance. Ashoka had succeeded in making Buddhism as the religion as the majority people in Northern India. On doing this neither Brahmanical Hinduism of Jainism died out owing to Ashokas religious toleration propagated by Ashoka. After Ashoka all the rulers that followed showed religious toleration which only added to the prosperity of the territories they ruled. The Guptas though showed a preference to their family deity Vishnu pursued the policy of perfect freedom of worship. Music, architecture, sculpture and painting was at its best during the period of Gupta rule. The stoner temples of which one at Deogarh in Jhansi, a t Bhitergaon in the kanpur district are few specimens depicting gupta excellence in architecture and sculpture Another area of Gupta excellence was their metallurgical skill. Various copper statues images of Buddha reflects the craftsmanship of the gupta period. The pillar at Delhi made of iron in the time of Samudragupta is also another piece of excellence The Guptas also excellent in the filed of fine arts. All fields of fine arts received royal patronage. Another area of outmost importance during the Gupta reign is the exchange of intellectual ideas which is attributed to the royal patronage and contacts with foreign people of both east and west. Buddhism which was introduced in China from India fostered religious relations promoting constant communication. Chinese missionaries visited India to do reverence to the sacred spots of faith . These visits helped to the sacred spots of faith.
These visit helped the Chinese pilgrims knowledge of Sanskrit. Besides China contacts with various islands of South Asia, Indonesia, Persia, Greece and Rome also proves the sound Gupta rule and their diplomatic tactics to provide the best of administration. All these adds to the statement that defines the Gupta period as the Golden age of India. Contemporary with the rule of the Guptas their existed various other dynastic of which the Vakatakas of Bundelkhand of Berar was one. They were Brahmanas and they dominated the entire Bundelkhand country, Central provinces, Berars, Northern Deccan up to the sea. Vindyakasthi was its first ruler. His son was Paravasena who performed numerous sacrifices along with four Ashwamedha sacrifices. Gautamiputrra was his son., Paravasena's grandson Rudrasena I. After his defeat by the Samudragupta he vacated central India and moved to the Deccan. Rudradeva's first son Rudradeva II married the daughter of ChandraguptanII , Prabhadevigupta , thus the alliance of the two families proved advantageous against the Shakas of western India. After the Death of Prabhavati. RudrasenaII Prabhavati ruled on behalf of her minor son. Harisena Vakataka came to the throne in about fifth century AD. He was well known for his conquests from the Malwa to Andhra. In about the second quarter of the sixth century AD the Vakataka power was subdued by Kalachuris of the south. THE HUNS These were a race of fierce nomads who were heard of from about 165 BC when they defeated the Yuhchi tribe in north western China. After this the Huns moved towards the Oxus valley and was known as Ephthalites. One section of this group entered Europe and were known of their fierce and cruel attitudes. In about the second decade of the fifth century the Huns turned south, crossing Afghanistan and the north western passes entered India. Accompanied by the Gurjaras and other tribes they gradually occupied both Persia and Kabul. They attacked the western regions of the Gupta empire in about 458 AD but the able Skandagupta repulsed their attack. With the collapse of the Persian power and the capture of Kabul they intruded into India. Toramara was the leader of the Huns and he was successful in annexing large parts of the Gupta empire. Toramara was succeeded by his son Mihiragula in about 502 AD, Being a truant his rule was not favoured by the Huns. Yashodarma king of Malwa and Baladitya a Gupta king organised a national uprising against Mihiragula. Mihiragula fled to Kashmir, where he took advantage of hospitality offered to him and usurped the throne of his benefactor. But he could not live along to enjoy his victory. In about 540AD after the death of Mihirakulan the Hun empire broke up. Local Indian chiefs especially the Maukharis vanquished the Huns from their dominions. It is believed that in course of time the Huns were absorbed into the Rajputs. The Invasion of the Huns had brought some significant changes in the course of Indian history. Firstly it broke up the political unity of Northern India. Secondly There was an intermixture of the Huns, Rajputs thus resulting in the evolution of new classes. This awakened the Hinduistic rigidity of caste system to maintain their tradition and practices. After the decline of the imperial Guptas a group of
kings grew important to the north of the Ganges. They were called the Mukaris. The Mukari clan said to have existed from the period of the Mauryans. The Mukari chiefs held the Gaya districts of the Guptas, In about the sixth century they made Kanauj their capital. By the end of the century the conquered the large parts of Magadha from the Guptas. Insame Varma was one of the greatest king of Mukaris. Grahavarman was the last king and after his death the rule of the Maukhans was erased. This was owing to their constant opposition to the Huns. During the period when the Gupta was weak over Saurashtra. A new dynasty was founded by Senapati Bhattarka called Valabhi near Bhavnagar in about 5th century AD. He was succeeded by Dharasena I who is referred to as Senapatis. He was followed by DhruvasenaII during this period Vallabhi was a centre for Buddhist learning . Dhruvasenas second son Dharasena IV and assumed the title of Paramabhattaraka, Maharajadiraj, Paramesvara and Chakravartin. The last king of the dynasty was Siladitya VII. This dynasty lasted about 770 AD when the Arabs over threw it. Another important ruler of this period was Yasodharman of Malwa, the ruler of Mandosor. He is said to have defeated Mithiragula the king of the Huns. The imperial Guptas declined in the sixth century. The country spilt up into a number of independent kingdoms. Another line of kings with names ending in the names of Gupta rose in Magadha. After the Mukharis occupied Magadha they entered into a matrimonial alliance with the king of Thaneshwar. As circumstances changed the Muakharis were forced to take the protection of Harshas father Prabhakara -Vardhana of Thaneshwar. After the end of the Maukhari dyasty in the seventh century the power passed to the brother in-law of Grahavarman, Harsha. The conflicts between the independent kingdoms required a strong role. It was under Harshavardhana that India again witnessed unity and a good administration. HARSHAVARDHANA The rule of Harshavardhana from (606-647AD) being the only consolidated rule after the Guptas is described in details through various sources like
y y y y
The accounts of pilgrims Official Chinese documents Coins and inscriptions Writings by well known personalities of that period
The predecessors of Harshavardhana was from Thaneshwar. Harshavardhana was the younger son of Prabhakara Vardhana, Raja of Thaneshwar. Prabhakaravardhana died in 605 AD. Prabhakaravardhana's daughter Rajyasri was married to the king Maukhari King Grahavarman. Sasanka the king of Gauda, with the help of the king of Malwa defeated and killed Grahavarman of Kannauj and imprisoned Rajyasri. Rajyavardhan who then ruled Kannauj advanced against Sasanka to avenge his sisters fate. But he was killed by Sasanka. Thus the throne of Kannauj became vacant and Harshavardhana had to ascend the throne. Harshavardhana pursued a policy of conquest to consolidate his authority over north India. Punjab, Kannauj, parts of Bihar and Bengal formed a part of his kingdom as a result of his conquests. By 612 Harshavardhana consolidated his kingdom in northern India. The problems caused by the small independent
kingdoms who were engaged in conflicts among themselves was overcome after the subjection of these petty states extending from the east to west. In 620AD Harshavardhana invaded the Chalukya kingdom in the Deccan which was then ruled by Pulakesin II. But the Chalukya resistance proved tough for Harshavardhana and he was defeated. Thus his kingdom in the south was upto the limit of the Narmada. His alliance with king Bhaskaravarman the ruler of Kamrupa (Assam) also prove advantageous in establishing a strong rule. Harshavardhana is well known for his religious toleration, able administration and diplomatic relations. This gives him a position among the other monarchs of the later period whose role in the construction of the Indian history is significant . Harshavardhana maintained diplomatic relations with China and sent envoys who exchanged ideas of the Chinese rulers and developed their knowledge about each other. Harshavardhanan was a Hindu, but he maintained and impartial toleration towards the other religions, especially Buddhism which at that time was the religion of the common masses. Following the path set by Ashoka he bestowed and supported kindness towards animals along with honouring the Hindu gods, and showed respect to the Brahmanas. Inter religious assemblies organised at Kannauj and Prayag portrays the religious attitude of Harshavardhana. Besides favouring religious sentiments he also had a strong perception towards learning. To honour Huien Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim who was extraordinary with his ideas about Buddhist teaching and his romance of adventure to the holy land of Buddha, Harshavardhana organised the Kannauj Assembly in 643 AD. this was a grand assembly of many rajas including King Bhaskaravarman of Kamrupa (Assam) and the Vallabhi king Dhuvabhatti. The Assembly at Kannauj included a large congregation of Brahmans, Buddhist monks ands Jains, who were involved in religious discourses. The image of Buddha was installed and royal treasures were distributed. From Kannauj, Hieun Tsang the royal the royal guest was carried to Prayaga (Allahabad) on the banks of the Ganga, Yamuna and Saraswati. The ceremonies lasted for about two months during which tributes were offered to the Buddha. This assembly was the sixth held at Allahabad, others regularly performed by Harshavardhana though through the simple distribution of alms to the poor. Harshavardhana developed a strong favour towards Mahayana Buddhism after his relation with Hiuem Tsang. During the rule of Harsha, Kannauj flourished immensely outdoing the grandeurs of Patilaputra, situated on the Ganges. this ancient town was transformed into a well fortified city with well planned buildings beautiful gardens and tanks. numerous Buddhist monasteries and Brahmanical temples were erected. The inhabitants of the city were wealthy and lead a standard style of life. Harshavardhana's efficient administration was owing to his personal supervision of his extensive empire. Regular inspections through an organised civil service and a council of ministers. Penal code was severe with punishments extending to mutations and banishments. Land revenue was fixed at one sixth of the production from the land. Many of the provinces were governed by Rajas.
