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MISRIMAL NAVAJEE MUNOTH JAIN ENGINEERING

COLLEGE, CHENNAI - 97

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS

(MA2211)

TRANSFORMS AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

FOR

THIRD SEMESTER ENGINEERING STUDENTS


ANNA UNIVERSITY SYLLABUS (R-2008-2009)

This text contains some of the most important short-answer (Part A) and long- answer
questions (Part B) and their answers. Each unit contains 30 university questions. Thus, a
total of 150 questions and their solutions are given. A student who studies these model
problems will be able to get pass mark (hopefully!!).

Prepared by the faculty of Department of Mathematics

AUGUST, 2009

www.engg-maths.com

1
UNIT I FOURIER SERIES

PART – A

Problem 1 Write the formula for finding Euler’s constants of a Fourier series in ( 0, 2  ).
Solution:
Euler’s constants of a Fourier series in ( 0, 2  ) is given by
2
1
a0   f  x  dx
 0
2
1
an 
  f  x  cos nxdx
0
2
1
bn 
  f  x  sin nxdx
0

Problem 2 Write the formula for Fourier constants for f(x) in the interval   ,  .
Solution:

1
a0   f  x  dx
 

1
f  x  cos nxdx
 
an 


1
bn 
  f  x  sin nxdx


Problem 3 Find the constant a0 of the Fourier series for the function f(x) = k , 0  x  2 .
Solution:
2
1
a0   f  x  dx
 0
2
1

  kdx
0

1
 kx 0
2


 2k

Problem 4 If f(x) = e x in   x   , find a n .


Solution:

1
an   e x cos nxdx
 

1  ex 
2 
  cos nx  n sin nx  
 1  n  

2
1  e e  n
2 
  1  2 
1 
n

 1  n 1 n 
 1
n

an 
 1  n
e

 e   .
2

Problem 5 Write the formula’s for Fourier constants for f(x) in (c, c+2l).
Solution:
c 2
1
a0   f  x  dx
 c
c2
1
an 
  f  x  cos nx dx
c
c  2
1
bn 
  f  x  sin nx dx
c

Problem 6 Write the formulas for Fourier constants for f(x) in (-l, l).
Solution:

1
a0   f  x  dx
 

1
f  x  cos nx dx
 
an 


1
bn   f  x  sin nx dx
 

Problem 7 What is the sum of Fourier series at a point x = x 0, where the function f(x) has a
finite discontinuity ?
Solution:
f  x0   f  x0 
Sum of the Fourier series at x  x0 is
2

2  cos x cos 2 x cos3 x 


Problem 8 If x 2   4 2   .......... to    (1)
 1 
2 2
3 2 3
1 1 1
in   x   , find 2  2  2  ............. to  .
1 2 3
Solution:

Put x  a point of continuity
2
2 2 1 1 
 (1)    4  2  2  ........
4 3 1 2 

3
2 2 1 1 
   4  2  2  ....... 
4 3 1 2 
 1
2
1 1
.  2  2  .......
12 4 1 2
1 1 1 2
   ..... 
12 22 32 48

Problem 9 Check whether the function is odd or even, where f(x) is defined by
 2x
1     x  0
f x  
1  2 x 0  x  
 
Solution:
2x 2x
For    x  0, f   x   1   1  f  x  , where 0  x  
 
 f  x  is an even function.

Problem 10 When an even function f(x) is expanded in a Fourier series in the interval
  x   , show that bn = 0.
Solution:
n
1
bn   f  x  sin nxdx
n n
Given f  x  is even and
sin nx is odd function
even X odd = odd. Therefore f  x  sin nx is odd function.

1
f  x  sin nx dx
 
 bn 

= 0.

Problem 11 Find the Fourier constant bn for x sin x in   x   , when expressed as a


Fourier series.
Solution:
f  x   x sin x
f   x    x sin   x 
 x sin x  f  x 
Here f  x  is an even function
 bn  0

Problem 12 If f(x) is a function defined in 2  x  2 , what is the value of bn ?


Solution:

4
n x
2
1
bn   f  x  sin dx
2 2 2

Problem 13 Explain half range cosine series in  0,   .


Solution:
Half range cosine series in  0,   is given by
a0 
f  x    an cos n
2 1

2
a0   f  x  dx
 0

2
an   f  x  cos nxdx
 0

Problem 14 Find the sine series of f(x) = k in  0,  .


