Built by Geniuses to be Run by the Inmates

Introduction
This page ( http://www.historicasylums.org/ ) is an attempt to catalog and present America's historic psychiatric hospitals ( state hospitals; insane asylums) founded mostly in the latter half of the 19th century. The site gives special emphasis on the facilities built on the "Kirkbride plan", but it is not necessarily limited to the Kirkbride hospitals. The Kirkbride plan and the resulting buildings represented great ambition on the part of both psychiatric caregivers and architects. Known Kirkbride hospitals are indicated by a clickable Kirkbride label Type: Kirkride in the listings. Asylums outside of this scope, such as ones constructed in the 20th century are also included. To some, the asylums of the 19th century represent a darker period in mental health care, with involuntary incarceration, barbaric and ineffective treatments, and abuse of patients. However, there is also a legacy of progressive institutional treatment left by Dorothea Dix, Thomas Story Kirkbride, John Galt, and others represented by these buildings and sites. The sites that remain stand in monument to the successes and failures of these reforms and their efforts. The treatments and philosophies seem rather outdated and quant today, but at the time were a considered to be great improvement in the treatment of people perceived in need of psychiatric care. A large proportion of these historic institutions are no longer psychiatric hospitals. What remains are the magnificent castle like buildings wrought of brick and stone in incredible detail, a legacy of an attention to detail in architecture which seems to have been long forgotten. Scope of this site: Presented here are hospitals which are still in operation, hospitals which are still standing but are now closed, hospitals that are still standing but are no

longer used as hospitals, and hospitals that havebeen long since or recently demolished. The largest and best known institutions presented here ( including the maj ority of the Kirkbride hospitals) were started by and run by state governments. Well known examples of this type include Danvers State Insane Asylum in Massachusetts and Fergus Falls State Hospital in Minnesota. This site also institutions run by city and county governments ( such as the numerous county asylums in Wisconsin, along with private institutions such as Brattleboro Retreat. Also included are state homes, instititions for the developmentally disabled, childrens' asylums, and institutions for the deaf and blind. In addition to the psychiatric institutions, there are some medical hospitals and sanitariums, sanatoriums, poor farms, and prisons included in the site. These include certain Pennsylvania state hospitals, which in some cases are actually medical hospitals, and not psychiatric institutions at all. Although a few of these might be included in this site ( especially where they share locations with insane asylums) , the focus of this site is not on these types of facilities. Note: This site is not yet complete: there are a lot of asylums that have not been added yet. Architects: : The architects of these buildings include H. H. Richardson, George Kessler, Samuel Sloan, Gordon W. Lloyd, Stephen Vaughn Shipman ( who designed several) , state capitol architect Elij ah E. Myers, Ward P. Delano, Isaac Perry, John Notman, Frederick Law Olmsted ( landscapes and grounds) , A. J. Davis, H. W. S. Cleveland, Edward O. Fallis, Warren Dunnell, Charles C Rittenhouse, Richard Karl AugustKletting, John A. Fox, and others. Dr. Thomas Story Kirkbride, while not an architect, devised the basic floor plan many of these architects used in the design of their main asylum buildings.

and the intended floor plans. Michigan. Most of the pages contain postcard images or photos. Kellogg's corn flakes were invented at this institution. Several historic sanitariums are included at the end of the listings for each state. along with many other photos ( historic and modern) . The Kirkbride State This excerpt was based on Hospitals . the term "sanitorium" tends to be reserved for the TB institutions. The most famous historic sanitarium was the Kellogg Sanitarium in Battle Creek. Type of Information Presented: This site contains scores of historic asylum postcard images. Some photos or other renditions of famous figures from this part of mental health history are included with the entry for the institution that the person was associated with. Also included are some architect or planner sketches of the hospitals as they were supposed to look ( drawn before construction) .Sanitariums: To most. However. the word "sanitarium" currently has identical meaning to "insane asylum". Some historic sanitariums were state run tuberculosis hospitals. a century ago. This sanitarium was of the hospital/health spa variety. while some of the pages contain only text at this time. and a few were actually insane asylums. In this site. These hospitals with their imposing main buildings are quickly vanishing from the American landscape. the typical sanitarium was most likely a hospital or residential health spa. and was depicted in the film and book "The Road to Wellville".

