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SAINT MARY’S UNIVERSITY

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL


Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya
RESEARCH DEPARTMENT
Chapter I
The Problem and Its Background

Rationale

Marijuana also known as “cannabis” refers to the dried leaves, flower, stems, and seeds from

the cannabis sativa or Cannabis indica plant. The plant contains the mind-altering chemical

Tetrahydrocannabinol and other similar compounds (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018).

According to the Cannabis Business Times (2017), there are countries which have started to

legalize the use of medical weed whether legalized fully or partially for medical and/or adult use,

these countries include: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic,

Germany, India, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Macedonia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Puerto Rico,

Turkey, Uruguay.

The abuse of marijuana in society has been an issue for quite some time, and it has led many

individuals to be against the legalization of it. The people who support the legalization of marijuana

claim that the use of it in regulation could potentially reduce the use and make its use safer whereas

the critics argue that its legalization will make it more widely used and misused since it will make

pot more accessible to the society (Lopez, 2018). The House Bill. No 4477 seeks to legalize with

government policy to balance its national drug control program and the regulated use of dangerous

drugs for treatment and medication of patients. It was said that the bill intends to provide

accessible, affordable, safe medical cannabis to qualifying patients.

There are illnesses that marijuana can cure better than of those available in the market. Being

aware of its effects and its uses has its aids. It is believed that medical marijuana can be of medical

use to the following conditions: AIDS/HIV, Alzheimer’s, arthritis, asthma, cancer, chronic pain,

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Crohn’s disease, epilepsy, glaucoma, multiple clerosis (Christensen, 2015). It is also found that it

can reduce pain and inflammation, and improve muscle control. Some data suggest that with the

use of medical marijuana the opioid dose prescribed for pain patients may be reduced (National

Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018). The National Institute on Drug Abuse (2018) organization has

started to fund studies that may discover the relation between medical marijuana use and the use

or misuse of opioids for specific types of pain, and its possible role for treatment of opioid use

disorder. Drugs, when used properly, can be helpful but abusing its availability might cause

damage to anyone.

Cannabis has its medical benefits but the people still stand to their belief that the cons of using

medical weed might overshadow its benefits (Orquiz, n.d.). Marijuana has always been considered

as an illegal drug because it is believed to have a chemical substance called Tetrahydrocannabinol

or THC which is identified as the primary psychoactive compound that gives the user a euphoric

feel and atmosphere (Orquiz, n.d.). In addition to THC, cannabidiol (CBD) impacts the brain

without a high. Over 400 or so chemical compounds are found in marijuana, more than 60 are

cannabinoids which are believed to have medical uses (Loria, 2018). There are many health risks

of marijuana like mental health when marijuana use is believed to worsen existing symptoms of

bipolar disorder among people who have this mental health problem, testicular cancer although

there is no evidence to suggest any linked between using marijuana and an increased risk for most

cancers, respiratory disease regular marijuana smoking is linked to increased risk of chronic cough,

but “it is unclear” whether smoking marijuana worsens lung function or increase the risk of chronic

obstructive pulmonary disease (Railton, 2018).

Before the researchers came up with this study they were aware of the struggle about the

legalization of marijuana and its issue in the Philippines at the current moment. This topic is

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important to investigate because this will help the Filipinos to be conscious of the perception of

medical practitioners and their co-Filipinos towards legalizing medical marijuana and help them

realize whether they’ll agree nor disagree to our former president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo who

suggested the legalization in the country. Upon going over this study, people will be

knowledgeable about the perceptions of medical practitioners and even students on the legalization

of marijuana. With this, future proponents might be able to spread further with their future study

the discovery of the benefits of marijuana in treating different ailments. Thus, background about

marijuana can be a stepping stone for new discoveries on medicine.

Statement of the Problem

The study aims to determine the different perspective of health sciences students and medical

professionals towards the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the classifications of the respondents?

2. What is the perception of the respondents on the legalization of marijuana?

3. Is there a significant difference on the perception of the respondents when grouped

according to their classifications?

4. What are the effects of the legalization of marijuana on the society?

Statement of the Null Hypothesis

1. There is no significant difference between the perceptions of the respondents based on

their given classifications.

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Conceptual Framework

Output

Perceptions on the Provides clear


• Classification insights whether the
legalization of medical
respondents are agreeing or
(Doctors, Nurses, marijuana disagreeing about the
Pharmacist, Health legalization of medical
marijuana in the
Sciences Students)
Philippines.

Figure 1. Research Paradigm


The perception of the respondents on the legalization of medical marijuana is the variable

to be changed due to their different professional classifications. Also, their classifications can

affect their way of thinking, their interest and perceptions regarding this topic. As a result, their

insights will serve as a basis for the future researchers as for the legalization of medical marijuana

in the Philippines.

Significance of the Study

The outcome of the study will be of great benefit to the following:

Government. This research study would benefit them by gaining knowledge on how people

perceive medical marijuana and also its legalization, thus giving them the upper hand on how they

should educate the masses in order for them to better realize the risks and benefits of medical

marijuana.