Solution:

f  x    bn sin nx
1

2
 0
bn  k sin nxdx


2k  cos nx 
  
  n 0
2k 1   1 
n

bn   
  n 
1   1 n 
2k 
 f  x     sin nx .
1 
 n 
Problem 15 Write Parseval’s formula in the interval  c, c  2n  .
Solution:
c  2
a02 1  2
  f  x  dx     an  bn2 
1 2

2 c
4 2 1

PART – B

  x 
2

Problem 16 If f  x     in 0  x  2 . Hence show that


 2 
1 1 1 2
(a) 2  2  2  .............  .
1 2 3 6
1 1 1 1 2
(b) 2  2  2  2  ...  .
1 2 3 4 12

5
Solution:
We know that

a
f  x   0    an cos nx  bn sin nx 
2 1
2
  x
2
1
a0 
 0  2  dx
2
1
    x 
2
dx
4 0

1     x 3 
  
4   3 
 
1   3
  2
3
   
4  3 3  6
2 2
1   x 
an 
 0    cos nxdx
2
1
    x 
2
cos nxdx
4 0
2
1  2 sin nx    cos nx      sin nx   
    x    2   x      2  
4  n   n
2
   n
3
  0
1  cos 2 n 2 
  0  2 00 2 
4  n 2
n 
1  4  1
 
4  n 2  n 2
2
1
bn     x  sin nxdx
2

4 0
2
1  2   cos nx     sin nx     cos nx   
    x      2    x        2  3  
4   n    n
2
    n  0
1  2 2 2 2 
   n  n  n3  n 3   0
4  
 2 
1
f  x    2 cos n x.
12 1 n
2  1 1 
   2 cos x  2 cos x  ....   1
12  1 2 
Put x  0
2  1 1 
f  0    2  2  ...    2 
12  1 2 
x  0 is a pt of discontinuity.

6
12 2  2
 f  0    
2 4 4  4
 2
 1 1
2

  2      2  2  ... 
4 12  1 2 
 
2 2
1 1
  2  2  ......
4 12 1 2
1 1 2
 2  2  ..... 
1 2 6
Put x   in (1)
 2   1
n

f  x     3
12 1 n 2
Here  is a pt of continuity.
 f    0.
2 1 1 1
 3  0      .....
12 12 22 32
2 1 1 1
   2  2  2  .....
12 1 2 3
2 1 1 1
  2  2  2  .....
12 1 2 3

Problem 17 Find the Fourier series of f (x) = xsin x in 0  x  2 .


Solution:

a
f  x   0    an cos nx  bn sin n x 
2 1
2
1
a0 
  x sin x dx
0



1
 
x   cos x    1  sin x  0   2  1   2
2 1

2
1
bn   x sin x sin nxdx
 0
2

 x cos  n  1  cos  n  1 dx


1

2 0
2
1   sin  n  1 x     cos  n  1 x    sin  n  1 x   cos  n  1 x  
 x     1   x
    1  



2 n 1    n  1    
2 2
   n 1   n 1  0
 1
1 1 1 1 
     2 
2  n  1  n  1 n  1  n  1 
2 2 2

 0 n 1

7
2
1
b1 
  x sin x sin x dx
0
2
1
  x sin
2
x dx
 0

1
2
1  cos 2 x  dx

 x
0
2
2
1  x2  sin 2 x    cos 2 x  
   x   1  
2  2  2   4  0
1  4 2

   0  0  
2  2 
2
1
an 
  x sin x
0
cos nx dx
2

 x sin  n  1 x  sin  n  1 x dx
1

2 0
2
1    cos  n  1 x   sin  n  1 x    cos  n  1 x    sin  n  1 x   
  x   1    x     1    
2
  n  1  
  n  1
2
 
  n  1 
    n  1
2

  0
1 2 2 
   
2 n  1 n  1
1 1 2
   2 ,n 1
n  1 n  1 n 1
2 2
1 1
a1   x sin x cos x dx 
2 0
x sin 2 x dx
 0
2
  cos 2 x   sin 2 x   
  1 
1
 x    
2   2  4   0
1  2 
  
