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Wireless Measurement and Control System for Environmental Parameters in Greenhouse
Yang Shulian, Zhang Yu
Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, 255049, China firstname.lastname@example.org takes charge of collecting temperature, humility, carbon dioxide and other parameters, and transmit these parameters to centralized control unit by wireless sending modules; on the other hand, it takes charge of carrying out the instructions sending by PC and then to adjust these parameters. Centralized control unit not only summarizes the data collecting by every terminal and transmits these parameters to PC, but also receives control instructions from PC and also sends it to every terminal to adjust the environment parameters of every terminal. The PC collects the environment parameters of every terminal, handles and displays it, which gives all kinds of control instruction according to these parameters. Serial communication circuit achieves the level conversion between the microcontroller and the PC in order to realize the communication between them.
Abstract – According to the environmental parameters monitoring requirements in greenhouse, a wireless measurement and control system for temperature and humidity is developed. It overcomes the disadvantages of wired monitoring system, such as complicated wiring, and difficult maintenance. The environmental parameters in every greenhouse were measured and controlled by microcontroller. The hardware and software of the monitoring system are discussed in detail. The experimental results show that the developed monitoring system has the following features, such as simple structure, high reliability, good extensibility and flexible configuration. It can control and adjust automatically the environmental parameters in every greenhouse, and has project practicality and vendibility. Keywords –Greenhouse; temperature and humidity; Wireless transmitting and receiving; measurement and control; nRF905
Terminal 1 Terminal 2 Terminal n
For the large rural distract, the greenhouse production has become a way of being rich. The growth of crop in greenhouse depends on temperature, humility and other parameters in greenhouse. So it is important to real-timely and properly measure and adjust the temperature, humility and other parameters in the greenhouse. With the continued expansion of production scale, the disadvantages of traditional wire monitoring system are more and more prominent, such as complicated arrangement, difficult maintenance and so on. Then the wireless monitoring system is developed, which based on wireless communication technology, does not need cables, adds or reduces configuration at random, possess simple system construction. Moreover, it is characterized by its low power consumption, simple net construction. Therefore, it proves to be simple and of practical significance[1-3]. A greenhouse environment parameters monitoring system based on wireless communication technology has been developed, which realizes the measurement, summary and control of temperature, humility and the other parameters. II. GENERAL SYSTEM The diagram of monitoring system for environment parameters in greenhouse is shown in figure 1. It includes every terminal, centralized control unit, PC and serial communication circuits. On the one hand, every terminal
978-0-7695-3962-1/10 $26.00 © 2010 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICMTMA.2010.171 1099
Centralized control unit
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Figure 1. Block diagram of general system.
DESIGN OF FUNCTION MODULE
Centralized control unit Centralized control unit consists of microcontroller and radio frequency transceivers. Microcontroller as the control center, not only controls the transmission and receiving of radio frequency signal; but also communicates with the PC. Considering energy-saving of the entire system, the microcontroller of STC12LE5410AD is selected which is driven by power supply of 3.2V. It consists of the following features: 8051 core, 8 channels and 10 bits ADC, 4 channels PWM output, 521 Bytes of on board RAM, 10K program memory, watchdog, integrated special reset circuit of
Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 12,2010 at 10:45:26 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.