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Medical Personnel. By providing the general insight of the respondents, the study conducted

would help medical personnel on where they should focus on giving advice about the effects and

risks of marijuana, hence furthering the knowledge of the people about issues like medical

marijuana.

Teachers. The study conducted would benefit them by learning the apprehension of different

students regarding the issue of legalization of marijuana and furthermore give them hindsight of

how students perceive marijuana, whether the students themselves are knowledgeable about

marijuana.

Patients. This would be a factor to gather insights about the view of regarding legalization of

marijuana.

Future Researchers. This research study will serve as a basis for studies they will conduct

later on. Furthermore, it will serve as a source or a foundation for broader studies that are affiliated

with the topic.

Scope and Delimitation

This research study focuses on determining the perception of students and certain medical

practitioners on the legalization of marijuana for medical usage. The primary data gathering

method to be used is questionnaires, and survey forms to determine the perception of students and

certain medical practitioners on the legalization of marijuana for medical usage. The data gathered

will be analyzed through SPSS and the correlation between the respondents’ perception and their

classification will be examined through a statistical correlation.

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In this study, the researchers will identify the perception of the students and certain medical

practitioners on the legalization of marijuana for medical use in accordance with their career.

The study is only limited to the perception of students and certain medical practitioners on

the legalization of marijuana for medical use. Topics further than the study are not concluded. The

study will not be tackling about legalizing of marijuana in the Philippines, but only the perception.

The study will be conducted at Saint Mary’s University Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya 3700.

A group of nurses, doctors, pharmacists, and students of Saint Mary’s University are randomly

chosen as respondents.

The respondents shall have these qualifications:

a) a doctor’s degree in medicine;

b) medical allied students;

c) license pharmacist; and

d) registered nurse

Definition of Terms

The terms that are listed below can be of help to readers in understanding the study more

clearly.

House bill - a draft of a law presented to a legislature for enactment.

Legalization- is a process often applied to what are regarded, by those working

towards legalization, as victimless crimes, of which one example is the consumption of

illegal drugs.

Medical marijuana - refers to treating symptoms of illness and other conditions

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with the whole, unprocessed marijuana plant or its basic extracts.

Perception- thought or opinion of the respondents in the study

Pot - a slang term for marijuana.

Weeds - another term for marijuana.

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CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literature and Studies

I. Conceptual Literature

Marijuana

From the article of Kathleen Davis entitled “Everything You Need to Know About

Marijuana” it was said that people used commonly illicit drug which is called “marijuana”.

Marijuana comes from the Cannabis sativa (hemp) plant, it is classified as a schedule 1 controlled

substance and one that alters mood which affects almost every organ of the human body. Humans

have been using marijuana for hundreds of years for seed oils, seed, and also in medical treatment.

People use marijuana to brew it as tea and incorporate it in products such as chocolate bars and

brownies (Davis, 2018).

According to the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), before the

month of survey in the U.S., 19.8 million or 80.6 percent of people used illicit drugs and about 1

in 16 high school seniors reported using marijuana, also known as “cannabis”, every day. In

addition to this, marijuana is not relatively hard to cultivate, and its effects are temporary and not

life-threatening. It is actually impossible for a user to get overdosed in using marijuana. Yet

hundreds of thousands of people lives have been ruined due to them being found with just a few

grams of illicit drug, which is marijuana, in their possession. The U.S. Food and Drug

Administration (FDA) has not approved of treating any health problems by using of marijuana.

However, the District of Columbia and a few other states allow the use of it for health purposes.

Additionally, there are short and long- term effects of marijuana. In terms of short-term effects,

the user could get short-term memory problems, severe anxiety, including fear that one is being

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watched (paranoia), sexual problems specially for males and could lose their sense of personal

identity. While in the long-term effects the user could not get a good job, could decline in IQ and

could have financial difficulties (Foundation for a Drug-Free World, 2006). Added to that, after

smoking marijuana the heart begins beating more rapidly, it can increase by 20 to 50 beats per

minute. Because of the lower blood pressure and the higher heart rate, research found that users’

risk for a heart attack is four times higher within the first hour after using of marijuana. Research

also found that people who uses large amounts of marijuana on a regular basis have reduced bone

density and they are prone to getting a fracture (Fogoros, 2018). However according to the article

of Renee Jacques (2017), Marijuana has been known to mankind. Marijuana is much safer than

into already legalized drugs. In 2010, about 38, 329 people died from drug overdose and sixty

percent of those were related to the prescription drugs.

Marijuana can be used to alleviate a lot of medical ailments. According to a Discovery

Health article (2019), marijuana can be used in relieving nausea, which is good news for cancer

patients that is suffering from nausea which is the side effect of their chemotherapy. Moreover,

marijuana could also help the people who have loss of appetite due to diseases such as HIV/AIDS.

Tilray announced on December 18, 2018 that the Canadian Marijuana Company will be partnering

with Novartis Subsidiary Sandoz to sell medical marijuana in countries where it is already legal,

currently numbering 35. This is the first time that a major pharmaceutical company has gotten into

the medical marijuana business (Taylor, 2018). The two companies may market the following;

Tilray’s non-smokable, non-combustible medical marijuana products. They are also educating

pharmacists and physicians about those products.