Harshavardhana's character can be said to be a fusion of the attributes of Samudragupta, in his military conquests and Ashoka in his religious toleration and statesmanship. He was also a scholar and a poet. He was also the last Hindu emperor of Northern India. Harshavardhana died in about 647 AD. After his death there was disorder in Northern India. During the period from the death of Harshavardhana to the conquest of the Muslims Indian history circles around numerous kingdoms in the north and south. The territories of Harsha was parceled among various rulers. Narasinghavarman, the Pallava King of Kanchi, became the sovereign power in the peninsula. King Bhaskravarman of Assam annexed the territories formerly under Harshavardhana. PERIOD FROM (647 A.D. TO 1200 A.D. ) The history of the Kingdom of Kannauj after the death of Harshavardhana can be said to have been uncertain till the year 730AD, when Yashovarman is said to have ruled till 752AD. This was followed by the Ayudha dynasty which comprised three kings. The first was Yajrayudha who is said to have (accee) ruled in about 770AD. He was defeated by Jayapida Vinayaditya of Kashmir who ruled from (779 to 810AD). The next ruler was Chakrayudha. The influence of the Rashtrakutas increased gradually in the north. Kannauj was annexed by a new class of rulers called the Prathiharas. The Pratiharas The Pratiharas were one of the thirty six clans of the Rajputs. They are said to have come to India during the invasion of the Huns and settled in the Punjab Rajputana region. They advanced to the Aravalli region and advanced till Ujjain. Harichandra, a brahmin is said to have laid the foundation of this dynasty in the 6th century AD near Jodhpur. The Pratiharas were said to be from the Agnikula family. Harichandra had two wives one of whom was a Brahmin and the other was a Kshatriyas. A branch of the Pratiharas who ruled in the (Jodhpur) Gurjaratra was known as Gurjara. Nagabhatta I was the first ruler of the Pratiharas who ruled from (730-756AD) over Broach and Jodhpur, and extended his dominion till Gwalior. He is also well known for repulsing the invasion of the Melcchas, Arabs of Sind to the east and checking their expansion. Nagabhatta I was succeeded by two weak successors. They were succeeded by Vatsraja from (775-800AD). He was an ambitious ruler who desired to dominate the whole of North India. His intention to control Kannauj brought him into conflict with the Pala ruler Dharampala. When he waged a war with the Rashtrakuta ruler Dhurva and was defeated. He died in 805AD. Vatsraja was succeeded by Nagabhatta II who ruled from (805-833AD) with his able military capability and administrator ship. The internal problems among the Rashtrakutas helped his victory over rulers of Andhra, Sindhu, Vidharba and Kalinga. He also attacked Kannauj and
occupied it. He also checked the Muslim advancement in the west and defeated the Matsayas in the north. He also defeated the Vatsas. The Pala ruler Dharmapala who's father was defeated by Nagabhatta's father sought revenge. Thus started an allied struggle against Dharmapala assisted by the ruler of Jodhpur, Kalhiwar and Mewar. Dharmapala was defeated and his territories up to Bihar were annexed. Nagabhatta had to fight Govinda III who was supported by the vanquished Dharmapala and in 809AD Nagabhatta was defeated. He then diverted his attention away from the Rashtrakuta authority. He was succeeded by an incapable successor Rambhadra. Rambhadra was succeeded by Mihirbhoj who ruled from 840 to 890AD. His period of rule was divided into two parts. In the first period of his reign he suffered losses and defeats. The second period marks a period of his regaining of his lost prestige and position. His expansionist policy in the east was checked by the ruler of Bengal Devapala. Mihirbhojs idea of taking advantage of the internal conflict of the Rashtrakutas in the south did not succeed . His defeat made him weak and some of his subordinates declared independence. After the death of Devapala , and because of the weak successors after him, Mihirbhoj established himself in the east. With no resistance from the Rashtrakuta ruler he defeated the Pala King Narayanapala and expanded his territory to the west. After defeating the Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna II he expanded towards Malwa and Kathiawar. KrishnaII avenged his defeat against Mihirbhoj near Ujjain. He thus carved out a large empire for himself with many rulers accepting his supremacy.He was succeeded by his son Mahendrapala I who ruled from (885AD to 910AD). Mahendrapala I successfully maintained the territories he inherited besides adding to it parts of North Bengal, Magadha, and western Assam. Mahendrapala was succeeded by Bhoja II he was overthrown by Mahipala, who ruled from 912 to 914. This was the period when the Rashtrakuta power was on the rise. The weak position of Mahipala was taken as an opportunity by the Chandelas, the Chedis and the Paramaras who declared themselves independent. After the attack by Indra II of the Rashtrakuta Kingdom, the Kingdom of the Pratiharas were divided into various principalities. Gujarat was under the Chalukyas, Gwalior was under the Kachhaghals, the Kalachuris ruler over central India. The Chandelas ruled over Jajakabhukti and the Paramaras ruled over Malwa. The process of the disintegration of the Pratihara empire continued , by the 10th Century AD the empire shrunk into a small kingdom. In 1018AD when Mahmud Ghaznavi invaded Kannauj the ruler Rajapala decided not to face him but fled the city. This caused resentment in the Chandela ruler Gauda, who sent his son Vidydhar to invade Kannauj. He defeated and killed Rajyapala but placed Trilochanpala Rajyapala's son on the throne. The last ruler of the dynasty was Jasapala who ruled up to 1036 AD before Pratihara dynasty came to an end. Contemporary to the Pratiharas were the Palas and Senas of Bengal. The Palas Before the coming of the Palas to power in Bengal, and after the death of Sasanka Bengal reflected a picture of disorder. The pala dynasty was founded by Gopala in about 750AD. His ruler lasted for about 25 years. The dynasty remained in power for about 300 years Gopala was
succeeded by Dharma Pala in 775 and ruled till 810AD. He had inherited a consolidated kingdom, but to keep his supremacy he had to fight both the Pratiharas and the Rashtrakutas. Both these powers managed to suppress Dharmapala ,but owing to differences among them Dharmapala took advantage of this. In a war with Nagabhatta II, Dharamapala was defeated. Dharmapala was a good administrator had contributed to change Bengal into a prestigious and prosperous empire. Devpala succeeded Dharamapala and ruled for about 40 years. After ascending the throne he fought against the Pratiharas and spread his kingdom upto the Himalayan region in the north the Vindhyas in the south. The Pratiharas and Rastrakutas failed to check the advancement of Devapala. He was known for his diplomatic skill which he pursued to maintain his over lordship in areas which could not be conquered. The role of Bengal in the North Indian politics was very significant during this period. Devapala was succeeded by Mahipala I. He ruled form 988 to 1033 AD. He is said to be the founder of the second Pala kingdom. The immediate successors of Devapala were weak and incompetent. Thus for a period of forty years there was chaos in Bengal. Mahipala I had to rebuilt their empire. Even their homeland Bengal had to be recovered. The Palas were in power for about 400 years. During this period their rulers proved their capable administration, military skill, and capacity to protect North India from the onslaught of the Pratiharas and Rastrakutas. The rulers also had shone religious toleration towards Buddhist art, literature and learning. Bengali art, literature and paintings flourished under the royal patronage of the rulers of the Pala dynasty. MEDIEVAL Delhi Sultanate This section covers 1) The Muslim period of Indian history beginning with the Turkish conquests under Mahmud of Ghazni and Muhammad Ghori. 2) The Slave dynasty established under Qutub-ud-din Aibek and Iltumish. 3) Khilji dynasty established by Allauddin Khilji. 4) The Tughluq dynasty which gained ground under Muhammed - bin- Tughluq and Feroz Shah. 5) Saiyyids and the Lodhi's established themselves in northern India before the Mughals. 6) Bahmani Dynasty 7) Other Dynasties including Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar, Adil Shahi Dynasty of Bijapur, Qutab Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda.
Mughal 1) Rise of Mughal power under Babur and the Sur Dynasty of Sher Shah. 2) The golden age of Mughal empire under Akbar and reign of his successors. 3) The independent kingdoms of the Sayyids, the Avadh, the Rajput and Jat, the Sikhs, the Marathas, Hyderabad, Carnatic and Mysore. These kingdoms dominated over various regions before the advent of the Europeans. Kingdoms of South 1) The history of South India which represented a separate entity till the medieval period with -the Kalchuris of Chedi, the Chalukyas, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Yadhavas of Devgiri, the Hoyasalas of Dwarasamudra, the Pallavas, the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras. 2) Vijayanagar Kingdom Europeans in India The Portuguese and the Dutch The English East India Company The French East India Company. Battle of Plassey and Buxar 5. THE MUSLIM PERIOD IN INDIAN HISTORY 6. The Turkish Conquest The Muslim conquest of India from 1175 to 1340 AD. The causes for their conquest though various, the major reason was the spread of Islam. The Muslim dominated Kabul, the Punjab, and Sindh, before intruding in to India. The first attempt to enter the Indian territory was determined by the circumstances leading to the invasion of Sindh. The wealth in India lured the Muslim rulers. Further the inter-rivalry between the kingdoms in India paved the way for their entry in to India. The immediate cause of Muslim intervention is said to be plundering of some ships which carried costly gifts from the king of Ceylon for the Khalifa, near the port of Debal by sea pirates. The Hindu ruler of the Sindh, Raja Dahir was asked to compensate for this by the Governor of Iraq. The refusal to comply with this demand for the reason that the port was not under his control infuriated the Governor who sent two expeditions to defeat the Raja . But both the attempts to defeat the Raja failed. This further infuriated the governor who sent his sonin law Muhammad-bin-Qasim in 711AD with a large army to conquer Sindh. In 712 AD Raja Dahir was defeated and put to death. Sindh, Multan and Kannauj were conquered. 7. The next invasion by the Turks who opposed the authority of the Khalifas was by Alaptagin. He had established himself in Khorasan and extended upto Kabul and Ghazni. He was succeeded by one of his slave Sabuktagin. In 986 AD he came into conflict with Raja Jaipal of Bathinda. In 991 AD Raja Jaipal allied with other Hindu king including Rajyapala the Prathira king of Kannauj and Dhanga the ruler of the distant Chandela 1. 2. 3. 4.
