AE 481 Aircraft Design – Fall 2006

UAVarsity (UAV Team 2) Alex Murray, Manager Mark Rundle, Deputy Manager
Aerodynamic Analysis Kian Leong Kwek Yeon Baik Nansi Xue Nathan Blinkilde Marvin Kong Daniel Campbell Matthew Egan Zhiwei Song Matthew McKeown Ingrid Chiles Mark Rundle Alex Murray Shareil Elia Jacob Temme

Structural Design

Propulsion

CG and Weight Estimates Controls

Final Report December 19, 2006

Table of Contents
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... i Aircraft Specifications Page........................................................................................................ iv List of Symbols .............................................................................................................................. v 1. Introduction................................................................................................................................. 1 2. Mission Description and Analysis .............................................................................................. 2 3. Payload Analysis......................................................................................................................... 4 3.1 Synthetic Aperture Radar...................................................................................................... 4 3.2 Electro-Optic-Infrared Sensor .............................................................................................. 5 3.3 Data Link .............................................................................................................................. 5 3.4 Payload Package ................................................................................................................... 5 4. Current Design Summary ........................................................................................................... 5 5. Weight Estimates ........................................................................................................................ 9 5.1 Fuselage.............................................................................................................................. 10 5.2 Wing .................................................................................................................................... 10 5.3 Tail Surfaces ....................................................................................................................... 11 5.4 Landing Gear ...................................................................................................................... 11 5.5 Power Plant ........................................................................................................................ 12 5.6 Control System .................................................................................................................... 12 5.7 Fuel ..................................................................................................................................... 12 5.8 Payload ............................................................................................................................... 12 6. Center of Gravity ...................................................................................................................... 12 7. Airfoil Selection........................................................................................................................ 13 7.1 Airfoil Selection Criteria..................................................................................................... 13 7.1.1 Maximum Lift Coefficient ............................................................................................ 13 7.1.2 Aerodynamic Efficiency ............................................................................................... 14 7.1.3 Off-design Aerodynamic Characteristics..................................................................... 14 7.2 Analysis of Airfoils.............................................................................................................. 14 8. Wing Design ............................................................................................................................. 18 8.1 Wing Geometry ................................................................................................................... 18 8.2 High Lift Devices ................................................................................................................ 19 8.2.1 Trailing Edge Flaps ..................................................................................................... 19 8.2.2 Flap Type ..................................................................................................................... 19 8.2.3 Flap Location and Dimensioning ................................................................................ 20 8.2.4 Flap Performance Analysis.......................................................................................... 21 9. Aerodynamic Performance at Design Points ............................................................................ 21 9.1 Design Trade-offs................................................................................................................ 21 9.1.1 Taper Ratio .................................................................................................................. 22 9.1.2 Wing Span .................................................................................................................... 22 9.1.3 Root chord.................................................................................................................... 22 9.1.4 Current Design............................................................................................................. 23 9.2 Lift (No Flaps)..................................................................................................................... 23 9.3 Lift (Flaps Deployed).......................................................................................................... 25 9.4 Drag .................................................................................................................................... 27 10. Power Requirement................................................................................................................. 29

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10.1 Power Requirement Calculations ..................................................................................... 29 10.2 Power Requirement at Cruise Altitude ............................................................................. 30 10.3 Power Requirement for Dash and Loiter.......................................................................... 31 10.5 Flight Envelope................................................................................................................. 32 11. Engine Selection ..................................................................................................................... 34 12. Propeller Selection .................................................................................................................. 34 13. Fuel Requirements .................................................................................................................. 36 14. Takeoff and Landing Analysis................................................................................................ 37 14.1 Takeoff Analysis ................................................................................................................ 38 14.2 Landing Analysis............................................................................................................... 39 15. Tail Selection .......................................................................................................................... 40 15.1 Vertical Tail ...................................................................................................................... 41 15.1.1 Vertical Tail Maneuverability Requirements............................................................. 42 15.2 Horizontal Tail.................................................................................................................. 43 15.3 Neutral Point..................................................................................................................... 45 16. Landing Gear and Tire Design................................................................................................ 45 17. Air Inlet Sizing........................................................................................................................ 46 18. Trim Analysis.......................................................................................................................... 47 18.1 Required Aerodynamic Information ................................................................................. 48 18.2 Trim Curves ...................................................................................................................... 48 19. Maneuver and Gust Envelope................................................................................................. 52 19.1 Maneuver Loading ............................................................................................................ 52 19.2 Gust Loading..................................................................................................................... 53 19.3 Effect Due to Flaps ........................................................................................................... 53 19.4 V-n Diagrams.................................................................................................................... 53 20. Wing Loading ......................................................................................................................... 55 20.1 Wing Discretization .......................................................................................................... 55 20.2 Aerodynamic Loads .......................................................................................................... 55 20.3 Inertial Loads.................................................................................................................... 56 21. Wing Structure ........................................................................................................................ 60 21.1 Wing Cross Section ........................................................................................................... 60 21.2 Loads................................................................................................................................. 61 21.3 Wing Bending.................................................................................................................... 61 20.3.1 Effective Skin Width ................................................................................................... 61 21.3.2 Allowables.................................................................................................................. 62 21.3.3 Margin of Safety......................................................................................................... 64 21.4 Wing Torsion..................................................................................................................... 65 21.4.1 Shear Flow ................................................................................................................. 65 21.4.2 Shear Stresses ............................................................................................................ 66 21.5 Tresca Yield Criterion....................................................................................................... 66 21.5.1 Principle Stresses....................................................................................................... 66 21.5.2 Tresca Stresses and Margin of Safety........................................................................ 67 Appendix A: Aircraft Design Comparisons................................................................................ A-1 Appendix B: Aircraft Configuration History.............................................................................. B-1 Appendix C: MATLAB Codes Used in Calculations................................................................. C-1 Appendix D: Aerodynamic Performance Calculations............................................................... D-1

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..........................................................................................................Appendix E: Takeoff and Landing Calculations ...............................E-1 Appendix F: Tail Sizing Calculations and History ............................. G-1 Appendix H: Detailed Fuel Requirement Calculations ........................................................................................................I-1 Appendix J: References ....................... H-1 Appendix I: V-n Diagram Calculations ............................................ J-1 iii .........................................................................................................F-1 Appendix G: Structures Calculations....................................................

8 lbs. and propeller) Performance Specifications Maximum Speed Cruise Speed Stall Speed (sea level) Maximum Rate of Climb Endurance Maximum Range Flight Ceiling 142. SW = 74. (with 10 VTI maneuvers) 2080 mi. 35 kts (35 kts required) 31. (with 10 VTI maneuvers) 40. UAV Engines AR801-Carb. 51 hp (@8000 rpm) 64.1 ft CLmaxW = 2.100 ft (27.6 ft2 b = 27.0 ft2 AF = 27.Aircraft Specifications Page Basic Specifications Maximum gross takeoff weight at end of iteration Wing Area Horizontal Tail Area Vertical Tail Area Frontal Area Wetted Area Wingspan Aircraft Length Maximum Wing Lift Coefficient (With Flaps) Maximum Payload Weight Powerplant Maximum Power Weight (with oil.7 lbs.4 ft2 AW = 183.28 ft2 SVT = 7.5 ft/s (16.67 ft/s required) 21 hr.25 WPL = 150 lbs. required) iv .0 ft lAC = 16.000 ft.8 kts (140 kts required) 80 kts (80 kts required) WTO = 644. coolant.25 ft2 SHT = 7.

List of Symbols Symbol A AF AW AR AoA α b C CD CD0 CDi CDL&P CDmis CDtrim Cfc CL CLac CLmax CLt Cl CMacflaps CMacw CMfus Cmac-t CG c cm D e FF γ K Kf Λm L L/D L/Dmax μ ηi η θ Prequired Qc Definition Fuselage Cross Sectional Area Frontal Area Wetted Area Aspect Ratio Angle of Attack Angle of Attack Wingspan Wing Chord Drag Coefficient Parasitic Drag coefficient Induced Drag Coefficient Air Leakage and Protuberance Drag Drag from Components with Large Form Drag Trim Drag Coefficient Friction Coefficient Lift Coefficient Aircraft Lift Coefficient Maximum Lift Coefficient Lift Coefficient of the Tail Sectional Lift Coefficient Flaps Pitching Moment Wing Pitching Moment Fuselage Pitching Moment Aircraft Pitching Moment without Tail Center of Gravity Airfoil Chord Length Lift Curve Slope Drag Oswald Efficiency Factor Form Factor Flight Path Angle Induced Drag Constant Empirical Pitching Moment Factor Sweep Angle Lift Lift to Drag Ratio Maximum Lift to Drag Ratio Coefficient of Viscosity Engine Efficiency Viscous Correction Factor Upsweep Angle Required Power Interference Factor v .

q ρ ρsl S SB SC SF SFR SG SHT SR STR SVT Sa Swetc t τ UAV V Vclimbmax Vstall VTI WTO Dynamic Pressure Air Density Air Density at Sea Level Wing Planform Area Braking Distance Climb Distance Flare Distance Free Roll Distance Ground Roll Distance Horizontal Tail Area Rotation Distance Transition to Climb Distance Vertical Tail Area Approach Distance Wetted Area Maximum Airfoil Thickness Flap Effectiveness Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Airspeed Maximum Climb Velocity Stall Velocity Visual Target Identification Gross Takeoff Weight vi .

