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Hybrid and

Incompatible
Finite Element
Methods

© 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

LLC . and Eugen Soós CONTINUUM MECHANICS AND PLASTICITY by Han-Chin Wu HYBRID AND INCOMPATIBLE FINITE ELEMENT METHODS by Theodore H. CRC S ERIES: M ODERN M ECHANICS AND M ATHEMATICS Series Editors: David Gao and Ray W. Eduard-Marius Craciun.H. Ogden PU BLIS H E D TITLE S BEYOND PERTURBATION: INTRODUCTION TO THE HOMOTOPY ANALYSIS METHOD by Shijun Liao MECHANICS OF ELASTIC COMPOSITES by Nicolaie Dan Cristescu. Pian and Chang-Chun Wu FO RTH CO MIN G TITLE MICROSTRUCTURAL RANDOMNESS IN MECHANICS OF MATERIALS by Martin Ostroja Starzewski © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.

Pian Chang-Chun Wu Boca Raton London New York © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. H. Hybrid and Incompatible Finite Element Methods Theodore H. LLC .

H. Chang-Chun.001'51825--dc22 2004063406 Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site at http://www. 4.S. please access www. or utilized in any form by any electronic. Finite element method.taylorandfrancis. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Pian. H. and sources are indicated. Reprinted material is quoted with permission. No part of this book may be reprinted.com © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. 978-750-8400. paper) 1. -. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. or other means. Chang-Chun Wu. microfilming. LLC Chapman & Hall/CRC is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group No claim to original U. ISBN 1-58488-276-X (alk. 1919- Hybrid and incompatible finite element methods / Theodore H. I. without written permission from the publishers. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information. including photocopying.copyright. transmitted.(Modern mechanics and mathematics . CRC series--modern mechanics and mathematics .com Taylor & Francis Group and the CRC Press Web site at is the Academic Division of Informa plc. II. a separate system of payment has been arranged. Wu. http://www.Published in 2006 by Chapman & Hall/CRC Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW. and recording. but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. MA 01923. For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work. or in any information storage or retrieval system. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC. FL 33487-2742 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Suite 300 Boca Raton.crcpress. A wide variety of references are listed. cm. Theodore H.F5P53 2005 620'. Danvers.com (http://www. Inc. Title. now known or hereafter invented. p. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number-10: 1-58488-276-X (Hardcover) International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-58488-276-3 (Hardcover) Library of Congress Card Number 2004063406 This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. (CCC) 222 Rosewood Drive. mechanical. and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.copyright. 4) Includes bibliographical references and index. LLC . TA347.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center.. reproduced. Pian. III.

Chapter 9 presents the application to the computational materials such as composite plates. piezoelectric materials. Thus. The majority of the content of this book is the result of the authors’ research. Another example is that many engi- neers and mathematicians consider the uniqueness of multivariable (B-B condition) too abstract and not practical. developed since the early 1960s have been central topics for engineers and mathematicians. Chapter 7 addresses the application to fracture problems. and mixed element. An implementation of a finite element analysis program is provided in Chapter 8. Chapters 2 through 6 discuss fundamental theories. The incompatible element. convergence. one impor- tant issue in this area is to determine the reliability for the solution of the incompatible multivarible elements (that is. The homoginization approach is also presented. The theory and application of finite element methods are not limited to ordinary compatible displacement methods. systematically demonstrating the theoretical foundations of incom- patible elements and their application to different typical problems in the theory of elasticity and plasticity. in which a series of advanced imcompatible elements and the hybrid ones are included. LLC . However. establishing the theory of zero- energy deformation mode. the uniqueness. and bimaterial interface problems. For example. and adoptivity to the computing environment). Chapter 1 is an introduction of the variational formulation of finite element methods in solid mechanics. v © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. it is a very important task to reduce the numerical stability theory and abstract mathematics to a tool in mechanics. and studies the numerical stability of the hybrid and mixed elements. where a bound analysis for fracture parameters is presented. but until now there have not been any available equations for determining functions for incompatible elements. the conver- gence problem of incompatible elements was resolved in the early 1970s. These chapters also introduce new ideas in the development of hybrid finite elements.Preface The purpose of this book is to introduce the advancement of the theory and applications of incompatible and multivariable finite element methods. In Chapter 10. a finite element program is completely presented. hybrid element.