2  2 
1
a1  
2
2 1 
 1 
 f  x    cos x  2  2  cos nx   sin x
2 2 2  n 1 

1 1
f  x   1  cos x  2 2 cos nx   sin x.
2 2 n 1
Problem 18 Find the Fourier series for f(x) = x2 in   x   and deduce that
1 1 1 2
(c) 2  2  2  .............  .
1 2 3 6
1 1 1 2
(d) 2  2  2  .............  .
1 2 3 12

8
1 1 1 2
(e)    .............  .
12 32 52 8
Solution:
Given: f  x   x 2
f   x   x2  f  x 
 f  x  is an even function. Hence bn  0
an 
 f  x    an cos nx
2 1

2 2  x3  2  3 2 2
an   x dx     . 
2

 0   3 0  3 3

2 2   sin nx    cos nx     sin nx   
an   x 2 cos nx dx   x 2     2x      2   x   .
 0   n    n 2     n   0

2  2  1 
n

   0
  n 2

4  1 4  1
n n

 
 n2 n2
2 
1
 f  x   4 2  1 cos nx 1
n

3 1 n
Put x   in (1)
2 
1
f     4 2  1  1
n n

3 1 n
x   is a point of continuity.
2 1 1 
  2    2   4  2  2  ....
3 1 2 
 2
1 1 
2   4  2  2  ....
3 1 2 
2 2 1 1
4  2  2  ...
3 1 2
 2
1 1
 2  2  ....   3
6 1 2
(ii) put x = 0, a point of continuity
2 
1
0  4 2  1
n

3 n 1 n

2 
1
  4 2  1
n

3 n 1 n

 2 
1
   2  1
n

3 n 1 n

9
2  1 1 1 
   2  2  2  ....... 
12  1 2 3 
 2
1 1 1
 2 2 2
12 1 2 3
1 1 1 2
   ........    4
12 22 32 12
Add (3) and (4)
2 2  1 1 
   2  2  ....
6 12 1 3 
 2
1 1 
 2  2  2  ....
4 1 3 
 2
1 1 
  2  2  ....
8 1 3 

Problem 19 If f (x) = x + x2 in   x   . Hence show that



1 2
i.  2 
1 n 6
1 1 1 2
ii.    .............  .
12 22 32 12
Solution:
Given: f  x   x  x 2
f   x    x  x2
 f  x  is neither even nor odd
a0 
 f  x     an cos x  bn sin n x 
2 1
 
1  x 2 x3 
a0    x  x 2  dx    
1
    2 3 
1   2  3    2  3  1  2 3  2 2
       
2 3  2 3   3  3

  x  x  cos nxdx
1
an  2

 

1  sin nx    cos nx   sin nx   
  x  x 2      1  2 x    2    2    3   
  n    n   n    

1   1  1 
n n

 1  2  2  1  2  2 
  n n 
 1 4  1
n n

  4  
n 2 n2

10

bn 
1

 
 x  x 2  sin nx dx

1   cos nx    sin nx   cos nx   
  x  x 2      1  2 x    2    2   3   
  n    n   n   
1  2  1 2  1
n n

n
       3  1     n 
2 2
 3  1 
n

  n n n n 
1  1 
n
2 2
      2      3 
2 2

 n  n n 
2  1
n

bn  
n
 2  4  1 2  1
n

f  x   2
cos nx   sin nx
3 1 n 1 n
 1  1 sin nx
n
2  
f  x   4 2 cos nx  2  1
3 1 n 1 n
Put x  0 in 1
 1
n
2 
f  0   4 2   2 
3 1 n
Here 0 is a pt of continuity
f  0  0
2  1 1 
  2   0   4  2  2 ....
3  1 2 
 2
 1 1 1 
  4  2  2  3 ...
3  1 2 3 
2 1 1 1
   ......
12 12 22 33
Hence (ii)
Put x   in (1)
 1
n
2 
f     4 2  1   3
n

3 1 n
x   , is a pt of discontinuity
f    f    1
 f  x 
2 2
 
    2      2 

 2 2    2
1
2
2 
1
 3   2   4 2
3 1 n

2 2
1 1 1
 2  2  3  ...
3 4 1 2 3

11
2 1 1
   ...
6 12 22
Hence (i)

Problem 20 a. Expand f  x   x  2  x  as a Fourier series in  0, 2  .


