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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

Instructor: SUDHA GOEL
Course: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
[EV20001]

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Contents
• Regulations
• Importance
• SW generation and MSW generation
• Municipal solid waste management -
activities
• Sources of MSW
• Generation rates, composition and factors
affecting them
• Integrated solid waste management
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Environmental Regulations
Year of Amend
Regulations notice ment
Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974 1988
Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 1987
Environment Protection Act 1986 1991
Hazardous Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 1989
Biomedical Waste Handling Rules 1998
Flyash Rules 1999
Recycled Plastics Usage Rules 1999 2003
Municipal Solid Waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2000
Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules 2001
Draft E-waste (Management and Handling) Rules 2010

http://www.moef.nic.in/ 3

Importance of SWM: Hazards of open dumping 
Air pollution:
 Released into air due to scattering by wind, volatilization
 Potential for explosions due to methane buildup 
Water pollution: surface water (SW) and ground water (GW)
 Clogging of natural and engineered drainage systems
 Short-
Short-term and long-
long-term contamination of non-
non-renewable
resources 
Soil pollution:
 Sequestering of contaminants in soil leads to soil toxicity and
decreased soil productivity 
Health hazard:
 Release of pathogens in any environmental media
 Attracts growth of flies, rodents, and other pest species
 Contributed to spread of plague in Surat
 Attracts stray animals and contributes to bad traffic conditions
and higher accident potential 
Aesthetic nuisance, loss of civic health and pride, low property4
values

Generation of Solid waste 5 TTV .

1% groundnut shell. 3% 6 . 28% CCRs. 4. 25% hazardous w aste. 14. 14. 11% rice w heat straw . rice husk.5. 112. 3% baggase. 4% 12. 11. 20. 90. Generation of solid waste in India (2002. 48. 20% construction w aste. 128. 3% jute fibre. based on Pappu et al 2007) industrial w aste.3.5. 2% MSW.5.

Solid waste generation • Global generation of solid waste in 2002 -12 billion tons/y – 1.2 million tons/y (2001 estimate) • Major waste producing sectors in India – Agricultural and allied waste – 35.4 million tons/y of MSW • Total waste production in India – 454.3 million tons/y) – Thermal power plants – 25% (112 million tons/y) • MSW is a minor fraction of the total waste produced – 11% or 48 million tons/y – Compare: 1.6% (162 million tons/y) – Industrial waste – 28% (128.5% of the total solid waste in the US is MSW 7 .6 billion tons/y is MSW – Asia generates 277.8 million tons/y (Pappu et al 2007) – Hazardous waste generation – 7.

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Separation (source or later) Generation • Sorting Recycling • Storage Collection Transfer and Transformation or Recycling transport processing of waste Disposal Activities in red are the purview of a city municipality 8 .

Industrial 9 World Bank – IBRD .1999 .

2005 . SW Generation rates Not enough data for India! Compare developed (US) vs developing (India ) countries 10 USEPA.

2005 MSW composition in cities with >5 million population Paper. USEPA. Rubber Glass Leather & 0% 1% Synthetics 6% Other Metal 7% 1% Total Compostabl e matter 31% NEERI. 1996 Inert 11 Material 54% .

Kharagpur 2008-2009 Naresh K. Textiles 3% Polythene bags Plastic 8% 1% Glass 0% Metals Paper 0% 8% Mixed residue 80% MSW composition . . Resources. India. and Goel S [2009] Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and a proposed management plan for Kharagpur. Conservation and Recycling. 53(3):166-174. West 12 Bengal. Katakam.

summer (North) or monsoon vs. other (Kgp) – Transient populations at certain locations: • Tourist or pilgrimage locations: peak vs. rest of the year) 13 . Factors affecting MSW generation rates and composition • Extent of resource consumption (degree of development or economic conditions) • Extent of materials recovery and conservation measures (the 4 Rs) – Education and public awareness – Economic incentives – Legislation • Location – Population size (total SW gen rate not per capita) – Geographic conditions and infrastructure development – Socio-political conditions • Collection frequency • Seasonal variations – Winter vs. low season • Educational institutions (vacations vs.

2 2 R = 0.000 0.0032 1. 1995 14 VWR 2002 .184 0.000 total w aste generated (tons/d) 2 R = 0.4443 0.000 2.46x + 49.1 0 0 0. m illions Data for 23 metros.000 8.000 6.000 10.3 2.9498 0.4 3. kg/cap- y = 439. ERM India. Waste generation rates and population in India and US Population versus waste generation Per capita waste generation rates for different Indian cities 6.000 4. millions Population.000 12.6 5.000 y = 0.000 14.002x + 0.000 d 0.000 0.5 4.000 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 population.7 Per capita waste generation rate.000 0.