Miao-Lin Feng for providing new meaningful materials. Ying-Qing Huang providing the finite element computer program that carries out the analyses for the theory presented in Chapters 2 through 6.Acknowledgments We appreciate Dr. The support provided by the National Science Foundation of China is also gratefully acknowledged. We would like to thank Dr. We also thank Dr. vii © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. We sincerely value Liu Jinghua’s work on this book. Lei Li who composed the manu- scripts. Qi-Zi Xiao and Dr. especially his assistance with the editing. LLC .

Chang-Chun Wu.Authors Theodore H. Pian began teaching at MIT. Ramm and his institute at the University of Stuttgart on incompatible numerical models. where he received a Ph.D. In 2001. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Aeronautical Engineering. in physics in 1987. Wu was honored by the Alexander von Homboldt Foundation (AvH). retiring as a full professor in 1989. Dr. H. Pian worked for several aircraft manufacturing companies in both China and the United States. G. Ph.D. he was invited as a JSPS-Research Fellow to visit the University of Tokyo by Professor G. In 1948. He was appointed lecturer at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in 1982. During his long career. H. Pian is a Fellow of the American Society of Aeronautics and Astronautics and a winner of the Von Karman Memorial prize in 1974. Ph. including the Institute of Structural Engi- neering with Professor Bufler and the Institute of Civil Engineering with Professor E. Huang at USTC. His current ix © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Dr. Dr. In 1996 and 2002. and Europe. he was appointed associate professor at USTC and in 1993 he was appointed as full professor. Dr. Japan. Dr. Pian. he moved to Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). He holds honorary doctoral degrees from Beijing University and Shanghai University in China. Pian at MIT in the United States and Professor M. After graduating from MIT. On numerous occasions he was invited to visit the University of Hong Kong to work with Professor Y. His most important research contribution was developed in the 1950s when he developed the Hybrid Element Method for the derivation of element stiffness matrices. Wu spent many years as a visiting professor in many international institutes. where he has rebuilt his Computational Engineering Sciences Laboratory. He once again worked with Professor E. LLC . Yagawa to work in the field of computational fractures and computational materials. His supervisors were Professor T. Ramm.D. In 1982. Pian obtained his undergraduate degree from Tsing Hua University in 1940 and later his Master’s and Ph. Wu has authored 150 papers in the field of computational engineering science and an academic book on finite elements. Dr. China. Dr. Cheung.. Pian traveled widely as a visiting professor in the United States.. is Professor Emeritus in Aeronautics and Astro- nautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).D. Dr. K. received a Bachelor of Science degree in civil engi- neering and Master’s of Science in solid mechanics at Hefei Polytechnic University. H.

Wu has been the recipient of a number of academic honors and awards. Pian Medal from ICES.. and a current member and editor of Computational Mechanics. LLC . He is a former member of the Council on Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. Eng. which include failure analysis and engineering safety estimation. H. and in 1997 he received the National Nature Science Award in China. and a senior member of IMS. He received the 1992 T.x Authors research interests include the field of high-performance numerical models and numerical approaches. the 1988 and 1993 Science Awards from the Chinese Academy of Sciences. © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. Dr. and Sci. computational materials and computational frac- tures. NSU in Singapore. H. Comput. a member of GAMM and EURMECH. He is also a founding member of the Institute of Soc.