As mentioned in The Scientist with the article “Zimbabwe’s Medical Marijuana Future

Uncertain” (2018), they are allowing the farmers to grow and sell marijuana for medical and

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research purposes in Zimbabwe. In this new policy the researches would give the ability to conduct

investigation for potential new therapies. David Parirenyatwa of Health and Child Care (2018) told

the Zimbabwe Medical Association conference that the government is planning to establish

research institute that will help our country to be a hub for medicinal cannabis. It shows that they

are supporting the development of medical marijuana research in Zimbabwe and hoping that the

government will support and has mechanisms in place to facilitate research in this field.

Legalization of Marijuana

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (2004), the antagonistic liberalization

counter that marijuana is not a friendly drug especially when psychopharmacologic information

determines that marijuana shares many features with other immoral drugs. They also argue that

legalization of personal use of marijuana likely would provoke a health costs, substantial increase

in use, economic, and with foreseeable increases in the social. In the views of Pediatricians, they

have no unity in their perception regarding the legal status of marijuana. In a periodic survey, only

minors favored legalization in percent of 18, who believed that possession or sale should be a

violation is in percent of 26; 31% agreed that marijuana should be prescribed for medical purposes

to a certain type of patients, and 24% believed that marijuana should remain illegal. Legalization

is a one step in advance of legitimization that would essentially change the condition of marijuana

in society. It is a bit fact that the government has no crucial interest whether an individual will use

a drug or not. Same in the case of alcohol and tobacco. Only the nondrinker approach has

decreasing drug use as its accurate goal.

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Laws regarding Marijuana

In House Bill No. 6517 or “AN ACT PROVIDING COMPASSIONATE AND RIGHT OF

ACCESS TO MEDICAL CANNABIS AND EXPANDING RESEARCH INTO ITS MEDICAL

PROPERTIES” in substitution of House Bill No.180, The House Bill No. 6517 attains to be passed

as a law but then it requires the nation to regulate the use of marijuana to medicinal purposes only.

The House Bill’s intention is to provide essential medical services available to patients who need

it. Furthermore, in accordance with Section 2 of Republic Act No.9165 or the “Comprehensive

Dangerous Drug Act” as amended, the state shall give prohibitions to have a balanced in the

national drug control program so that patients suffering from severe medical conditions may

receive appropriate services and medications from the regulated use of the dangerous drug.

In Section 2 Republic Act No. 8423 or the “TRADITIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE

MEDICINE ACT (TAMA) OF 1997”, as modified, the government shall provide policies in order

to develop the quality and delivery of the health care services to the Filipinos through the

development of traditional and alternative medications. It also suggests that the government shall

have a legal basis that the indigenous societies would own their knowledge of traditional

medications or medicine. There are regulatory agencies that are assigned to regulating the use of

marijuana in medical usage. (1) Department of Health (DOH) in consultation with the Food and

Drug Administration (FDA) wherein they are the principal regulator in using marijuana as a

medicinal drug. It shall register and issue a license to prohibits entities engaged in actions related

to marijuana as a medicinal drug. (2) Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PEDEA), the PEDEA

shall be responsible in monitory and regulating the distribution of marijuana as a medicinal drug

into the health facilities. It shall maintain the number of registries who are qualified physicians

and caregivers licensed to prescribe and manage marijuana as a medicinal drug to a qualified

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patient or taker under this act. The qualified medical cannabis physician is to be considered as

competent to satisfy the patient medical need to use medical cannabis for treatment. The physician

shall have these following qualifications: a.) has constructed a genuine relationship with the

patient; b.) is licensed medical practitioners by PEDEA to prescribe medical cannabis to qualified

medical cannabis patient; c.) has a professional knowledge or educational background about the

use of medical cannabis. Medical cannabis shall be only accessed through the following facilities:

DOH-retained hospitals, special hospitals, and private tertiary hospitals properly licensed and

registered with DOH for this purpose. It shall be prohibited for: a.) A qualified patient to use

medicinal cannabis into public transportation and places. Driving any vehicles under the influence

of the drug. The drug will affect or distort your physical appearance or motor control. Using

cannabis for recreational activities. b.) A qualified physician to prescribe medical cannabis to a

patient that is not qualified under this act. The physician does not build a firm relationship with

the patient. c.) any physician who prescribe medical cannabis without a license required. d.) any

person who include foreigners, to promote medical marijuana in commercial, social media, and

printed material. Violate the confidentiality of information. Purchase and access to medical

cannabis in any form that is not approved by the DOH. Any person who violates any of provision

shall upon conviction and final judgment, be punished with a fine of fifty thousand pesos (P50,000)

to one hundred thousand pesos (P100,000) or higher at the decision of the court for caregivers in

violation of Section 9 of this act. In addition, a penalty of six (6) to twelve (12) years shall be

imposed to a qualified patient, physician, and caregiver who commits the proscribe acts on Section

15 of this act. Furthermore, the penalty includes suspension and revocation for the licensed medical

practitioner. Toward this end, the state shall legalize and regulate the use of medical marijuana

which has been claimed to have beneficial and therapeutic use to treat chronic and debilitating

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illnesses or medical condition. It simply says that even though we have a dangerous drug act, the

dangerous drug act only prohibits the use for non-medicinal purposes. Even though the marijuana

is included as a dangerous drug, the law provided an exception that if such dangerous drugs are

used for legitimate medical needs then it shall be allowed.