Kirkbride created a humane and compassionate environment for his patients. and he believed that the beautiful setting described below restored patients to a more natural balance of the senses. " which influenced. and floor plans. for patients. Buildings were arrangeden chelons . in agreement with the classical tastes of the time. The images include photographs. sketches. From the center building. which were parallel to the original wings. Kirkbride's progressive therapies and innovative writings onhospitaldesign and management became known as the "Kirkbride Plan. who served the Pennsylvania Hospital as superintendent from 1841 1883. . Kirkbride spoke of his plan as linear. Note: Image sizes range from 30K to over 300K: these larger ones may take some time to load. extendedwings right and left for patients. short cross sections dropped back to connect with more buildings. Thomas Story Kirkbride.annual reports written by Dr. Dr. From the ends of the wings. Each ward was enough out of line so that fresh air could reach it from all four sides and it was not under observation from the other wards from Dr. The center building was more imposing than theothers and had a dome. in one form or another. Hospitals that are known for sure to be Kirkbride hospitals are indicated with an asterisk . almost every American state hospital by the turn of the century. Bond You can read more about Thomas Story Kirkbride inThe Art of Asylum Keeping : Thomas Story Kirkbride and the Origins of AmericanPsychiatry See the following historic images of historic state hospitals from across the nation ( states and territories) . " quoted from the Pennsylvania Hospital Newsletter of the Friends of the Hospital Dr. Dr. used for administration offices. Kirkbride and his Mental Hospital by Earl D.

changes in philosophy. Some state hospitals have had several names. Entries with this symbol are asylums that consisted mainly . but later added cottages are included under the Kirkbride category above instead of this cottage category. Hospitals which started as Kirkbride.Terminology and Names Over the years. Examples of Names ( tending from earlier to recent) • • • • • • • • • • • Lunatic Hospital Lunatic Asylum Asylum for the Insane Insane Asylum State Hospital Mental Health Center Psychiatric Hospital Regional Center Retreat Developmental Center Center Key to Symbols Starred entries have a lot of information. Type: Kirkride Entries with this symbol of a large building with a tall central wing and wings attached on either side in a symmetric fashion are known Kirkbride hospitals. and even changes in terminology has left these facilities with many names. at least four images and/or substantial text. factors such as changes in the mission of the state hospital. and it seems like any institution that lasted from the 19th century into the 20th century had at least one name change. Entries with this symbol areasylums based on a plan of scattered cottages.

but many of the other buildings and the grounds remain. with information on museums at statehospitals ( and former state hospitals) and other sites open to the public. Preserved hospitals canstill be in use as psychiatric hospitals. . The "Asylum Tourist"entries also include information on publicly viewable asylumsites NOT worth seeing. used for another purpose. Entries with this symbol are in danger of demolition at this time. and why. or abandoned. Entries with this symbol are asylums of which little remai ns Entries with this symbol are for asylums that have lost their most significant historic structures. The privacy and treatment of the residents and patients must be respected. Entries with this symbol have the main asylum building intact ( or mostly intact) .of one single wing building. and hospitals which are still in operation is strongly discouraged ( along with any sort of trepassing at any place where entry or exploration is prohibited or illegal) . Intrusion at psychiatric institutions. Entries with this symbol are asylums that consist of a large rambling building that is not on the Kirkbride plan. Institution entries with this symbolhave "Asylum Tourist" information. This also includes former institutions which have been converted to another residential use. residences. or the cottages pretty much remain in the case of cottage based hospitals. and general information on viewing the sites. Entries with this symbol are for asylums buildings that are currently undergoing some sort of remodeling or renovation.

This symbol. Little Rock. Orange County. No historic structures remaining ( ?) Other State Institutions Arkansas Training School for Girls. 1959 . 1885 Camarillo State Hospital. Phoenix Arkansas Asylums Arkansas State Hospital ( Arkansas Insane Asylum) . represents institutions that have now become prisons. prison bars. Vernon Insane Hospital Sanitariums Belle Aire Sanitarium ( Mobile) Alaska No listings at this time. Alabama Asylums Bryce Hospital for the Insane. Tuscaloosa Type: Kirkride Mt. This symbol represents institutions which have now become colleges. Alexander California Asylums Atascadero State Hospital Agnews State Hospital. 1883. Ventura County Fairview State Hospital. Arizona Asylums Insane Asylum.