.... 10 1.. 15 1..........................................................2.......... 13 1.................... 4 1....................7 Hybrid Strain Finite Elements.................................... 11 1. LLC ............................ 33 2..................5 Consistency and Patch Test Condition (PTC) .... 35 2......... 38 2...............6............6 Generation of Incompatible Functions: General Formulation ..... 10 1.......Contents Chapter 1 Variational Formulation of Finite Element Methods in Solid Mechanics 1................................7 Relaxation of the PTC: The Revised-Stiffness Approach........................................ 5 1...............9 Equivalent Nodal Load and Recovery of Stress .....1 Introduction ...............................................................2 Equations for 3-D Elasticity .............................2 Elements with a priori Satisfaction of Equilibrium and Compatibility Conditions .......................... 45 References ........ 48 xi © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group....................................3 Formulation Based on the Hellinger–Reissner Variational Principle ............................ 17 Chapter 2 Foundation of Incompatible Analysis 2.......... 40 2. 21 2.......... 17 References ........... 15 1.5 Assumed Displacement Finite Elements . 6 1............3 Weak Connection Condition of Incompatible Elements....................9 Hybrid Displacement Finite Elements ........................................ 11 1...........................................................................................6..6......8 The PTC in Curvilinear Coordinates ...............2 Energy Inequality and Elliptic Conditions........................................................... 1 1......................................................................................4 Numerical Stability of Incompatible Elements....................................................................8 Hybrid Finite Elements by the Hu–Washizu Principle ............. 21 2.............................. 2 1......................................................1 Formulation Based on the Principle of Minimum Complementary Energy .......................................................................................................................4 Modified Variational Principles for Relaxed Continuity or Equilibrium Conditions along Interelement Boundaries........1 Introduction ..................6 Assumed Stress Hybrid Finite Elements... 29 2............... 25 2.......................................................................1 Hybrid Trefftz Elements ....3 Conventional Variational Principles in Solid Mechanics ..............................6....

... 51 3.................................................................. 96 4..........1 Four-Node Plane Hybrid Element.............................5.................................... 67 3.................. 57 3... 98 References ............................................................6... 88 Chapter 4 Foundation in Mechanics of Hybrid Stress Elements 4........... 97 4........................... 122 5...................5.......... 89 4.........................................3 The Discrete Formulation of the Energy Functional .................5........6.......... 78 3....... 67 3..5.........................................1 Patch Test Condition ..................... 70 3.....6....................................5.......1 Hermite Type Lateral Displacement Field........ 91 4............ 125 5.......................................1 Patch Test .........................................................4......... 101 5................................................2 Four-Node Plane Incompatible Elements: NQ6........5.......1 Situation I ............5............................. 98 4......................................4 The Optimizing Formulation of Element Stresses ................4 Eight-Node 3-D Solid Incompatible Elements....5.........4......................... 82 References ........................................................................... 75 3..........2 Revised-Stiffness Approach....................................................2 Bending Circular Plates.......... 74 3....1 Introduction.....2 Energy Consistency Analysis for Incompatible Hybrid Elements ............................3 Numerical Test: Axisymmetric Stress Analysis and Incompressible Calculation ................ 122 5.. 79 3............................................5 Matching Multivariable Parameters ....... 112 5..................5 Numerical Examples and Results .......5...7........................................................ 63 3.................6...............3 Element Construction ..................................1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................5 Model Optimization of Hybrid Stress General Shell Element ....5 Axisymmetric Incompatible Elements .. 73 3...................... LLC .....5..................4 Axisymmetric 8β–Optimization Hybrid Element .........................2 Situation II .............................1 General Formulation of R–M Plate Elements............4 Numerical Examples.......................................................................................................5.3 Situation III (Optimal Parameter Matching) ...................2 The Optimizing Condition and the Variational Principle ........3 Patch Test and Element Optimization Condition (OPC)..2 Incompatible Rotation Field .............4 Optimization Method for Hybrid Stress Finite Elements ...... 51 3.......................................... 133 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group... 116 5............. 80 3................3 P2-Linked Incompatible Methods with the Fewest Degrees of Freedom (DOF) ..........................xii Contents Chapter 3 Incompatible Elements for the Theory of Elasticity 3......................... 127 5................................. 89 4.... 122 5......... 81 3...................6.................... 93 4.....................................................3 Three-Dimensional Body 18β–Optimization Hybrid Element........7 Bending Model under Reasonable w-θ Constraint .................................... 106 5........... 79 3......................................6... 77 3................. 98 Chapter 5 Optimization of Hybrid Stress Finite Elements 5..........................................1 Introduction ..........6 Hermite Type Incompatible Plate Elements ..2 Penalty Equilibrium Hybrid Element P-S(α) ......................