As part of the next phase of Operation Jump Start.000 ft 80 kts 140 kts 35 kts 150 lbs 1000 ft/min The primary factors that will be emphasized throughout the design of The Big Brother XL4000 are its effectiveness (ability to satisfy mission requirements). A preliminary design was completed in September 2006. as specified by the contract.W. In the second iteration. The required power was calculated. the aerodynamic design of Big Brother XL4000 (BBXL) was done in more detail. the design. The designation and name for the design is The Big Brother XL4000 (BBXL). 1x Electro-Optical-Infrared (EO/I) Sensor. as well as a preliminary design of flaps. and its acquisition cost when compared to existing systems. The airfoil and wing planform geometry were chosen. 1 . must meet the following criteria: Mission Capabilities Patrol Area: Patrol Duration: Payload Capability: Weight Class: Launch Type: Performance Capabilities Operational Ceiling: Cruise Speed: Top Speed: Stall Speed: Max Payload Weight: Rate of Climb: 2500 sq. Furthermore. mi 12 hours of loiter plus 10 visual target identification maneuvers 1x Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR).” which includes a series of immigration reforms and the tightening of security along the US-Mexico border. Bush introduced the launch of “Operation Jump Start: Acting Now to Secure the Border. Also. and an engine and propeller were chosen. our team has been awarded a contract from the Department of Homeland Security to design a high-endurance aerial surveillance vehicle to provide real-time border reconnaissance as well as search-and-rescue information in the case of national emergencies.1. 2006. based on comparisons to existing UAV designs. The fifth iteration determined the aerodynamic and inertial loads acting on the wing and the resulting wing structure needed to carry these loads. which are available in Appendix A.) 27. The third iteration finalized these aerodynamic parameters and used them to begin aircraft performance estimates. minimization of gross takeoff weight. The aerodynamic design of the BBXL was conducted using a MATLAB code to consider many different configurations. The fourth iteration calculated the trim stability of the aircraft and produced a V-n diagram that determines the range of loads that the aircraft will experience in all flight conditions. A summary of the aircraft specifications through each of these iterations is shown in Appendix B. Introduction On August 3rd. 1x Line-of-Sight Data Link 500 – 1000 lbs Conventional Runway (maximum 3000 ft. President G. takeoff and landing distances were computed.

Takeoff. Once in the surveillance area. climb to cruise altitude 2. it will begin to use its synthetic aperture radar to scan the surveillance area while climbing to its cruising altitude of 20. Cruise back to base.3 ft/s. Mission Description and Analysis To properly design the Big Brother XL4000 for its mission. at climb rate of 18.1. Loiter for a total time of 12 hours 3. the UAV will follow the pattern outlined in Figure 2. flight speed. and a final configuration has been chosen. This loiter pattern will enable the UAV to observe the entire area. A diagram of the mission space is shown in Figure 2. When the UAV has reached the loiter area. Perform a Visual Target Identification (VTI) maneuver when a target is acquired (up to 10 VTI maneuvers total) 4. The UAV will fly in a 6 mile diameter circle and alternate between the two elliptical flight patterns. dash to surveillance area. and land The UAV will initially take off and then dash at a speed of 140 knots to the center of its 50. descend. and distance covered over the various maneuvers.1: Outline of mission space.This document represents the final iteration of the design of the Big Brother XL4000. Surveillance Area Loiter Pattern 6 miles 50 miles Airbase 27 miles 50 miles Figure 2.000 ft. while remaining close to the center 2 . 2.by 50-mile surveillance area. The flight can be broken up into four separate maneuvers: 1. analysis must be conducted to gain insight on the flight maneuvers required for the UAV.1. The purpose of this document is to present an overview of the design of the Big Brother XL4000. All of the calculations have been completed. This section will outline a mission and calculate the duration.

the UAV will perform a VTI maneuver. it will loiter in that area for 20 minutes. These values were used to calculate the amount of fuel needed to complete a mission. VTI Maneuver 2. Table 2.2 summarizes the VTI maneuver. it is assumed that the base is within 35 miles of the center of the surveillance area. the UAV will loiter for a total time of 12 hours and will be able to perform 10 VTI maneuvers. negligible additional power is required for maneuvering. Figure 2. Taking the average of each case. climb to 20.000 ft. we assumed that for each VTI maneuver.by 50-mile area. 3. the target is 30 miles from the UAV. the UAV will collect and transmit optical and infrared imagery using the onboard video cameras. The UAV is essentially flying a pattern with alternates between a 6 mile diameter circle and a 27 mile diameter circle. Return to center of surveillance area Figure 2. altitude.of the surveillance area. 500 ft. If the target is on the edge of the surveillance area.2: Description of a VTI maneuver. For one mission. a target can be found anywhere within the surveillance area. and resume loitering. For this analysis. Descend to target 1. A VTI maneuver consists of flying at top speed towards the target. we estimate that a total mission will take approximately 21 hours and will cover a ground track of 2080 miles. The total distance covered and duration of a mission were calculated by breaking up each part of the mission and calculating the speed.2 describes a VTI maneuver. Loiter at center of surveillance area 20. Loiter on target 4. After the UAV has collected sufficient information. While loitering. Since the range of the synthetic aperture radar is over 21 miles.. At such small bank angles. 3 . Once the UAV has dashed towards the target and descended to 500 ft. and distance covered. After calculating each component of the mission.000 ft.1 summarizes the total mission and Table 2. If a target is found. which translates into a 2 degree bank angle. The smallest radius of the loiter pattern is 3 miles. it will dash back to the center of the surveillance area. it would be at best 25 miles from the UAV and at worst 35 miles from the UAV. After the mission is completed. the UAV will cruise back to the base while descending. which can be anywhere within the 50. duration.

4 .4 1. Other synthetic Aperture Radars were considered. The ideal payload would be lightweight and yet possess a long range.3 48. *Assumes an average climb rate of 18.6 1./s Event Dash to Target / Descend to 500 ft. We chose the Sandia National labs MiniSAR synthetic Aperture Radar because it is a quarter the weight of other synthetic aperture radars (the MiniSAR weighs 30 pounds) and has a range of 35km (21.777.9 hrs. 3. M 0 0 20.000 varies varies varies varies 6096 varies varies varies varies Speed Knots m/s 42 21.3 ft.3 145.3 30 30 90 48.1 Synthetic Aperture Radar The synthetic aperture radar is used for our long range target identification. M 20.2: Detailed description of a Visual Target Identification (VTI) Maneuver.2 varies Duration Minutes <1 18* 720 49 490 25 1254 (20.000 varies 152.2 72-41.2 72-41.5 0. Descend and Land TOTAL Altitude Ft.6 140 72.95 Table 2. a range of at least 21.104.3 ft.5 miles is required to survey a 50 mile by 50 mile area with our loiter pattern.Event Takeoff Dash to Surveillance Area-While Climbing Loiter (total time) VTI Maneuver (one) VTI Maneuver (ten) Cruise Home. such as the Lynx and TESAR. therefore.2 902 38 2080.) Ground Distance Miles Km 0.1: Description of typical surveillance mission. Loiter Climb and Dash Back to Surveillance Area Total Altitude Ft. Payload Analysis The requirements state that Big Brother XL 4000 must be able to carry 150 pounds of payload.0 80 140-80 140-80 80 varies 41. which will consist of a synthetic aperture radar. weight and range were the primary criteria.8 145.75 miles).000 6096 500 20.0 80 140 varies 41.9 35 56. an electro optic infrared sensor and a line of sight data link.4 6096 varies Speed Knots m/s 140 72.2 41.7 90. each weighs over 120 pounds [1]. To evaluate these three pieces of equipment.2 1452 61. These were eliminated because of weight concerns.2 72./s 3.0 varies Duration Minutes 11 20* 18 49 Ground Distance Miles Km 30 48.15 3397.2 Table 2. *Assumes average climb rate of 18.000 6096 20.

3 Data Link A line of sight data link is required to transmit the data collected by the EOI sensor and synthetic aperture radar. Current Design Summary This section summarizes the operating parameters of our current UAV design.2 Electro-Optic-Infrared Sensor The electro-optic-infrared (EOI) sensor is used for close range target identification. The advanced EO/IR sensor has a 4km range (about 2. The engine chosen comes with an integrated 2kw generator. The data link chosen for our UAV is the UAV Data Link by L-3. We chose the Advanced EO/IR sensor from APM UAV Payloads.3. a range of only 2 miles is required when loitering at 500 ft. we can show that our design is able to meet or exceed all requirements. The following performance parameters are evaluated against mission requirements: • • • • • • • • • Flight envelope Maximum rate of climb Maximum speed Maximum range Maximum endurance Minimum stall speed Ceiling Take off and Landing performance Payload performance By comparing these calculated parameters to the specified requirements. These three pieces of equipment in total weigh 80. The EO/IR sensor weighs only 50 pounds. has line of sight capabilities and weighs only 0. and line of sight data link can meet all of the mission requirements. In event of engine failure. 3. based in New Jersey.5 pounds. therefore. the auxiliary batteries will be able to sustain the UAV until it can reach the base. the EOI sensor. Range and endurance calculated for average 5 . This data link is ideal because it has been used previously on other UAVs. 4. 3. so a camera and an inferred sensor is required. The data link is also needed for communicating with the UAV to update any new mission objectives.5 pounds for auxiliary batteries. A modest range is desired because the UAV may want to observe the targets while not being noticed.4 Payload Package The sensor suite of the synthetic aperture radar. The EOI package also must be able to collect imagery in day and night.5 miles) and has both electro-optical and infrared capabilities [2]. This leaves 69. which will be the primary power supply for the electronics [4].5 pounds [3]. so it also meets our weight requirement.