1 7 5 9 x 0 .2 0 1 00 1 000 1 0000 1 00000 GN P pe r c a pi t a 15 Based on IBRD-WB.2 1 0.6 y = 0 . 1999 .8 1 . 2 0 4 2 1 .8 0.7 5 6 2 1 .GNP/cap versus per capita urban SW generation rates for different countries GN P ver sus ur b an M SW g ener at io n 1 .6 0.4 0.4 R 2 = 0 .

34% (World Bank.186 billion (Wikipedia)  West Bengal’s population = 90 million  Kharagpur’s population = 2.8%  Average annual urban population growth rate = 3. Population growth  World population = 6. 2008) If data from 1921 to 2001 are used  Average annual total population growth rate = 1.0% Problem: Use the exponential equation to predict population for a future time.07 lakhs  India’s current annual growth rate = 1. based on a constant or exponentially increasing per capita waste generation rate – determine MSW generation in the future.86 billion (US Census Bureau)  India’s population = 1. 16 All figures for 15 Aug 2010 .

03x R² = 0.000E+08 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 y = 2E-18e0. Population growth in India 1.995 17 1.018x Urban population R² = 0. persons 1.000E+07 Time. (Total Population) log Population.000E+10 Total Population y = 2E-07e0. years .000E+09 Expon.985 Expon. (Urban population) 1.

Resource consumption 18 http://www.eia.gov/cabs/India/Full.html .doe.

Generation rates • Total MSW generation rates are dependent on – Population size • C&D and industrial waste contribution increases as city size increases – Recycling programs/activities – degree of waste diversion – Collection frequency: higher frequency leads to reduced waste diversion – Seasonal variations • Per capita MSW generation rates are dependent on – Income levels – Population density: city-wise and dwelling-wise 19 .

Seasonal or annual variation in waste collection rates 20 .

ash. dust – non-biodegradable) decreases 21 .SW generation rates and composition • For Asia.45 kg/cap- kg/cap-d (Myanmar) to 5. total SW (tons/d) increases • Income levels – As per capita GNP increases so does per capita SW generation rate – Waste composition also changes significantly. – As income levels increase.0 kg/cap- kg/cap-d (Hong Kong) • As population increases. • Paper and paper products form a larger fraction of the total MSW • Food fraction (highly biodegradable) and inert (soil. per capita SW generation rates range from 0.

27 (Nagpur) to 0.27 to 0.66 (Madras) kg/cap-d • Density of waste varies from 280 to 660 kg/m3 • Moisture content of waste varies from 18 to 50% – High moisture content makes the waste generally unsuitable for incineration – Good for composting if organic content is high • Organic matter constitutes 16 to 41% • Calorific value on a dry wt basis ranges from 600 to 1500 kcal/kg • C/N ratio ranges from 21 to 30 (Sharholy et al. 2008) – City-wise: 0. 2008) 22 Desai.….48 kg/cap-d in Delhi (Sharholy et al.16 (Meghalaya) to 0. • Per capita SW generation rate varies from 0. For Indian cities. 2000 .66 kg/cap-d – State-wise: 0.

1999 . 23 IBRD-WB.

5 to 25% [Kumar 2005]  Kolkata spends 13. other cities range from Varanasi (27.75% of its annual budget on SWM.3% of the per capita GNP is spent on SWM in India  Other countries spend less – 0.7%) [Hazra. Collection of waste Generation Collection Treatment Disposal  Solid Waste Management (SWM) is a major activity for any town or city municipality anywhere in the world  In India.78 to 1.8% of the per capita GNP (IBRD. 2008]  0.8%) to Asansol (44. a significant part of a city’s budget goes towards SWM . 1999)  A municipality’s responsibilities begin with collection  50 to 70% of SWM budget spent on collection  Labor and equipment are used intensively  Bulk of SWM problems for most cities are due to inefficiencies in collection 24 .16% to 0.

Phases in collection 25 VWR 2002 .

Transfer station 26 GMM 1998 .

Integrated Solid Waste Management Integrated Solid Waste Management 27 .

