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osmosis- involves the movement of a pure solvent such as water through a semi-
permeable membrane from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of greater
solute solution.
diffusion- the movement of solute across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of
higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
facilitated diffusion- used in cases where solutes are too polar, tightly charged, too
big; requires a transporter, carrier protein eg. glucose, fructose, galactose
primary active transport- means actually carrying of a substance through the
membrane eg. Na-K pump. A transport process that pumps sodium ions through the
cell membrane and at the same time pumps potassium ions from the outside to the
secondary active transport- the energy is derived secondarily from energy that has
been stored in the form of ionic concentration differences between the sides of a
membrane created in the first place by primary active transport
endocytosis- the uptake of material through the cell membrane by the fountain of a
membrane band sac, vesicle. Ex: HIV enters the Herpe T-cell
exocytosis- the secreatory vesicle move to the cell membrane where the vesicle
membrane fuses with the cell membrane, the material in the vesicle is eliminated from
the cell eg. digestive enzymes from pancreas, neurotransmitter
transcytosis- movement of a substance as a result of endocytosis on one side and
exocytosis on the opposite side eg. antibodies of a pregnant woman cross the placenta
into the fetal circulation

Factors influencing diffusion

• steepness of concentration gradient
• temperature
• mass of the diffusing substance
• surface area
• diffusion distance

Tonicity- measure of the solution’s ability to change the volume of the cells by
altering the water content
a. isotonic
-‘same’; able to maintain round shape and volume
-concentration of solutes that cannot pass the membrane are the same on both
sides of the membrane eg. normal saline solution
b. hypotonic
- solution with lower concentration of solute than the cytosol. Water enters the
cell faster than they leave
rbc swelling >> bursting >> hemolysis
eg. sports drinks- used in patients who are dehydrated
c. hypertonic
-higher concentration of solutes than the cytosol. Water molecules move out of
the cells faster than they enter
rbc shrink >> crenation
eg. mannitol- used in patients with cerebral edema
Body fluids have pH values that must be maintained within relatively narrow limits
for normal cell activity
blood:7.35-7.45; saliva:5.4-7.5; gastric juice: 1.5-3.5; bile: 8-8.5; urine: 4.5-8.0
• the high acid pH of the gastric juice is maintained by the HCl secreted by the
parietal cells in the walls of the gastric glands. The low pH of the stomach
fluids, the environment best suited to the functioning of the enzyme Pepsin
that begins the digestion of dietary protein
• saliva which is the optimum value(?) for the action of salivary anylase, the
enzyme present in saliva which initiates the digestion of CHO. Its action is
inhibited … whatever, hindi ko maintindihan yung next @_@
• the kidneys regulate blood pH by increasing or decreasing as required the
excretion of H+ & HCO3. if pH falls, H+ excretion is increased, HCO3 is
conserved. If pH increases, H+ excretion is decreased, HCO3 is conserved.

Functions of epithelial tissue:

-protection, filtration, secretion, absorption, excretion, combine the nervous tissue to
form special organs for smell, hearing, vision and touch