Senate Bill also called S.420 “MARIJUANA REVENUE AND REGULATION ACT”

introduced by Senator Ron Wyden is a bill to regulate marijuana just like alcohols, and cigarettes.

American who lives in a state where marijuana can be legally purchased in both medical and

recreational consumption has become an issue because of its rising number of users. This proposal

would take to remove federal criminal penalties and allow marijuana to be taxed and regulate just

like alcohols, and cigarettes and reduce the barrier of legal marijuana business on banking. It would

also impose marijuana taxation similar to excise taxes on alcohol and allow the states to legalize

the marijuana business to claim deduction and credits.

II. Related Studies

Use of Marijuana

Patients are likely to ask physicians about the beneficial effect of marijuana in their health

in legalization of marijuana. In the United States, marijuana is commonly used “illicit” drug, with

about 12% of people over 12 years of age using marijuana in the year 2013 (Volkow, 2014).

Regular use of marijuana in adolescent stage is the particular concern, since this group of age is

associated with an increased likelihood of deleterious consequences. Marijuana use by adolescents

is troublesome in their life. Adolescents increased their vulnerability, long- term outcomes in using

marijuana can make the brain more vulnerable, including the endocannabinoid system, undergoes

active development during adolescence stage. Early and regular use of marijuana predicts an

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increased risk of addiction, which can increase the risk of using other drugs. Adults who smoke

marijuana during their adolescence stage have impaired neural connectivity in a specific brain

region. These have the precuneus, a key node that require a high degree of integration and the

fimbria, an area of the hippocampus that is important in learning. In addition, a person who use

cannabis have decreased activity in prefrontal regions of the brains and reduced volume in the

hippocampus. Thus, some brain region may be more vulnerable than others in the long term of

marijuana.

Perception on Marijuana

Few countries are allowing medical marijuana as a legal medicine because of its benefits

that help in the remedy of certain disease. On the other side, there are potential risk linked with it

like the increasing use of marijuana can lead more to abuse. In connection, medical marijuana is a

major issue for government policy today. It also discusses the means of recreational use of

marijuana in few states in the US particularly in Colorado and Washington (Desai & Paras, 2013).

American Society of Health System Pharmacist (ASHP) deal out some approval from researches

about the advantages and effectiveness of Medical Marijuana. Also, they are preparing certain

medical practitioners for beneficial issues regarding legalizing medical marijuana (American

Society of Health System Pharmacist, 2014). According to the American Society of Addiction

Medicine, the members and other physician’s organizations discard the obligation of having

marijuana as for medications until they get an authorization from the Food and Drug

Administration (FDA) (Kleber & DuPont, 2012). Furthermore, according to a research study

entitled “Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attributes Regarding Medical Marijuana”. Most of

the pharmacy students in favored with legalizing marijuana for medical purposes only and not for

recreational activities. But, some of them can only recognize the common effects of marijuana

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because they don't have enough knowledge and understanding about the topic. It also discusses

the changes in perceptions of people towards legalizing marijuana. It differs based on time. They

also differentiate the insights pharma students and physicians through comparing it with other

researches (Moller, 2015). According to (Castro et al., 2015) Marijuana is a drug that is not

considered as a legal medicine in the country. On the other hand, it can be beneficial it has a

“medical” license which can help in the treatment of different disease.

Legalization of Marijuana

Legalization of Marijuana in Colorado may have a various effect in the health of the

community. November 2000, Colorado citizens use marijuana as for medical purposes until one

of the US Attorney General disseminated guidelines as an action towards the law enforcement of

the use of marijuana. By the power of permissive local law and the federal policy in Colorado they

authorize the sale and use of medical marijuana in their country. It also discusses the retail sale

and purchase of marijuana in their country who was approved by 55% of voters. But there are vary

conditions of the two. Retail Marijuana also known as Recreational Marijuana has limits but for

Medical Marijuana, there is no minimum age restriction and only the state residents can buy.

(Monte et al., 2015)

III. Synthesis

The mood-altering plant called “marijuana” was used by people to incorporate into their food.

In the year 2013, it was found that 80.6% or 19.8 million people used illicit drugs and about 1 in

16 high school seniors are reported to be using marijuana every day. While, nothing has yet been

proven by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the treatment of health

problems using marijuana.

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The effects of marijuana have been classified as long-term and short-term effects, however it

has been believed to be much safer than prescription drugs. About 38, 329 people died from drug

overdose and sixty percent of it were related to the prescription drugs in the year 2010. Marijuana

can be used to alleviate a lot of medical ailments that other drugs cannot relieve. However, the use

of marijuana is troublesome to the lives of minors who do not suffer any kind of ailment which

require the need of medical marijuana. Addiction to marijuana can increase the risk of addiction

to other drugs. These results to impairment in the neural connectivity of a specific region in the

brain.