) Max Rate of Climb ≥ 16.8 Knots 31. these features are listed. Minimum tail area for trimmed flight at cruise. In the section below. Table 4.25 ft.5 ft/s 40. and 10 VTI’s Max Range Able to loiter for 12 hrs. 7. and 10 VTI’s Actual UAV Performance 142.case. 8. Maximum propeller diameter to maximize propeller efficiency.100 ft 847 ft 605 ft 150 lbs. for most mission applications* *Range and endurance calculated for average case. Minimum flap area to meet 35 knots stall speed. Weight Stall speed ≤ 35 Knots (@ Sea level) Max Endurance Able to loiter for 12 hrs.0 ft. 7. Altitude (ceiling) Airstrip Distance ≤ 3.2 (both flaps).000 ft. Minimum wing area for sufficient lift at cruise. Performance As Specified in Characteristic Requirements Max Flight Speed ≥ 140 Knots (@ 500 ft. 51 horsepower (sea level). The minimum wing area will produce the minimum amount of drag.2. 35 Knots 2080 miles ( for an average mission) 21 hours (for an average mission) Meets Requirements? YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES. 20 degrees. Table 4.2 (horizontal). See section 2 for more information. The main features of our aircraft were designed to meet the above requirements.28 ft. for most mission applications* YES.500 ft to Takeoff Maximum Payload 150 lbs.1: Analysis of the UAV in meeting mission requirements. The minimum tail area will produce the minimum amount of drag.67 ft/s Max Operating ≥ 27.92 ft. followed by a description of the key constraints that dictated their size. 60 in. 50 sea level horsepower required Flap Area: Flap Deflection: Prop Diameter: Engine Power: 6 . Minimum flap deflection to meet 35 knots stall speed.1 compares the performance parameters of Big Brother XL4000 to the design requirements. Feature Wing Area: Tail Area: Description and Constraints 74. See section 2 for more information.000 ft to Land Airstrip Distance ≤ 1.2 (vertical).

1: Big Brother XL4000 with landing gear deployed. are shown below in Figure 4.1 through Figure 4.0 ft Distance from nose to center of gravity (full fuel) = 6.0 ft Maximum pitch angle on takeoff: 25° 1:64 Scale Figure 4. Dimensions of importance are: • • • • • • • • Total length of aircraft = 16. Figure 4.1 ft Wingspan = 27.24 ft Distance from nose to center of gravity (no fuel) = 6.8 ft Fuselage length = 10.21 ft Propeller Diameter = 5.Drawings of our current design as of December 19th. 2006. 7 .0 ft Total height of aircraft = 5.6.2: Big Brother XL4000 with landing gear retracted.

0’ 5. 6.0’ Figure 4.5’ 2.4: Left-side view of Big Brother XL4000. 8 .3: Front view of Big Brother XL4000.8’ 25° 8.27.2’ Figure 4.8’ 2.24’ 5.0’ 7.5’ 6.

0 6. At the end of the iteration.38 z 1. Front Gear: 17. Control System: 40.24 4.1 lbs. Figure 4. Wing: 65.3 8. Data Link: 0.0 10.0 lb SAR: 30. 14.0 8.6 lb.5: Top view of Big Brother XL4000.0 lb. at the beginning of the iteration.6 lb.5 lb.7 lb.10. Rear Gear: 34.0 lb.4 lb. EO/I: 50. the new gross takeoff weight is 9 .5 lb. 5. Fuel: 183.3 6.6: Internal component layout of Big Brother XL4000. Additional Payload: 69. Weight Estimates The weight estimates were calculated based on a gross takeoff weight of 657.1 x Propeller: 7. Power Plant: 57.3 lb.2 2.0’ 16.0 lb.1’ Figure 4. Tail: 15.0 lb.

the wing area.0 594.0 183.1: The two methods of weight estimates. 10 .1 Fuselage We chose a weight of 75 lbs. Furthermore. Table 5. 5.0 Table 5.0 52.0 135. and the percent thickness of the wing at the chord center-line. The weight estimates were based on the Cessna aircraft weight estimate procedure and the scaled weights of the Predator. 5.7 40.6 15.6 14.25 9.0 40. based on the Predator scaling method. which comprise approximately half of the gross takeoff weight.3 50 90 305 150 750 Our Estimate 75. Parameter Design GTOW (lb) Design Load Factor Wing Area (ft2) Aspect Ratio Thickness of root chord (%) Value 700 3.5 74.2. The minimum value of CLmax at the stall speed of 35 kts was calculated to be 1.2 Wing Our estimate of the weight of the wing was 68.0 64.1 shows the weight estimates using both of these methods as well as our initial weight estimates.0 60.approximately 644. The values of these parameters are shown in Table 5.0 65. based on the Cessna method. The majority of the weight comes from the wing and fuel.) Predator Scaling Method 75 66.2: Parameters for wing weight estimates. Component Fuselage Wing Tail Landing Gear Power Plant Control System Fuel Payload Total Cessna Method 77.75 from Equation 5.7 13. This may be a conservative estimate considering the current design for our fuselage is much smaller than a typical Cessna fuselage. the design load factor.2 52.0 65.4 150 644.82 17.1 and will be attainable based on our MATLAB code analysis. the aspect ratio. The values of the parameters were picked so that the aircraft could have a reasonable CLmax at stall.7 Weight (lbs.1 150. The Cessna method states that the mass of the fuselage is typically 11% of the gross takeoff weight. the Cessna method is for manned aircraft as opposed to the unmanned aircraft used in our design.8 lbs.8 Table 5.8 lbs. The parameters that go into the Cessna weight estimate of the wing are the design gross takeoff weight.

1) Given the sea-level density of 1.3 lbs.019 ⋅ WTO + 38 (Eqn. 11 . The landing gear used for the estimate is a retractable tri-gear configuration. which were closer to the estimate using the Predator scaling method. which are 7. respectively. Thus the modified equation is show below. Gear Weight = 0. The resulting tail weight is 14.2.019 ⋅ WTO + 5. The weight estimate of 52. which is sufficient for the stall requirement. This requires approximately a 20% increase in power for cruise which results in a significant weight penalty in extra fuel burned. the design requirements for the tail do not have to meet as strict requirements as needed for transport aircraft.3) Using this formula. The Predator method determined a smaller tail weight of 13. we calculated the minimum CLmax needed to generate sufficient lift at the stall speed that is equivalent to the WTO. Also. Similar UAVs. use a retractable landing gear. 5. The increase in weight for retractable landing gear compared to a fixed landing gear is about 34 lbs.WTO = L = 1 ρ sea SCLmax vStall 2 2 (Eqn.28 ft2 and 7. Since our aircraft does not carry passengers. Thus.0 lbs.75. The Cessna landing gear estimate is based on the Equation 5. Gear Weight = 0.0 lbs.7 (Eqn.3 Tail Surfaces The Cessna method predicts our tail weight to be 15. 5. we were able to get more reasonable numbers.0 ft2. such as the General Atomics Predator and GNAT-750. We scaled the constant by multiplying it by the ratio of the UAV WTO /5000 lbs. 5.2) The constant term in the equation seemed too big for our aircraft since the Cessna model is for aircraft up to 5000 lbs.225 kg/m3. However. for the landing gear is very similar to a scaled-down weight estimate of the Predator with retractable landing gear. using analytical calculations we determined that the weight penalty is not as large as the drag penalty. we chose to use the average of the two estimates for our tail weight.2 lbs. Our calculations indicate that we can achieve a CLmax greater than 1. 5. the increase in the parasitic drag coefficient for fixed landing gear is approximately 20%. the wing area (S) and stall speed. This estimate is a function only of the horizontal and vertical tail areas. The Cessna landing gear estimate is a function of only the gross takeoff weight.4 Landing Gear The landing gear weight estimate was based on a modified Cessna method. We chose a retractable landing gear configuration because we concluded that it is more efficient than a static landing gear. 5.

K.1. which is sufficient for all required flight conditions. 40 lbs. propeller weight of 7. Since our UAV has a single pushback propeller as the initial design.0 lbs. cruise for 12 hours.21 ft behind the nose when the fuel tanks are empty. plus an additional 14. 10 VTI maneuvers. 12 . The detailed fuel calculations are carried out in Section 13. based on our mission requirements. and landing. seems reasonable. Center of Gravity Using the mass calculations from the previous section and layouts. includes a dry weight of 43 lbs. We made this decision based on information for brand new. must be accounted for. in Lichfield. The estimated weight of 64.4 lbs.24 ft behind the nose of the aircraft when the fuel tanks are full. The center of gravity of the aircraft was determined based on the spreadsheet shown in Table 6. The CG moves forward to 6.5. 5. and a line of sight data link. 40 lbs. we determined the location of the center of gravity of the UAV to be 6. cruise back to the landing strip. Also. was included in the weight estimate. is used for light single fixed propeller engine aircraft. The center of gravity is slightly forward of the aerodynamic center of the wing (located at 6. coolant. A payload weight of 150 lbs. 6.7 lbs. for oil. U.7 lbs.) to ensure aircraft stability. It also includes the mounting hardware. an Electro-Optic-Infrared sensor.3 ft. and installation hardware [5]. 5. ultra high efficiency engines that are currently available on the market. The model that we are implementing is the AR801. This engine produces a maximum power of 51 hp at 8000 RPM.7 Fuel The fuel weight was calculated to be 183. According to Cessna weight estimates. even if lighter payload components can be found. No information was available on the weight of the control system on the Predator. batteries. and other electrical equipment necessary to integrate these components into the UAV. 5. manufactured by UAV Engines Ltd.5 Power Plant We chose a weight estimate for a power plant that is less than the calculations by both the Cessna and Predator methods. These requirements include takeoff. This value includes the three payload components: a Synthetic Aperture Radar sensor.8 Payload The maximum payload of the UAV is set at 150 lbs.6 Control System The control system consists of flight and engine controls.