Solution:
We know that

a
f  x   0    an cos nx  bn  sin nx 
2 1
2
1 2 1  x 2 x3  1   3   8 2
a0   x  2  x  dx  2     4 3  8    4 2 
 0  2 3 0   3   3
4 2
a0  s
3
2
an    2 x  x 2  cos nxdx
1
 0
2
1  sin nx     cos nx     sin nx   
  2 x  x 2       2  2 x        2    2   
  n    n
2
   n   0
1  2 2  4
  2  2  2
 n n  n
2

  2 x  x  sin nx dx
1
bn  2

 0
2
1  cos nx    sin nx   cos nx   
  2 x  x 2       2  2 x       2   3   
  n    n 
2
 n   0
12 2
   0
  n3 n 3 
2 2   4 
 f  x     2  cos nx.
3 1  n 

b. Find the Fourier series for f (x) = ex defined in   ,  .


Solution:

a
f  x   n    an cos nx  bn sin nx 
2 1

1
a0   e x dx




e 
1 x 

 e  e  
1


1
an   e x cos nx dx
 

12

1  ex 
2 
  cos nx  n sin nx  
 1  n  
1  e e 
  cos n  cos n 
 1  n 2
1 n 2

 1
n


 1  n
e 
 e  
2


1
bn  
 
e x sin nx dx

1  e
2 
sin nx  n cos x  

 
 1  n


1  e

 1  n 2
 n  1
n
 e 
1  n2
 n cos nx   
1  n  1 e 
n 
e  n
   n  1 
  1  n2 1  n2 
 1
n

bn  n
 1  n 2 
e 
 e 

 
 1 e  e cos nx  n  1 e   e sin nx  .
n n

f  x  
1 
e  e 
    1  n2 
    
    1  n 2 
2 
1

 2x
1   ,   x  0
Problem 21 Obtain the Fourier series expansion of f (x) where f  x   
 1  2x 0  x  
 
1 1 1  2
and hence deduce that 2  2  2  .............  .
1 3 5 8
Solution:
2x 2x
f x  1  1  f  x
 
  x  0  0  x   .
 The given function is an even function.
Hence bn  0
a0 
f  x    an cos nx
 1

2  2x 
 0 
a0  1   dx
 

2 2x2 
 x   0
 2 0

13

2  2x 
 0   
an  1 cos nx dx

2  2 x  sin nx   2   cos nx  
 1     
    n      n
2
 0
2  2  1  2  
n

    2 
   n 2   n  


4
 n
2 2 
1   1 n

an  0 if n is even
8
an  2 2 is n is odd.
 n

8
 f  x    2 2 cos nx
1,3,5 n 

8  cos x cos 3 x 
 2 
 2  ...
  1 2
3 
8  cos x cos 3 x 
f  0   2  2  2  ...
  1 3 
Putx  0
8 1 1 
f  0   2  2  2  ...  1
 1 3 
0 is a pt of continuity  f  0   1
8 1 1 
1  1  2  2
 2  .....
 1 3 
 2
1 1 1
 2  2  2  ....
8 1 3 5

Problem 22 Obtain the Fourier series to represent the function f(x) = | x | is   x   and
1 1 1 2
deduce that 2  2  2  .............  .
1 3 5 8
Solution:
Given f  x   x
f x  f  x
 The given function is an even function.
Hence bn  0
a0 
 f  x    an cos nx
2 1

2
 0
an  x dx

14

2  x2 
   
  2 0

2
 0
an  x cos nxdx


2  sin nx cos nx 
 x
 n

2  cos n 1  2
   2  2  2
n 0   n
2
n  n
 1 1
n

 an  0 if n is even
4
an   2 if n is odd
n
  4
 f  x     2 cos nx
2 1,3 n 
 4  cos 3 x 
  cos x  2  ...
2   3 
Put x  0
 4 1 1 
f  0    1  2  2  ...
2  3 5 
Here 0 is a pt of continuity
 f  0  0
 4 1 1 
0  1    ...
2   32 52 
 4 1 1 
 1  2  2  ...
2  3 5 
 2
 1 1 
  1  2  2  ... .
8  3 5 

Problem 23 Find the Fourier series expansion of period 2 for the function f(x) =    x  in
2


1
the range  0, 2  . Deduce the sum of the series  2
.
1 n

Solution: The Fourier series of f  x  in  0, 2  is given


a0   n x n x 
f  x     an cos  bn sin
2 1  l l 
2l
1
2l
1
2l   l  x 3  2 2
a0   f  x  dx    l  x  dx     l
2

l0 l0  3l  0 3
n x
2l
1
an    l  x  cos
2
dx
l0 l

15
2l
 n x    n x   n x 
    
l 
sin cos sin
1 2  l    2  l  x  1  l   2 
 l  x       
 n    n    n  
2 2 3 3
l
 l    l 2   l 3  0
 

