You are on page 1of 26

9/19/10

The Skeleton
•  Consists of:
Axial Skeleton Chapter 7 – Bones, cartilage, joints, and ligaments
•  Composed of 206 named bones
grouped into two divisions
IB 131 – Axial skeleton (80 bones)
Lecturer: Tom Carlson – Appendicular skeleton (126 bones)

The Axial
Cranium

Skeleton Skull
Facial bones
The
Cranium
Bones of
pectoral
Clavicle
(in green) Clavicle girdle
Thoracic cage
(ribs and
sternum)
Scapula
Sternum Axial Scapula
Upper
•  Formed from Rib
Humerus Skeleton Rib
Humerus
limb

80 named Vertebral
column
Vertebra
Radius (in green) Vertebra
Radius
Ulna
bones Sacrum Carpals
Ulna
Bones of
pelvic girdle
•  Consists of Phalanges
Carpals
Phalanges
skull, vertebral Metacarpals
Femur
Metacarpals
Femur
column, and Patella

Tibia
Lower
limb
bony thorax Fibula
Tibia
Fibula

Tarsals
Metatarsals
(a) Anterior view Phalanges (b) Posterior view
Figure 7.1a Figure 7.1b

The Skull The Cranium
Bones of cranium (cranial vault)

•  Formed by cranial and facial bones
Frontal bone
Coronal
Parietal bone Glabella suture
Squamous part Frontonasal suture
of frontal bone Supraorbital foramen
Nasal bone (notch)
Squamous
Sphenoid bone Supraorbital margin suture
(greater wing)
Superior orbital fissure
Temporal bone
Optic canal
Ethmoid bone
Lacrimal bone Inferior orbital fissure
Zygomatic bone
Middle nasal concha
Infraorbital foramen Ethmoid
Perpendicular plate bone
Maxilla Inferior nasal concha
Lambdoid Facial
Vomer suture
Mandible bones

Mental
foramen
Mental
protuberance
(a) Anterior view of skull (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull
Figure 7.6a Figure 7.2a

1

9/19/10

The Cranium The Face
•  Is the body’s most complex bony •  Facial bones serve to
structure – Form framework of the face
•  Formed by cranial and facial bones – Form cavities for the sense organs of sight,
taste, and smell
•  The cranium
– Provide openings for the passage of air
– Encloses and protects brain
and food
– Provides attachment for head and neck
– Hold the teeth in place
muscles
– Anchor muscles of the face

Overview of Skull Geography Cranial Fossae
•  Facial bones form anterior aspect •  Anterior cranial fossa
•  Cranium is divided into cranial vault and the
base •  Middle cranial fossa
•  Internally, prominent bony ridges divide skull •  Posterior cranial fossa
into distinct fossae
Temporal lobe Frontal lobe Temporal lobe Frontal lobe
Anterior cranial of cerebrum Anterior cranial of cerebrum
of cerebrum of cerebrum
fossa fossa
Cerebellum Cerebellum

Middle cranial Middle cranial
fossa fossa

Posterior cranial Posterior Posterior cranial Posterior
fossa Cranial Middle fossa Cranial Middle
fossae Anterior fossae Anterior
(b) Superior view of the cranial fossae (c) Lateral view of cranial fossae showing the contained (b) Superior view of the cranial fossae (c) Lateral view of cranial fossae showing the contained
brain regions brain regions
Figure 7.2b, c Figure 7.2b, c

Small Cavities of Skull Overview of Skull Geography
•  The skull contains smaller cavities •  The skull contains approximately 85
– Middle and inner ear cavities—in lateral named openings
aspect of cranial base – Foramina, canals, and fissures
– Nasal cavity—lies in and posterior to the – Provide openings for important structures
nose • Spinal cord
– Orbits—house the eyeballs • Blood vessels serving the brain
– Air-filled sinuses—occur in several bones • 12 pairs of cranial nerves
around the nasal cavity

2

9/19/10 Cranial Bones The Skull •  Formed by cranial and facial bones •  Formed from eight large bones Frontal bone Parietal bone – Paired bones include Glabella Frontonasal suture Squamous part • Temporal bones of frontal bone Nasal bone Supraorbital foramen (notch) Sphenoid bone Supraorbital margin • Parietal bones (greater wing) Temporal bone Superior orbital fissure Optic canal Ethmoid bone – Unpaired bones include Lacrimal bone Inferior orbital fissure Zygomatic bone • Frontal bone Infraorbital foramen Middle nasal concha Ethmoid Perpendicular plate bone Maxilla Inferior nasal concha • Occipital bone Vomer Mandible • Sphenoid bone Mental • Ethmoid bone foramen Mental protuberance (a) Anterior view of skull Figure 7.6a Major cavities of skull Lateral aspect of skull The Cranium Lateral aspect of skull Bones of cranium (cranial vault) Coronal suture Squamous suture Lambdoid Facial suture bones (a) Cranial and facial divisions of the skull Figure 7.2a 3 .