kingdom to avenge his defeat. The allies were defeated , Peshwar and Kurram valley came under Muslim influence. 8. Mahmud of Ghazni The elder son of Sabuktagin, Mahmud of Ghazni assumed the throne in 997 AD. He was very conscious of the wealth he could achieve from further conquests into India. He was also a religious fanatic who aimed to spread Islam. At the eve of Mahmud's invasion there existed no strong power to confront his military might. There existed numerous kingdoms who were involved in quarrelling and fighting with each other. Mahmud is said to have invaded India seventeen times. His first raid dates to 1001 AD. In course of his second expedition he defeated Jaipal. In 1004 AD he invaded and captured Bhera. In 1006 AD he captured Multan. In 1008 AD he invaded again and captured Multan. Anandapal, the son of Jaipal continued the struggle against Mahmud . Having allied with the ruler of Ujjain, Gwalior, Kannauj, Delhi and Ajmer he posed a serious threat to Mahmud's army. But unfortunately Anandapal had to ceed to the Muslim army. 9. In 1009AD Mahmud attacked the fortress of Kangra or Bhimnagar and accumulated vast treasures. In 1013AD Mahmud reduced the honour of the Hindushahi Kingdom by their defeat. In the year 1014AD Mahmud invaded Thaneshwar and acquired more wealth from the temples. In 1018 Mahmud led an expedition against Kannauj and succeeded its ruler's willingness to convert to Islam. Mathura was also invaded and its magnificient temple was burnt. In 1021-22 AD Mahmud invaded Gwalior, Kashmir and Lahore. The ruler of Kalinjar and Gwalior combined and invaded Kannauj and killed its ruler Rajayapala. In the conflict that resulted Mahmud looted the wealth of Kalinjar and went back to Ghazni. 10. In 1025AD Mahmud invaded Somnath and looted its temple on the coast of Saurashtra or Kathiwar. Enormous treasure of the fortified temple was looted. In 1026AD he invaded Punjab. His last invasion was in about 1027 AD. He died in 1030AD. 11. The invasion of Mahmud opened the way for the future Muslim adventures in India. The repeated success of Mahmud was an eye opener for the Muslim thirst for consolidating themselves politically, economically and to promote their religious outlook. The status of Ghazni grew to a big empire. The next important Muslim ruler who had made hisi nfluence in Indian history known was Muhammad Ghori. Muhammad Ghori is said to have invaded India seven times. The Ghurs who originally belonged to Persia. After the downfall of the rule of Ghazni in the 12th century. The credit for the destruction of Ghazni goes to Alauddin. Ghiyas-ud-din of Ghur wrested Ghazni from the Turks and gave the power of consolidating the empire to his brother Sahabuddin. He was known as Mohammad Ghori. 12. Mohammad Ghori Mohammad Ghori invaded Multan in about 1175-76AD. In 1178 he attempted the conquest of Gujarat. He was strongly resisted by Bhimdev II who inflicted a crushing defeat on him in 1178 AD.In 1179 he conquered Peshwar and annexed Lahore. In 1186 AD Mohammad Ghori deposed Khusru Malik, the last prince in the generation of Sabuktgin and Mahmud and after occupying Punjab kept himself in a strong position in the Indus region. 13. In 1191AD Mohammad Ghori met Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain. Here unlike the separate independent forces which Mohammad met in his previous campaigns. He had to face combined armies of Prithviraj, the Chauhan ruler of Ajmer and Delhi.
Mohammad Ghori was severely wounded and outnumbered. He was defeated and left the battle-field. 14. In the very next year in 1192 AD both the armies met again at Tarain. This time Mohammad cleverly out did Prithvi Raj Chauhan. The gateway to Delhi was opened. 15. In 1194 AD Mohammad Ghori invaded and defeated the ruler of Kannauj. He occupied Benares. Mohammad Ghori had left Qutab-ud-din Aibek who was a slave from Turkistan in charge of the Indian affairs. In 1193 Qutab-ud-din Aibek occupied Delhi and he joined Mohammad Ghori's invasion on Kannauj whose ruler Jaichand was defeated and killed. Gwallior and Anhilwara the capital of Gujarat besides Ajmer was also occupied by 1197 AD. Qutab-ud-din's general Muhammad Khilji successfully plundered and conquered the fort of Bihar in 1193 AD. In about 1199-1202AD Muhammad Khilji brought Lakshmana Sena the ruler of Bengal under his authority. In 1203 Qutab-ud-din Aibek conquered Bundelkhand. Mohammad Ghori died in 1206AD. 16. THE SLAVE DYNASTY 17. Qutab-ud-din Aibek Qutab-ud-din Aibek established himself as the sultan of Delhi at Lahore. He strengthened his position through matrimonial alliances with his rivals. He gave his daughter to Iltumish the foremost of his slaves. Qutab-ud-din died in 1210AD. He had laid the foundation of a new dynasty called the Slave dynasty in 1206AD. 18. Iltumish After Qutab-ud-din his son Aram Shah succedded to his throne. He was not able to display the skill of conquests and administration shone by his forerunners. This had demanded Iltumish to take charge of the situation as desired by the nobles too. A battle followed in which Aram Shah was defeated and killed. In 1211 AD Iltumish came to the throne. He was also known as Shams-ud-din. He spent his days in retriving the lost territories of Qutab-ud-din, and also added Malwa and Sind. During the reign of Iltumish he fought against the rival slave chiefs Yildiz and Qabacha. His attempts to appease Yildiz diplomatically to accept his authority gave time to prepare himself. At the battlefield of Tarain both of them met and Yildiz was defeated. 19. Another important problem faced by Iltumish was the Mongols led by Chingiz Khan. In his diplomatic decision he avoided a conflict with the might Mongol by preventing Jaladud-din the ruler of Khawarism from coming to India. Iltumish defeated his rival slave chieftain Qabacha and captured both Multan and Sindh. After this he made Ghias ud-din ceed to the supremacy of Iltumish. Later, he defeated Ghias-ud-din who revolted ,and conquered his territories of Bengal and Bihar. Another major threat to the power of Iltumish was the independent Rajput rulers who inspite of their rivalry could pose a serious danger to the Sultanate. On 1226 AD he attacked Ranthambor and Mansor. He also occupied Ajmer, Jalor, Nagor. In 1229 Gwalior was was occupied and the fort of Kalinjar was plundered. Kannauj, Banaras and Badaun were under his dominion. In the year 1229 AD the Caliph of Bagdad recognised him as Sultan. This bestowed upon him the power to nominate his successors. 20. Iltumish was also a patron of art and learning. His completion of the Qutab Minar proves him to be a man of good architectural skills and tastes besides striving adequately for promoting his religion. Iltumish was succeeded by his son Rukn-ud-din Feroze who came to the throne as desired by the nobles even though Iltumish had nominated his daughter Razia to the throne. Rukn-ud-din did not prove to be a competent ruler and he left his
duty of administration to his mother Shah Turkan. The unpopular rule that followed led to revolts by several governors of various provinces. Finally Rukn-ud-din and his mother Shah Turkan were murdered and the throne was succeeded by Razia Begum who ruled from 1236 AD to1240 AD. She had accomplished the major task of subduing the revolting governors and the bringing the territories under her control. She married Altunia the governor of Bhatinda. In 1240 AD the Turkish nobles deposed her and declared. Bahram Shah as their ruler, and both Razia and Altunia was killed. Bahram Shah was a mere puppet in the hands of the nobles. He was succeeded by Masud Shah ,a nephew of Razia Begum. Owing to his inability the nobles displaced him with Nasir-uddin Mahmud the youngest son of Iltumish. He was in power for twenty five years. The affairs of the state was left to his father-in-law and minister Ulugh Khan Balban. After the death of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud in 1226 AD the power was taken over by Balban. 21. As a minister during the time of Nasir-ud-din Mahmud Balban had accomplished himself as an able administrator. His ideas of diplomacy and suppression of revolts with an iron hand helped him in establishing a strong rule in the history of the slave dynasty. As a minister he put down the revolting rajputs, the khokars, and the rulers of the Doab region. Ramthambhor, Gwalior, Chanderi and Malwa came under his rule. He was able to quell the power of Mewatis in 1259 AD.He firmly resolved the rivalry among the 'Fourty slaves' whose decision was the final word of the dynasty. They plotted against Balban with the help of the Sultan. But this resulted in Chaos which forced the Sultan to call back Balban. To ensure the kingdom's safety against the invading Mongols he built forts on the borders and stationed a strong army. In 1258 AD and 1259 AD Balban led campaigns against the Rajputs of the Doab and Meos of Delhi. During his early days of rule of Balban, he pursued the suppression of the Meos. He brought order in Rohilkhand. He suppressed the revolt of Tughril Khan, the governor of Bengal. Balban died in 1287 AD. His achievements besides the consolidation of the slave kingdom include his contribution to increase the power and importance of the ruler. He had brought various code of conduct in his court that involved even the manner of dressing and addressing. He reorganised his army with equipments and stationed them in forts at vulnerable places of foreign intrusion. He paid them well in cash besides appointing governors to supervise the activities of the army. 22. His administration was strongly based on his military power. Enforcement of decision and disposition of justice with a competent spy system kept him informed of the activities of every one in his kingdom. He maintained a strict attitude towards the Hindus and kept them under strong suppression with the help of his military power. He was undoubtedly the greatest of the military rulers of the Slave dynasty. He was to be succeeded by Kai Khasrau, but a diplomatic gamble brought Qaigabad the son of Bulhara Khan the governor of Bengal to the throne. He was a grandson of Balban. Aged eighteen. Qaigabad turned a blind eye to the affairs of the state. He was disposed off by the nobles bringing his three year old son to the throne. 23. Another series of uprisings and revolts started amongst the nobles, many of them declaring independence thus unleasing a state of confusion. This was the period when Jalaluddin Khilji of the Khilji tribe who was placed on the throne by the nobles brought a new rule to follow under the name of the Khilji dynasty. The rule of this dynasty started in 1290 AD and continued till 1340 AD. 24. THE KHILJI DYNASTY