6 14.4 267.00 10. such as takeoff and landing.9 41.4 40.10 2.0 1.30 2. Airfoil Selection The selected airfoil must be able to meet all the aerodynamics requirements as given on the aircraft specification sheet.0 57. Furthermore.80 1.1: Spreadsheet created for CG calculations. we would like to select an airfoil with excellent aerodynamic performance throughout its mission.8 461. The lift coefficient dictates how well the aircraft will generate lift during lift-intensive maneuvers. it assumes that fuel is concentrated at the wing aerodynamic center.2 7.1.30 5.0 50.20 Moment 413.1 Airfoil Selection Criteria The three criteria used for selecting an airfoil are maximum lift coefficient.0 4023.4 6. and off-design aerodynamic performance.50 8. The next three sections outline the importance of each of these criteria.6 30.00 10.0 1155. The minimum lift coefficient required to maintain the flight condition at stall speed is given by: 13 .15 4.4 54.Components Wing Tail Propeller Powerplant Front Gear Rear Gear SAR EO/I Data Link Additional Payload Fuel Fuselage Twin Boom Control System GTOW Dry Weight CG (Full Fuel) CG (Empty Fuel) Weight 65.2 346.21 Distance from Nose 6.7 17.38 10. 7.00 6. To this end. In addition. The aircraft must have a design sea-level stall speed of 35 knots. 7.9 217. The CG calculations assume that the components have point mass at their respective locations.0 0. we have developed three criteria with which we would able to judge each airfoil. aerodynamic efficiency.5 168.4 53.24 6.3 70.1 Maximum Lift Coefficient One of the most desirable characteristics of our airfoil is its lift coefficient.00 8.5 183.6 21.0 Table 6.0 478.00 1.5 69.1 198.3 34.0 55. 7.0 644.30 14.3 556.

3 Off-design Aerodynamic Characteristics The final criterion we considered was off-design performance of the airfoil. illustrated in Figure 7.1. the airfoil selected must have the highest aerodynamic efficiency at cruising and loitering conditions. Having a high efficiency at a single angle of attack does not guarantee reasonable aerodynamic performance throughout the entire flight envelope. To reduce drag and thereby conserve fuel. the airfoil should have a reasonable lift-to-drag ratio over a broad range of angles of attack. Therefore.2 Analysis of Airfoils Our team analyzed a wide range of airfoils before choosing the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil.1. through iterations between our airfoil selection and wing design.2 Aerodynamic Efficiency The second most important criterion is the aerodynamic efficiency. The airfoil must also operate over a wide range of conditions. we would like an airfoil which has superior lift characteristics in order to minimize the wing area. Our analysis shows that the high lift coefficient and excellent off-design characteristics make the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) the best airfoil for the Big Brother XL4000. the airfoil to be chosen has to have a maximum lift coefficient higher than the value calculated by Equation 7.WTO = L = 1 ρ sea SCL vStall 2 2 (Eqn.1) Given that the airfoil generally has a lift coefficient higher than that of the entire wing. Since the aircraft spends the majority of its flight time either cruising or loitering. We analyzed Mark Drela’s DAE low drag airfoils as well as NACA 5-digit 63-series and 23-series. the aircraft will have to fly in such a state as to achieve maximum aerodynamic efficiency. 14 .1. as the best choice for our UAV. given by the maximum liftto-drag ratio. we will choose the best airfoil and wing design which creates the necessary lift while minimizing drag. 7.1. In addition to meeting the maximum lift coefficient requirement. We compared these with the NASA Langley general aviation airfoil series. Wings with a larger lift coefficient tend to produce more induced drag as well. 7. Our airfoil must be able to generate negative lift and have reasonable aerodynamic efficiencies over a broad range of angles of attack 7. 7. Therefore.

loiter. 15 .4 0 Reynolds Number Mach Number Altitude (m) Table 7.44E+06 1. Cruise Dash 1. it was important to analyze the drag performance of the airfoil.71. takeoff and landing. The thicker NACA 23018 had the next highest CL of 1.1: NASA GA(W)-1 airfoil cross section.23 6096 6096 Loiter Takeoff/Landing 2. The XFOIL inputs for each of these conditions are given in Table 7.1: Aerodynamic characteristics of different flight configurations.66E+06 2.2 below shows the drag polar diagram of the airfoils that we analyzed.90E+06 0.07 152. We considered the following conditions in the flight profile: cruise. dash.13 0. Airfoils were analyzed at the Reynolds number for each flight condition and at various angles of attack.94) of the airfoils analyzed.1. The NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil outperformed all other airfoils in maximum sectional lift coefficient.12 0. While the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) had the best maximum lift performance.Figure 7.38E+06 0. The NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) had the highest maximum sectional lift coefficient (CLmax = 1. Figure 7.

05 0.025 0.005 0 -1.025 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.035 0.05 NACA 23015 NACA 23012 NACA 23018 NASA GWA-1 (ls417) NACA 23010 0.04 0.005 0 NACA 23-series and NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) have similar sectional drags -1.5 Very low sectional drag at low lift coefficients Negative lift can be generated 0.02 0.5 2 2.01 0.5 -1 -0.5 16 .015 0.NACA 63-015A NACA 63212 NACA 63-215 NACA 63-412 NACA 64-012A NACA 64-212 Sectional Drag Coefficient NACA 64-215 0.045 NACA 23-series have significantly lower CLmax than NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) Negative lift can be generated 0.04 0.035 Sectional Drag Coefficient 0.045 CLmax ≈ 1.01 0.5 Sectional Lift Coefficient 1 1.5 2 Sectional Lift Coefficient 0.03 0.5 -1 -0.02 0.03 0.015 0.5 0 0.

005 0 -1.8 Sectional Lift Coefficient Figure 7.025 0.4 1.8 1 1.LS013 LS413 LS413MOD LS417MOD 0.03 NACA 2412 NACA 6712 DAE 11 0.03 NASA GA(W)-1 (LS417Mod) CLmax = 1.2 1.02 0.5 2 Sectional Lift Coefficient 0.5 0 0.2: Drag polar plots of analyzed airfoils.04 0.05 0.5 1 1.94 Slightly higher sectional drag at low lift coefficients Sectional Drag Coefficient Negative lift can be generated 0.025 DAE 21 DAE 31 Good aerodynamic efficiencies Sectional Drag Coefficient 0.4 0.6 1.2 0.6 0. 17 .015 0.01 No Negative lift can be generated But very poor off-design performance 0.5 -1 -0.045 0.02 0.035 0.01 0.005 0 0 0.015 0.

8 at CL = 0.112 degrees-1 -4. un-twisted wing with simple flaps for low speed flight.5 at -8 degrees angle of attack for dive conditions. We chose a design that met these two parameters for cost reasons. While the sectional drag coefficient can give a good indicator of performance. The wing design is currently a tapered.5.94 -0. we found the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil to be the best. The wing area reduction with the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil outweighs the greater sectional drag of the airfoil. The next section will discuss the current wing design. This section outlines the design of the wing and high lift devices in more detail. it was still comparable to its competitors.2. The DAE 31. it is also important to analyze the overall wing performance to pick the best airfoil. As a result of calculating wing iterations with the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417). The NACA 23-series airfoils had CD values of 0. Parameter Lift curve slope m Zero-Lift Angle of Attack αL0 Maximum Sectional Lift Coefficient Clmax Sectional Pitching Moment CmAC NASA GA(W)-1 0. The NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil has a CD value of approximately 0.m was used to calculate the induced drag and the lift distribution. As a result the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil allows us to minimize the engine power required.1 Wing Geometry To find the optimal wing planform area. Following our aerodynamic design iterations. un-swept.5. While the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil meets all of the airfoil criteria.70. we have 18 .5. NASA ls413 and NACA 23015 airfoils. we compared the sectional drag coefficients at sectional lift coefficients around CL=0. The high maximum lift coefficient allows us to minimize the required wing area. The airfoil can generate CL ≈ -0.005 near CL = 0. the MATLAB program Liftline. depending on sectional thickness. While the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil had a slightly higher sectional drag coefficient. 8. 8.0 degrees 1. Wing Design The wing planform shape and high lift devices were selected so that the desirable stall speed and maximum range requirements were met.1 Table 7. NASA LS413 and NACA 63-series airfoils had CD values of approximately 0. The performance characteristics of the NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil are shown below in Table 7. which is near the cruise lift coefficient.2: Performance characteristics of the selected NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil. It also has a wide range of sectional lift coefficients that generate low sectional drag.The NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil has slightly higher drag coefficients than most of the airfoils analyzed. Because most of the UAV mission requires loitering and dashing at high speed.8. The NASA GA(W)-1 (ls417) airfoil has excellent off-design characteristics. fuel consumption and thus our gross takeoff weight. the overall wing performance is the deciding factor for airfoil selection.

create drag during landing.2.4 ft.decided on a wing with a root chord of 3.2. the flaps may also be deployed during the landing phase to create additional drag and aid in the deceleration of the aircraft.1 ft.2 Flap Type To maintain simplicity and optimize weight. In order to meet our mission requirements. Wing Span = 27 ft. of which the lower rotates about a simple hinge while the upper remains immobile. the plain flap rotates about a simple hinge while the split flap uses an upper and lower surface.5 ft.1 ft. (Figure 8. our team analyzed the advantages and its associated trade-offs of incorporating such devices in our design. and a tip cord of 2. We chose this current baseline design to reduce the induced drag of our UAV. Root Chord= 3.2. Thus. While this is beneficial during the take-off process.2 High Lift Devices High lift devices such as trailing edge flaps and leading edge flaps are often employed in aircraft to generate additional lift during takeoff. and overall weight of the aircraft.1 Trailing Edge Flaps To achieve a successful takeoff. Chord= 2. If the wing of the airplane is unable to provide the required lift coefficient. 8. and decrease take-off distance. the deployment of flaps also results in a substantial increase in the drag coefficient of the wing. 19 . then trailing edge flaps may be used to increase the camber of the wing and improve the wing lift coefficient.4 ft. two particular flaps may be considered: the split flap and the plain flap. 8. 8. As shown by Figure 8. The plain flap is the simplest to implement while the split flap is more complex but offers better structural strength. the amount of lift generated must balance the weight of the aircraft. Figure 8. In our case of a low speed lightweight vehicle.1).1: Finalized wing geometry. a takeoff scenario would require a high lift coefficient to counter the low speed. Since the amount of lift generated is directly related to the lift coefficient and the speed of the aircraft. the performance of the plain flap is more advantageous than the structural benefits of the split flap. TipTip Chord= 2. The reduced drag lessens the amount of fuel required. the power required.