size.5 4 . and location left parietal bones meet superiorly •  Not all people have sutural bones – Lambdoid suture—occurs where the parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly The Skull— Posterior View Sagittal suture Frontal Bone Parietal bone •  Forms the forehead and roofs of orbits Sutural bone Lambdoid •  Supraorbital margin—superior margin suture of orbits Occipital bone •  Glabella—smooth part of frontal bone Superior nuchal line between superciliary (eyebrow) arches External occipital protuberance •  Frontal sinuses within frontal bone Inferior nuchal line •  Contributes to anterior cranial fossa External occipital crest Occipital Occipitomastoid condyle suture Figure 7. 9/19/10 The Skull— Posterior View Sagittal suture Parietal Bones and Sutures Parietal bone •  Parietal bones form superior and lateral parts of skull Sutural bone Lambdoid •  Four sutures of the cranium suture Occipital bone – Coronal suture—runs in the coronal plane •  Located where parietal bones meet the frontal Superior nuchal line bone External occipital – Squamous suture—occurs where each protuberance parietal bone meets a temporal bone Inferior nuchal line inferiorly External occipital crest Occipital Occipitomastoid condyle suture Figure 7.5 Parietal Bones and Sutures Sutural Bones •  Four sutures of the cranium (continued) •  Small bones that occur within sutures – Sagittal suture—occurs where right and •  Irregular in shape.

7a Lateral Aspect of the Skull Inferior Aspect of Skull Frontal bone Coronal suture Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Parietal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Squamous suture Nasal bone Temporal bone Lacrimal fossa Zygomatic process Zygomatic bone Lambdoid suture Coronoid Occipital bone process Maxilla External occipital Alveolar protuberance Occipitomastoid margins suture Mandible Mental foramen External acoustic meatus Mandibular notch Mastoid process Styloid Mandibular Mandibular ramus condyle process Mandibular angle (b) Photograph of right side of skull Figure 7.6a Inferior Aspect of the Skull Maxilla Incisive fossa Occipital Bone Hard palate (palatine process) Palatine bone Intermaxillary suture Median palatine suture Infraorbital foramen (horizontal plate) Maxilla Zygomatic bone Sphenoid bone •  Forms the posterior portion of the Vomer (greater wing) Pterygoid process cranium and cranial base Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum •  Articulates with the temporal bones and Mandibular fossa Foramen lacerum Carotid canal parietal bones Styloid process External acoustic meatus Stylomastoid Mastoid process foramen •  Forms the posterior cranial fossa Temporal bone (petrous part) Jugular foramen Occipital condyle •  Foramen magnum located at its base Basilar part of the occipital bone Inferior nuchal line Occipital bone Superior nuchal line External occipital crest External occipital Foramen magnum protuberance (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Figure 7.4b 5 . 9/19/10 Cranial & Facial Bones of Skull Cranial and Facial Bones of Skull Frontal bone Parietal bone Glabella Squamous part Frontonasal suture of frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Nasal bone (notch) Sphenoid bone Supraorbital margin (greater wing) Superior orbital fissure Temporal bone Optic canal Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Inferior orbital fissure Zygomatic bone Middle nasal concha Infraorbital foramen Ethmoid Perpendicular plate bone Maxilla Inferior nasal concha Vomer Mandible Mental foramen Mental protuberance (a) Anterior view of skull Figure 7.

and mastoid regions Lateral Aspect of the Skull The Temporal Bone Frontal bone Coronal suture Sphenoid bone (greater wing) Parietal bone Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone External acoustic Squamous suture Squamous Nasal bone meatus Temporal bone region Lacrimal fossa Mastoid Zygomatic process Zygomatic region bone Lambdoid suture Coronoid Occipital bone process Maxilla External occipital Alveolar protuberance Occipitomastoid margins suture Mandible Mental foramen Zygomatic External acoustic meatus Mandibular process notch Mandibular Mastoid process Styloid Mastoid process Mandibular Mandibular ramus fossa condyle process Mandibular angle Styloid process Tympanic (b) Photograph of right side of skull region Figure 7.4b Figure 7.5 Lateral aspect of skull Temporal Bones •  Lie inferior to parietal bones •  Form the inferolateral portion of the skull •  Term “temporal” comes from Latin word for time •  Specific regions of temporal bone – Squamous. petrous. 9/19/10 The Skull— Posterior View Sagittal suture Occipital Bone Parietal bone •  Features and structures Sutural bone – Occipital condyles Lambdoid suture – Hypoglossal foramen Occipital bone – External occipital protuberance Superior nuchal line – Superior nuchal lines External occipital – Inferior nuchal lines protuberance Inferior nuchal line External occipital crest Occipital Occipitomastoid condyle suture Figure 7.8 6 . temporal.