25. Alauddin Khilji After coming to the throne of the Khilji dynasty Jalal-ud-din expanded the boundaries of his empire. Besides this his achievements include suppression of the revolt of Malik Chhaju with the governor of Qudh. He suppressed the 'Thuggees' a band of robbers and send them off peacefully to Bengal. It was during the conquest of Bhilsa that Ala-ud-din the nephew of Jalal-ud-din started realising the dream of being Sultan. In 1292 AD Alauddin led an expedition to Devagiri hearing of its wealth. Devagiri was forced to pay a huge war indemnity. This helped Alauddin in buying the nobles and pleasing the soldiers who were disatisfied by the rule of Jala-ud-din. Alauddin then hatched a conspiracy and got Sultan Jala-lud din killed and proclaimed himself as the Sultan. In the year 1296 AD Alauddin became the Sultan, after Malika Jan the widow of Jalal-ud-din and her younger son Qadin Khan left Delhi. In 1297 AD Alauddin Khilji set off for conquering Gujarat. The Raja of Gujarat took shelter in Devagiri where Nusrat Khan an Ulugh Khan pursued them and looted. Here Nusrat Khan purchased a Hindu slave called Malik Kafur who in due course helped Alauddin Khilji in his future conquests. In 1301 Ramthambhor was captured and the Rajput Hamir Deva was murdered. In 1303 he conquered Chittor killing Rana Rattan Singh. His queen Rani Padmini with the other women committed Jauhar. 26. In 1305 Alauddin Khilji captured Malwa and annexed Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi. Allauddin Khilji's expedition to Bengal was not successful and it remained independent. 27. In 1308, Allauddin led an expedition to capture a fort in Sivana, Rajasthan. In 1311AD Allauddin set off on the Jalor expedition. Thus he almost completed his conquests of North. Allauddin now set out to conquer the south lured by the wealth of Devagiri.Being the first to have thought of venturing to the south this region could be a source of revenue for him. In this adventure of his, Malik Kafur his slave who in course of time turned to be an able commander contributed greatly.Allauddin had already invaded Devagiri in the year 1294 AD and had reconciled for the condition that a tribute would be paid. Malik Kafur led the operation . A huge war indemnity was paid and a tribute offered. In 1310 AD Malik Kafur was sent to invade the Hoyasala kingdom of Dwarasamudra. The ruler conceded to his demands and further assisted Malik Kafur in his quest against the Pandya kingdom.In 1311AD Malik Kafur went on an expedition to the Pandya kingdom which had its capital at Madurai. Malik Kafur came out successful. In 1313 AD Allauddin set out on Devagiri and annexed it to Delhi. During the rule of Allauddin Khilji, the Mongols invaded the country several times. The first invasion came during the period of 1297 AD. The forces of Sultan successfully repulsed this invasion . 28. In 1298 AD Saldi's invasion was neutralized by Zafar Khan thus increasing his prestige. In 1299 AD Qutlugh Khwaja invaded India for the third time. A fierce battle was the result involving Zafar Khan, Nusrat Khan and Alagh Khan. The Mongols were routed but it cost the life of Zafar Khan. In the year 1303 AD under the leader ship of Targhi another mongol invasion was carried out. From this invasion Allauddin Khilji learnt the lessons
of keeping himself prepared, not only with a strong army but by fortifying and organizing his armed forces. In 1305 AD the Mongols led by Ali Beg and Tartaq invaded India but were brutally defeated. The last of the mongol invasion was the under the leadership of Kubak and Iqbamand. Even this invasion was successfully met by Allauddin Khilji. 29. In his later days Allauddin had to face many troubles. Malik Kafur influenced all his actions. He met with his death in the year 1316 AD. An infant son of the Sultan was placed on the throne and he acted as the regent. Malik Kafur imprisoned, blinded and killed other members of the royal family. But Malik Kafur was murdered, and Mubarak Khan the third son of Alauddin Khilji became the regent. He then imprisoned Sahib uddin and ascended the throne as Qutb-ud-din Mubarak in the year 1316 AD. The rule of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak was an utter failure owing to his liberal administration and luxurious life style. Above all he was under the influence of youth called Hassan who later was called Khusru Khan. The misdoings of Qutb-ud-din Mubarak led to his death at the hands of Khusru Khan. The death of Mubarak sealed the fate of the Khilji dynasty. Khusru who came to the throne after Qutbuddin Mubarak was not favoured by the Turkish nobles. He was killed by a Qaraunak Turk noble, Ghazi Malik Tughluq. This paved the way for the foundation of a new dynasty called the Tughluq dynasty. 30. THE TUGHLUQ DYNASTY 31. Muhammad-bin Tughluq Ghiyas-ud-din Tughluq also known as Tughluq Shah was appointed as the governor of Dipalpor in Punjab by Allauddin Khilji. The rule of Ghiyjas-uddin Tughluq includes the suppression of the revolt at Warangal. Pratap Rudradeva of Warangal had accepted overlordship of Allauddin Khilji and agreed to pay tribute annually. After the death of Allauddin Khilji he neglected this. Ghiyas-ud-din sent his son Juna Khan to conquer Warrangal. In 1323 AD Rudra Pratap Deva was defeated. Warangal was renamed as Sultanpur and annexed to Delhi. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq came to the throne in 1325 AD. The rule of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq includes various reforms. The first of these reforms included his attempt to consolidate his empire by curbing the rebellions of 1327 AD by his cousin Baha-ud-din Garsharp in the Deccan and the other of Kishulu Khan, the governor of Multan and Sind in 1328AD. 32. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq's experiments with his ideas of administration are noteworthy. The transfer of his capital from Delhi to Daulatbad earlier known as Devagiri. This transfer of capital involved the shifting of the army, officials, servants, tradesman, court and shift of population. This was a torture of the people who suffered greatly. The introduction of token currency brought discredit to his rule. The rampant circulation of copper coin and withdrawal of silver and gold coins brought down the value of currency. Copper coins lost its value. To overcome this the Sultan ordered exchange of silver coins for copper coins. Thus people got silver coins in abundance and copper coins were in heaps. The taxation in Doab which resulted out of the conditions of an empty treasury
and the scheme which was implemented in a wayward manner made it a failure. The conquest of Khorasan which required a strong army and later disbanding it was an act of instability. 33. Muhammad bin Tughluq's engagements with his domestic affairs made him turn a blind eye to the Mongols who made use of his opportunity and invaded India in 1328 AD. The shifting of the capital from Delhi to Devagiri also proved advantageous to the Mongols, as they prepared for more conquests. The Sultan's ambitions plan of invading Himachal and the devastationof his army owing to inhospitable climatewas another blunder by Mohammed-bin -Tughluq. An attempt to capture Malabar in 1335 AD failed owing to the spread of Cholera in the army. In1338 Fakhruddin Mubarak of Bengal declared himself independent. In 1340 the Governor of Gujarat declared himself independent. The Sultan faced problems from the Afghans led by Hasan Gangu . In 1350 AD the province of Gujarat revolted and under Taghi. Pursuing the enemy to inflict punishment, unfortunated Mohammed bin-Tughluq died out of illness. He was succeeded by his cousin Feroz Tughlug who was delivered of a Rajput mother. 34. Feroze Tughlaq Feroze Tughlaq became the Sultan in the year 1351 AD. Though the throne was a long dream of many. Feroz Tughlak did not contribute much to expand the territories of the empire which he inherited. His military weakness resulted in the loss of his territories. He failed in his attempt to regain Bengal. In 1360 he invaded Jajnagar to destroy the Jagan nath Puri temple. In 1326 AD he met with success in his expedition to Sindh, before this he had led an invasion Nagarkot with an idea to destroy the Jwalamukhi temples. The Sultan was not tolerant towards people with different religion. He reintroduced the Jagirdari system which was abolished by Alauddin Khilji's. All these measures brought a good result in the financial status of the empire. Feroz Tughluq also introduced reforms in the field of irrigation. He constructed dams, tanks and well and besides these also constructed buildings with architectural skill. This shows his awareness about public utility. Feroze Tughluq also patronized learning. He reformed the currency system. All these proves that he was the cast of the capable Tughluqs. After him the dynasty began to disintegrate. He was immediately succeeded by Ghias- uddin Tughlaq-II who ruled from 1388-1389 AD. He was murdered in 1389 AD and was succeeded by Abu Baker. In a struggle that followed between him and one of the sons of Feroze Tughlaq Abu Baker was defeated. The younger son of Feroze Tughluq. Nasir ud-din Muhammad ruled from 1390-1394 AD. He died in 1394 AD and was succeeded by Humayun. After his death in 1395 the Tughluq dynasty saw the last Tughluq ruler Mahmud Nasir-uddin. He ruled from 1395-1413 AD. The invasion of Timur sealed the fate of the Tughluq dynasty. 35. After the Tughluk dynasty Indian history witnessed the rule of the Saiyyids and the Lodis. The foundation of these two kingdoms was on the rubbles of the Tughluq's which was grazed to the ground as a result of Timur's invasion. Timur was a Barlas Turk. Born in 1336 AD he grew up with a military skill that made him a military genius. He attained the throne of Samargand in 1369 AD. With a zeal of conquering distant lands he set out and conquered several central Asian territories before turning towards India. With an ambition to possess a large territory, besides acquiring enough wealth and with an awareness about the disintegrating Delhi Sultanate he invaded beyond the Indus with a powerful army. Timur's grandson Pir Muhammad had conquered Multan, Ulch, Pakpatan and Dipal-pur. Both proceeded towards Delhi and defeated Sultan Muhammad Shah. He
