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What are the major features of Medial Collateral Ligament?

€------€1) Wide, band-like
2) 2 major portions: Deep & Superficial
3) Continuous with the capsule
What does the MCL resist?€------€VALGUS
(and some fibers resist medial and lateral rotation)
What is the function of the MCL?€------€To stabilize the knee against valgus stress
and resist rotational and anterior forces on tibia.
What are the major features of the Lateral Collatoral Ligament?€------€1) Rounded, p
encil-like ligament.
2) Easy to palpate
3) NOT continuous w/ capsule
What does the LCL resist?€------€VERUS
(and extreme rotations at knee)
What are the attachments of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)?€------€Prox.: Medial a
spect of lateral femoral condyle
Distal: Anterior aspect of intercondylar eminence of tibia.
What are the functions of the ACL?€------€1) STABILIZE knee from displace tibia Ante
riorly on femor "anterior drawer"
2) Draws tight on excessive Valgus, Extension and restrains IR.
What are the attachments of Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)?€------€Prox: Lateral
aspect of medial femoral condyle at intercondylar notch.
Distal: Posterior aspect of intercondylar eminence of tibia.
What are the functions of the PCL?€------€Prevent displacement of tibia posteriorly
"posterior drawer"
What do the PCL and ACL do together?€------€Hold knee together and allow normal move
What makes up the terrible triad?€------€1) Medial collateral ligament
2) medial meniscus
3) anterior cruciate ligament
What is closed packed position for leg at knee?€------€Full extension with ER
Patella surface--Posterior what texture? Anterior: what texture?€------€Posterior:
Anterior: rough for attachment of fibers and entrance of blood vessels
Surface of femur--Define CAM-shaped€------€Radius greater in some places than in oth
ers. Effects axis of motion
Knee is more stable in which position: flexion or extension?€------€Flexion
Restoring flexion of knee at last 10 degrees: easy or hard? Why?€------€It is hard
because you have to move joint surfaces further.
Patella is developed where?€------€Quadriceps tendon
Functions of the Patella€------€1) redirect the line of pull of the quads
2) prevents excessive wear on the tendon
3) Increases efficiency of the quads in extending leg
Patella: Medial base €------€Point of attachment of Vastus Medialis
Patella: Lateral base€------€Point of attach: Vastus Lateralis
Ligaments that reinforce capsule: Anterior€------€Medial and Lateral Retinaculae
Ligaments that reinforce capsule: Laterally€------€Iliotibial band
Ligaments that reinforce capsule: Medially€------€Medial Collateral ligament
Synovium€------€1) Inside Joint cavity but by passes intercondylar space. 2) Exclude
s the cruciate ligaments from being intrasynovial
Which gets more injured: Posterior cruciate or Anterior cruciate ligaments?€------€A
Pronation of foot--combo of what move?€------€Mostly Eversion, some lateral rotation
and dorsiflexion.
Supination of foot--combo of what move?€------€Mostly Inversion, some medial rotatio
n and plantar flex.
Medial meniscus has what shape and where does it attach?€------€"C" shaped and it at
taches anteriorly and posteriorly on the intercondylar eminence.
Medial meniscus: How is stability reinforced?€------€The deep portion of the medial

the tibia EXTERNALLY rotates on femur approx. What is Condromalacia of patella?€------€The cartalege softening and fibrillation. What two lines form the Q angle?€------€1) line from ASIS to center of patella 2) line following line (direction of fibers) of patellar tendon Why is Q angle significant?€------€1) Abnormal biomechanics of patella are attribute d to excessive Q angles. Reason 2 why Screw Home Mechanism occurs€------€B/c ACL is attached to LATERAL femor al condyle. Motion of knee: What are the 2 main mechanisms?€------€Sliding and Rocking Knee as "Hinge" joint. More likely to be caught & torn Lateral meniscus has what shape and where does it attach?€------€"O" shape. Does it occur around single axis?€------€No. motion is stopped. what do you need to strengthen?€------€ER at hip and VMO True or false: The lateral meniscus has an attachment to lateral collateral liga ment€------€False Both menisci are attached to what?€------€Synovial and fibrous layers of the joint c apsule True or false: The medial meniscus is anchored firmly to the tibial collatoral l igaments?€------€True Mensici are most likely to be torn when knee is flexed or extended?€------€Flexed What is one of 3 main functions of Menisci?€------€1) Joint nutrition (synovial flui d & lub) What is second of 3 main functions of Menisci?€------€2) Increase surface area for w eight distribution What is third of 3 main functions of Menisci?€------€3) Increase stability of knee Common severe athletic injury to knee would result in tearing of which 2 ligamen ts and 1 meniscus?€------€Medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments. The axis is co nstantly changing throughout range of flexion. And of ten: medial meniscus Rupture of which ligament can result from automibile accident where person crash es into "dashboard"?€------€Posterior cruciate . "Screw Home Mechanism" describes what?€------€The fact that at terminal knee extensi on. Reason 3 why Screw Home Mechanism occurs€------€B/c medial femoral condyle is longer than lateral condyle and not fixed by ACL. 2) Can result in retro patellar pain To work with Q angle. That makes it scr ew home or "lock" knee What is the effect of the Screw Home Mechanism?€------€To allow a person to stand fu lly extended for long time w/o use of muscle power or knee collapsing into knee flexion Reason 1 why Screw Home Mechanism occurs€------€As knee moves to full EXTENSION the ANTERIOR movement of tibia is stopped by the ACL. Major a ttachment posteriorly from popliteus tendon. it will continue to move POSTERIORLY on tibia--causes EXT Rot. 15 degrees.collateral ligament Which is more susceptible to injury: Medial or Lateral Meniscus? Why?€------€Medial meniscus b/c it is much less mobile and medial condyle more mobile than lateral condyle.