holds the the •  Contains five important openings pituitary gland (= hypophysis) •  Is the “keystone” of the cranium 7 . 9/19/10 The Temporal Bone Cranial cavity floor •  The mastoid process – Site for neck muscle attachment – Contains air sinuses •  Petrous region (Fig 7.9) – Jugular foramen • At boundary with occipital bone – Carotid canal – Formane lacerum – Internal accoustic meatus The Sphenoid Bone The Sphenoid Bone Body •  Spans the width of the cranial floor •  The superior part of the body bears a •  Resembles a butterfly or bat saddle-shaped prominence called a •  Has of a body sella turcica •  The seat of this “saddle” holds the •  Has three pairs of processes hypophyseal fossa . contributes to cranial base – Appears as a boney wedge between occipetal bone posteriorly and sphenoid bone anteriorly – Houses cavities of middle and internal ear •  Contributes to the middle and posterior cranial fossae Cranial cavity floor The Temporal Bone •  Foramina of the temporal bone (Fig 7.9) – Projects medially.

10b Cranial cavity floor Lateral aspect of skull 8 .10a The Sphenoid Bone The Sphenoid Bone Body of sphenoid Lesser Openings (Figs 7. 7.9 Figure 7.10) wing Superior •  Optic canal: lies just anterior to sella tursica orbital fissure •  Superior orbital fissure: long slit between greater Greater wing and lesser wings Pterygoid process •  Foramen rotundum: in medial part of greater wing •  Foramen ovale: posteriolateral to foramen rotundum •  Foramen spinosum: posteriolateral to foramen ovale (b) Posterior view Figure 7.9. 9/19/10 The Sphenoid Bone The Sphenoid Bone Processes (Fig 7.10) Optic Lesser wing •  Greater wings canal •  Lesser wings Greater •  Pterygoid processes wing Foramen rotundum Foramen ovale Sella Foramen spinosum turcica Body of sphenoid (a) Superior view. as in Figure 7.

9/19/10 Cranial & Facial Bones of Skull The Ethmoid Bone Frontal bone Parietal bone Squamous part Glabella Frontonasal suture •  Lies between nasal and sphenoid of frontal bone Nasal bone Supraorbital foramen (notch) bones Sphenoid bone Supraorbital margin (greater wing) Temporal bone Superior orbital fissure Optic canal •  Forms most of the medial bony region Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Inferior orbital fissure between the nasal cavity and orbits Zygomatic bone Middle nasal concha Infraorbital foramen Ethmoid Perpendicular plate bone Maxilla Inferior nasal concha Vomer Mandible Mental foramen Mental protuberance (a) Anterior view of skull Figure 7.6a Midsagittal section through skull Midsagittal section through skull 9 .6a Lateral aspect of skull Cranial & Facial Bones of Skull Frontal bone Parietal bone Glabella Squamous part Frontonasal suture of frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Nasal bone (notch) Sphenoid bone Supraorbital margin (greater wing) Superior orbital fissure Temporal bone Optic canal Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Inferior orbital fissure Zygomatic bone Middle nasal concha Infraorbital foramen Ethmoid Perpendicular plate bone Maxilla Inferior nasal concha Vomer Mandible Mental foramen Mental protuberance (a) Anterior view of skull Figure 7.

falx cerebri is large vertical sheet which Orbital lies in between cerebral hemispheres plate Left lateral mass •  Perpendicular plate—forms superior Ethmoidal part of nasal septum air cells Perpendicular Middle plate nasal concha Figure 7. 9/19/10 The Ethmoid Bone The Ethmoid Bone •  Cribiform plate—superior surface of the ethmoid bone Crista galli Cribriform – Contain olfactory foramina Olfactory plate foramina •  Crista galli—attachment for falx cerebri.12 Bones of Nasal Cavity The Ethmoid Bone •  Lateral masses—contain air cells •  Superior and middle nasal conchae – Extend medially from lateral masses Bones of Nasal Cavity Facial Bones •  Unpaired bones – Mandible and vomer •  Paired bones – Maxillae – Zygomatic bones – Nasal bones – Lacrimal bones – Palatine bones – Inferior nasal conchae 10 .