A Canadian Marijuana Company, Tilray, with Novartis Subsidiary Sandoz to sell medical

marijuana in countries where it is already legal. While in Zimbabwe, they are allowing the farmers

to grow and sell marijuana for medical and research purposes.

The views of the public differ according to their profession. Basing from the research

entitled “Medical marijuana: A Public Health Perspective” by Kleber & DuPont, the members and

other physician’s organizations reject having marijuana as for medications until they get an

authorization from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Whereas pharmacist students are in

favor of legalizing marijuana for medical purposes only and not for recreational activities, but

students which only have little knowledge regarding the topic can only recognize the common

effects of marijuana.

In the Philippines, House Bills and laws have been passed regarding the use of drugs to

regulate its use and to control the use of illegal drugs. House Bill No. 6517 or “AN ACT

PROVIDING COMPASSIONATE AND RIGHT OF ACCESS TO MEDICAL CANNABIS

AND EXPANDING RESEARCH INTO ITS MEDICAL PROPERTIES” in substitution of House

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Bill No.180, this attains to be passed as a law in the regulation of marijuana use for medicinal

purposes. Section 2 of Republic Act No. 9165 or the “Comprehensive Dangerous Drug Act” which

give prohibitions for a balance in the national drug control program so that patients suffering from

severe medical conditions may receive proper medication. Section 2 Republic Act No. 8423 or the

“TRADITIONAL AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE ACT (TAMA) OF 1997” provides policies

in order to develop the quality and delivery of the health care services to the Filipinos through the

development of traditional and alternative medications. Senate Bill also called S.420

“MARIJUANA REVENUE AND REGULATION ACT” introduced by Senator Ron Wyden has

similarities with the laws and House Bills passed in the Philippines.

Other closely related research studies that the researchers have based upon investigates

about legalization of marijuana in other countries. Whereas this research study is specific in finding

out the perception of students and medical practitioners on the legalization of marijuana in the

Philippines. Although there is one research study entitled “Perception of the University Belt

Students in the Legalization of Medical Marijuana in the Philippines” that is very similar to this

study, this research study includes the perception of medical practitioners and students.

This study is timely relevant to the issue of marijuana in the country of the Philippines

wherein it can be of help in determining whether certain groups of citizens in the country agree or

disagree on legalization of medical marijuana in the country.

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CHAPTER III:

Methodology

Research Design

The researchers implemented a mixture of quantitative and qualitative research. In

qualitative, the researchers will apply the grounded theory which includes the open-ended

questions. It will be utilized in this research because of the nature of the study wherein it is

characterized simply as the attempt to determine, describe or identify the common perception of

the respondents on the effects of the legalization of medical marijuana on the society and if it

would be beneficial to the citizens of the Philippines. While the descriptive-normative-

comparative design will be used for the quantitative part of the research. The descriptive-normative

will be used because it determines the profile of the respondents. While the descriptive-

comparative will identify whether there is a significant difference on the perception of the

respondents when grouped according to their classification.

Research Respondents
The researchers will conduct a multi-stage random sampling where in the researchers will

combine both purposeful sampling and stratified sampling. The respondent will have certain

criteria to satisfy the study: 1) the respondents are willing to share their thoughts or perception

about the legalization of marijuana, 2) and they are part of the four classifications required. Also,

the respondents will be categorized in accordance to their classification.

The respondents will be gathered into four different classifications: 1) the students of

School of Health and Natural Sciences taking up the course (BS Pharmacy and BS Nursing) at

Saint Mary’s University, 2) Licensed Pharmacist giving services on several drugstore in Nueva

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Vizcaya, 3) Registered Nurses providing amenities on the private and public hospitals around the

province, 4) and Doctors who works on the several public and private hospital around the vicinity

of Nueva Vizcaya.

The researchers selected Medical Allied students, Licensed Pharmacist, Registered Nurses,

and Licensed Doctor because of their prior backgrounds and knowledge on medical and

pharmaceutical studies that will ensure the reliability of the research that will be conducted by the

researchers.

As the study will pursue distributing survey forms and questionnaires types of surveys, the

researchers will use purposeful random sampling in choosing respondents. An amount of fifty (60)

Health Sciences students, twenty (20) registered nurses, ten (10) licensed pharmacist, and ten (10)

licensed Doctors for a total of one hundred (100) respondents around the provincial vicinity of

Nueva Vizcaya 3700 are randomly chosen.