1 2l cos 2n 2l 
   
l  n 2 2 n 2 2 
 l2 l 2 
4l 2
an  2 2
n
n x
2l
1
bn    l  x  sin
2
dx
l0 l
2l
  n x    n x    n x  
1      sin    cos 
  l  x    cos l    2  l  x  1  2 l2    2  3 l3  
2

l  n    n    n  
     
 l    l 2
  l3 0
 
1  2 cos 2n 2 cos 2n l 2 2 
 l   
l n n3 3 n n3 3 
 l l3 l l 3 
 
1  l 2 l 2 
   0
l  n n 
 l l 

 n x 
2
l 4l 2
 f  x    2 cos    1
3 1 n  2
 l 
x  0 in (1)
l 2  4 2
f  0    2 2   2
3 1 n
Here 0 is a Pt of discontinuity
f  0   f  2l 
f  0 
2
 l 2  l 2   l 2
1
2
l 2  4l 2
  2   l    2 2
2

3 1 n
l 2 4l 2  1
l2   
3  2 1 n2
2l 2 4l 2  1 1 
 2  2  2  ...
3  1 2 

16
2 1 1 1
    ....
6 12 22 32
 0 , 2  x  1
1  x , 1  x  0

Problem 24 a. Find the Fourier expansion of f  x  if f ( x )   .
1  x , 0  x  1
 0 , 1  x  2

Solution:
a0    n x   n x  
f  x     an cos    bn sin  
2 1   l   l 
2
1
f  x  dx
2 2
a0 

1 
1 0 1 2
  0 dx    
1  x dx    
1  x dx   0dx 
2  2 1 0 1 
1  x 2  
0 1
x2  
  x     x   
2  2  1  2 0 
 
1 1 1
 0  1   1    0
2 2 2
1  n x   n x  
0 1
an    1  x  cos   dx   1  x  cos   dx 
2  1  2  0  2  
 n x  n x  
0
  n x   n x   
1

   
1   cos    cos
sin  sin 2 
  1  x  2   1 2 2    1  x  
2   1  2 2   
2
2  n  n    n   n    
   
 2  4   1   2   4   0 
0

1 n x n x 
0 1
bn    1  x  sin dx   1  x  sin dx 
2  1 2 0
2 
  n x    n x   
0
   n x     n x    
1

  cos   sin    cos  2     sin  2    


1  

2   
 
2   

    
  1  x   1  1  x  
    1  
2  n  n2 2
   n   n2 2
 
       

2  4  1   2   4  0 

1 4 n 4 n l  1
 0  2 2 sin  2 2 sin   0 
2 n  2 n 2 n  n

1 n x
 f  x   sin .
1 n 2

17
0, 1  x  0
b. Find the Fourier series for f (x) where f  x    .
1, 0  x  1
Solution:
a 
 x n x 
f  x   0   an cos  bn sin 
2 1  l l 
1
a0  f  x  dx
l
0 1
  0 dx   dx
1 0

  x 0  1
1

1 0 1

an    0 dx   cos n x dx 
1 1 0 
 n x 
1

 sin
 n  0
 n n0 
 sin  sin 0
 n n 
1
1
bn   1sin n x dx
10

 cos  n   cos n 1  1   1


1 n

     
 n  0  n n  n
1  2
f  x    sin n x.
2 1,3 n

Problem 25 Find the half – range cosine series for f (x) = (x – 1)2 in (0, 1). Hence show that
1 1 1 2
   ...  .
12 22 3 2 6
Solution:
Here l  1

a
f  x   0   an cos n x
2 1
1
1   x  1 2 
a0  2  x  1 dx  2 
2

0  3  0
2
a0 
3
1
an  2   x  1 cos n xdx
2

0
1
 2  sin n x    cos n x     sin n x   
 2  x  1     2  x  1   2 2      2    3 3   
  n    n     n    0