7a 11 . 9/19/10 Facial Bones Parietal bone Frontal bone Glabella Mandible Squamous part Frontonasal suture of frontal bone Supraorbital foramen Nasal bone Sphenoid bone (notch) •  The lower jawbone is the largest and Supraorbital margin (greater wing) Temporal bone Superior orbital fissure strongest facial bone Optic canal Ethmoid bone Lacrimal bone Inferior orbital fissure •  Composed of two main parts Zygomatic bone Infraorbital foramen Middle nasal concha Ethmoid – Horizontal body Perpendicular plate bone Maxilla Inferior nasal concha – Two upright rami Vomer Mandible Mental foramen Mental protuberance (a) Anterior view of skull Figure 7.6a Mandible Mandibular fossa Temporomandibular joint of temporal bone Coronoid Maxillary Bones Mandibular notch process Mandibular condyle •  Articulate with all other facial bones Mandibular foramen except the mandible •  Contain maxillary sinuses—largest paranasal sinuses Alveolar Ramus margin •  Forms part of the inferior orbital fissure of Mental mandible foramen •  Are the “keystone” bones of the face Mandibular angle Body of mandible (a) Mandible.13a Maxillary Bones Maxilla Maxillary Bones Incisive fossa (palatine process) Intermaxillary suture Hard Median palatine suture palate Palatine bone (horizontal plate) Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Zygomatic bone Sphenoid bone Articulates with (greater wing) frontal bone Vomer Pterygoid process Frontal process Foramen ovale Temporal bone Orbital surface (zygomatic process) Foramen spinosum Foramen lacerum Mandibular fossa Carotid canal External acoustic meatus Infraorbital Styloid process Zygomatic Stylomastoid process foramen Mastoid process foramen Temporal bone Jugular foramen (cut) Anterior nasal spine (petrous part) Occipital condyle Basilar part of Alveolar the occipital bone Inferior nuchal line margin Occipital bone Superior nuchal line External occipital crest External occipital Foramen magnum (b) Maxilla.13b Figure 7. right lateral view protuberance (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Figure 7. right lateral view Figure 7.

14a Maxilla Maxillary Bones Incisive fossa Other Bones of the Face Hard palate (palatine process) Palatine bone Intermaxillary suture Median palatine suture (horizontal plate) Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Zygomatic bone Sphenoid bone •  Vomer Vomer (greater wing) Pterygoid process – Forms the inferior part of the nasal septum Temporal bone (zygomatic process) Foramen ovale Foramen spinosum •  Inferior nasal conchae Mandibular fossa Foramen lacerum Carotid canal External acoustic meatus – Thin. 9/19/10 Nasal Cavity Frontal sinus Other Bones of the Face Superior. and inferior meatus Superior nasal concha Ethmoid Middle bone nasal concha •  Zygomatic bones Inferior nasal concha Nasal bone – Form lateral wall of orbits •  Nasal bones – Form bridge of nose Anterior nasal spine •  Lacrimal bones Maxillary bone Sphenoid (palatine process) – Located in the medial orbital walls Sphenoid sinus bone Pterygoid •  Palatine bones process Palatine bone Palatine bone – Complete the posterior part of the hard (perpendicular (horizontal plate) plate) palate (a) Bones forming the left lateral wall of the nasal cavity (nasal septum removed) Figure 7.14b 12 . and septal cartilage Figure 7.7a Nasal Septum Crista galli Special Parts of the Skull Ethmoid bone Cribriform plate Frontal sinus •  Orbits Nasal bone Sella turcica •  Nasal cavity Perpendicular •  Paranasal sinuses Sphenoid sinus plate of ethmoid bone •  Hyoid bone Septal cartilage Vomer Palatine bone Hard Palatine process Alveolar margin palate of maxilla of maxilla (b) Nasal cavity with septum in place showing the contributions of the ethmoid bone. the vomer. curved bones that project medially Styloid process Stylomastoid Mastoid process foramen form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity Temporal bone Jugular foramen (petrous part) Occipital condyle Basilar part of the occipital bone Inferior nuchal line Occipital bone Superior nuchal line External occipital crest External occipital Foramen magnum protuberance (a) Inferior view of the skull (mandible removed) Figure 7. middle.

9/19/10 Paranasal Sinuses Paranasal Sinuses Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells (sinus) Sphenoid sinus Maxillary •  Air-filled sinuses are located within sinus – Frontal bone – Ethmoid bone (a) Anterior aspect – Sphenoid bone Frontal sinus – Maxillary bones Ethmoidal air cells Sphenoid •  Lined with mucous membrane sinus Maxillary sinus •  Lighten the skull (b) Medial aspect Figure 7. b Orbit walls Orbit •  Roof •  Lateral wall •  Medial wall •  Floor Orbit walls formed by parts of Orbits seven bones •  Frontal •  Sphenoid •  Zygomatic •  Maxillary •  Palatine •  Lacrimal •  Ethmoid 13 .15a.