then conquered Meerut and Haridwar. Besides conquering these territories he looted the wealth of the temples. He nominated Khizr Khan as his governor in India. Thus the political stability of the country was disrupted and the condition that prevailed then ultimately resulted in the downfall of the Tughlaqs. The Slave Dynasty | Khilji Dynasty | Tughlaq Dynasty | Bahmani Dynasty | Other Dynasties | Delhi Sultanate 36. The Saiyyid dynasty Then came the Saiyyid dynasty founded by Khizr Khan. The Sayyids ruled from about 1414 AD to 1450 AD. At a time when the provinces were declaring themselves independent the first task of Khizr Khan was the suppression of the revolts. In 1412 AD he conquered Gujarat, Gwalior and Jaunpur. In 1416 he defeated Bayana and in 1421AD he attacked Mewat. Due to illness he died in the year 1421 AD. He was succeeded by Mubarak Shah who succeeded in suppressing the revolts against him In a conspiracy against him he was killed by him opponents in 1434 AD. After him Muhammad-binFarid came to the throne. During his reign there was confusion and revolts. The empire came to an end in 1451 AD with his death. 37. The Lodhi dynasty Behlol Lodhi who was in service during Khizr Khan founded the Lodhi dynasty. Behlol Lodhi was an Afghan of the Lodi tribe. He became the governor of Punjab and was proclaimed the Sultan in 1451AD. After coming to the throne he quelled the rebelling nobles and Jagirdars. He gave jagirs to the Afghan nobles to win their cooperation, and brought Mewar, Sambal and Gwalior under his rule. 38. Behlol Lodhi nominated his son Nizam Khan as his successor. But the nobles placed Barbak Shah on the throne. In the struggle that ensured Nizam Khan was successful and ascended the throne as Sikandar Lodi. He proved to be a capable ruler who brought back the lost prestige of the Sultan. He maintained friendly relations with the neighbouring states. Sikandar Lodi settled his differences with his uncle Alam Khan who conspired against him. He also defeated Barbak Shah who in co-operation with Hussain Shah of Jaunpur fought against him. Barbak Shah was appointed the governor of Jaunpur. He brought Gwalior and Bihar under his rule. Though he was a religious fanatic yet he brought changes in some of the practices of the Muslims. He encouraged education and trade. His military skill helped him in bringing the Afghan nobles under his control. 39. Sikandar Lodi was succeeded by Ibrahim Lodi who is said to have been the last great ruler of the Lodi dynasty. He came to the throne in 1517 AD. The nobles brought his younger brother Jalal Khan as the ruler of Jaunpur. The nobles who wanted division of the empire into two created problems of Ibrahim Lodi. He defeated Jalal Khan in a battle. He conquered Gwalior, and came into conflict with Rana Sanga the ruler of Mewar who defeated him twice. His relations with the Afghan nobles became worse and this led to several conflicts with him. The discontented Afghan chiefs sent Daulal Khan Lodi to invite Babur the ruler of Kabul to India. After many incursions in the year 1525 and1526 Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the battle of Panipat. With this defeat the Delhi Sultanate was laid to rest. 40. The History of India added a new outlook with the coming of Babur. This was the beginning of a rule that is recorded as the medieval history of India. 41. THE BAHMANI DYNASTY OF THE DECCAN
42. Between the period 1343 AD and 1351 AD, during the region of Muhammad-binTughluq a series of revolts resulted in the vast empire being divided into numerous independent provinces. 43. An Afghan or Turkish officer of the Delhi Sultan named Hassan assumed the title of Bahman Shah and after occupation of Daulatbad in the Deccan proclaimed independence. He was also known as Alauddin I, the founder of the Bahmani dynasty. 44. His capital was at Gulbarga which was also called as Hassanabad after the Sultan's name Hassan. He conquered large part of the Deccan. By 1358 AD his empire included areas near the west coast , the ports of Goa and Dabhal. Alauddin I was succeeded by Muhammad Shah I. He waged wars against the Hindu rulers of Vijayanagar and Warangal. With his policy of subjuction he subdued countless number of rival Hindu rulers, and accumulated vast treasures. He administered the provinces by yearly tours and was advised by a group of eight ministers. Thus he set a pattern of administration for the Bahmani kingdom. 45. He was succeeded by Alauddin Mujahid who ruled for 3 years before,being murdered by his cousin brother Duad, which resulted in a civil war. Ahmad Shah ascended the throne in 1422 after deposing Firoz who was the eighth Sultan who ruled from 1397 AD to 1422 AD. He attacked Vijayanagar and resorted to brutal subjection of his opponents who resisted his attacks. Peace was concluded with Vijayanagar. Ahmad Shah also fought against the Sultan of Malwa and Gujarat and the Hindu chiefs of the Konkan. It was during his reign that the capital of the Bahamani kingdom was shifted to Bidar, also called Ahmedabad. Ahmad Shah was succeeded by his eldest son Alauddin II who ruled from (1435-57 AD). He was succeeded by Humayun who ruled from (1451-1461 AD). He pursued a cruel policy of subjuction and brutal punishments till he was succeeded by Muhammad Shah III ,who ruled from (1463-1482 AD) assisted by his able minister Khwaja Mahmud Gawan. A series of conquest followed which involved capture of the strong fortress of Belgaum in 1473 AD and recovery of Goa in 1472 AD from the rulers of the Vijayanagar empire. It was during his rule that the famine of Bijapur befell over the Deccan in 1473 AD. Kanchipuram was raided in the course of the campaign against Vijayanagar in 1481 AD. In 1482 AD Khwaja Mahmud Gawan was murdered and Mahmud Shah succeeded to the throne in 1482 AD and ruled till 1518 AD. During his reign the provincial governors declared their independence and set up five separate kingdoms. 46. The Imad Shahi Dynasty of Berar This consisted of the northern part of the Bahamani Kingdom. The Shahi Dynasty of Berar lasted for four generations till 1574 AD. 47. The Barid Shahi Dynasty of Bidar The Barid Shahi dynasty was governed by the Barid Shahi Sultans. It was established in 1492 AD by Qasim Barid the minister of Mahmud Shah Bahamani. This dynasty lasted till 1619 AD when it was annexed by Bijapur. The Slave Dynasty | Khilji Dynasty | Tughlaq Dynasty | Saiyyid and Lodhi | Bahmani Dynasty | Delhi Sultanate 48. The Nizam Shahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar The Nizam Shahi dynasty was founded by Nizam-ul-Mulk Bahri. In 1490 AD his son Malik Ahmad defeated the army of Mahmud Bahmani and established himself independent. He assumed the title of Ahmad Nizam Shah and after him the dynasty was
named Nizam Shahi dynasty. The next ruler was Burhan Nizam Shah was the next ruler who ruled for forty five years. He was succeeded by Hussain Shah. The state was later annexed in 1637 during the reign of ShahJahan. 49. The Adil Shahi ynasty of Bijapur The Adil Shahi was founded by Yusuf Adil Khan, the governor of Bijapur who declared his independence in 1489. Yusuf Adil Shah waged war against Vijayanagar and other Muslim neighbours. It was duringhis rule that Yusuf Adil Shah's favourite residence, of Goa was captured by the Portuguese commander. Alberquerque in 1510 AD. Ismail Shah succeeded Adil shah but being a minor he was helped by Kamal Khan . He lost his life in a conspiracy and was succeeded by Ibrahim. Ibrahim assumed the title of Ibrahim Adil shah and ruled till 1557 AD.Ali Adil Shah Succeeded Ibrahim Adil Shah. Following a policy of alliance he married Chand Bibi the daughter of Hussain NIzam shah of Ahamadnagar. In the year 1564 AD the four sultans allied at Talikota against the Vijayanagar empire. The Battle of Talikota followed in 1565 AD. Commanded on the Muslim side by Hussain Nizam shah of Ahmadnagar. Ali adil Shah of Bijapur, Ali Barid shah of Golkonda. Victory for the Muslim forces came after a fierce battle and the empire of Vijayanagar was annexed to the territory of Bijapur and Golkonda. In 1570 AD Ali Adil Shah with the other sovereigns attempted to capture settlements of the Portuguese. Adil shah was killed in 1579 AD. The throne was passed on to Ibrahim Adil Shah II who was a minor. His mother chand Bibi looked after him while ministers ruled the kingdom. In 1595 AD the Ahmadnagar monarch was killed in a fight between Bijapur and Ahmednagar. Ibrahim Adil Shah II died in 1626 AD. In 1680 AD this country was annexed by Aurangzeb. 50. The Qutab Shahi Dynasty of Golkonda The Qutab Shahi dynasty was a part of the Bahmani empire which was called Golkonda. The founder of this dynasty was Sultan Quli Qutab Shah who was formerly the governor of the eastern province. He declared his independence in 1518 AD. Qutab Shah met with his death in 1543 AD and his son Jamshed ruled till 1550 AD. The throne was held by Ibrahim till 1580 AD and later his son Muhammad Quli ruled till 1611 AD. The state was finally annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687 AD. 51. In the Deccan there also existed a small kingdom which was not a part of the Bahmani kingdom. This was the Faruqi dynasty of Khandesh. It was established in 1388 AD and came to an end in 1601 AD after the fortress of Asirgarh was surrendered to Akbar. 52. THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD 53. THE MUGHAL RULE ( 1526-1707) 54. Babur was also called Zahir-ud-din Mohammad and was related closely to both Chingiz Khan and Timur. At an early age of 12 he became the king of Farghana. He was nourished militarily by the experiences he had from facing the enemies who plotted against him. In 1497 AD Babur captured Samarkand. His ministers pronounced him dead and put his younger brother on the throne. He failed in his attempt to recover Farghana. On his venture to retrive Farghana his cousin Ali usurped his authority over Samarakhand. Babur now was kingdom less. In 1499 AD he was able to capture Farghana. In his early days of succession he had to face many oppositions. In 1497AD Babur captured Samarkand but lost Farghana. In 1498AD