18
 2  4
 2  2 2   2 2
 n  n
1  4
 f  x     2 2 cos n x
3 1 n
1 4  1
f  x    2  2 cos n x  1
3  1 n
Put x  0 in 1
1 4  1
f  0   2  2   2
3  1 n
Here 0 is o pt of discontinuity
f  0   f  0 
f  0  1
2
1 4  1
1   2   2 
3  1 n 
2 4 1 1 
 2  2  2  ...
3  1 2 
1 1 2
  ..........  .
12 22 6
 a
 1, 0  x  2
Problem 26 a. Express f  x    as a cosine series
1, a  x  a
 2
a 
n x
Solution: f  x   0   an cos
2 1 a
 a

2 2  2 a a
a
a0    dx    1 dx     0  a    0
a 0 a  a 2 2
 2 
 a2 
2  nx a
 nx 
an    cos dx   cos dx 
a 0 a a a 
 2 
 a
a 
 sin n x   sin n x  
2

2  a   a  
     
a  n   n  
 a 0  a a 
 2

2 a n a n  4  n 
  sin  sin  sin
a  n 2 n 2  n  2 

4 n n
 f  x   sin cos .
1 n 2 a

19
1  1
 4  x,  0, 2 
  
b. Express f  x  as a Fourier sine series where f  x    .
 x  3 ,  1 ,1
 4  2 
Solution:

n x
We know that f  x    bn sin
1 l
 1

2 2  1   3 
1
bn      x  sin n x dx    x   sin n x dx 
1 0  4  1 4 
 2 
 1
1 
 1   cos n x     sin n x   2   3   cos n x   sin n x   
 bn  2   x       1       x     (1)   2 2   1 
 4  n    n
2 2
 0   4  n   n   
2

 n  n  
 1 1  cos 2  sin 2   1  1  
 2      2 2     0  
 4 2  n  n   4  n  
   
   n 
 3   cos n   sin n   1 3   cos n 2  sin 2 
 2  1       2 2       2 2 
 4   n   n    2 4   n  n  
   
 n     n 
  sin 2   1    1  cos n   sin 2 
 
 2  2 2     2     0   2 2 
 n  4n    4  n   n 
     
n
4sin
 1
n
2 1
  
n 2 2 2n 2n

n
4sin
bn  2  1 if n is odd
n
2 2
n
= 0 if even
 n 
  4sin 
 f  x    2  1
 sin n x.
1/ 3  n
2 2
n 
 

Problem 27 a. Find the Fourier cosine series for x   x  in 0  x   .

20
Solution:

a0
f  x 
2
a1
n cos nx

2
x   x  dx
 0
a0 

2  x2 x2 
   
 2 3 0
2  3  3   2
   
2 3 3

2
x    x  cos nx dx
 0
an 

2 sin nx    cos nx      sin nx   
  x   x      2 x        2    
 n   n
2
   n
3
  0
2    1  
n

   
  n2 n 2 
2

  2 1   1
n
n

4
 an   2 If n is even
n
an  0 If n is odd.
2  4
 f  x     cos nx.
6 2,4 n 2

b. Prove that complex form of the Fourier series of the function f  x   e x , 1  x  1 is



1  in 
f  x     1 sin h1.ein x .
n

 1 n 
2 2

Solution:
Here 2l  2, l 1

 f  x    Cn ein x

1
1  x  in x
2 1
Cn  e e dx
1
1 1in x 
2 1
 e dx

1  e   1
 1 in  x

  1 in   
2  1
1

2 1  in  

e 1 in   e1in  x  

21
 1  in  

2 1  n 
e  cos n  i sin n   e  cos n  i sin n 
1 1
2 2


1  in   cos n   e1  e1 
2 1  n 2  2 
1  in  

2 1  n 
 1
n
e  e  1
2 2

1  in  
  1 sinh 1
n

2 1  n  2 2

 f  x  

1  in  
 1 sinh 1 ein  x .
n

 2 1  n  2 2

Problem 28 Find the cosine series for f (x) = x in (0,  ) and then using Parseval’s theorem,
1 1 4
show that 4  4  ....  .
1 3 96
Solution:

a
f  x   0   an cos nx
2 1

2
f  x  dx
 0
a0 

2
 0
 x dx

2  x2 
   
  2 0

2
 0
an  x cos nx dx

2  x sin nx  cos nx  
   1   2  
 n  n  0

2  cos n 1
  2 0 2 
 n n 0
2  cos n  1 
  
  n2 
2

 2  1  1
n
n

4
an  2 if n is odd
n
an  0 if n is even
 2  4
f  x   cos nx
2 1,3  n 2

22
By Parseval’s theorem
 2
1 a0 2 1
     an
2

 f x  dx 
 0 4 2

2 1   4 
2
1 2
 
 0
x dx  
4 2 1,3   n 2 

1  x2   2 1  16
    
  3 0 4 2 1,3  2 n 4
1  3   2 8  1 1 
    2  4  4  ....
  3  4  1 3 
2 2 8 1 1 
  2  4  4  ....
3 4  1 3 
 