19a.17 The Vertebral Column The Vertebral Column •  Formed from 26 bones in the adult •  Serves as attachment sites for muscles •  Transmits weight of trunk to the lower of the neck and back limbs •  Held in place by ligaments •  Surrounds and protects the spinal cord – Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments – Ligamentum flavum Ligaments of the Spine The Vertebral Column C1 2 Cervical curvature Intervertebral 3 (concave) 4 Supraspinous ligament disc 7 vertebrae. C1 – C7 5 Transverse process Anterior 6 longitudinal 7 ligament Sectioned T1 Spinous spinous process 2 process Intervertebral foramen Posterior longitudinal 3 Transverse Ligamentum flavum ligament 4 processes Interspinous ligament Anulus fibrosus 5 Thoracic Nucleus pulposus 6 curvature (convex) Inferior articular process Sectioned body 7 of vertebra 12 vertebrae. illustrating the composition ligament of the discs and the ligaments 9 Intervertebral 10 discs 11 Anterior longitudinal Intervertebral ligament 12 foramen L1 2 Lumbar curvature 3 Body of a vertebra (concave) 4 5 vertebrae. L1 – L5 Intervertebral disc 5 Sacral curvature (convex) 5 fused vertebrae sacrum (b) Anterior view of part of the spinal column Coccyx Anterior view 4 fused vertebrae Right lateral view Figure 7. b Figure 7.18 14 . Posterior longitudinal 8 T1 – T12 (a) Median section of three vertebrae. 9/19/10 The Hyoid Bone Orbit wall openings •  Associated with skull but not directly in •  Superior orbital fissures contact with any other bone •  Inferior orbital fissures •  Lies inferior to the •  Optic canals mandible in anterior •  Lacrimal fossa neck Greater horn Lesser horn •  The only bone with no direct articulation with Body any other bone •  Acts as a movable base for the tongue Figure 7.

9/19/10 Regions and Normal Regions and Normal Curvatures Curvatures •  The Vertebral column has five major •  Curvatures of the spine regions – Cervical and lumbar curvatures – 7 cervical vertebrae of the neck region • Concave posteriorly – 12 thoracic vertebrae – Thoracic and sacral curvatures – 5 lumbar vertebrae • Convex posteriority – Sacrum—five fused bones – Coccyx—inferior to sacrum The Vertebral Column C1 2 3 Cervical curvature (concave) Regions and Normal Curvatures 4 7 vertebrae. illustrating the composition of the discs and the ligaments Posterior longitudinal ligament intervertebral discs Anterior longitudinal • Prevents hyperextension ligament – Posterior longitudinal ligament Body of a vertebra • Narrow and relatively weak Intervertebral disc • Attaches to intervertebral discs (b) Anterior view of part of the spinal column Figure 7.19a. b 15 .18 Ligaments of the Spine Ligaments of the Spine Supraspinous ligament Intervertebral disc Transverse process Anterior longitudinal ligament Sectioned •  Major supporting ligaments spinous process Intervertebral foramen Ligamentum flavum Posterior longitudinal ligament – Anterior longitudinal ligament Interspinous Anulus fibrosus ligament Nucleus pulposus Inferior articular process Sectioned body • Attaches to bony vertebrae and (a) of vertebra Median section of three vertebrae. L1 – L5 5 Sacral curvature (convex) 5 fused vertebrae sacrum Coccyx Anterior view 4 fused vertebrae Right lateral view Figure 7. 8 9 T1 – T12 Intervertebral – Primary curvatures 10 discs 11 Intervertebral • Present at birth 12 foramen L1 •  Lumbar curvature 2 Lumbar 3 curvature (concave) – Develops when baby begins to walk 4 5 vertebrae. C1 – C7 5 6 7 T1 Spinous process •  Curvatures increase resilience of spine 2 3 Transverse 4 processes Thoracic •  Thoracic and sacral curvatures 5 6 curvature (convex) 7 12 vertebrae.

9/19/10 Intervertebral Discs Intervertebral Discs •  Cushion-like pads between vertebrae •  Nucleus pulposus – Composed of – Gelatinous inner sphere • Nucleus pulposus – Absorbs compressive stresses • Anulus fibrosus •  Anulus fibrosus – Outer fings formed of ligament – Inner rings formed of fibrocartilage – Contain the nucleus pulposus Intervertebral Discs of Spine General Structure of Vertebrae Posterior Herniated Intervertebral Disc Transverse Lamina Spinous Vertebral arch process Vertebral spinous process process (posterior aspect of vertebra) Spinal cord Spinal nerve root Nucleus pulposus of intact disc Transverse Superior process articular Herniated portion process of disc and facet Anulus fibrosus of disc Nucleus Pedicle pulposus Herniated nucleus pulposus Vertebral of disc foramen (c) Superior view of a herniated intervertebral disc (d) MRI of lumbar region of vertebral column in sagittal section showing normal and herniated discs Body (centrum) Anterior PLAY Spine (horizontal) Figure 7.19c.20 Ligaments of the Spine General Structure of Vertebrae Intervertebral Supraspinous ligament disc Transverse process Anterior longitudinal ligament Sectioned •  Common structures to all regions spinous process Intervertebral foramen Ligamentum flavum Posterior longitudinal ligament – Body Interspinous Anulus fibrosus ligament Nucleus pulposus Inferior articular process Sectioned body – Vertebral arch (a) of vertebra Median section of three vertebrae. d Figure 7. b 16 .19a. illustrating the composition Posterior longitudinal ligament of the discs and the ligaments – Vertebral foramen Anterior longitudinal – Spinous process ligament – Transverse process – Superior and inferior articular processes Body of a vertebra Intervertebral disc – Intervertebral foramina (b) Anterior view of part of the spinal column Figure 7.