Middletown Norwich Insane Hospital. Lakeville Sanitariums Dr Given's ( Stamford) . etc State School for Feeble Minded. 1917 Patton State Hospital Type: Kirkride Porterville State Hospital. 1891 Stockton State Hospital. 1853 Colorado Asylums Fort Logan Mental Health Center Colorado State Hospital ( Colorado Insane Asylum) . Hartford. 1853 San Francisco Marine Hospital. Dr. 1879 Sanitariums Mount Airy Sanitarium Connecticut Asylums Fairfield State Hospital. State Homes. 1823 Connecticut State Hospital. Ukiah Metropolitan State Hospital. Pomona. 1875 Norwalk State Hospital ( see Metropolitan State Hospital) Pacific State Hospital. Wadsworth ( South Norwalk) Delaware Asylums . Disabled. 1916 Modesto State Hospital Napa State Hospital. 1932 Connecticut Retreat for the Insane. NorwichMR & DD. 1953 Sacramento State Hospital. Norwalk. Newtown. Eldridge. Pueblo. 1853 Sonoma State Hospital.Highland State Hospital ( see Patton State Hospital) Mendocino State Hospital.

Deleware State Hospital. Milledgeville 1837 State Homes. ) Asylums St Elizabeths Hospital Type: Kirkride Sanitariums Washington Sanitarium and Hospital Florida Asylums Florida State Hospital. D. Illinois Asylums Alton State Hospital Anna State Hospital ( Southern Illinois) Type: Kirkride . Idaho No listings at this time. etc Georgia Retardation Center Sanitariums Blackman Walton ( Atlanta) Hawaii No listings at this time. C. 1877 North East State Hospital. MacClenny Georgia Asylums Central State Hospital. Wilmington District of Columbia ( Washington. Farnhurst Delaware State Hospital.

Bartonville State Hospital. State Homes. Lincoln Indiana Asylums Central Indiana Hospital for the Insane Type: Kirkride ( 2) Evansville State Hospital ( Woodmere) Logansport State Hospital ( Northern Insane Asylum) . Madison Richmond State Hospital State Homes Home for Feeble Minded Youth. Logansport Madison State Hospital ( Southeastern Insane Hospital) . Peoria. etc Institute for the Feeble Minded. Fort Wayne Sanitariums Dillsboro Sanitarium Iowa State Asylums Mt Pleasant State Hospital Type: Kirkride Cherokee State Hospital Type: Kirkride Clarinda State Hospital Type: Kirkride Independence State Hospital Type: Kirkride . 1885 ( aka Peoria State Hospital) Chester State Hospital Chicago State Hospital ( Chicago Read) Tinley Park State Hospital Galesburg State Hospital Elgin State Hospital Type: Kirkride Jacksonville State Hospital Type: Kirkride Kankakee State Hospital ( EasternIllinois) Type: Kirkride Manteno State Hospital Watertown Asylum / East Moline State Hospital Fox River Asylum ( Fictional) MR & DD.

Elkader Boone County Poor and Insane Asylum ( near city of Boone) Clinton County Poor Farm and Insane Asylum Johnson County Insane Asylum and Poor Farm Jackson Country Insane Asylum at the County Poor Farm ( near city of Andrew) Marion Country Poorhouse and Asylum.Woodward State Hospital ( in Woodward) County Asylums Des Moines County Infirmary and Asylum for the Insane Hospital for the Insane. Winfield Larned State Hospital Parsons State Hospital. State Homes. Lakeland Western State Hospital ( Western Kentucky Asylum) . Hopkinsville. Knoxville Polk County Asylum for the Poor and Insane State Homes Institute for Feeble Minded Children. Atchison Osawatomie State Hospital Menniger Clinic ( 1925) Kentucky Asylums Central Insane Asylum. Disabled. etc Kosair Hospital for Crippled Children. 1848 Eastern State Hospital. Louisville Sanitariums . Dubuque County Asylum. Parsons Topeka State Hospital Type: Kirkride Wells Asylum. 1824 MR & DD. Glenwood Kansas Asylums Kansas State Imbecile Asylum ( Winfield State Hospital) .