The maximum flap chord to wing chord ratio was limited to 30% due to wing structural consideration. we chose to position the inner side of the flap a distance roughly equivalent to 2 fuselage diameters (4 feet) from the wing centerline (Figure 8. which was approximately 45% of the half-span of the wing.3: Plain flap performs better than split flaps at 20 degree flap deflection angle. Figure 8.2.3 Flap Location and Dimensioning The positioning of the flap with respect to the wing centerline is important in optimizing the structural and flow behavior in that region. plain flap is more efficient than split flaps.2: Diagram showing the plain flap and split flap design.4). 8. From the MATLAB code. our team decided to implement 20% flap chord to wing chord ratio.0 ft. plain flap performs 20% better than split flap with 20 degree flap deflection angle. Thus. In choosing the dimensions of the flap.3. The flap must be positioned where it is as close as possible to the fuselage (for stress optimization) but far enough to minimize the boundary layer effects due to the proximity of the fuselage.Figure 8. [6] In addition to structural advantages. we have iterated the flap dimension process and we came up with the flap span of 7. 20 . As shown by Figure 8.

252 Table 8. A MATLAB code was used to perform these calculations.1 Design Trade-offs To come up with the optimal parameters for the aerodynamic design.1 ft 2.4 Diagram showing flap positioning and dimensioning.1: Sectional airfoil performance with flaps deployed at 20°. cruise. we inputted the flap geometry and flight conditions into our main MATLAB solver to determine the lift and drag coefficients at the two flight conditions.4 Flap Performance Analysis To determine the performance impact of the flaps on the aircraft during takeoff and landing. our team considered different geometric parameters of the aircraft.1. For simplicity. Aerodynamic Performance at Design Points The aerodynamic performance characteristics of the aircraft were computed at the various design points of takeoff. dash. a maximum flap deflection angle of 20 degrees was assumed throughout the analysis. From our analysis.4 ft 7.2. and it is included in Appendix C. 8.13. The only major design restraint was at dash condition. Our engines will not meet the dash requirements if the wing area and CD0 values were too high. 9.612 -0.0 ft 4 ft cf/c = 0. 21 . Parameter Lift curve slope m Zero-Lift Angle of Attack αL0 Maximum Sectional Lift Coefficient Clmax Sectional Pitching Moment CmAC Value 0.3 degrees 2. 9. and landing.112 degrees-1 -7. it was determined that the utilization of flaps increases the maximum lift coefficient by 26.2%.2 Figure 8.5 ft 3. We also took design restraint parameters into consideration such that our initial aerodynamic design parameters do not clash with other design considerations. A summary of the sectional airfoil performance with the flaps is shown below in Table 8.

0168 0.96 17.75 18. A decrease in the taper ratio also increases the aspect ratio.0191 0.000 0. Wing Span (ft) 26 28 30 Able to Takeoff? y y y AR 9.16 15.2 shows aerodynamic parameter changes as a function of wing span.1.0157 0.61 17.3: Increasing root chord harms the L/D ratio.2: Increase in wing span decreases CD0 values. Table 9.67 Cdo @ cruise 0.91 Sw (ft^2) 71.0175 Table 9.83 19. Table 9.0175 Table 9. The aspect ratio decreases and as a result.5 3.1: Table showing aerodynamic parameters as a function of taper ratio.5 3. it is clear that increasing the root chord decreases the CD0 value.45 10. the root chord was changed to see how it affects other aerodynamic parameters.0148 Table 9.35 16.71 Cdo @ cruise 0. CD0 increases as taper increases.71 8. First condition to look for was whether the aircraft was able to takeoff with decreased taper ratio.95 18.06 16.2 Wing Span Wing span was also considered in the sizing of the wing. 9.31 9 Sw (ft^2) 94.5 87.17 16.1.0185 0. This is a result of increased wing area and weight of the wing.0162 0. the cost of increasing has a large negative effect.0205 0.5 L/D @ cruise 16.714 Able to Takeoff? y y y AR 7.5 77 82. This is observed in the L/D values as taper is decreased.02 L/D @ Dash 18.78 Cdo @ cruise 0.31 15.18 10. it was not recommended to increase the wing area too much.0199 Cdo @ dash 0.0212 0.0186 0.5 3 2.0167 Cdo @ dash 0.5 Sw (ft^2) 90 105 120 L/D @ cruise 17. As the taper ratio is decreased. b = 27 cr (ft) 3.5 ct (ft) 3.018 0.1 tabulates the aerodynamic parameter changes according to the taper ratio.0178 0. Various taper ratios were considered while restricting other parameters.857 0. a large 22 . from the iteration.3 shows the results.75 81 L/D @ cruise 15. the wing area decreases.3 Root chord Lastly. iteration was necessary to find best taper ratio which maximizes aircraft’s L/D while not increasing CD0 at dash condition. Therefore. Due to our design constraint. However.0168 0. which in return reduces the induced drag. From the table. which reduces the lift generated by the wing. As the wing span is increased it reduced the CD0 values.57 7.9.8 L/D @ Dash 16.0191 0.1.02 Cdo @ dash 0.5 4 taper 1 1 1 Able to Takeoff? y y y AR 10 8.1 Taper Ratio Taper ratio is defined as the ratio between the tip chord length and root chord length. Most importantly. cr (ft) 3 3. 9. Table 9.56 L/D @ Dash 17.91 17. The optimal wing span was calculated to be 27 ft.61 16.5 taper 1.

we are interested in the maximum angle of attack of the aircraft when the sectional lift coefficient reaches 1. 9.774.1 with taper ratio of 0. The lift coefficient of the aircraft was based on the sectional life coefficient values output by Liftline. Table 9.1 is the plot illustrating this point. Table 9.1: Wing sectional lift coefficient profile at takeoff conditions without flaps [7]. Figure 9.94.5 summarizes the aircraft aerodynamic coefficients at various angles of attack. The maximum angle of attack without flaps was calculated to be 16 degrees.1.2 Cdo @ cruise 0. The drag coefficient calculation will be discussed on section 8. The coefficient of moment without the tail calculation can be found in Appedix D. b 27 cr 3. our UAV is able to meet the dash condition.4.4: Optimal design configuration.2 L/D @ Dash 18. Current long endurance UAVs have L/D values ranging between 15 and 20.4 Current Design Current design has a root chord of 3.25 L/D @ cruise 17.m.1 ct 2. With the current configuration. This drag increase harms the L/D ratio and this would correlate to the amount of fuel it requires to complete the mission.induced drag is experienced by the aircraft.2 Lift (No Flaps) When the flaps are retracted. Our calculated UAV L/D values are comparable to similar aircrafts.018 Table 9.4 tabulates the current design.021 Cdo @ dash 0. 9. Table 9. 23 .4 Able to Takeoff? y AR 9.82 Wing Area 74.

50879 0.04711 -0.02886 0.17541 1.41601 0. is needed to take off.62219 1.63291 0.02066 -0.78714 0.11131 0.05505 0.32323 0.69436 0.07577 0.03533 0.97271 1.06139 0.71497 1.72333 0.8 lbf.03181 0.35624 1.34384 1.13246 Table 9.52940 1.07355 -0.43662 1.36166 0. we were able to investigate whether the UAV was able to takeoff without flaps.06830 0. The main contribution comes from the fuselage pitching moment.06474 -0.54250 0.09241 0.03941 0.10000 -0.62749 1.90416 0.04406 0.00303 0. 24 .04105 CD(ac) 0.03829 -0.09118 -0.03223 0.02647 0.01460 0.25106 1. A lift greater than 644.12160 0.87992 0.08237 -0.02342 0.08499 1.2: UAV will not be able to takeoff without the flaps.02948 -0.08381 0. Figure 9.01185 -0. Given these coefficient of drag and lift at various angles of attack.AoA 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 CL(wing) 0.26582 1.06549 1. The lift generated by the aircraft is limited by the wing stall angle of attack.53707 1.80775 Cmac-t -0.80832 CL(ac) 0.00579 0.81374 0.99458 1.45208 0.44666 1. The pitching moment increases as the aircraft pitches.04927 0.05592 -0.60158 0.5: Aerodynamic parameters at takeoff conditions without flaps.15827 1.10158 0.71790 1.

the UAV will be able to cruise at 80 kts. V = 2 ⋅W ρ ⋅ S ⋅ (CL ) max (Eqn. Mission requirements specify that the aircraft must perform dash maneuvers with an air speed of 140 kts and at an altitude of 500 ft.6 summarizes the aircraft aerodynamic coefficients in the flap deployed configuration.9 kts.1) Using Equation 9. we calculated the stall speed at cruise conditions to be 50. Based on our calculations. Hence. Using the same approach as cruise condition calculation. Equation 8.1 and using the CLmax of the wing at 16 degree angle of attack. the wing without flaps deployed at stall angle of attack of approximately 16 degrees gives lift of 555 lbf. the UAV will be able to dash at 140 kts. Figure 9. we calculated the stall speed at dash to be 38. The corresponding angle of attack at this condition was approximately 17 degrees.. we are interested in the maximum angle of attack of the aircraft as well as the maximum lift coefficient generated by the flaps.3: Wing sectional lift coefficient profile with flaps deployed. Table 9.3 Lift (Flaps Deployed) When the flaps are deployed.2. 9. 25 .3 kts.3 illustrates this point. which is incapable of generating sufficient lift for takeoff with a given stall speed of 35 kts at sea-level. Therefore. To calculate the stall speed at cruise condition.As observed in Figure 9.1 was used. our UAV will be able to sustain steady level flight at these conditions. Figure 9. 9. Therefore our stall angle of attack with flaps deployed is 17 degrees.