Research Environment

Figure 2. Map of Nueva Vizcaya


The researchers will conduct their study around Nueva Vizcaya. For doctors and nurses,

the researchers will gather from different hospitals such as Veterans Regional Hospital, PLT

Hospital, Salubris, and Nueva Vizcaya Provincial Hospital. The researchers will be looking for

licensed pharmacists in the different pharmacies present in Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya. The

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student respondents of the study will be from the Grade 11 STEM strand students of the Senior

High School Department of Saint Mary’s University and the Health Sciences students taking up

BS Nursing and BS Pharmacy from the same school. The researchers chose Nueva Vizcaya as

their research place because they are locally based around the province. And the resources in the

province are enough for the researchers to fulfill the needed number of respondents for their study,

hence not requiring them to extend to other provinces. They chose several towns of Nueva

Vizcaya, mainly Solano and Bayombong because multiple hospitals and clinics are situated in

these areas. If they choose only one town, there might not be enough respondents since the

professionals who are going to be the respondents might not be easy to find.

Research Instrument

The researchers structured the research step by step. First part is the profiling of the

respondents which are the name and the profession. Second is the Likert scale which contains 10

questions determining how much they agree or disagree. Lastly the open-ended questions which

contains 2 question that is answerable by their own idea and opinion. The questionnaire

constructed by the researchers is structured in a manner that the questions will be easily answered

and easily understood by the respondents and is limited only to the essential information needed

in this particular study. Questions are also arranged in a way that the opinion or view of the

respondents regarding the legalization of medical marijuana will be determined.

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Data Gathering Procedure

Formulation of survey forms and Letter for Approval


questionnaires

Distribution of survey forms and Pilot testing


questionnaires

Retrieval of the answered survey Recording of the result


forms and questionnaires

Interpreting of data Data analysis

Conclusion

Figure 3. Data Gathering Procedure

The figure above shows the flow of the data gathering procedure in which the researchers

will partake in. The researchers will begin with the formulation of survey forms and questionnaires

which will be answered by the research respondents. Before the researchers distribute the survey

forms and questionnaires, the researchers must have a letter for approval to be able to undergo

pilot testing and continue with the actual distribution of questionnaires. After the pilot testing, the

researchers can distribute the survey forms and questionnaires to the respondents. The distribution

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of survey forms and questionnaire follows. The researchers will wait for the retrieval of survey

forms and questionnaires. Just after that, the researchers will record the result and analyze the

gathered data. The data will be interpreted in various ways and the researchers will give

conclusions accordingly.

Data Analyses
The following treatments will be used to analyze the gathered data:

a.) Frequency Count and Percentage

The respondents will be identified according to their classification whether they are a

student from senior high or health sciences, nurse, pharmacist, or doctor.

b.) Mean

The mean of the gathered data will be used to analyzed the Likert’s Scale which will be

the indicator whether the respondents have a negative or a positive perception towards the

legalization of marijuana.
Table 1. Qualitative Description of Likert’s Scale
Scale Qualitative Implication
Description
1 – 1.49 Strongly Disagree The respondents have a negative perception on the legalization of
marijuana.
1.5 – 2.49 Disagree The respondents have a slight negative perception on the
legalization of marijuana in the Philippines.
2.5 – 3.49 Agree The respondents have a slight positive perception on the
legalization of marijuana in the Philippines.
3.5 – 4 Strongly Agree The respondents have a positive perception on the legalization of
marijuana in the Philippines.
c.) Thematic Analysis

The qualitative part of the research will be analyzed through thematic analysis wherein the

answers of the respondents on the given open-ended questions will be interpreted.

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References
American Academy of Pediatrics (2004). Legalization of Marijuana: Impact on youth.
Angell, T. (2019, February 8). Senator Files '420' Marijuana Bill to Legalize It Federally.
Retrieved from79
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.forbes.com/sites/tomangell/2019/02/08/feds-would-
tax-marijuana-under-new-senate-bill-actually-numbered-s-420/amp/
Cannabis Business Times. (2019). Cannabis Legalization World Map. [online] Retrieved from
https://www.cannabisbusinesstimes.com/article/cannabis-legalization-world-map/
Castro A., Daet J., Suba J., (2015). Perception of University Belt Students in the Legalization of
Medical Marijuana in the Philippines. Metro Manila, University of Santo Tomas.
Davis, K. (2018). Everything You Need to Know About Marijuana. Retrieved from
https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/246392.php
Desai U., Paras P., (2013) Medical Marijuana: a public health perspective. International Journal
of Basic and Clinical of Pharmacology, 2, Retrieved from
https://www.ijbcp.com/index.php/ijbcp/article/view/1225
DuPont R., Kleber H., (2012). Physicians and Medical Marijuana. The American Journal of
Psychiatry, Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12030373
Fogoros. (2018). Cannabis excess linked to bone disease, fractures. Retrieved 2019, from
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161012132657.htm
Geramjan, N., Gharaat, L., Akhayan Tehari, S., Mohebpour, F., Nahvizadeh, M., Farajzadegan,
Z., & Heidan, K. (2014, December 5). Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Drug
Abuse among High School Students of Isfahan Province, Iran [Scholarly project].
Jacques, R. (2017). This is Why Should Be Legal Everywhere. Retrieved from
https://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/m.huffpost.com/us/entry/4151423/amp
Lopez, G. (2018). The research suggests marijuana legalization could lead to more use.
Marijuana News (2017, March 14). Philippine: Should Medical Marijuana Legalize.
Moller K., Woods., (2015). Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attributes Regarding Medical
Marijuana. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(6), doi: 10.5688/ajpe79685
National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2019). Marijuana as Medicine. Retrieved from
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana-medicine
National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). (2013). Retrieved from