Catonsville Type: Kirkride Willmar State Hospital Sanitariums Wabasha Sanitarium State Sanitarium at Walker Medical Hospitals Mayo Hospital. Cloud St. Wabasha St. State Homes. Cloud Hospital. Elizabeth's Hospital. Cambridge Sheppard Enoch Pratt Hospital. Little Falls . etc Valley Farm ( Maine School for Feeble Minded) . West Ponwal Maryland Asylums Bay View Asylum. Gabriel's Hospital. 1848 Bangor Insane Hospital MR & DD. Rochester St. Towson Spring Grove State Hospital. Highlandtown Eastern Shore State Hospital. Disabled.Waverly Hills Tuberculosis Sanitarium Louisiana Asylums State Hospital at Alexandria Jackson State Hospital ( East Louisiana State Hospital) Central Louisiana State Hospital ( Pineville) Sanitariums Fenwick Sanitarium ( Covington) Maine Asylums Augusta Mental Health Institute ( Augusta Insane Hospital) . St.

Boulder Nebraska Asylums Hastings State Hospital State Lunatic Asylum at Lincoln. 1885 Mississippi State Hospital ( Whitfield) North Mississippi Regional Center ( Oxford) South Mississippi State Hospital ( Laurel) Kuhn Memorial State Hospital ( Vicksburg) Montana Asylums Montana State Hospital ( at Anaconda) Montana State Hospital ( at Warm Springs) Other Montana Developmental Center. Missouri) State Home. State Hospital #4. Louis St Louis County Insane Asylum SWGNA Area Landmarks Mississippi Jackson State Hospital Type: Kirkride East State Hospital ( Meridian) Type: Kirkride East Mississippi State Hospital ( Meridian) . 1870 .St. Farmington St. Vincent's Insane Asylum. Louis. St. or State Home ( Marshall. St. Luke's Hospital. Joseph State Hospital Type: Kirkride Marshall State Hospital. Winona Missouri Asylums Fulton State Hospital Nevada State Hospital Type: Kirkride St. St. Paul Winona General Hospital.

Norfolk Hospital for the Insane. 1882 New Hampshire Asylums State Hospital in Concord New Jersey State Asylums Ancora State Hospital State Asylum for the Insane at Morristown ( Morris Plains. Greystone) Type: Kirkride Marlboro State Hospital Trenton State Hospital Type: Kirkride County Asylums Atlantic County Insane Asylum Camden County Insane Asylum Hudson County Asylum. Pleasantville New Mexico No listings at this time. 1885 Nevada Asylums Nevada Mental Health Institute. New Jersey Salem Almshouse and Insane Asylum Burlington County Insane Asylum Insane Asylum. New York Asylums Newville State Hospital Binghamton State Hospital Creedmore State Hospital Harlem Valley State Hospital Hudson River State Hospital ( Poughkeepsie) Type: Kirkride Gowanda State Hospital .

1890 Rockland Asylum on Blackwell's Island. 1880 Dorothea Dix Hospital Goldsboro State Hospital North Dakota Asylums Grafton State Hospital Jamestown State Hospital Ohio Asylums .Utica State Hospital Buffalo State Hospital Type: Kirkride Dannemora State Hospital King's Park State Hospital Middletown State Hospital Matteawan State Hospital ( now Fishkill Correctional Facility) Pilgrim State Hospital Willard State Hospital Type: Kirkride ( 4) Willowbrook State School ( Staten Island) Western New York Institution for Deaf Mutes ( New York) St. 1874 ( Morganton) Type: Kirkride Cherry Hospital. ( Liberty) Interpines North Carolina Asylums Appalachian Hall. Lawrence State Hospital in Ogdensburg. 1808 New York Asylum for Idiots. 1839 Bloomington Lunatic Asylum. Asheville Broughton Hospital. at Syracuse Sanitariums: Loomis Sanitorium.

Other Springfield K. 1818 Nanticoke State Hospital . 1855 Athens State Hospital Type: Kirkride Longview Asylum Massillon State Hospital Lima State Hospital State Homes. P. State Home Dayton Ohio Soldiers and Sailors Home Oklahoma Asylums LI Central State Hospital. 1888 Dayton State HospitalType: Kirkride Columbus Hospital for the Insane Type: Kirkride Cleveland State Hospital. Wilsonville Eastern Oregon State Hospital at Pendleton State Insane Asylum at Salem Pennsylvania Asylums Allentown State Hospital Blossburg State Hospital Byberry Hospital Danville State Hospital Type: Kirkride Friends Hospital Harrisburg State Hospital Mayview State Hospital.Fairhill Psychiatric Hospital Mt Vernon State Hospital Toledo State Hospital . Fort Supply Oregon Asylums Dammasch State Hospital. Norman Eastern State Hospital. Vinita Western State Psychiatric Center.

