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Circuit Breaker Standards and

Mitigation Issues

Nigel P. McQuin
McQuin Electrical Power Consulting, Inc.

IEEE TR/C57 meeting, Minneapolis, 10/16/2007

Circuit Breaker – Guides and
Standards -I

Circuit Breaker – Guides and
Standards -II

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -III .

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -IV .

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -V .

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -VI .

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -VII .

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -VIII .

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -IX .

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -X .

Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -XI .

09a .Test „ C37. Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -XII „ C37.013a – Generator Circuit Breakers „ C37.015 – Inductive Current Switching .013/.Guide .Capacitor Current Switching .09 .Standard Test Procedures „ Short-circuit current interruption „ Load current switching „ Capacitor current switching „ Line closing surge „ Out-of-phase current switching „ Magnetizing (low-inductive) current switching „ C37.

us „ dV/dt rates. Circuit Breaker – Guides and Standards -XIII „ Make sure the application falls within the tested limits of the circuit breaker „ Short-circuit current rating „ TRV parameters for each switching condition „ V peak. kV/us „ Capacitive current rating „ Inductive current rating „ Out-of-phase current rating . kVp „ Time to crest.

System Characteristics. what’s important? „ Frequency content „ Voltage/current magnitude „ Persistence of response „ Repetition rate of the disturbance „ What is the system propagation response? „ What is the internal equipment response? .

Example trace – multiple re-ignitions .

Frequency content „ Usually wide band frequency disturbances „ Proximity and voltage amplification factors to system resonant frequencies „ Line/cable/equipment inductances „ Line/cable/equipment capacitances .

Voltage/current magnitudes „ Do the voltages rise to such levels for protective devices to operate? „ Where do the currents flow. and what are the circuit impedances? „ Are we exciting resonant modes in equipment components? „ What are the voltage amplification factors? „ dV/dt rates? .

Persistence of response „ What is the rate of decay for each resonant mode frequency? „ Where are the damping/loss elements? „ What is the power-factor of the load? „ Is there any selective damping/loss network connected locally? .

Repetition rate of the disturbance „ What is the switching frequency of the electronic loads? (Loaded and unloaded) „ Are there harmonic current sources? (Loaded and unloaded) „ Multiple-stroke lightning surges? „ Re-ignition/re-strike rate of circuit breaker closing and interrupting? .

and voltage escalations? „ Cable to bus/line transitions „ Tap sections in windings „ Gas to air insulation transitions . Mitigation .I „ Don’t make the situation worse! „ Changes of circuit impedances can give rise to multiple surge reflections.

II .Mitigation .

Mitigation . ouch! Try to match surge impedances (transmission line modeling) .III „ Termination – open circuit „ Voltage doubles. ouch! „ Termination – short circuit „ Full voltage reversal. full reverse positive surge wave.

IV „ Avoid open circuits:- „ unconnected winding terminals/taps „ Lightning arrester not in conduction „ Avoid short circuits:- „ capacitors „ lightning arresters in conduction „ Match impedances – selective damping resistor . Mitigation .

. can add capacitance.V „ To control frequency response and dV/dt rates. „ But need to avoid the impedance mis- match problem. Mitigation . „ Consider series C – R network which can satisfy both requirements simultaneously.

Mitigation .VI .

„ Design blown-fuse. un-balanced network protection. „ Select circuit time-constant (CR) to match needs of switching device or dV/dt rate limits of connected equipment. . „ Size fuses appropriately for 60 Hz current. hi-pot and BIL ratings. Mitigation . „ Qualify for dielectric requirements. „ Install with minimum L&R impedance to main bus.VII „ Select resistor to match surge impedance.

. Mitigation .VIII „ Series (in-line) element approach „ Very low impedance at 60 Hz operation „ Surge impedance at high frequency „ Must meet dielectric requirements „ Must meet rated 60 Hz current and fault current withstand conditions.

Mitigation .IX „ Design considerations „ 60 Hz standing losses „ Cost „ Space „ Maintenance „ Training „ Fault detection and indication .

Conclusions „ Need for greater familiarity and expertise in transient voltage studies. „ Careful considerations of the rating. „ Ensure appropriate selection of circuit breakers based on their proven performance. design. „ Ensure adequate study of the potential sources and character of switching surges/disturbances. . installation and use of any mitigation measures.