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https://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/NSDUH-DetTabs2013.pdf
Petalcorin, M.(2019). Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA).
Roditis, M. and Halpern-Felsher, B. (2019). Adolescents' Perceptions of Risks and Benefits of
Conventional Cigarettes, E-cigarettes, and Marijuana: A Qualitative Analysis.
Taylor, A. (2018). Big Pharma Picks up on Medical Marijuana. Retrieved from
https://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/big-pharma-
picks-up-on-medical-marijuana-65245/amp
Volkow, Baler, Compton, and Weiss (2014). Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use. Retrieved
Aprill 22,2019, from https://www.academia.edu/37277011/nejmra

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Appendices

APPENDIX A - Communication Letter

April 5, 2019

Dear Respondents,

We, the researchers, are conducting a study entitled, “Perceptions of Students and Medical
Practitioners on the Legalization of Medical Marijuana.” Part of the requirements of our study
is to conduct pilot-testing to check the reliability of our research instrument.

In connection to this, may we request you to be one of our respondents? This would be of great
help in checking the reliability of our research tool. Rest assured that all of the information that
will be gathered from you will be kept utmost confidentiality and will be used for research purposes
only.

We appreciate your time and effort in helping us. Thank you and God bless.

Respectfully yours,

CADAG, KEITH CAMILLE D. GUERZO, DANIEL DAVE Y. HIADAN, CHAZELLE JOY F.


Researcher Researcher Researcher

LACBAYAN, ARIELLE PABLO, JOSHE GABRIEL P. PESCASIO, MICHAEL


MONIQUE D. Researcher ANGELO A.
Researcher Researcher

Noted by:

MR. MARK BERNARD C. SAN JUAN MR. DENSON M. LIDAY


Research Teacher Research Coordinator

Approved by:

MR. MELENCIO G. BERNARDINO, JR.


Principal

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APPENDIX B - Sample Questionnaires


In this study the researchers aim to determine the perception of students and medical
practitioners on the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes.
Marijuana also known as “cannabis” refers to the dried leaves, flower, stems, and seeds
from the cannabis sativa or cannabis indica plant. The plant contains the mind-altering chemical
THC and other similar compounds (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018). According to the
Cannabis Business Times (2017), there are countries which have started to legalize the use of
medical marijuana whether legalized fully or partially for medical and/or adult use, these countries
include: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, India,
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Macedonia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Puerto Rico, Turkey, Uruguay.
There are illnesses that marijuana can cure better than of those available in the market.
Being aware of its effects and its uses has its aids. It is believed that medical marijuana can be of
medical use to the following conditions: AIDS/HIV, Alzheimer’s, Arthritis, Asthma, Cancer,
Chronic Pain, Crohn’s disease, Epilepsy, Glaucoma, Multiple Sclerosis (Christensen, 2015). It is
also found that it can reduce pain and inflammation, and improve muscle control. Some data
suggest that with the use of medical marijuana the opioid dose prescribed for pain patients may be
reduced (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2018).
Name: _______________________________________________
Profession:
Senior High School Student Health Sciences Student (BS Nursing/BS Pharmacy)
Pharmacist Registered Nurse Doctor
INSTRUCTIONS: Check the corresponding box of your choice regarding your opinion on the
legalization of medical marijuana in the Philippines. Please refer to the legend below.
Legend:
1 – Strongly Disagree 2 – Disagree 3 – Agree 4 – Strongly Agree

QUESTIONS 1 2 3 4
1. Legalizing medical marijuana can provide a safer route for
patients who use medications which has grave side effects.
2. Marijuana for medical purposes when legalized could
potentially decrease the prescription of opioid.
3. Legalizing medical marijuana could lead to the development
of pharmaceutical drugs.

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4. If marijuana could alleviate an illness, it should be made legal
so that it could be easily accessed by any person who needs
the drug.
5. Legalizing medical marijuana could have greater benefits than
risks.
6. Legalized medical marijuana would allow patients to access
its benefits without having to go through much trouble.
7. Legalization of medical marijuana would provide economic
benefits.
8. Legalizing medical marijuana will create jobs and economic
opportunities in the formal economy instead of the illicit
market.
9. The legalization of medical marijuana could potentially lower
crime rates.
10. Marijuana for medical purposes when legalized will have a
positive impact on the society.

What kind of effect do you think the legalization of medical marijuana would have on society?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Would legalization of medical marijuana be beneficial to the citizens of the Philippines? Why?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

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APPENDIX C - Documentation of Pilot Testing

Survey form distribution to the pharmacists Survey form distribution to the pharmacists
of The Generics Pharmacy in Solano of Watsons Savemore 2 in Solano

Survey form distribution to the pharmacists


of Mercury Drug in Solano

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APPENDIX D - Pilot Testing Result

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's N of Items
Alpha

.928 10

Figure 4. Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Statistics

The figure above shows the Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Statistics which indicates the

internal consistency of the pilot testing conducted. Since the Cronbach’s Alpha Value is 0.928

wherein a ≥ 0.9, this implies that the internal consistency of the pilot testing is excellent.