The ShockBurst™ feature automatically handles preamble and CRC. It mainly includes data acquisition subsystems.6]. It is a single chip radio transceiver for the 433/868/915MHz ISM band. to control heaters. With the increase of the number of greenhouse. With the temperature. According to the systemic design principle in high stabilization and low power consumption. exhaust fan and humidifier. The measurement and control module of environment parameters is only explained as follows. The conversion between RS232 and TTL level by STC3232. This serial communication circuit is designed based on RS232C serial interface for data transmission.1% RH. average power consumption is less than 100mW. IV. You can easily configure the nRF905 through the SPI. a power amplifier. humidity and co2 concentration are not suitable for the growth of crops. and being greater the area of its cover. two 16 bits timers/counters. humidifiers and transmit these data. intelligent battery monitoring IC of DS2762. Current consumption is very low. The controlling members of greenhouse for environment parameters consist of the controlling of heater. because it is RS232C duplex transmitter/receiver interface chip. Power supply unit The power supply consist of a lithium battery with capacity of 1200 mAh.3℃ at 25 ℃ . (2)The concentration sensor of CO2 is chosen as infrared CO2 sensor of C20 which produced by the British GSS Company. It’s main performance index are: measuring range is 0~5000ppm. the measuring precision is ±0. humidifier and exhaust fan RXD TXD Figure 3.2010 at 10:45:26 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Built-in power down modes makes power saving easily realizable. battery protection IC of R5426. thus the circuit of amplifying power based on the chip of PA2423L is designed to improve systemic output power and realize further receiving and transmission distance. Downloaded on July 12. with the performance are shown as follows: (1)Temperature and humidity sensor is chosen as SHT15. SYSTEMIC SOFTWARE The systemic software includes data acquisition. and is 8 to12 times than the 51 family microcontroller in speed. The connection diagram of serial interface is showed in Figure 3. precision is ±2. The system on the one hand collects the data which every terminal collected. D. humidity measuring range is Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. the PC can send out instructions to control solid state relay. its performance index are: temperature measuring range is -40℃～+123. wireless communication subsystems and power supply subsystem. 1100 . B.0% RH. and in receive mode 12. Serial communication circuit unit The serial communication circuit accomplishes the communication between the PC and microcontroller. Measurement and control unit The block diagram of every measurement and control terminal is showed in figure 2. control subsystems. Diagram of measurement and control unit.MAX810. measuring range and precision. power supply is 3. It is mainly used to measure the temperature and humility indoors and outdoors and carbon dioxide concentration indoors. battery charge management IC of BQ2057. cost and volume. a crystal oscillator and. The transceiver consists of a fully integrated frequency synthesizer.3V DC. the transmission power of nRF905 does not meet the actual demand. can be set as single clock machine cycle (1T). response time is less than 8 s. humidity and CO2 sensors Figure 2. The program of microcontroller and PC are coded by C51 and Visual Basic Language. The microcontroller and radio frequency transceivers in this section are selected as same as in the section A. 2 channels interrupt. repeatability precision is ±0. on the other hand controls the action of ach terminal by the instruction of the PC. which has level multiplication circuit with spontaneously stepping up and only needs a single power supply of +3. TXD RXD STC3232 μC transceiver microcontroller TXD PC Temperature. exhaust fan and humidifier are turned on by solid state relay. etc. exhaust fans. 0%~100% RH. a modulator.5mA. in transmit only 9mA at an output power of -10dBm. C.3V[5. Diagram of the connection of serial interface. The sensor is chosen in practical application in energy consumption. precision is 10ppm. the output is digital signal. data receiving and transmission by wireless and action subprogram of every terminal. average power consumption is 20 µW. communication subprogram between PC and microcontroller. It provides the necessary energy and intelligent charging and short circuit protection function for every terminal. and data processing subprogram by PC. receiver chain with demodulator. full duplex UART.8℃. Restrictions apply. response time is less than 4s. respectively. serial input and output are in TTL level or analog voltage of 0~5V. Otherwise these controllers are turned out . the nRF905 is practically selected. ADC Heater. then the heater.