....4 Incompressible Elimination at the Element Level......................................................................... 180 7....... 154 References .....7 Patch Stability Test ................................. 157 Chapter 7 Plastic Analysis of Structures 7................... 136 5......................... 133 5.5 Hybrid Model ......................... 141 Chapter 6 Numerical Stability: Zero Energy Mode Analysis 6....................................................................................................3 Thin Rhombic Plates....4...................................................3 Incompatible Elements in Plasticity Analysis.....6 Control of the Zero Energy Stress Modes.......5.................................5...........4 Pinched Cylinder Problem ................................................................................................3......................................... 169 7.....3 Incompatible Discrete Model ....................1......................8 Examples .....................................................4..............................2...2 Form of Incompressible Elements and Analysis of Plane Stress Plastic Analysis...................5....4 Determination of the Zero Energy Modes .............................1 Introduction .4 Application to the Limit Analysis.... 152 6.............1 Example I: Thick Elastic-Plastic Cylinder under Internal Pressure ................................................ 149 6. 163 7...................4 Deviatoric Hybrid Model for the Incompressible Medium ..................................................................4. Φ ′I and Φ ′II .....6 Suppression of the ZEM ....2 Locking Test......4...5......... 147 6........................................ 182 7......5............. 185 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group..... The Geometry Matrices Bq and Bλ ............2 Definition of ZEM .. 159 7........2 Example II: Elastic-Plastic Square Tube with a Circular Hole under Internal Pressure............................ 166 7.............5................. 170 7......................................................3...... 172 7............ 143 6............................. 162 7........................................ 139 5.........1 Introduction ....5.....5 Control of the Zero Energy Displacement Modes...... 133 5...... 159 7..........................5............. 171 7.......................3 Three-Field Hybrid Element Formulation ..........................................3.1 Introduction.........3.......................6 Appendix....4....................................................................................... LLC ....... 139 5................... 162 7....................................................................................................... 144 6.............................4...3............ 135 5...4...................................... 177 7.........................5.............3 Rank Conditions for Two-Field Mixed-Hybrid Elements ....4.............3 Example III: Elastic-Plastic Tension Specimen with Semicircular Edge Notches...................7 Numerical Examples..2 Deviatoric Variational Principle .......................3.... 183 7......6....1 Introduction..................Contents xiii 5......................................................................4...........................5 Scordelis Cylindrical Shell ...............................................................................................................4........................ 140 References ...........3.................. 143 6.. 174 7....6..........................................5.................................. 133 5...... 174 7. 150 6....................................1 Thick and Thin Plates ...............................................2 Incompressibility of the Isoparametric Element (Elastic Case) ......... 175 7..........................................

.................... 215 8.......................................5 Incompatible Numerical Simulation of an Axisymmetric Cracked Body .....5.......................6......... 191 References ..............4...... 208 8............... 193 Chapter 8 Computational Fracture 8.....................................1 Introduction ...................... 221 8...............7......5...7......7 Conclusion................................7........ 217 8........................ 202 8........... 223 8......1 Introduction.. 224 8................................1 Introduction.. 187 7......................................... 230 8........6 Numerical Examples.. 198 8............6 Dual Error Measure .... 203 8............ 246 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group..2 Error Measure .......................4 Collocation Method for Coupling the Finite Element and the EFG Methods ...............6................. 218 8............... 233 8...............................................4 A Limitation on the Bound Analysis.........................6 Extension of J to Dynamic Fracture of a Functional Graded Material..................4........1 Lower Bound Theorem for J (ui .... 237 8..............1 Constant Stress Patch Test ...2.............................................. 234 8...........................7... 197 8........................6 Conclusion.................................................3 Elastic Solution ....5..........6....... LLC .......... Di ) ...... 217 8....1 Introduction.............................. 232 8....................................................xiv Contents 7........3.................... 186 7......................................... 226 8........................................................................................6...................6.........3 Numerical Strategy and Error Measure ............................7.....................................4.......4.......................2 The Extended Dynamic J Integral for FGMs...........4....................2.... 231 8............. 228 8....1 Dual Path-Independent Integral...................................3....3 Plastic Analysis........................................ 204 8................................2 Incompatible Axisymmetric Element AQ6.................................................4 Stokes Flow Analysis.......... 229 8...................4 Numerical Tests of Crack Estimation ........................ ϕ ) .....6........................................ 229 8................................7.........................7.......8 Conclusion.............................................5 Plastic Limit Analysis................7.............................6........ 231 8.....3 The Element-Free Galerkin Method ................................................................7................................5 Numerical Implementation of the Boundary Value Problem .................................................... 204 8..............................3 Bound Theorem ............................................. 200 8.............5......................... 213 8. 197 8..........................................5.........7 Numerical Example .2 Bound Theorem ...5.........................7.....................7 Evaluation of Electromechanical Crack Systems .............................2 Upper Bound Theorem for I (σ ij ....... 200 8.4 Elastic-Plastic Solution .................................................................1 Numerical Strategy ..................................7............................................................................. 211 8.................................................... 197 8..........................................7........3.2 Dual Integrals for Electromechanical Systems........2 Dual Path-Independent Integral and Bound Theorem .......5 Piezoelectric Finite Elements..........................3..............................................7..... 189 7................ 189 7............................................................2 Numerical Stability Tests ................. 217 8....................