AoA 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

CL(wing) 0.71635 0.80677 0.89719 0.98760 1.07802 1.16843 1.25885 1.34927 1.43968 1.53010 1.62051 1.71093 1.80135 1.89176 1.98218 2.07259 2.16301 2.25343

CL(ac) 0.62129 0.71407 0.80685 0.89964 0.99242 1.08520 1.17799 1.27077 1.36355 1.45633 1.54912 1.64190 1.73468 1.82747 1.92025 2.01303 2.10581 2.19860

Cmac-t -0.25153 -0.24271 -0.23390 -0.22508 -0.21627 -0.20745 -0.19864 -0.18982 -0.18100 -0.17219 -0.16337 -0.15456 -0.14574 -0.13693 -0.12811 -0.11930 -0.11048 -0.10167

CD(ac) 0.05170 0.05598 0.06082 0.06623 0.07221 0.07875 0.08585 0.09352 0.10175 0.11055 0.11991 0.12984 0.14034 0.15139 0.16302 0.17520 0.18796 0.20127

Table 9.6: Aerodynamic parameters at take-off conditions (flaps deployed).

The necessary lift coefficient needed to takeoff was calculated to be approximately 2.14, which occurs between 16 and 17 degrees angle of attack. The pitching moment is significantly more negative with flaps because flaps increase the lift generated by the wing and as a result, they will produce more negative pitching moment. Also notice the increase in CD as the flaps contribute more induced drag. The drag contribution due to the flaps can be found in section 8.4. Without the flaps, we have shown that the aircraft is unable to generate sufficient lift for takeoff and cruise at sea-level without the flaps. With the flaps deployed we came to conclusion that the aircraft will generate sufficient lift for takeoff with a flap deflection angle of 20 degrees.

Figure 9.4: Aircraft will generate sufficient lift for takeoff with flaps deployed.

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From Figure 9.4, we can clearly see that at stall angle of attack of approximately 17 degrees, the aircraft will be able to takeoff with 675.1 lbf lift force. This is slightly higher than our gross takeoff weight of 644.8 lbf. Our goal was meet the gross takeoff weight at stall speed since the UAV will be flying at 1.15 times greater than the stall speed during normal takeoff session. At 1.15Vstall, the UAV will generate approximately 894.5 lbf of lift force and it will have 6 degree of error margin between stall angle of attack and minimum lift angle of attack. Deploying the flaps will result in changes to aerodynamic properties of the wing. The sectional lift coefficient of the wing as well as the aerodynamic pitching moment will be affected due to the flaps. The equations used to calculate these changes are shown in Appendix D. 9.4 Drag The total drag coefficient can be calculated by adding the parasite drag coefficient, induced drag coefficient, trim drag coefficient, and the added induced drag due to the flaps. Equation 9.2 illustrates this point.

CD = CD 0 + ( ΔCD ) flaps + CDi + CDtrim

(Eqn. 9.2)

Each component contributing to the total drag was calculated individually. These calculations can be found in Appendix D. The total drag coefficient of the aircraft at takeoff, cruise and dash conditions were plotted and a 2nd degree polynomial fit operation was done to calculate the K value for CD = KCL2 + CD0. Table 9.7 shows the table of CD0 and K values for all 4 configurations.
CD0 0.0222 0.0375 0.0205 0.0181 K(ac) 0.0336 0.0339 0.0336 0.0336

Takeoff (No Flaps) Takeoff (With Flaps) Cruise Dash

Table 9.7: CD0 and K values at different configurations.

To illustrate this relationship, a drag polar plot for takeoff condition was constructed. This is shown in Figure 9.5.

27

Drag Polar at Takeoff Condition (-17 deg. to 17 deg.)
Without Flaps 0.25 With Flaps

0.2

CD(ac)

0.15

0.1

0.05

0 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 CL(ac) 1 1.5 2 2.5

Figure 9.5: Drag polar at Takeoff Condition

As you can see from the plot, the y-intercept (CD0) increased with the flaps deployed. This is expected due to increase in induced drag as well as the trim drag. The K value did not change much going from retracted to deployed configuration. The slope of drag polar curve remains the same for both configurations due to this constant K. The parasite drag coefficient is the major contribution of the drag when the aircraft is at steady level flight. Table 9.8 shows the breakdown of each component contributing to the parasite drag at dash condition.
Component Wing Fuselage Booms Tail Deployed Landing Gear CD0 0.0100 0.0025 0.0020 0.0021 0.0034

Table 9.8. CD0 contribution by different components at dash condition.

As seen from the table, the major contribution of the parasite drag is the wing. By examining the equations, the wing surface area was the major parameter related to the wing parasite drag. Therefore, our team focused on optimizing the wing surface area as much as possible in order to minimize the wing parasite drag. Another component to observe is the landing gear. When the landing gear was not retracted, the resultant parasite drag coefficient contribution was approximately 33% of the wing parasite drag. This was the main motivation behind retractable landing gear configuration. Additionally, the fuselage and boom wetted areas were directly calculated from CAD software since this was the most accurate way to calculate it.

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the UAV must have a sufficiently powerful engine and propeller configuration. the measured output is in horse power and must be converted to thrust. To maintain steady.9.81 1.5 Cruise and Dash Performance During dash. Our UAV will have approximately L/D ratio of 17 for both conditions near 5 degree angle of attack.1 Power Requirement Calculations In steady level flight. 10. The power required was computed at the various design points of cruise. dash and loiter.9 38. the stall speed was below 140 kts at maximum angle of attack. At this flight condition. To select an appropriate engine. the aircraft is flying at a constant altitude and velocity.81 Vstall (kts) 50. at dash condition. we have calculated that our stall velocity at cruise is below 80 kts. Our calculations indicate that with the chosen propeller. the required thrust is equal to the drag acting on the aircraft. 10. For a propeller aircraft. it is important to consider L/D ratio since this will directly affect the fuel efficiency of the aircraft.3 Cruise Dash Table 9. This is similar to the L/D ratio of similar aircrafts we have considered at the beginning of our project. For cruise and dash conditions. a 51 hp engine will be required to meet all performance specifications. L/Dmax 17. in an engine that has a rated sea level horse power Pshp is given by: 29 . The power available.2 18. Table 9. at a specific altitude.9: Maximum L/D ratio occurs near 5 degree angle of attack. our team calculated the power requirements based on the current aerodynamic and weight estimates of the aircraft.2 AoA (Degree) 5 5 CLmax(ac) 1. level flight. From the lift section. Additionally.9 tabulates the maximum L/D ratio for both conditions as well as the CLmax and equivalent stall speeds. the aircraft is traveling approximately twice as fast at near sea level altitude compared to cruise conditions. A MATLAB code was written to perform these calculations and is included in Appendix C. the engine must generate an available power that is greater than or equal to the power required. This implies that our aircraft should be able to carry out its mission with targeted airspeed for both conditions. Power Requirement In order for our aircraft to meet the various speed and altitude requirements.

30 . The maximum airspeed attainable at a certain altitude occurs when the available power output is equal to the power required.1) It is clear from this equation that power available drops as the altitude increases.8 lbs. Therefore.1. Given our aerodynamic configuration.9 kts and is also able to meet the power required at the stall speed of 42 kts. the trade off is necessary in order to meet our other aerodynamic specifications.000 ft.1: Power available and power needed at cruise altitude. Based on our mission analysis. These power requirements are calculated assuming our aircraft is at our GTOW of 644.PAval = 0.5 hp greater than the optimum. the least power required for steady level flight is 7. it is important that the cruise speed be close to the airspeed that requires the minimum amount of power. Figure 10. With a 51 hp engine.1 hp. 10. 10.000 ft was calculated and is given in Figure 10.85ηi ρ altitude (P ) ρ sealevel shp sealevel (Eqn. a large part of our mission profile consists of cruising at 80 kts at an altitude of 20.6 hp and occurs at a flight speed of 62 kts. Also the term ηi is a measure of the propeller efficiency and is a function of flight speed and propeller diameter.2 Power Requirement at Cruise Altitude The power requirement at the cruise altitude of 20. the output gives us a maximum air speed of 138. The power required to cruise at 80 kts is 8. Although we will be cruising with 0.