Waste Management Hierarchy 28 .

print media. cylinders Use of disposables is often necessary for quality and convenience. but its reuse! Traditional leaf dishes are better and healthy disposables) 29 VWR 2002 . plastic tubes (for toiletries) – Increasing lifetime of product • Plastic vs. gas pipelines vs.The 4 Rs . cheap wood furniture. new containers (food packaging). spray painting vs. Recycle and Recover • Reduce – Reduce amount of material required to deliver one unit product without sacrificing utility or quality • Examples: refills vs. natural fabrics – Eliminate or reduce need for product • Electronic vs. metal. but results in enormous increase in resource consumption and waste generation • Reuse – Use of plastic. disposable batteries.Reduce. synthetic fabrics vs. Reuse. rechargeable batteries vs. glass containers for storage in homes – Use of paper in India for serving food (not healthy. paper cartons vs. brush or roller painting of surfaces.

yard waste (composting) • Recover – Where refuse is unsegregated and desired materials are separated at a central facility 30 . steel and aluminum cans. Reuse. Recycle and Recover • Recycle – Components are separated and reprocessed into new products – Plastics.Reduce. glass bottles. paper.

motor vehicles. electrical and electronic appliances. batteries. durability or lifetime of product decreases – Consumer goods are the best examples: computers.. ……… – Few disincentives for extending product life • Resource and energy consumption is reduced • Overall env’ impacts are reduced • Short-term company profits may be reduced as volumes of sales drop……and that’s where the problem is! – Electrical and electronic goods are best examples of this – Disposable pens. clothing. reuse of these materials in product design 31 . cartridges …. Source Reduction – Green design • Extended product life – As development increases. materials can be extracted and recycled – Best examples: paper and plastics.where refills can be made and marketed but company profit margins are at stake! • Material life extension – Recyclable materials usage to be encouraged – At the end of product life.

batteries) that are likely to enter waste streams 32 . biodegradable plastics and packaging material • Communication: fiber-optic cables instead of copper cables – wireless is next level of improvement • Reduce/ replace use of toxic materials like Hg (thermometers. tubelights). lead (solder. Source Reduction – Green design • Material selection – Substitution of a material based not always on cost criteria but environmental impacts – Examples: • use of alloys and plastics instead of metals • lead in solder has been eliminated • plastic pipes instead of CI.

heat recovery. mobile phones.7 shows reduction in glass. rail or water  Reduced packaging requirements  Policy options  Manufacturer’s buy back policies are beneficial in terms of recycling or remanufacturing of consumer items  Printer cartridges. Source Reduction  Reduce material usage  Improved car batteries contain less lead  Household batteries contain less Hg  Table 9. ……. car batteries. make a process cost-effective and environmentally less expensive  Efficient distribution  Transportation and packaging options can be improved  Pipelines better than shipping by road. electronic appliances.. plastic usage  Process management  Improved efficiency.  Labeling  Consumers will often opt for more expensive but more environmentally friendly options  Labeling has to be standardized and consistent 33 .

Waste diversion • Use of food waste grinders – Food waste is ground up and discharged to sewers – Common in developed countries like US. Canada and UK • SW home compactors – No longer used in developed countries 34 .

Waste disposal options in different countries • population density • land area available 35 GM (1998) .

2003 (US) 36 USEPA 2005 . Waste destinations (disposal options).

Waste disposal – landfills (US) 37 .

Waste – to – energy (WTE) conversion WASTE PROCESSING FOR ENERGY CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING PROCESSING AEROBIC COMBUSTION COMPOSTING ANAEROBIC DIGESTION GASIFICATION [BIOFUELS] PYROLYSIS 38 .

jatropha [India] • Corn [US] Waste materials can also be used • Wastewater [industrial or agricultural] • Solid waste [agricultural] for WTE 39 http://keetsa. BIOFUELS Sources of biofuels are crops like • Sugarcane [Brazil] • Cassava.com/blog/eco-friendly/biofuels-answer-fuel-issues-what-about-food/ .

……. . paint cans. white goods • Ecological footprint or carbon footprint • Household hazardous waste – Banning of certain products from MSW like thermometers. pesticides. • Plastics and their biodegradability • Recycling industry and public awareness 40 .Other issues that need to be addressed • Electronic waste.

Solid Waste Engineering. Singapore. US. 41 .. Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science. Thomson Learning Inc. • Masters GM [1998] Chapter 9. Prentice Hall. and Reinhart D (2002). Worrell W.References • Slides (compiled from different sources) • Vesilind PA.

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