2 2
1 1
  4  4  .....
12 8 1 3
4 1 1
   .....
96 14 34

Problem 29 a. Find the complex form of Fourier series of f  x  if


f  x   sin ax in    x   .

Solution: f  x    Cn ein x dx


1
 sin ax e
 inx
Cn  dx
2 

1  e  inx 
  2   in sin ax  a cos ax  
  a  n 
2 2

1
 e in  in sin a  a cos a   ein  in sin a  a cos a  
2  a  n 
2 2 

1
  in sin a 2 cos n  a cos a 2i sin n 
2  a 2  n 2 
2in  1 sin a  1
n 1
in sin a
n

 
2  a  n 2 2
   a  n2 
2

in  1
n 1
sin a 
 f  x 

 a

2
n 2

einx .

b. Find the first two harmonic of the Fourier series of f (x) given by

x 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (x) 9 18 24 28 26 20

23
Solution:
Here the length of the in level is 2l  6, l  3

a0  x x  2 x 2 x 
f  x    a1 cos  b1 sin    a2 cos  b2 sin 
2  3 3   3 3 

x x 2 x y x x 2 x 2 x
y cos y sin y cos y sin
3 3 3 3 3 3
0 0 0 9 9 0 9 0
1  2 18 9 15.7 -9 15.6
3 3
2 2 4 24 -12 20.9 -12 -20.8
3 3
3  2 28 -28 0 28 0
4 4 8 26 -13 -22.6 -13 22.6
3 3
5 5 10 20 10 17.6 -10 -17.4
3 3
125 -25 -3.4 -7 0

a0  2
 y  2 125  41.66
6 6
2  x
a1   y cos   8.33
6 3 
2 x
b1   y sin  1.15
6 3
2 2 x 
a2   y cos   2.33
6 3 
2 2 x
b2   y sin 0
6 3
41.66 x 2 x x
 f  x   8.33cos  2.33cos  1.15sin .
2 3 3 3

Problem 30 a. Find the first two harmonic of the Fourier series of f (x). Given by

x 0  2  4 5 2
3 3 3 3
f (x) 1 1.4 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.0

Solution:
 The last value of y is a repetition of the first; only the first six values will be used
The values of y cos x, y cos 2 x, y sin x, y sin 2 x as tabulated

24
x f  x cos x sin x cos 2x sin 2x
0 1.0 1 0 1 0
 1.4 0.5 0.866 -0.5 0.866
3
2 1.9 -0.5 0.866 -0.5 0.866
3
 1.7 -1 0 1 0
4 1.5 -0.5 -0.866 -0.5 -0.866
3
5 1.2 0.5 -0.866 -0.5 -0.866
3

a0  2
 y  2.9
6

a1  2
 y cos x  0.37
6

a2  2
 cos 2 x
y
 0.1
6

b1  2
 y sin x
 0.17
6

b2  2
 y sin 2 x  0.06
6
b. Find the first harmonic of Fourier series of f  x  given by

x 0 T T T 2T 5T T
6 3 2 3 6
f (x) 1.98 1.30 1.05 1.30 -0.88 -0.35 1.98

Solution:

First and last valve are same Hence we omit the last valve

x 2 x y cos  sin  y cos  y sin 



T
0 0 1.98 1.0 0 1.98 0
T  1.30 0.5 0.866 0.65 1.1258
6 3
T 2 1.05 -0.5 0.866 -0.525 0.9093
3 3
T  1.30 -1 0 -1.3 0
2

25
2T 4 -0.88 -0.5 -0.866 0.44 0.762
3 3
5T 5 -0.25 0.5 -0.866 -0.125 0.2165
6 3
4.6 1.12 3.013

2 4.6
a0 
6
 y
3
 1.5

2 y cos  2
a1   1.12   0.37
6 6
2
b1   3.013  1.005
6
 f  x   0.75  0.37 cos   1.005sin 

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