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CHILD DEVELOPMENT THEORIES (Brief Overview of some)

Psychoanalytic (Freud)
Psychosexual Stages
Oral stage (0-1)
Sensual focus on the mouth and tongue
Under: pessimism, envy, suspicion, sarcasm
Over: optimistic, gullible, spoiled
Anal stage (1-3)
Sensual focus on potty training
Represents the battle between the id, ego, and super ego
Under: messy, disorganized, reckless, careless, defiant
Over: neat, precise, stingy, withholding, obstinate, passive-aggressive
Called: anal retentive character
Phallic stage ( 3-6)
Focus on physical differences
Pleasure from self stimulation
Oedipus complex and Electra complex
Castration anxiety
Penis envy
Latency stage (7-11)
Subsiding of sensual energies for a time
Children use their energies in areas other than sex
Genital stage (12 +)
Sensual focus on and interests in the opposite sex.

Psychosocial (Erikson)
1. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-2)
Oral-Sensory: from birth to one, trust vs. mistrust, feeding;
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-4)
Muscular-Anal: 1-3 years, autonomy vs. shame, toilet training;
3. Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6)
Locomotor: 3-6 years, initiative vs. guilt, independence;
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (7-12)
Latency: 6-12 years, industry vs. inferiority, school;
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (13-21)
Adolescence: 12-18 years, identity vs. confusion, peer relationships;
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (22-35)
Young Adulthood: 18-40 years, intimacy vs. isolation, love relationships;
7. Generativity vs. Stagnation (36-65)
Middle Adulthood: 40-65 years, generativity vs. stagnation, parenting;
8. Integrity vs. Despair (65 +)
Maturity: 65 years until death, integrity vs. despair, acceptance of one's life.
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Learning Theories (Skinner, Watson, Bandura)


Operant Conditioning:
Rewards reinforce behaviors
Punishments decrease the likelihood of a repeated behavior.
Classical Conditioning:
Associations are made between two events
Social Learning theory:
Observation, trial, and error.

Cognitive Theories (Piaget)


1.Sensorimotor stage (0-2)
Learning through physical interaction with environment.
Using both senses and motor capabilities
2. Preoperational stage (2-7)
Not yet able to conceptualize, needs physical situations.
Deals with the here and now
3. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11)
Ability to conceptualize and use logical thinking
Understands relationships between objects and people.
4. Formal Operational Stage (12 +)
Can think abstractly and hypothetically.
Can understand abstract concepts.

Sociocultural Theory (Vygotsky)


No stages of development.
Children develop through direct interaction with their environment.
Parents should introduce their child to different events and situations.