22a Table 7. 9/19/10 Regions Vertebral Cervical Vertebrae Characteristics •  Seven cervical vertebrae (C1– C7) •  Specific regions of the spine perform are the lightest vertebrae in the specific functions spine •  Types of movement that may occur between vertebrae – Flexion and extension – Lateral flexion – Rotation in the long axis Cervical Vertebrae Cervical Vertebrae Dens of axis Transverse ligament of atlas C1 (atlas) C2 (axis) C3 Inferior articular process Bifid spinous process Transverse processes C7 (vertebra prominens) (a) Cervical vertebrae Figure 7.21a 17 .2a The Atlas The Atlas Posterior C1 Posterior tubercle •  C1 is termed the atlas Posterior arch •  Lacks a body and spinous process Lateral masses •  Supports the skull Transverse foramen – Superior articular facets receive the occipital condyles Superior articular •  Allows flexion and extension of neck facet Anterior arch – Nodding the head “yes” Anterior tubercle (a) Superior view of atlas (C1) Figure 7.

21c Cervical Vertebrae Cervical Vertebrae C3 – C7 Dens of axis Transverse ligament •  Body: small and wide laterally (side to side) of atlas C1 (atlas) •  Spinous process: short and bifid (except C7) and C2 (axis) project posteriorally C3 •  Vertebral foramen: triangular and large Inferior articular •  Transverse processes contain foramina process Bifid spinous •  Superior facets directed superposteriorly process •  Inferior facets directed inferoanteriorly Transverse processes •  Spine region with the greatest range of motion with the following movement allowed: flexion & C7 (vertebra prominens) extension.22a 18 . lateral flexion.21b The Axis The Axis C2 Posterior •  Has a body and spinous process Spinous process •  Dens (odontoid process) projects superiorly Inferior Lamina – Formed from fusion of the body of the atlas with articular the axis process Pedicle – Acts as a pivot for rotation of the atlas and skull – Participates in rotating the head from side to Superior side Transverse articular facet process Dens Body (c) Superior view of axis (C2) Figure 7. 9/19/10 The Skull— Posterior View The Atlas Sagittal suture C1 Posterior Posterior Posterior tubercle Parietal bone arch Inferior Sutural bone Transverse articular Lambdoid process Lateral facet suture masses Occipital bone Superior nuchal line External occipital Transverse foramen Anterior protuberance arch Inferior nuchal line Facet for dens Anterior tubercle External occipital crest (b) Inferior view of atlas (C1) Occipital Occipitomastoid condyle suture Figure 7. rotation (a) Cervical vertebrae Figure 7.5 Figure 7.

so each vertebrae has a total of six facets which interface with ribs •  Usually. Thoracic. Thoracic. Thoracic. & Lumbar Vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Thoracic Vertebrae Costal Facets of Thoracic Vertebrae which interface with ribs •  All articulate with ribs •  Inferior costal facet for head of rib •  Body: larger than cervical bodies and heart- •  Superior costal facet for head of rib shaped from superior view •  Transverse costal facet for tubercle of rib (except •  Spinous processes are long and point for T11 – T12) inferiorly •  Each of these above three facets are present on •  Vertebral foramen are circular both sides of vertebrae. the head of a rib is attached to the bodies of two vertebrae. & Lumbar Vertebrae Superior View Right Lateral View Cervical. 9/19/10 Cervical. the inferior costal facet of the superior vertebra and the superior costal facet of the inferior vertebra 19 . & Lumbar Vertebrae Cervical.