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APPENDIX E

Curriculum Vitae

Keith Camille D. Cadag


C.M Recto St. Dubinan East, Santiago City
cadag_2002@gmail.com

Personal Information

Date of birth: March 25,2002 Religion: Christian

Age: 17 Nationality: Filipino

Height: 5’4 Weight: 46kg

Father: Alvin T. Cadag Occupation: Branch Manager

Mother: Merwin D. Cadag Occupation: Cashier

Siblings: Alvin Feil D. Cadag


Princess Charisse D. Cadag

Educational Background
Level School Award

Secondary Northeastern College With Honors

Elementary Northeastern College 1st Honorable Mention

I hereby certify that all the information above is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and ability. Keith Camille D. Cadag

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Curriculum Vitae

Danniel Dave Y. Guerzo


Purok 6, Bonfal Proper, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya
rannielreighguerzo@gmail.com

Personal Information

Date of birth: September 5, 2003 Religion: Christian

Age: 16 Nationality: Filipino

Height: 6’’ Weight: 65

Father: Regie A. Guerzo Occupation: N/A

Mother: Mylin Y. Guerzo Occupation: Registered Nurse

Siblings: Reghieme Reign Y. Guerzo


Regieleign Atiya Y. Guerzo

Educational Background
Level School Award

Secondary
Aldersgate College Science High
School With honor

Elementary
Bonfal Annex Elementary 10th honor
School

I hereby certify that all the information above is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and ability. Danniel Dave Y. Guerzo

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Curriculum Vitae

Chazelle Joy F. Hiadan


Pcnet Bldg., Brgy. Quirino, Solano, Nueva Vizcaya
hiadan.chazelle@yahoo.com

Personal Information

Date of birth: March 25, 2002 Religion: Christian

Age: 17 Nationality: Filipino

Height: 5’3 Weight: 50kg

Father: Charlie G. Hiadan Occupation: Businessman

Mother: Celia F. Hiadan (+) Occupation: N/A

Siblings: Chazelie Mae F. Hiadan


Carl Mike F. Hiadan
Cristine Marie F. Hiadan
James Carlo F. Hiadan

Educational Background
Level School Award

Secondary Saint Mary’s University


Grade School Department
Grade 10 - With Honors

Elementary Saint Mary’s University Grade 1 - 1st honor


Junior High School and Grade 2 - 3rd honor
Science High School Grade 3 - 5th honors
Grade 4 - With Academic
Distinction
I hereby certify that all the information above is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and ability. Chazelle Joy F. Hiadan

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Curriculum Vitae

Arielle Monique D. Lacbayan


330 Maharika H-way, Brgy. Roxas, Solano, Nueva Vizcaya
ayenlacbayan@gmail.com

Personal Information

Date of birth: June 04, 2002 Religion: Christian

Age: 16 y/o Nationality: Filipino

Height: 5’1 Weight: 55.5 kg

Father: Arnel S. Lacbayan Occupation: Government Employee

Mother: Daisy D. Lacbayan Occupation: Bank Employee

Siblings: Maria Odessa D. Lacbayan

Educational Background
Level School Award

Secondary Aldersgate College Science With honors


High School

Elementary Aldersgate College


8th honorable mention

I hereby certify that all the information above is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and ability. Arielle Monique D. Lacbayan

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Curriculum Vitae

Joshe Gabriel Peros Pablo


#23 Washington street, Poblacion, Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya
joshgabrielpablo@gmail.com

Personal Information

Date of birth: August 24,2002 Religion: Christian

Age: 16 Nationality: Filipino

Height: 5’3 Weight: 68kg

Father: Joselito D. Pablo Occupation: Seaman

Mother: Queen Wilhelmina P. Pablo Occupation: Nurse

Siblings: Jolo Guillmore P. Pablo


Jada Gabrielle P. Pablo

Educational Background
Level School Award

Secondary Aritao National High School With Honors

Elementary Aritao Central School


12th Honorable Mention

I hereby certify that all the information above is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and ability. Joshe Gabriel Peros Pablo

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Curriculum Vitae

Name: Michael Angelo Albano Pescasio


Address: Caliguian, Burgos, Isabela
Email Address:

Personal Information

Date of birth: November 1,2001 Religion: Christian

Age: 17 Nationality: Filipino

Height: 175 Weight: 55

Father: Larry Facun Pescasio Occupation: OFW

Mother: Mary Ann Albano Pescasio Occupation: Housewife

Siblings: N/A

Educational Background
Level School Award

Secondary Burgos National High School Grade7 – Top 7


Grade 9 – with Honors
Grade 10 – with Honors

Elementary Burgos Central School Grade 3 - Top6


Grade 4 – Top 10
Grade 5 – Top 6

I hereby certify that all the information above is true and correct to the best of my
knowledge and ability. Michael Angelo A. Pescasio

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