..........................2......... 281 9........8 Conclusion and Discussion .................. 316 9.................3...............................8 Conclusion.............1 Introduction...3...................................4.... 303 9...... 291 9.............. 266 9...............2 The State Space and Energy Formulations of Laminated Plates ...............2...........................................................3.......................................................... 272 9........... 310 9........ 266 9................................3 Piezoelectric Hybrid Element: PZT-Q4 ........................2....5 Conclusion.................... 283 9..................................................................7 Numerical Examples........3 Variational Principles and Finite Elements ...........................3 Element Formulations for the 3-D Hybrid Model ...5 Numerical Example ................................... 313 9......................... 285 9..................1 Introduction.......................... 257 9........................................7..............2 Bimaterial Interface Hybrid Element for Piezoelectric Laminated Analysis...... 315 9............................4......4.......................... 275 9..........2...................................1 Introduction.... 276 9...........................5 Numerical Examples............1..................1 Pure Mechanical Loading ...................................5........ 302 9.2................................ 327 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group..................................4.......................4 Implementation of the Interface Stress Continuity .................1.....3.... 253 9........................... 296 9... 287 9................................................... 261 9...6 Conclusion..................1 Introduction........................................................5 A Study of 3-D Braided Piezoceramic Composites ....................4...................1 Introduction...............3................................................................................................................... 267 9.......................6 Enforcing the Periodicity Boundary Condition in the Analysis of the RUC ............4..................................6 Conclusion....................................... 248 References ...................3 Mixed Loading ...........4..... 266 9....1............ LLC ...........2 Mathematical Homogenization.4.... 298 9.........2 Pure Electric Loading ..........Contents xv 8...........5 Enhanced-Strain Element Based on the Hu–Washizu Principle ..................4.....................1 Hybrid Element Analysis of Composite Laminated Plates..4 Interface and Surface Elements .............................. 253 9.....................3 Numerical Solutions on Fractures of Piezoelectric Materials ........................4....... 260 9......3 The Laminate Hybrid Element Based on the State Space .....4..2 Electro-Elastic Variational Formulation and the Governing Equations.............................................................................. 283 9..................................... 291 9...........3................................ 249 Chapter 9 Computational Materials 9..... 302 9......... 254 9.........................4 Homogenization-Based Hybrid Element for Torsion of Composite Shafts ....................................................................................1.....................................................1.................... 327 9....................2 Constitutive Relations and Variational Functional .... 323 9........1............ 301 9...............4 Displacement-Incompatible Elements .........3..........3.......4 Numerical Analyses: Crack-Tip Field Simulation.................2.................................... 308 9.....................................

....................................................... 356 10........ 341 9.............................. 351 10......5 Homogenized Problem ......................................7 Finite Element Implementation ...........................4 Microscale Independent Terms . 351 10.5.... 353 10.................5.....................................................................................................4 Examples ..............xvi Contents 9.............. 336 9................ 337 9...................2 Description of Variables and Subroutines................6 Finite Element Variational Statements ...............................2 Functions of Subroutines Used..2.....................5.................................................... LLC .............8 Numerical Results................................. 333 9...9 Conclusion.....................................5........................ 351 10....1 Overview.........................5...........................................2 Basic Equations........................ 331 9........................................................................................5................................ 345 Chapter 10 Finite Element Implementation 10................................................3 Asymptotic Expansion ...........5................................2...............5.. 330 9...........1 Definitions of Main Variables and Arrays..........3 Instructions for Input Data ....... 328 9............................................. 342 References .. 360 © 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group........................................................