Babur lost both Samarkand and Fargana. In 1499AD he regained Farghana and in 1500 AD Samarkand was reconquered the second time. Babur set put for Kabul and occupied it in 1504 AD and ruled till 1526 AD during which he conquered Qandhar and Herat. His attempt to conquer Samarkand which he lost in 1502 AD failed and he turned towards India on a fresh venture. The conditions that prevailed in India at that juncture invited him to set out to conquer India. By 1524 AD he had brought Lahore under his sway. From Lahore he marched to Delhi where he was met by Ibrahim Lodi on the battle field of Panipat. Ibrahim Lodi was defeated owing to the superior artillery of Babur. Babur then sent his forces to occupy Delhi and Agra. Thus started the rule of the Chaghtai Turks who ruled under the name of Mughals. 55. On beginning his rule in India Babur had to face the problems of the Rajputs and the Afghan chiefs. He battled Rana Sanga of Mewar in 1527 AD in the battle of Kanwah. Rana lost the battle. The defeat of Rana Sanga shook the power of the Rajputs. In 1528 AD Babur attacked Chanderi which was held by Medini Rai and captured it. In the year 1529 AD. Babur marched against Mahmud Lodi a brother of Ibrahim Lodi and the battle of Ghagra followed which resulted in the defeat of the Lodis. 56. By then Babur's empire extended from Bhera and Lahore to Bahraich and Bihar and from Sialkot to Ranthambhor. 57. Babur died in 1530 AD. He was succeeded by Humayun the eldest of his four sons . At the age of 20 he was appointed the governor of Badakshan. He had contributed his services in the battle of Panipat and Kanwah. After the death of his father he placed himself on the throne of Agra in 1530. Humayun was faced with numerous difficulties. He had to reorganise his army that comprised of mixed races. He faced problems from his brothers, and nobles. The Afghans though defeated by Babur were not vanquished. 58. The rise of Sher Khan and Bahadur Shah of Gujarat was a matter of concern. Above all he had an empire which had yet to be consolidated and administered in a manner by which his authority would be accepted. In 1531AD he set out on an expedition to besiege the fort of Kalinjar. He was not successful in this mission owing to the Afghan mission towards Jaunpur. In the battle of Dourah in 1532 AD he defeated the Afghans. In 1532 AD he besieged the fort of Chunar under Sher Khan and resorted to mere submission. Between the period 1535-36 AD Humayun fought wars with Bahadur Shah. Bahadur Shah had annexed Malwa in 1531 AD, captured the fort of Raisin in 1532 AD and defeated the Sisodia chief of chittor in 1533 AD. He was opposed to the Mughal rule and created the circumstances that turned Humayun against him. On the request of Rani Karnawali of Chittor he accepted the request but fell short of his promises. Bahadur Shah captured Chittor. Humayun now had a reason to attack Bahadur Shah. Humayun now besieged the fort of Mandu and captured it. Bahadur Shah who now fled to Champanir which was also besieged and captured . Humayun captured Ahmedabad and Cambay and finally central Gujarat. Humayun then spent celebrating his victory over Gujarat while his administration lagged. This helped Bahadur Shah who with the local chiefs won Gujarat in 1536 AD. Sher Khan had been building himself against Humayun in Bengal and Bihar . 59. By 1536 Sherkhan became the ruler of Bengal and Bihar. In 1537 Humayun attacked the territories of Sher Khan and decided to occupy Bengal. During the period 1538-39 Sher
Khan with his military tactics was a threat to Humayun. Sensing his worse position in an area under Sher Khan's control he turned back to Agra. Sher Khan pursued Humayun engaged himself in the battle of Chausa in 1539. Humayun was defeated and had to flee. 60. In the year 1540 Humayun after having reached Agra again fought a battle against Sher Khan in the battle of Kannauj. Humaun lost the battle and had to abandon his throne. He was sheltered by the Raja of Amarkot in Sind. In the year 1542 Akbar was born. He went to Persia and received the grace of the Shah who granted him soldiers to regain his throne. In 1544 Humayun captured Kabul and Khandar. In 1546 he lost Kabul to his brother Kamran. In 1547 he recaptured it. In 1549 Kamran occupied Khan dar. Humayun again had to fight against Kamran who was defeated and blinded. After the death of Sher shah in 1545 his son Islam Shah who ruled upto 1553. After him Muhammad Adil Shah. As a result of the onslaught by Ibrahim Shah and Sikander Shah the Sur empire was broken up. Humayun who now prepared himself to attack India reached Peshwar in 1554 and in 1555. He occupied Lahore and Dipalpur. The same year saw the battle of Machiwara against the Afghans, and the defeat of Sikander Sur in the battle of Sirhind. By July 1555 Humayun reached Delhi where he spend his time in administration of his kingdom. His son Akbar was now slowly rising to power. In 1556 Humayun died in an accidental fall. After the death of Humayun the (mughal rule) history of India saw the rule of greatest of the Mughal rulers, Akbar the great. 61. SHER SHAH AND THE SUR DYNASTY 62. The return of Humayun to power in 1555 was preceeded by the a period of rule by Sher Shah who established the Sur dynasty. Sher Shah was the grandson of Ibrahim Sur, who came to India and joined military service under Bahlol Lodi. Ibrahim Lodi gave the Jagirs of Sahsaram, Khawaspur and Tanda to Sher Shah. Sher Shah rose to power and had planned to join Mahmud Lodi in his attempt to revive the Afghan Empire. Circumstances were unfavourable and in 1527 Sher Shah joined the Mughal service and assisted Babur in his conquests in India. Owing to differences of opinions he left the Mughal service in 1528. In 1529 Sher Shah joined Mahmud Lodi. After Mahmud Lodi's abdication,Sher Khan captured South Bihar. In 1529 Mahamud lost the battle of Ghagra but wanted to attempt to capture power in 1530. With the help of the Afghan chiefs and Sher Shah he marched against Humayun. But Humayun proved a strong rival to Mahmud Lodi. By 1534 after the battle of Surajgarh in which the ruler of Bengal was defeated, Sher Shah became the ruler of Bihar. 63. By 1530 Sher Shah captured the whole of Bengal. In the battle of Chausa in 1539 he defeated Humayun. In 1540 Sher Shah fought the battle of Kannauj and defeated Humayun. In 1542 Sher Shah conquered Malwa, and Raisin in 1543. He also brought Multan and Sind and parts of Punjab under him. In his attempt to defeat the Raja of Kalinjar in Budelkhand he was successful but lost his life in 1545. 64. After his death his son Jalal ruled with the title of Islam Shah till 1553 AD. Islam Shah destroyed the Afghan nobles whom he did not trust. This ultimately led to the downfall of this empire. 65. Islam Shah was succeeded by his son Firuz who was put to death by Mubariz Khan, the son of Sher Shahi's brother and the brother of Firuz's mother. Mubariz Khan took up the title of Muhammad Adil. He was not a capable ruler. His minister Hemu who was appointed by him rose to importance. Hemu was defeated in the second battle of Panipat and killed. After Hemu the empire witnessed a struggle for independence between five
Afghan kings namely Muhammad Shal Adali, Ibrahim Sur, Ahmed Khan sur, Muhammad Khan and Daulat Khan. This internal strife proved advantageous for Humayun who defeated Sikandar Sur and caused the end of the second Afghan rule.
SOUTH INDIA y to the history of North India that witnessed several dynasties invasions reorganization and the consolidation there existed ndhyas and the Deccan Plateau the home land of the Dravidians or Dakshinapath. This part of the country also witnessed rious dynasties many of whom ventured into the northern boundaries thus resulting in the study of the Indian history
ut a study of the South Indian dynasties vague.
h India refers to that parts of India South of the Narmada beyond the Vindhya and Satpura. An extensive forest called lay between the two parts of the mainland and was less ventured into by Early Aryans. The first Aryan establishment is ge Agasthya who is said to have spread the Aryan religion, language. This was followed by migrations to Dandkaranya Vidarbh (Berar) and indeed this affected other parts of the South. The Andhras had established a strong kingdom in the the decline of the Andhras petty kingdom was under the influence of the Guptas. This was under the influence of the empire declined in the early sixth century.
as were followed by the Kadambas. This was a dynasty of Brahmana descent who enjoyed independent power from third ntury. It extended from north to south of Kanara and Mysore. The Kadambas were followed by the Gangas, also called he Chalukyas are also known as Solankis. Mularaja I besides interested in conquests also was a devout Saiva and had rone to his son Chamudraja when he had to compromise between religion and conquests and administration. Chamudraja the throne and Vallabharaja came to rule over the Chalukyas. After his death his second son Durlabrja who in turn power to Bhimaraja I, his nephew. Bhimaraja I ruled for about forty years from 1021AD. During this period he had to ught of Mahand of Ghaznavi in Gujarat. Unable to face him Bhimaraja I fled from his capital Bhimaraja I recovered his vived the Chalukya rule. He was followed by Karna who ruled fro 1063-1093AD. He is said to have fought some battles ramaras and Chauhans. He was succeeded by Jayamimha Siddharaja. He ruled for over fifty years from 1093-1143AD. e he defeated the Chauhans of Nadol (Jodhpur) and also annexed Saurashtra. After his death Kumarapala a distant relative seized the throne. Amongst his various military victories over the Paramara princes Abu defeat of Maleikarjuna of remarkable achievement . His rebuilt the Temple of Somnath plundered, and looted by Mahmud of Ghaznavi. He died in 178AD Bhimadeva II ruled for about sixty years. This period witnessed the invasion by Muslim sultan of Ghor, then d another invasion. In 1297AD Allauddin Khilji dispatched a strong army which subdued the Chalukya power in Gujarat.