2b 20 . Thoracic. posterior view Transverse costal facet (for tubercle of rib) Angle Superior costal facet of rib (for head of rib) Body of vertebra Head of rib Intervertebral disc Neck of rib Tubercle of rib Shaft Sternum Cross- section of rib Costal groove Costal cartilage (b) Vertebral and sternal articulations of a typical true rib Figure 7.25c Thoracic Vertebrae Thoracic vertebrae Table 7. b Ribs Articular facet Connections between Thoracic on tubercle of rib Spinous process Vertebral Bodies Shaft •  Laterally each side of the vertebral body bears two facets (demifacets).25a. & Lumbar Vertebrae Facets for articulation Articular facet with vertebrae Head Neck on tubercle Shaft Right Lateral View Ribs Junction with Costal groove Costal angle costal cartilage (a) A typical rib (rib 6. right). 9/19/10 Cervical. one at the superior edge and one at the inferior edge Transverse Ligaments costal facet •  These demifacets interface with vertebral (for tubercle of rib) bodies above and below Neck of rib Body of •  Superior articular facets point posteriorly Head of rib thoracic Superior costal facet vertebra •  Inferior articular processes point anteriorly (for head of rib) •  Allows rotation and limits flexion and (c) Superior view of the articulation between a rib and a extension thoracic vertebra Figure 7.

Thoracic. & Lumbar Vertebrae Cervical. & Lumbar Vertebrae Superior View Right Lateral View The Thoracic Cage The Thoracic Cage Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium •  Forms the framework of the chest Sternal angle Body •  Components True Xiphisternal Sternum joint ribs Xiphoid – Thoracic vertebrae—posteriorly (1–7 process – Ribs—laterally – Sternum and costal cartilage—anteriorly •  Protects thoracic organs False •  Supports shoulder girdle and upper limbs ribs (8–12) •  Provides attachment sites for muscles Intercostal spaces L1 Vertebra Costal cartilage Floating ribs (11. 12) Costal margin (a) Skeleton of the thoracic cage. Thoracic.24a The Thoracic Cage Sternum T2 Jugular notch T3 T4 Sternal angle •  Formed from three sections – Manubrium—superior section • Articulates with medial end of clavicles – Body—bulk of sternum Heart • Sides are notched at articulations for T9 Xiphisternal costal cartilage of ribs 2–7 joint – Xiphoid process—inferior end of sternum (b) Midsagittal section through the thorax. 9/19/10 Cervical.24b 21 . anterior view Figure 7. showing • Ossifies around age 40 the relationship of surface anatomical landmarks of the thorax to the vertebral column Figure 7.

12) (a) Skeleton of the thoracic cage.24a Shaft Facets for articulation with vertebrae Head Neck Articular facet on tubercle Ribs Articular facet on tubercle of rib Spinous process Ribs Shaft Costal angle Junction with costal cartilage Costal groove Transverse (a) A typical rib (rib 6.25a. right). b Figure 7.25c 22 . 12) Vertebra Costal margin • Lies at the level of the 9th thoracic (a) Skeleton of the thoracic cage. posterior view Ligaments costal facet Transverse costal facet (for tubercle (for tubercle of rib) Angle Superior costal facet of rib) Neck of rib of rib (for head of rib) Body of vertebra Head of rib Intervertebral disc Head of rib Body of Neck of rib thoracic Tubercle of rib Superior costal facet vertebra Shaft Sternum (for head of rib) Cross- section of rib (c) Superior view of the articulation between a rib and a Costal groove Costal cartilage (b) Vertebral and sternal articulations of a typical true rib thoracic vertebra Figure 7. (vertebrochondral ribs)— pairs of ribs which attach to the sternum indirectly – Ribs pairs 11–12 (floating ribs) are not False attached to the sternum ribs (8–12) – Ribs 8-12 are sometimes called false ribs Intercostal spaces because they attach to the sternum indirectly L1 Vertebra Costal cartilage (ribs 8-10) or not at all (ribs 11-12) Floating ribs (11.24a vertebra The Thoracic Cage Ribs Jugular notch Clavicular notch Manubrium •  All ribs attach to vertebral column posteriorly Sternal angle Body Sternum – Rib pairs 1-7 (vertebrosternal ribs) . anterior view Figure 7.superior True Xiphisternal joint seven pairs of ribs which attach to sternum by ribs (1–7 Xiphoid process costal cartilage – Rib pairs 8-10. anterior view Costal margin Figure 7. 9/19/10 The Thoracic Cage Jugular notch Clavicular notch Sternum Manubrium Sternal angle •  Anatomical landmarks Body Xiphisternal Sternum – Jugular notch True joint ribs (1–7 Xiphoid • Central indentation at superior border of process the manubrium – Sternal angle • A horizontal ridge where the manubrium joins the body False ribs – Xiphisternal joint (8–12) Intercostal • Where sternal body and xiphoid process L1 spaces fuse Costal cartilage Floating ribs (11.

