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In a previous article we saw that Internet Information Services 6 (IIS 6) is a powerful

platform for building and hosting web sites for both the Internet and corporate intranets.
IIS 6 is also equally useful for setting up FTP sites for either public or corporate use, and
in this article we''ll walk through the process of creating and configuring FTP sites using
both the GUI (IIS Manager) and scripts included in Windows Server 2003. The specific
tasks we''ll walk through in this article are:

• Creating an FTP Site


• Controlling Access to an FTP Site
• Configuring FTP Site Logging
• Stopping and Starting FTP Sites
• Implementing FTP User Isolation

For sake of interest, we''ll again explain these tasks in the context of a fictitious company
called TestCorp as it deploys FTP sites for both its corporate intranet and for anonymous
users on the Internet.

Preliminary Steps
As mentioned in the previous article, IIS is not installed by default during a standard
installation of Windows Server 2003, and if you installed IIS using Manage Your Server
as described in the previous article this installs the WWW service but not the FTP
service. So before we can create FTP sites we first have to install the FTP service on our
IIS machine. To do this, we need to add an additional component to the Application
Server role we assigned our machine when we used Manage Your Server to install IIS.
Begin by opening Add or Remove Programs in Control Panel and selecting Add/Remove
Windows Components. Then select the checkbox for Application Server:
Click Details and select the checkbox for Internet Information Services (IIS):

Click Details and select the checkbox for File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Services.

Click OK twice and then Next to install the FTP service. During installation you''ll need
to insert your Windows Server 2003 product CD or browse to a network distribution
point where the Windows Server 2003 setup files are located. Click Finish when the
wizard is done.

Creating an FTP Site


As with web sites, the simplest approach to identifying each FTP site on your machine is
to assign each of them a separate IP address, so let''s say that our server has three IP
addresses (172.16.11.210, 172.16.11.211 and 172.16.11.212) assigned to it. Our first task
will be to create a new FTP site for the Human Resources department, but before we do
that let''s first examine the Default FTP Site that was created when we installed the FTP
service on our machine. Open IIS Manager in Administrative Tools, select FTP Sites in
the console tree, and right-click on Default FTP Site and select Properties:

Just like the Default Web Site, the IP address for the Default FTP Site is set to All
Unassigned. This means any IP address not specifically assigned to another FTP site on
the machine opens the Default FTP Site instead, so right now opening either
ftp://172.16.11.210, ftp://172.16.11.211 or ftp://172.16.11.212 in Internet Explorer will
display the contents of the Default FTP Site.

Let''s assign the IP address 172.16.11.210 for the Human Resources FTP site and make
D:\HR the folder where its content is located. To create the new FTP site, right-click on
the FTP Sites node and select New --> FTP Site. This starts the FTP Site Creation
Wizard. Click Next and type a description for the site:
Click Next and specify 172.16.11.210 as the IP address for the new site:

Click Next and select Do not isolate users, since this will be a site that anyone (including
guest users) will be free to access:
Click Next and specify C:\HR as the location of the root directory for the site:

Click Next and leave the access permissions set at Read only as this site will only be used
for downloading forms for present and prospective employees:
Click Next and then Finish to complete the wizard. The new Human Resources FTP site
can now be seen in IIS Manager under the FTP Sites node:

To view the contents of this site, go to a Windows XP desktop on the same network and
open the URL ftp://172.16.11.210 using Internet Explorer:
Note in the status bar at the bottom of the IE window that you are connected as an
anonymous user. To view all users currently connected to the Human Resources FTP site,
right-click on the site in Internet Service Manager and select Properties, then on the FTP
Site tab click the Current Sessions button to open the FTP User Sessions dialog:

Note that anonymous users using IE are displayed as IEUser@ under Connected Users.

Now let''s create another FTP site using a script instead of the GUI. We''ll create a site
called Help and Support with root directory C:\Support and IP address 172.16.11.211:
Here's the result of running the script:

The script we used here is Iisftp.vbs, which like Iisweb.vbs and Iisvdir.vbs which we
discussed in the previous article is one of several IIS administration scripts available
when you install IIS on Windows Server 2003. A full syntax for this script can be found
here. Once you create a new FTP site using this script you can further configure the site
using IIS Manager in the usual way.

Note: At this point you could add structure to your FTP site by creating virtual
directories, and this is done in the same way as was described in the previous article for
working with web sites.

Controlling Access to an FTP Site


Just like for web sites, there are four ways you can control access to FTP sites on IIS:
NTFS Permissions, IIS permissions, IP address restrictions, and authentication method.
NTFS permissions are always your first line of defense but we can't cover them in detail
here. IIS permissions are specified on the Home Directory tab of your FTP site's
properties sheet:
Note that access permissions for FTP sites are much simpler (Read and Write only) than
they are for web sites, and by default only Read permission is enabled, which allows
users to download files from your FTP site. If you allow Write access, users will be able
to upload files to the site as well. And of course access permissions and NTFS
permissions combine the same way they do for web sites.