Every control instruction module sends all kinds of instruction based on the results of the comparison of collected data and the standard value. The flowchart is followed as Figure 6. B. The test results for the developed system at a moment are shown in table 1. data processing subprogram. Figure 6. scale conversion. flowchart of microcontroller subprogram C. A. Microcontroller subprogram The microcontroller subprogram mainly achieves the receiving of data from every terminal and transmission of instruction from PC. etc. and it will control the controller of every terminal. The flow chart is followed as Figure4. The flowchart is followed as Figure 5. numerical calculation. Main program The main program of the PC achieves data receiving. graph and table are used to show historical data inquiry information of every monitoring parameter. data collection subprogram. printing. flowchart of terminal subprogram Figure 4. . The data management module is mainly used to manage the collecting data. it is the connective ligament of every terminal and the PC. Downloaded on July 12. The data processing module is mainly used to deal with the received data package. concentration of CO2 indoors. Terminal subprogram Every terminal subprogram achieves measurement of all kinds of parameters and transmission of it. including storage. etc. data management subprogram and control instruction subprogram.There are 5 greenhouses are located in the circumference of a radius of 1km. The relational database of SQL Server 2000 is used to store and manage the collecting data. logical judgment and so on. every greenhouse can collect environmental temperature.2010 at 10:45:26 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply. Every monitoring parameter is displayed dynamically by real-time graph and table. such as the working mode parameters of every terminal and the sampling time. Flowchart of main program. enquiry. Start System initiation Opening RS232 series interface Sending data acquisition instructions Receiving data N Start μC initiation Opening series interface Sending instructions of acquisition data Receiving terminal data Uploading data to PC Figure 5. the main program sends control instructions to control electrical apparatus of every terminal on or off. such as digital filtering. Parameter setting subprogram mainly set all kinds of systemic parameters. and the performance of all kinds of control instructions to adjust all kinds of parameters. airy humidity.The PC program consists of parameter setting subprogram. For the data is beyond the range of a pre-set. The data acquisition module achieves synchronously the collection of multi-channel data. data analysis and statistics. analysis and storage of every terminal. Shandong province. Start Initialization Data acquisition instruction ? N Control instruction Y Y Collecting kinds of data Transmitting data Humidifier instruction Ventilator instruction Heater instruction Data beyond range？ Y Sending control instruction D. 1101 Systemic testing result The experiment is done on the system at vegetable base Shouguang. real-time display of waveform. Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY.
2006. Development and design of greenhouse testing and control system based on wireless sensor networks. a lithium cell after charging can remains more than half of a year for every terminal. and then also sent to the PC by the central unit. flexible extension. Restrictions apply.2010 at 10:45:26 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Hu Ji. good robustness.The data sampling interval of the system is of 20 minutes. With taking the low power consumption measure that controlling sampling interval and adopting dormancy.6 50% 1356 3 25. 2002，16(3):24-26. CONCLUSION The measurement and control system for environment parameters in greenhouse based on wireless communication technology is developed and initially experimented. Zhang Baohua. Temperature (℃) Humidity (RH) Concentration of CO2 (ppm) 1 22.182-185. displayed. Greenhouse No. 1102 Authorized licensed use limited to: GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY. Downloaded on July 12.0 48% 1387 4 24.8(4):31-34. (2) It can be kept long distance. Zhu Weihua. Short-range wireless data communication entry and the actual combat [M]. real time monitoring for parameter of greenhouse and the information can be obtained of greenhouse at any time. Design of the Wireless Multi . Communication principle and technology. inquired and printed by the software of the PC. The acquisition data are sent to central control unit by every terminal controller. REFERENCES       Kang Weixin. Zhang Weigang. low power consumption. Xi’an: Xidian university press. 2003，17(2):6-9. Design of Wireless Data collection System Based on Single RF Transceiver.5 53% 1428 5 24. and etc. Design of Charged Wireless Communication Interface Based on Bluetooth Technique. (3) It has the advantages of not needing cables. The data can be stored. Microelectronics & computer， 2008， 25(5): 154-157. Heilongjiang Institute of Technology.pp.2002.Point Temperature Gathering System Based on nRF9E5. Nanhua University.7 51% 1454 The test results showed that the lithium cell with capacity of 1200mAh can only remain two days every terminal when there is not low power consumption measure. The experimental results indicate that the system has some features as follows: (1) It is applied to agriculture vegetable greenhouse can commendably overcome the disadvantage of traditional measuring and controlling system in greenhouses. cheap cost. Journal of Hangzhou Dianzi University. Li Shining.3 47% 1300 2 23. V. Bei hang University Press.2002. Li Wenzhong. . pp89-93. Tan Liang . Teng Wenxing. TABLE 1. analyzed. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE SYSTEM. convenient installing over the traditional measurement and control system.