e to an end the Hindu rule in Gujarat.
d their kingdom in Madhya Pradesh with their capital at Tripuri near Jablapur. These people had come into conflict with annauj, Malwa, Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas. They also faced the palas and Kalinga rulers. Kokalla I was the founder y.
ortant rulers of this dynasty included Gangeyadeva. He tried to make the Chedis the paramount power of Northern India. wed by his son Karandeva. The Kalachuris history is said to have become insignificant by 1181 AD.
political situation that prevailed in Northern India before the advent of the Muslims who made this country as their like the early rulers who came to loot and plunder the wealth of Indian Kingdoms, many of these invaders settled in of these Indian subcontinent and contributed politically, socially economically besides adding to the Hinduistic cultural dia. With the seeds of Buddhism and Jainism sown on its soil India was to witness a heaven of culture, language and pulace.
of the most prominent of the dynasties in the Deccan founded by Pulakesin I . He established his power at Valabi he district of Bijapur and built a strong fortress.
as followed by Kirtivarman I, whose policy of conquest brought Konkan into his empire. His influence extended till Bengal. Kirtivarman I was succeeded by Mangalesa assumed the crown. He extended the kingdom of the Chalukyas by e Kalachuris of Northern Decccan and Malwa. A civil war result in Mangalesa's attempt to secure the crown for his son. In II the son of Kirtivarman defeated and killed Mangalesa in 608AD. Pulakesin II was a contemporary of Harshavardhana d he ruled from 609 to 642AD. He is considered to be the greatest of the Chalukya rulers. The early years of his reign was lidating his empire. He followed a policy of conquest to subdue the neighbouring powers which formed a danger to his ted the Kadambas, subdued the Maurayas of North Konkan, the Malwas and Gujars also. The most striking achievement inst that of Harshavardhana who was defeated and compelled to retire beyond Narmada. The Kosala and Kalinga me under his influence.
he competed with the Pallavas. Pulakesin's diplomatic effort also deserves praise as he maintained friendly relations with rsia, China. His power was done to its fate by Narasimhavarman I who had allied with the other southern states beyond he death of Pulakesi II was followed by a decline in the Chalukya power. In the year 656AD his son Vikramaditya I allavas and captured their capital Kanchi. His rule was followed by Vikramaditya II who is said to have defeated the andyas and Keralas.
mere conquerors the Chalukyas were patrons of Art and religion. Though they tolerated other religious like Buddhism yet they promoted Hinduism. The Chalukya power declined with the coming of the Rastrakutas led by a Rastrakuta Chief
utas empire was founded by Dantidurga. The empire extended from South Gujarat, Malwa and Baghelkhand in north to south. He was succeeded by his son Krishna I. Besides being a warrior he was a patron of art and architecture. The rock
Ellora is such a piece of marvelous art that alone speaks of his patronage. Krishna I was succeeded by Govinda II also a Varsa, who was an established warrior swooned to pleasure seeking after he ascended the throne. His younger brother ama who administered the territories for Govinda II eventually overthrew him in 779AD. Dhurva increased the prestige of tas. He crossed the Vindhyas and threatened the Gujarat Vatsaraja of Malwa driving him to the desert. He defeated f Bengal in the Ganga. Doab, Jamuna region. The Pallava ruler Dhantivarman was defeated by him and both the Pallavas ccepted his over lordship. He is also said to have defeated the Pratiharas and Palas. Of his four sons Dhurva nominated s his successor. GovindaIII also was a powerful ruler. He involved himself in the activities of the northern powers Pratihara King Nagabhatta II. Both the Palas and ruler of Kannauj submitted to his protection. Govinda III was followed rsha I who ruled from 815 to 877AD. He shifted his capital to Mayankheta in the Nizams dominions in the Hyderabad involved with the Chalukyas of Vengi, successfully restrained the progress of Bhoja I of Kannauj towards south. a is compared to fourth greatest monarchs of the world, besides Khalifa of Baghdad, the emperor of China, and the onstantinople.
on of Digambar sect of Jainism. He abdicated in favour of his son Krishna II.
as the last greatest ruler of the Rashtrakutas. He succumbed to the attacks by the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Kalyani
was founded in 973 AD by Tailapa II who overthrew the Rashtrakuta and ruled for about twenty four years. The kings of was constantly engaged in wars with their neighbours, the Paramaras of Malwa in the north and the Cholas in the south. by Rajaraja Chola caused much harm to the Chalukya rule.
was the most important King of the dynasty who ruled from 1076 to 1126 AD. He resisted the Cholas occupying their r of times. The Chalukya power declined after him and the throne was usurped by a rebel general Bijala Kalachuria. It was gn that his Brahmin minister founded the Lingyat sect. Someshwara IV succeeded in getting the ancestral dominions from of Bijala in 1183 AD.
ed by the Yadhavas of Devgiri and the Hoyashalas of Mysore.
are said to have descended from the Mahabharat hero Krishna. In 1187 AD. Bhilame II is said to have wrested the he north of the Krishna from the hands of Someshwara IV. Singhana was one of the most famous ruler of this dynasty. He hority beyond the Krishna.
Allauddin Khilji made its king to pay tribute. In 1309 AD Ram Chandra the last independent King of Deccan submitted to nd became a feudatory. With the execution of Harvala who attempted a revolt in 1318 AD the dynasty of the Yadhavas e.
to have descended from the western Ghats. The founder of this dynasty was Vishnu Vardhana. He ruled from 1110 to was a Jain and later converted to Vaishnavism by the famous religious reformer Ramanuja. The next important ruler was who ruled from 1172-1215 AD. The Hoyasala's are well known for their style and art of building temples and monuments he ornamentation and sculpture of statues are of high quality. The Hoyasalas succumbed to the attacks of Malik Kafur and
who plundered the kingdom and its capital turning the Hoyasala to mere local rulers.
the Pallavas as claimed by historians are varied and numerous. Some of them relate them to the Persian tribe. Some to the Parthians of North Western India. Others opine that they were Brahman aristocrats from the north who rendered ce. Other scholars attribute the Pallavas as feudatories of the Satavahnas of the Deccan who belonged to the Naga family. olution of the Andhras the Pallavas established their supremacy. The Pallavas claimed Brahmana ancestry and patronised ing and also performed the Aswamedha sacrifice.
ruler of the Pallavas was Siva Skandvarman. He is said to have extended the Kingdom southward. Thus the Pallava ed between the river Krishna and the Bellary district.
was the next ruler. He was a contemporary of Samudragupta.
eded by Simhavishnu who was followed by Mahendra Varman I in about the beginning of the seventh century AD. He a struggle between the Chalukyas for establishing supremacy in the south. Though Mahendra Varman I professed Jainism he turned into a staunch Saiva. He was well known for his construction of rock cut temples. This proving him to be a earning, painting, dance and music.
rman I was succeeded by his son Narasimha Varman I who ruled from (625-45AD). In 642 AD he took over Vatapi m the Chalukyas defeating Pulakesin II. He is said to have sent naval expeditions to Ceylon in support of Manavamna. d a boost during his rule the reign of NarasimhaVarman I. He was a great builder and founded the town of Mamallapuram uram which is adorned with the seven rock cut Pagodas. It was during his reign that Hieun-Tsang visited Kanchi in about rote a remarkable account on the Pallava Kingdom.
rman I was succeeded by Mahdendra Varman II. He ruled from 645to 670AD. He was succeeded by Parmeshvara ruled for about twenty five years. Narasimha Varman II succeeded him to 695 AD and ruled for about 27 years upto 722 he shore temple of Mahabalipuram and also the Kailashnath temple at Kanchi. The defeat of NarasimhaVarman II at the Chalukya King Vikramaditya II marked the downfall of the Pallava power.
va King was Aparajitha. He was defeated by Aditya Chola towards the end of the 9th century AD.
ngdom extended along the coromandel coast from Nellore to Pudukottai. It also included the areas of Mysore and Madras. se to power in the ninth century AD defeating the last Pallava King. This rise to power was under Aditya I. His son d for forty two years from 907 to 949AD. He was an ambitious warrior warrior king who drove the Pandya king to exile hura and invaded Ceylon. His successors had to repeatedly face the onslaught of the Rashtrakutas, Gangas and Pandyas.
Rajaraja the great who ruled from (985-1014AD) that the Cholas rose as the supreme power in South India. He pursed a quest for fourteen years during which he conquered the eastern Chalukya kingdom of Vengi, subdued the ered territories on the Malabar coast, inflicted defeat on the Pandyas and annexed parts of Ceylon. His alliance through the ruler of Vengi promoted unity among the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas.
succeeded by Rajendra CholadevaI who ascended the throne in 1016AD. He ruled for a period of twenty eight years. He
ded his territories beyond his father's territories. He occupied the islands of Andaman Nicobar, Sumatra, Malaya and the gu with his fleet of ships. In his expedition to the North in about 1023 AD he defeated Mahipala the Pala king of Bihar o commemorate his victory he assumed the title of 'Gangaikondai' and built in Trichinopoly district a new capital called, Cholapuram, which had a magnificient palace, temple and a lake.
hiraja was killed fighting the Chalukyas in about 1052 AD. Adhiraja was the next ruler of the Cholas who was n 1074AD. He was succeeded by Rajendra Kulottunga I but he formed the line of rulers from the Chalukya cholas.
the Cholas declined in about the 13th century. The rise of the hindu kingdom at Vijayanagar ended the Chola dynasty.
uled over the territories of Madura. Tinnevelly and parts of Travancore. It is reputed to be most ancient of the Tamil ndyas rose to power in the seventh century AD. The rule of the Pandyas is said to be initiated by Kandungori. His son Avani Sulamani came into conflict with the Pallavas. A Pandya king named Arikesri is also said to have defeated the e eight century .They aligned with the Cholas and defeated the Pallavas. They carried on frequent wars with ceylon. In the ury they were compelled to submit to the supremacy of the Cholas but in the thirteenth century they asserted their and under Jalavarman Sundara Pandya who ruled from 1251-1272 AD . They became the leading power in the South. A broke out among the claimant of the throne is said to have sealed the fate of this kingdom. This resulted in the Muslim the south which resulted in plundering and looting of the territories. The Pandya kingdom was absorbed to the kingdom of n the 16th century.
of the Cheras consisted of the state of Travancore, Cochin and parts of the Malabar. They are said to have belonged to the e. Their proximity to the sea favoured trade with Romans. Association with the Jews were also established with the r a colony by the Chera king Bhaskara Ravi Varma. This small territories never experienced the conquest of the Muslims independent till the British period.