4 Maximum Climb Rate Our UAV is required to have a rate of climb of 16.7 hp. The engine also delivers enough power to fly at the stall speed of 40. 10. the power requirement was calculated and is given in Figure 10.9 kts and attain a maximum speed of 142. From this analysis. Vmax climb rate can be determined by first calculating the horizontal velocity at which maximum climb rate is attained. The power required for dash at 140 kts is 39. Vmax rate . Figure 10.10. These power requirements are calculated assuming our aircraft is at our GTOW of 644. The power required for loiter is 9. 9.8 kts. 9.3 Power Requirement for Dash and Loiter At the dash and loiter altitude of 500 ft.2: Power required and power available at dash/loiter altitude with 51 hp engine. The maximum rate of climb.8 lbs. Vmax rate and subsequently Vmax climb rate for a certain altitude is given by: Vmax rate = 2 ⎛W ⎞ K ρ ⎜ S ⎟ 3Cd0 ⎝ ⎠ (Eqn.3) Vmax climb rate = (P ) C S 1 ρ η p shp SL − ρ (Vmax rate )3 D W W 2 ρ SL 31 .2.2) (Eqn. we conclude that the 51 hp engine meets our requirements.4 hp.67 ft/s at sea level.

and is determined purely from the aerodynamic properties of our aircraft. These flight envelopes are calculated assuming our aircraft is at our GTOW of 644.100 ft.5 ft/s at sea level. The power boundary line represents the maximum and minimum speeds at which the engine is able to power the aircraft in steady level flight.8 lbs.3: Maximum climb rate for our UAV at maximum weight and flaps retracted. Figure 10. The maximum and minimum speed occurs when the maximum power available from the engine matches the power required for steady level flight.5 Flight Envelope The flight envelope depicts the range of speeds that our aircraft can fly at a specific altitude in steady level flight. However. 32 .3 depicts how the maximum climb rate of our UAV varies with altitude. with flaps retracted is able to fly at all the required flight points with the exception of the sea level stall requirement. the minimum airspeeds that our UAV will be able to maintain is usually stall limited. The stall boundary line is the locus of our UAV’s Vstall at each respective altitude.8 lbs. Figure 10. The flight ceiling is given by the altitude at which the maximum climb rate is zero. our UAV is able to satisfy stall requirements.4 demonstrates that our UAV.Figure 10. it can be seen in Figure 10. The weight of the aircraft was assumed to be the GTOW of 644. Figure 10. 10. Since the stall boundary is ahead of the lower power boundary for most of the altitudes. Our aircraft has a maximum climb rate of 31.3 also shows that our flight ceiling is 40. It shows that our aircraft easily meets the required sea level climb rate even at maximum weight.5 that with flaps deployed.

33 .Figure 10. Figure 10.5: Flight envelope of the UAV with flaps deployed.4: Flight envelope of the UAV with flaps retracted.

its low weight and good fuel consumption will make the fuel weight and therefore overall weight of our UAV minimal. we chose the AR801 engine to power our UAV. no matter what engine is chosen in the 50 horsepower range. As can be seen from Table 11. To find the optimum propeller size.3 X 17. In addition. yet be fuel efficient enough to minimize the fuel weight required. 12. but its size is relatively large in comparison to the AR801 due to its horizontally opposed cylinders. and fuel efficient. Engine Selection We chose to implement the AR801 engine. Propeller Selection We chose to use a composite-wood two-bladed propeller that is 5 ft in diameter for our initial design. To these ends. Two blades and a composite-wood construction were selected because of weight considerations. United Kingdom.. and easy to use. the maximum prop size is 72 inches.1 X 18. The Rotax 582 UL is heavier and the least fuel efficient of the group. small.5 Dimensions (in) Evaluation Best Option Fuel Inefficient Table 11. Table 11. AR801 [5] Rotax 582 UL [8] Rotary 2 Stroke Type of Engine UAV Engines BRP-Rotax Manufacturer United Kingdom Austria Location 51 65 Horsepower (bhp) 53.3 25. The engine must be able to provide adequate power during dash and take-off. HKS 700E [9] 4 Stroke HKS Japan 60 121 14. A propeller diameter of 52-72 inches was a typical size used on engines ranging in power of 50-70 horsepower [11]. the AR801. It also is a 2 stroke engine which requires the extra step of adding oil to the fuel. The engine is a very important part of the aircraft design.1 shows some different characteristics of the chosen engines.8 X 9. which is made by UAV Engines Ltd. we have selected several different engines that meet the maximum power requirement and are relatively fuel efficient.7 110. [10]. The engine must be able to perform to the demands of the different flight conditions that our UAV will encounter. Its compact rotary engine is perfect for our narrow fuselage. Therefore. which is desirable. manufactured by UAV Engines of Lichfield.2 Weight (lbs) 15 24 Average Fuel Consumption (lb/hr) 12. Proper propeller selection is important because the propeller’s geometry plays an important role in the propulsion systems overall efficiency and aircraft stability. The initial propeller selection was conducted by looking at the diameters of propellers for engines of similar power (about 50 hp).11.1.4 X 29. small.4 Too Big Our ideal engine will be light.8 X 12 20 X 16. A two bladed propeller is also the least destabilizing propeller configuration during powered flight. as the power plant of our aircraft.1: Engine comparison chart. After considering these differences. fuel efficient. A composite two bladed propeller typically weighs less than 7 lbs. Appendix H details the fuel consumption of the AR801. is both light. The HKS 700 E is the most fuel efficient. different propeller geometries were evaluated based on the following criteria (in order of importance): 34 .

it is evident that the propeller efficiency is lower at lower speeds. we chose a fixed-pitch propeller. Ease of installation/operation 5. we chose the largest propeller reasonably possible to get the largest efficiency possible. Therefore.98 for our case) and is adequate to meet our dash requirement. 35 . and a variable pitch propeller is more complicated and heavier than a fixed pitch propeller. The design parameters that limit the size of the propeller are the ground clearance when rotating for takeoff and the maximum distance between the twin booms (6. Efficiency of the propeller 3.28 ft. Using the knowledge of actuator disk theory and research conducted on propellers we were able to construct a trade-study matrix. At high speeds. We used the trade study matrix in Table 12. However.) Some propellers can vary their pitch to increase the efficiency. This is fine for our configuration because the UAV is not power-limited at low speeds. From Figure 12. The design tradeoffs are summarized in the trade study matrix below.1 to evaluate the best possible configuration and size of the propeller.1: Propeller efficiency as function of flight speed. Figure 12. Contribution to destabilizing downwash on aircraft stability The efficiency of the propeller is directly related to its size.1. we are power limited at high speeds. Weight 4. the propeller efficiency is at its maximum (0. For these reasons. Ability of propeller to fit in current configuration 2.1 below. the efficiency increase is only realized at low speeds.

tip exceeds Unsatisfactory Mach 1 Design Chosen Will not fit Unsatisfactory in current design Table 12.4 lbs of fuel to complete the flight profile detailed in the Mission Description section. 36 . fixed pitch configuration is the best design choice for our design.Criteria Design Considered Compatibility Efficiency with configuration of Propeller Weight Ease of Installation Contribution to Conclusion stability Configuration Considerations 2 Blade-Fixed Pitch 2 BladeVariable Pitch >2 BladeFixed Pitch > 2 BladeVariable Pitch Excellent Excellent Design Chosen Too heavy Excellent Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory Excellent and complicated Too heavy. the aircraft must carry enough fuel to perform all of its required objectives: take off. diameter propeller in the 2 blade. In order to meet the requirements.1 shows the estimated fuel requirements for each phase of the mission. complicated Adequate Poor Excellent Unsatisfactory and stability problems Too heavy. 5 Excellent feet diameter Propeller. >5 Poor. cruise for 12 hours. Fuel Requirements Big Brother XL4000 will need 183. it is clear that a 5 ft. cannot fit a feet diameter prop with diameter > 5 ft Poor. and land.3:1 reduction drive that is part of the AR801 engine. complicated Excellent Poor Unsatisfactory Unsatisfactory and stability problems Size Considerations Adequate Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Adequate Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Not efficient enough Excellent Excellent Propeller. <5feet Excellent diameter Propeller. From the trade study matrix.1: Propeller Design Trade study. perform 10 VTI maneuvers. 13. Figure 13. The belt drive’s reduction ratio was chosen so that the propeller blade tips will not exceed Mach 1. The propeller will be attached to a 2.

which Breguet’s equation does not.89 lbs Fuel Used During Takeoff + Climb + Dash to Surveillance Area 5. Our UAV 37 . steady level flight and a powered descent.m) were written and are included in Appendix C.93 lbs Fuel Used During 12 hr Cruise 59. The MATLAB codes calculate the power required for each maneuver at the specified altitude.1 Breakdown of the amount of fuel required for each segment of the mission profile. 14. fuel_levelflight. The code updates the weight throughout the flight like a Breguet’s equation simulation.Fuel Used During Return to Base 1. The MATLAB code iterates every 1 second during flight. After every iteration the weight is recalculated based on fuel burned off (and hence weight lost by the UAV) during each second. From a fuel consumption perspective. the entire mission profile comprises of 3 types of maneuvers: climb.m. however our simulation accounts for a variable throttle setting. We believe that our simulation is a better model of the actual fuel required than Breguet’s equation because our simulation is tailored for our mission profile and considers more variables. Using the engine manufacture’s data for fuel consumption.45 lbs Fuel Used During 10 VTI Maneuvers 116. we are able to calculate the fuel flow rate required for each power setting required during the flight. Our design requirements state that the aircraft must be able to take off and land on a 3000-foot runway and clear a 50-foot tall obstacle at the end of the field.4 lbs Figure 13. Takeoff and Landing Analysis The Big Brother XL4000 will be able to both take off and land well within the distance specified by our requirements. In order to perform the more complex calculations for climb and steady level flight. MATLAB codes (fuel_climb.10 lbs Total Fuel Required: 183. The detailed calculations we used for calculating the fuel requirements of our aircraft is detailed in Appendix H.

