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Macro and Microscopic

Structure of ROOTs
-Dr.Manjunath Ajanal
PG Scholar
KLEU Shri BMK
Ayurveda College Belgaum

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Introduction
The plant world is extremely diverse,
ranging from one celled algae to huge
oaks and sequoias.

Roots is the descending part of the


plant and is originally the direct
prolongation of the radicle of the
embryo.
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Root is one of the imp structure
present in all most every plants.

It is non green structure without


node and inter nodes, leaves or
buds of plant.

These are helps in absorption of


raw food for plants.

Some
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times stores food also. 33
Embryonic root or radicle

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Root System
Taproot System:
Characterized by
having one main root
from which smaller
branch roots emerge.
Fibrous Root System:
extensive mass of
similarly sized roots
Adventitious
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Anatomy of roots
Root cap – Derived from
cells of meristem that
pushes cells forward into
the cap region these
secretes MUCIGEL –
protection.
Root Tip Senses Gravity
Region of cell division -
primary growth of the root

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Anatomy of roots
Region of elongation -
The cells derived from
the apical meristem
increase in length in this
region.
Region of
differentiation or
maturation - cells
become specific tissues-
epidermis,
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Root Cap

Growing out through


cortex
Zone of Cell Division

•In fibrous root


systems, there is much
lateral root formation.
•Here two root apices
initiating from the
pericycle.
• Their connection to the
Root Anatomy: Dicot Root Cross Section
Epidermis - root hairs, mineral and water intake

Cortex - storage, defense

Endodermis - selective mineral uptake


Casparian strips in radial walls
Pericycle - lateral root formation (periderm)

(Vascular Cambium - makes 2° tissues)

Phloem - CH2O delivery from leaves

Xylem - conduct water and mineral upwards


One Vascular Cylinder (Phloem + (Cambium) + Xylem)
adial Xylem-Phloem Arrangement
xarch Xylem Maturation
etrarch (this example)
Dicot Mature Root Structure - Anatomy
Epidermis

Cortex

Vascular Cylinder
Root Anatomy: Monocot
Root Cross Section
corte
x
Phloe
m

Xyle
m
pith
Pith

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DIFFERENCES
DICOT ROOT MONOCOT ROOT
Ø The radicle of embryo Ø The radicle emerges out into
develops into root – Entire root ; but soon withers off.
root system develop from Extra – embryonal roots arise
this. forming fibrous roots.
Ø The root system is called
Ø The root system is called a fibrous or adventitious root.
primary or tap root.
Ø The root system is not deep &
Ø The root system is deep hence called shallow feeders.
growing and hence called
Ø Numerous rarely limited.
deep feeders.
Ø Monocot root has a wide pith
Ø Xylem bundles – 2 to 6 and exarch and polyarch
Ø Root has a narrow pith with xylem.
exarch and tetrach xylem.

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Secondary Growth in Dicot
Roots

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Secondary Growth in
Dicot Roots
Cambium-is a layer of meristematic
tissue that separates the xylem
and phloem and produces new
xylem and phloem cells.

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Heartwood
-Older,
nonconducting rings
of xylem at the
center of the tree’s
trunk or root

Sapwood
-outer ring of xylem
that still transport
xylem sap
MODIFICATION OF
Ø
ROOTS
Specialized functions of varied nature are
performed by modified roots which adapt
themselves according to the particular need
of the plant.
Ø
For these purposes both the TAP root and
the ADVENTITIOUS roots may undergo
modification.
1. Modified TAP ROOTS (For storage of food)

2. Modified ADVENTATIOUS ROOTS

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Modified TAP ROOTS
1. Fusiform Root : Swollen in
middle and gradually tapering
towards apex and the base.
E.g. – Radish.
2. Napiform Root:
Considerbaly swollen at the
upper part becoming almost
spherical & sharply tapering
at lower part. E.g. - Turnip &
Beet.
3. Conical Root: Broad at base
& gradually tapering. E.g.-
Carrot.
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Modified ADVENTATIOUS ROOTS

A). FOR STORAGE OF FOOD :


1. Tubercular root swollen
with out any definite
shape – sweet potato.
2. Fasciculated root several
tubercular roots occur in
cluster at the base of the
stem – Asparagus, Dahlia
etc

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3. Nodulose root :
When the slender root
becomes suddenly
swollen near apex –
Mango ginger, arrowroot
4. Moniliform/beaded:
Swelling at frequent interval
– Indian spinach, Musta etc
5. Annulated : root has a series
of ring like swelling on its
body - Ipecac

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B). FOR MECHANICAL
1.
SUPPORT
Prop or slilt root :
roots produced from
stem, grow vertically
downwards and
penetrate in to soil. E.g –
Vata, rubber plant, screwpine
2. Climbing roots : these plants
produce roots from their
nodes, internodes by this
they attach themselves for
support & climb. E.g.-
pippali, maricha etc.
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C). FOR VITAL FUNCTION
SUCKING ROOTS:
1.

Parasites develop
certain kinds of roots
which penetrate into the
tissue of the host plant
and suck it. E.g.-
broomrape etc.
RESPIRATORY
2.

ROOTS: Aquatic plant


develops kind of
adventatious roots
which
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EPIPHYTIC
3.

ROOTS: These are


grow on branches of
trees, they do not
suck the supporting
plant but these are
having modified
roots which are hang
freely in air. E.g- Orchids.
Assimilatory
4.

roots: Some
climbing
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FUNCTIONS AND
ADAPTATIONS OF THE ROOT
NORMAL FUNCTIONS
Ø Mechanical
v Fixation
Ø Physiological
v Absorption
v Conduction
v Storage
SPECIALIZED FUNCTIONS –
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Connection with modified roots.
CONCLUSION

Ø
Study of botany is very imp in
ayurvedic field.
Ø
Helps in cultivation of
medicinal plants.
Ø
Detection of age of plant.
Ø
For easy identification of
Adulteration.
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