Thoracic.2c Cervical. and point process posteriorly Intervertebral disc •  Vertebral foramina are triangular •  Superior articular facets face posteromedially or Inferior medially articular process •  Inferior articular facets face anterolaterally or Spinous laterally process •  Allows flexion and extension—rotation prevented (c) Lumbar vertebrae Figure 7. blunt.22c Lumbar Vertebrae Cervical. & Lumbar Vertebrae Superior View Table 7. 9/19/10 Lumbar Vertebrae Lumbar Vertebrae (L1—L5) Superior •  Bodies are thick and robust articular process •  Transverse processes are thin and tapered Transverse Body •  Spinous processes are thick. Thoracic. & Lumbar Vertebrae Sacrum (S1—S5) Right Lateral View •  Shapes the posterior wall of pelvis •  Formed from 5 fused vertebrae •  Superior surface articulates with L5 •  Inferiorly articulates with coccyx 23 .

23 Sacrum (S1—S5) Posterior View Sacrum •  On the posterior surface in the midline is the bumpy median sacral crest which represents •  Sacral foramina the fused spinous processes of the sacral – Ventral foramina vertebrae •  Lateral to the medial sacral crest are the • Passage for ventral rami of sacral spinal posterior sacral foramina which transmit the nerves dorsal rami of the sacral spinal nerves – Dorsal foramina •  Just lateral to these is the lateral sacral crest • Passage for dorsal rami of sacral spinal •  Ala (“wing”)—develops from fused rib elements nerves Sacrum Sacral promontory Body Facet of superior Coccyx Sacral canal articular process Ala Body of •  Is the “tailbone” first Auricular sacral vertebra surface •  Formed from 3—5 fused vertebrae Transverse Median Lateral sacral •  Offers only slight support to pelvic ridges (sites of vertebral fusion) Anterior sacral crest Posterior crest organs sacral Apex sacral foramina foramina Sacral Coccyx hiatus Coccyx (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view Figure 7. 9/19/10 Sacrum (S1—S5) Anterior View Sacrum •  Sacral promontory: Where the Sacral promontory Sacral Body Facet of superior articular process anterosuperior margin of the first sacral Ala canal vertebrae bulges into pelvic cavity Body of first Auricular surface •  Human body’s center of gravity is 1 cm sacral vertebra posterior to sacral promontory Transverse Median Lateral sacral •  Four transverse ridges cross the anterior ridges (sites sacral crest of vertebral crest fusion) Anterior Posterior surface of the sacrum.23 24 . marking the lines of Apex sacral foramina sacral foramina fusion of sacral vertebrae Coccyx Coccyx Sacral hiatus •  The anterior sacral foramina transmit the (a) Anterior view (b) Posterior view ventral divisions (ventral rami) of the sacral spinal nerves Figure 7.

and sphenoidal development fontanelles •  Bone tissue grows outward from •  Allows skull to be safely compressed and molded ossification centers as infant passes through narrow birth canal •  At birth. the anterior fontanelle may take 1.5 to 2 years to ossify and close 25 . mastoid. posterior. “swayback” The Axial Skeleton Throughout Life Fontanelles •  Fontanelles are unossified remnants of •  Flat membrane bones begin to ossify in membranes present at birth second month of embryonic •  Anterior. skull bones are separated by •  A visible arterial pulse may be seen in the fontanelles still-unossified remnants of membranes •  Fontanelles tend to be replaced by bone by the call fontanelles end of the 1st year. however. 9/19/10 Disorders of the Axial Cleft palate Skeleton •  Cleft palate – A common congenital disorder – Right and left halves of palate fail to fuse medially •  Stenosis of the lumbar spine – Narrowing of the vertebral canal – Can compress roots of spinal nerves Disorders of the Axial Abnormal spinal curvatures Skeleton •  Abnormal spinal curvatures – Scoliosis—an abnormal lateral curvature – Kyphosis—an exaggerated thoracic curvature – Lordosis—an accentuated lumbar curvature.

loss of a few centimeters in height is common – Thorax becomes more rigid as costal cartilage gradually ossifies – Bones lose mass with age 26 . large permanent teeth. – Sphenoid cheekbones.28a Figure 7.28b Bone formation Skull and face growth •  Many bones of the face and skullcap •  9 months of age: skull ½ adult size form by intramembranous ossification •  2 years of age: skull ¾ adult size •  Endochondral bones of the skull •  8-9 years: cranium almost adult size – Occipital bone •  6-13 years: accelerated growth of jaws. 9/19/10 Fontanelles Fontanelles Frontal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Frontal bone Anterior fontanelle Ossification Sphenoidal center fontanelle Posterior Temporal bone fontanelle (squamous Ossification portion) center Parietal bone Mastoid fontanelle Posterior fontanelle Occipital bone Occipital (b) Lateral view bone (a) Superior view Figure 7. – Ethmoid bones nose. and paranasal sinuses – Parts of the temporal bone The Axial Skeleton Throughout Life •  Aging of the axial skeleton – Water content of the intervertebral discs decreases with age – By age 55.