1847 Dexter Hospital for the Insane Asylum for the Incurable Insane at Howard. Hamburg State Hospital Puerto Rico Asylums Insane Asylum Rhode Island Asylums Butler Hospital for the Insane.Norristown State Hospital ( near Philadelphia) Pennhurst State Hospital. 1870 South Carolina Asylums Columbia State Hospital South Dakota Asylums . Spring City Pennsylvania Hospital ( Philadelphia) Type: Kirkride Scranton State Hospital Chester County Home and Hospital for the Insane Warren State Hospital Type: Kirkride Woodville State Hospital Schuylkill County Almshouse and Hospital for the Insane Farview State Hospital Western Pennsylvania Hospital for the Insane at Dixmont Type: Kirkride Lancaster County Asylum Pennsylvania State Hospitals general/medical hospitals and NOT mental asylums: Philipsburg State Hospital Shamokin State Hospital.

Williamsburg ( Current) Western State Hospital. Williamsburg ( Original) Eastern State Hospital. Staunton .Yankton State Hospital Hiawatha Insane Asylum for American Indians. 1838 Type: Kirkride Waterbury State Hospital Virginia Asylums Eastern State Hospital. 1902 Redfield State Hospital and School Tennessee Asylums Bolivar State Hospital Nashville State Hospital Texas Asylums Austin State Hospital San Antonio State Hospital Rusk State Hospital Terrell State Hospital Wichita Falls State Hospital Other La Lomita Mission Tropical Texas Center. Mission Utah Asylums Utah State Hospital Vermont Asylums Brattleboro Retreat.

Menomonie Fon du Lac County Asylum. Marion Washington ( State) Asylums State Insane Asylum near Tacoma ( Steilacoom) Eastern State Hospital at Medical Lake Type: Kirkride West Virginia Asylums Fairmont State Hospital Weston Asylum Type: Kirkride 1858 Spencer State Hospital Type: Kirkride Lakin State Hospital ( Colored Insane) . Dunn County Asylum. aka Northern Asylum for the Insane. 1873 ( Oshkosh) Type: Kirkride County Asylums Brown County Asylum. Petersburg Augusta County Asylum Southwestern State Hospital. Winnebago Mental Health Institute. Verona Douglas County Asylum for the Chronic Insane.Central State Hospital. Chippewa Falls Clark County Insane Asylum Columbua County Asylum. Green Bay Chippewa County Asylum. Fon du Lac Green County Asylum. near Point Pleasant Huntington State Hospital Wisconsin State Asylums Mendota State Hospital Type: Kirkride Winnebago State Hospital. Wyocena Dodge County Asylum. Monroe Iowa Couty Asylum. Dodgeville . Juneau Dane County Asylum for the Criminally Insane.

Other Waldheim Asylum. Jefferson La Crosse County Asylum. Oconomowoc Medical Hospitals Wisconsin State General Hospital ( Madison) Other Tomah Indian Industrial School / VA Hospital Wyoming Asylums Casper State Hospital Evanston State Hospital Sheridan State Hospital Other . Whitehall Vernon County Asylum. Marinette Milwaukee County Asylum. Lancaster Manitowoc County Asylum. Sheboygan Trempealeau County Asylum. West Salem Grant County Asylum. Veroqua Walworth County Asylum. Appleton Monroe County Asylum. West Bend Waukesha County Poor House and Asylum for the Insane Waupaca County Asylum Winnebago County Asylum. Manitowoc Marathon County Asylum. Richland Center Rock County Insane Asylum St. Elkhorn Washington County Asylum. Winnebago Wood County Asylum. Sparta Racine County Asylum. Wausau County Asylum. 1871 Sheboygan County Asylum.Jefferson County Asylum. Racine Richland County Asylum. Wauwatosa Outagamie County Asylum. Croix County Asylum. Marshfield. New Richmond Sauk County Poor Farm and Insane Asylum. Reedsburg.

Ontario. Ontario. Canada Other ( including foreign. Canada Toronto. Sydney. London. Asylum Asylum. Ontario. Asylum. Ontario. Ontario. non US/Canada) Asylums Rozelle Hospital.Lander State Training School Canada Asylums Asylum. Canada Type: Kirkride Hamilton. Australia Type: Kirkride St Agnes Hospital for the Chronically Insane ( US) . Canada Orillia. Callan Park. Asylum. Kingston. Canada Type: Kirkride for the Insane.

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