Like web sites, IP address restrictions can be used to allow or deny access to your site by
clients that have a specific IP address, an IP address in a range of addresses, or a specific
DNS name. These restrictions are configured on the Directory Security tab just as they
are for web sites, and this was covered in the previous article so we won't discuss them
further here.

FTP sites also have fewer authentication options than web sites, as can be seen by
selecting the Security Accounts tab:
By default Allow anonymous connections is selected, and this is fine for public FTP sites
on the Internet but for private FTP sites on a corporate intranet you may want to clear this
checkbox to prevent anonymous access to your site. Clearing this box has the result that
your FTP site uses Basic Authentication instead, and users who try to access the site are
presented with an authentication dialog box:
Note that Basic Authentication passes user credentials over the network in clear text so
this means FTP sites are inherently insecure (they don't support Windows integrated
authentication). So if you're going to deploy a private FTP site on your internal network
make sure you close ports 20 and 21 on your firewall to block incoming FTP traffic from
external users on the Internet.

Configuring FTP Site Logging


As with web sites, the default logging format for FTP sites is the W3C Extended Log File
Format, and FTP site logs are stored in folders named

%SystemRoot%\system32\LogFiles\MSFTPSVCnnnnnnnnnn

where nnnnnnnnnn is the ID number of the FTP site. And just as with web sites, you can
use the Microsoft Log Parser, part of the IIS 6.0 Resource Kit Tools, to analyze these
FTP site logs.

Stopping and Starting FTP Sites


If an FTP site becomes unavailable you may need to restart it to get it working again,
which you can do using IIS Manager by right-clicking on the FTP site and selecting Stop
and then Start. From the command-line you can type net stop msftpsvc followed by net
start msftpsvc or use iisreset to restart all IIS services. Remember that restarting an FTP
site is a last resort as any users currently connected to the site will be disconnected.

Implementing FTP User Isolation


Finally, let's conclude by looking at how to implement the new FTP User Isolation
feature of IIS in Windows Server 2003. When an FTP site uses this feature, each user
accessing the site has an FTP home directory that is a subdirectory under the root
directory for the FTP site, and from the perspective of the user their FTP home directory
appears to be the top-level folder of the site. This means users are prevented from
viewing the files in other users' FTP home directories, which has the advantage of
providing security for each user's files.

Let's create a new FTP site called Staff that makes use of this new feature, using C:\Staff
Folders as the root directory for the site and 172.16.11.212 for the site's IP address. Start
the FTP Site Creation Wizard as we did previously and step through it until you reach the
FTP User Isolation page and select the Isolate users option on this page:
Continue with the wizard and be sure to give users both Read and Write permission so
they can upload and download files.

Now let's say you have two users, Bob Smith (bsmith) and Mary Jones (mjones) who
have accounts in a domain whose pre-Windows 2000 name is TESTTWO. To give these
users FTP home directories on your server, first create a subfolder named \TESTTWO
beneath \Staff Folders (your FTP root directory). Then create subfolders \bsmith and
\mjones beneath the \Accounts folder. Your folder structure should now look like this:

C:\Staff Folders
\TESTTWO
\bsmith
\mjones

To test FTP User Isolation let's put a file name Bob's Document.doc in the \bsmith
subfolder and Mary's Document.doc in the \mjones subfolder. Now go to a Windows XP
desktop and open Internet Explorer and try to open ftp://172.16.11.212, which is the URL
for the Staff FTP site we just created. When you do this an authentication dialog box
appears, and if you're Bob then you can enter your username (using the
DOMAIN\username form) and password like this:
When Bob clicks the Log On button the contents of his FTP home directory are
displayed:

Note that when you create a new FTP site using FTP User Isolation, you can't convert it
to an ordinary FTP site (one that doesn't have FTP User Isolation enabled). Similarly, an
ordinary FTP site can't be converted to one using FTP User Isolation.

We still need to explore one more option and that's the third option on the FTP User
Isolation page of the FTP Site Creation Wizard, namely Isolate users using Active
Directory. Since we've run out of IP addresses let's first delete the Help and Support FTP
site to free up 172.16.11.211. One way we can do this is by opening a command prompt
and typing iisftp /delete "Help and Support" using the iisftp.vbs command script. Then
start the FTP Site Creation Wizard again and select the third option mentioned above
(we'll name this new site Management):

Click Next and enter an administrator account in the domain, the password for this
account, and the full name of the domain:
Click Next and confirm the password and complete the wizard in the usual way. You'll
notice that you weren't prompted to specify a root directory for the new FTP site. This is
because when you use this approach each user's FTP home directory is defined by two
environment variables: %ftproot% which defines the root directory and can be anywhere
including a UNC path to a network share on another machine such as \\test220\docs, and
%ftpdir% which can be set to %username% so that for example Bob Smith's FTP home
directory would be \\test220\docs\bsmith and this folder would have to be created
beforehand for him. You could set these environment variables using a logon script and
assign the script using Group Policy, but that's beyond the scope of this present article.

Summary
In this article I've explained how to create and configure FTP sites in various ways on IIS
6. With the