EUROPEANS IN INDIA Indian exposure to the Europeans was a result of the discovery of a sea route to India. Old trade routes existed since the ancient times. The invasion of Alexander boosted trade contacts outside India. Opening of new trade routes, through Afghanistan, Central Asia and the Caspian Sea till the Black sea also favoured European entry into India. Another trade route was through Persia and Syria till Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt. The route through the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf and the Red Sea was the most convenient of all. Through these routes goods from India went to Europe and back. The rise of the Arabs witnessed a block of the trade in the 7th century. Besides this the Turks were gaining grounds over the Arabs. The shortage in the supply of Asian goods caused a rise of price of these commodities in Europe. This forced the European countries to seek new sea routes to India. The Portughese Owing to the favorable position of Portugal with regards to access to sea and its experiences in sea-faring, a new sea route to India, west of Africa was
discovered. Encouragement by Prince Henry of Portugal who loved navigation and exploration also further boosted the thrill to seek newer lands. By 1481 Bartholomew Diaz reach the cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa. In 1497 Vasco da Gama another Portuguese navigator sailed along the Atlantic coast of Africa rounded the cape of Good Hope and reached Mozambique in the Indian Ocean. On April, 1498 he reached the western coast of India at Calicut in the south Indian state of Kerala. He was received by the Zamorin ruler of Calicut who permitted establishment of trading centres at Calicut, Cochin and Cannanore. Fuelled by the instigation of the Arabs the Zamorins attacked the Portuguese but was defeated. The Portuguese thus became supreme in the west coast. Almeida was the first Portuguese Governor in India. He was determined to make Portugal powerful at sea. From 1509 to 1515 Albequerque became the second governor of the Indian territory held by Portugal. He aimed at occupying places for trade, developing a group of intermixed population who would rightfully claim possession of the Portuguese territory in India. Building of forts was another effort of his to consolidate the Portuguese position in India. In 1510 he conquered Goa from the sultan of Bijapur. He established a factory at Colombo in Ceylon and fort at Cochin. With his able administration he increased the Portuguese influence in India. In 1534 the Portuguese occupied Bassein and in 1538 Daman too. In the same year the Portuguese started constructing a factory neat Hugli. After a century the Portuguese power began to decline owing to factors like incompetent successors of Albequerque, defective administration, religions intolerance, resistance from the Mughals, lack of financial support from home, conditions arising of the union of Portugal with Spain under Philip II in 1580. Besides this the inefficient trading methods, discovery of Brazil and above all the emergence of strong European competitions especially the Dutch English also hastened the Portuguese decline. The Dutch After the Portuguese, the Dutch rose to power in the South East Asia. Their contact with India was through settlements at Nagapatnam and Cinsura in Bengal. The Dutch East India Company declined under the pressure from the English. The British navy was much superior to the Dutch and finally the English controlled the Dutch possessions in India. ENGLISH EAST INDIA COMPANY In the sixteenth century the English started trade with the east. The English had to pay high prices for goods bought from the east. Lured by the Portuguese profits the English too wished to have their share of wealth and profits. Attaining power in this area would result in getting goods at prices they decide. Besides this the defeat of the Spanish Armada had made England the mistress of the seas. In 1500 a group of merchants under the Chairman ship of Lord Mayor formed an association in London to trade with India. In 1600 Queen Elizabeth granted a charter to the governor at a company of merchants to trade freely with the countries of the east. Voyages were made to South East Asia to trade in spices. Attention towards India was diverted due to the Dutch influence in the Spice islands and getting raw materials for the English. The vast Indian mainland could be a market for the finished goods. The voyage to India was led by Captain Hawkins. He landed at the west coast of Surat and succeeded to get some trade concession for the company from Emperor Jahangir. He also secured
permission to set up a factory at Surat. The Portuguese influence in the Mughal Court proved a obstacle to the English trade. In 1612 Captain Best defeated the Portuguese fleet near Surat thus reducing their influence. He secured permission for building of a factory at Surat. In 1615 King James I of England sent Sir Thomas Roe as his ambassador to the court of Jahangir, and secured permission for the company to set up factories. Thus factories were set up at Ahmedabad, Broach and Agra. In 1661 the company obtained Bombay from Charles II and converted it to a flourishing centre of trade. By 1687, its was the most well established settlement of the Company on the west coast of India. In 1611 factories were set up on the east coast at Masaulipatam. In 1540 Fancis Day built a fortified factory called Fort St. George beside which the town of Madras flourished. English settlements rose in Orissa and Bengal. In 1633, in the Mahanadi delta of Hariharpur at Balasore in Orissa, factories were set up. In 1650 Gabriel Boughton an employee of the Company obtained a license for trade in Bengal. An English factory was set up in 1651 at Hugli. Various factors besides the lack of a political authority in India encouraged the company to unleash a vigorous policy of trade. The disintegrating Mughal empire had excited the English. At a petty pretext during the rule of Aurangazeb, the British brought a fleet from England and attacked Hugli. Aurangazeb attacked the English settlements and, captured their settlements at Patna, Cassim Bazar, Masaulipatam and Vizagapatanam. The superior English navy avoided the progress of the Mughals and found it wise to conclude peace on the conditions imposed by Aurangazeb. In 1690 Job Charnock established a factory. In 1698 the factory was fortified and called Fort William. The villages of Sutanati, Kalikata and Gobindpore were developed into a single area called Calcutta. In 1717 Emperor Farukhiyar permitted duty free trade. In Gujarat and Madras too they secured concessions. The company at Bombay minted rupees to be circulated in India. Owing to the economic factors at England and the discredited submission to the terms of Aurangazeb, a rival trading company was established called General Society. A compromise between the two companies on common trade saved the East India Company in 1702. FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY At a period when Europe witnessed an upsurge in discoveries and colonization, the Portuguese, the Dutch and the English were on their mission for contacts with India . France who competed with England in many respects also took to installing trade contacts with India and the east. In 1611 Louis XII granted monopoly to a company to pursue their quest, but did not achieve any progress. In 1664 Louis XIV granted another permission to start trade with India. The trade with India was a matter of prestige as the European politics was dominated by rivalries in the eighteenth century. In India Anglo French conflict started with the Austrian war of succession which ended in the seven years war. Pondicherry was the hub of French settlements. Other French factories and settlements were at Masulipatanam, Karikal, Mahi, Surat and Chandernagore. The struggle for establishing supremacy in trade resulted in wars between the English and the French in the Deccan. The first Carnatic war was fought between 1746-48. The second Carnatic war was fought between 1748-54 and the third Carnatic war was between 175863. This was the war that sealed the fateof the French possessions in India. Owing to Commercial superiority and better financial position, private ownership of the English company
and support by the British government, the East India Company flourished in India. Superiority of the English officers, besides this the French continental preoccupations, the superior English navy and the impact of English domination in Bengal, the recall of Duplex and the blunders of Count de Lally contributed to the French failure in India. Thus the struggle for colonial supremacy resulted the English having overcome the European obstacle. Little did then one realize that this was the beginning of a diplomatic policy that would reign supreme in India for the next two centuries.
BATTLES OF PLASSEY AND BUXAR The British with their superior naval power support from home were the next who like the numerous invaders and adventurers of the past would establish their dominion in India. The diplomatic moves of East India Company were clever. The favorable conditions created by the disintegration of the Mughal empire invited the English to seek political power in India. The political aspirations of the company bore fruit from Bengal. Owing to the incompetence of Sirajud daula the Nawab of Bengal, he had lost the loyalty of his nobles who conspired against him. The misuse of the privileges given to the English and the fortification of the settlement invoked the displeasure of the Nawab who ordered their demolition. The inhuman act of the Nawabs subordinate resulting in the Black hole tragedy resulted in involvement of Robert Clive and Admiral Watson in an attempt to subdue the Nawab. After the capture of Calcutta by Robert Clive he entered into a treaty which proved the only advantageous solution for both at present. The diplomatic designs of Clive bore fruit when he learnt of the discontented nobles of the Nawabs who were ready to go against the authority of the Nawab .On the 23rd of the June 1757 the armies of the Nawab Siraj-ud-daula and Robert Clive met in a battle at Plassey. The Nawab's nobles who deflected as decided with the English did not support the Nawab, leading to his defeat. This was the major achievement of the English that was to act as the foundation of British rule in India. The English put Mir Jafar as the Nawab with the jurisdiction of government under the Company's control. The company got the territories around Calcutta. It raised the prestige of the company who now was able to use this to influence the French and their support at home. It also started a political gamble by the company officials who now conspired against Mir Jafar and promised the throne to Mir qasim in return for money. Mir jafar was disposed by the English and Mir qasim was given the administration of Bengal. Mir qasim knew well the designs of the English. He was an able administrator and sought to improve the finance of the state, while meeting the demands of the company. His quarrels with the company over duties and articles and trade exposed his intention to break off from the yoke of British dominance. This ultimately resulted in the battle of Buxar in 1764. A fierce battle resulted. The superior military power of the English had confirmed the English victory and thus they became the masters of Bengal and now were the sole contenders for the control of the whole country.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.