14. At worst case conditions of a wet grass runway.2. and the results of our calculations are shown in Table 14. The detailed calculations used in this analysis are available in Appendix E. Our analysis shows that the UAV design can take off and land on very short runways. the rotation distance. and the climb distance. This minimum power yields a takeoff distance of roughly 2220 ft with actual lift off from the ground occurring before the half-field point of 1500 ft.1. For landing.1) The full equations for each of these terms are found in Appendix E. 14. STR. descend at a -5 degree climb angle and come to a complete stop in 847 ft. The most important factors in minimizing takeoff distance are weight and power. Figure 14. [6] The total takeoff distance is the sum of the ground roll. This allows our design to operate on a much larger range of airfields.5 hp.1: Diagram of takeoff distance for UAV. the transition to climb. SR.1. STOT = SG + S R + STR + SC (Eqn. SG. our design can still takeoff in 654 ft.sufficiently meets these requirements. SC. The UAV is able to takeoff well within the regulations at its max power of 51 hp on normal fields of concrete or firm dirt. The velocities used for takeoff and landing are available in Table 14. A 38 . We also computed the minimum power required to takeoff within the regulated distance and found it to be 16. The UAV with flaps deployed and running at full throttle will take off and reach 50 ft elevation within 605 ft of where it started. the UAV is able to clear the obstacle.1 Takeoff Analysis The takeoff procedure is illustrated below in Figure 14.

Takeoff SG = 264 ft SR = 65 ft STR = 195 ft SC = 81 ft STotal = 605 ft Landing Sa = 536 ft SF = 71 ft SFR = 68 ft SB = 172 ft STotal = 847 ft Table 14. SF.3. Figure 14. the free roll distance. [6] The total landing distance is the sum of the approach distance.2) The equations for each of these terms are also found in Appendix E. the input parameters are also listed in Table 14. 14. our aircraft can land in a distance of 1007 ft. 14.2: Landing procedure of UAV. On the worst case field of wet grass. the flare distance. and values for each are listed in Table 14. SB.1: Takeoff and landing distances.2.decrease in weight or an increase in power will shorten the takeoff distance. and the braking distance. 39 . S L = Sa + S F + S FR + S B (Eqn. Sa. Our design lands well within the 3000 ft limits at a distance of 847 ft on a concrete or firm dirt strip. Therefore we decided to take off at maximum power to allow for the minimum possible takeoff distance. SFR.1.2 Landing Analysis The landing procedure is illustrated below in Figure 14.

3) For the minimum flight path angle. At a speed of 1. 14.4 lbs. A steeper descent angle will yield a shorter the landing distance.0375 K 0. the aircraft with all its fuel used up will weigh 461. For landing.9 ft/s Flare Veloctiy 72. which still meets our requirements but results in a much longer runway needed. Thus. Tail Selection In choosing the optimum tail configuration for BBXL 4000..25 CL 0 Cdo 0. Solving for γ.2: Aircraft velocities during takeoff and landing. To show that the aircraft is capable of descending at -5°. drag. which is more than we need. 40 .0375 K 0.1 Cdo 0. our aircraft is capable of descending at a flight path angle of at least -5°.8 Descent Angle 5 Table 14.748 Aerodynamic Performance for Takeoff S 74. the total drag on the aircraft is 86 lbs. the thrust is set to zero. hp ft2 ft2 lbs lbs degrees In our calculations for landing distance we chose a descent angle of -5° instead of the specified angle of -3°.85 ft/s Table 14.25 CL 0.57 ft/s Climb Velocity 70. In particular. A descent angle of -3° will produce a landing distance of 1216 ft.4 Gross Takeoff Weight 644. we studied three tail configurations: V-tail. we considered numerous tail designs used by existing UAVs. 15.Takeoff Landing Takeoff Velocity 65 ft/s Approach Velocity 76. we considered the following equation which relates the flight path angle to the thrust.0336 Aerodynamic Performance for Landing S 74. and the weight of the aircraft.8 ft/s Touchdown Velocity 67.15 times the stall speed and the stall angle of attack. sin(γ ) = T −D W (Eqn. We attempted to keep the landing distance as short as possible so as to allow our UAV to make use of the shortest possible field. twin-boom tail.7 ft/s Transition Velocity 67. Propulsion Power 51 Propulsion Efficiency 0.3: Input Parameters.0336 Landing Weight 461.5°. we find the minimum flight path angle to be -10.

This value of vertical tail generates a Cnψ of -1. 1.28 0.1 Vertical Tail To calculate the vertical tail size. both the lateral stability derivative (Cnψ) and the longitudinal stability derivative (Cm/CL) have to be negative. An H-shaped.16 15. The horizontal and vertical tails are essential for the aircraft’s longitudinal and lateral stability.0 ft2 and a horizontal tail area of 7. The result of our calculation was a vertical tail area of 4. First. it also enables the placement of heavy engine machinery closer to the center of gravity and hence maintaining the stability of aircraft by keeping the center of gravity close to the aerodynamic center.34 ft2. A desired stability derivative for the aircraft (Cnψ) was calculated based on our aircraft configuration.92 Figure 15.6x10-4. Second.87 6. Diagram not to scale 1.08 0.4 0. we chose a total vertical tail area of 7.64 0.68 1.46 1. In order for the aircraft to be stable.875 ft2 per tail while the elevator size is 2. The relation between the vertical tail size and the maneuverability is explained in the following section. A detailed description of our calculation of this value is outlined in Appendix F. The customer requires that the UAV be statically stable in yaw and pitch for all configurations. The rudder size is 0. propeller. fuselage. It offers two distinct advantages over other designs. while the vertical tail size of 4.5 1. An illustration of the tail configuration is shown in Figure 15.1 Vertical and horizontal tail dimensions. This indicates that the aircraft is laterally stable. twin-boom tail design was chosen as the final configuration.34 ft2 is sufficient to provide directional stability to the aircraft.28 ft2. and then the vertical tail area was adjusted to meet this specification. To meet these requirements.9 ft2. and wingbody interference were considered.1. the yawing effects of the wing.and tailless or flying wing (Appendix F). it allows the extension of the moment arm of tail without the weight and drag penalties of a full fuselage.43 1. However. it does not guarantee that the aircraft has enough maneuverability. 41 .

ρ = air density at the loiter altitude of 500 ft: 0. we fix the rudder area to be 25% of the vertical tail area and the maximum deflection angle of the rudder to be 30°.83 × 10 − 4 (Eqn. V = loiter velocity: 135 ft/sec. 15.0024slug/ft3. We also assume that the UAV has to perform high maneuverability moves when it is loitering at 500 ft. 15.2) dδ r SW b δr = deflection angle of rudder.1.7 ⋅ 3. To determine the yaw rate of the aircraft and thus the required vertical tail size. we can obtain a maximum yaw rate of: ψ = 1 rad 0.3 slug/ft2. 42 .0024 ⋅ 135 2 ⋅ 7.83 × 10 − 4 ⋅ 4.0126 2 2 ⋅ 666. given by the equation: dδ r dCnv S L = −avτ VT VT η v = 3. calculated to be 666. we require BBXL 4000 to be able to perform high-mobility maneuvers while loitering. it is important to have adequate tail control surfaces to provide the required lateral mobility to the aircraft. dC nv = rudder power. The comparison of the yawing moment and the rotating time of the aircraft are presented in Table 15.34 = 0.3 s (Eqn.15. we found that 7 ft2 will allow the aircraft to meet our maneuverability requirement. 15. In our context maneuverability is defined as the yaw rate of the aircraft. Working backwards from the required yaw acceleration. This is to prevent targets from eluding the tracking of BBXL 4000.3) With a yaw rate of 0.1 Vertical Tail Maneuverability Requirements The mission of the BBXL 4000 is to provide patrol and reconnaissance.1. The yawing rate is related to the vertical tail size area by: dCnv 1 (δ r )SVT I zzψ = ρV 2 LVT (Eqn. the aircraft does not have enough maneuverability to meet our turning requirement. Given that the intended targets may do everything in their power to avoid detection and tracking. Therefore. We would like the aircraft to have enough yaw acceleration to complete a 180° level rotation in less than 15 seconds and to complete a 360° level rotation in less than 20 seconds. given in degrees. LVT = the distance between vertical tail aerodynamic center and the wing aerodynamic center.34ft2. The parameters are fixed based on study of similar aircraft. SVT = vertical tail area With the original vertical tail size of 4.1) dδ r 2 Where Izz = the polar moment of inertia about z-axis.0126 rad/s2.

By starting with an initial horizontal tail of 18. CG location.28 ft2 after 27 iterations.6 20.8 22. we obtain a final horizontal tail size of 7. For the horizontal tail. The values of the fixed parameters are based on study of similar aircrafts.52 7.34 ft2 and increased area 7 ft2. wing.3. location of 6 ft instead of 6. we used a most forward C.2 and Figure 15.21 ft from the nose. Therefore. As such.1 360° turn time (s) 31.0126 0. 43 .2x10-4 and this shows that the aircraft still has adequate lateral stability despite enlarging the vertical tail by 60%. The rotation time shows that vertical tail size of 7. The first iteration of this calculation is outlined in Appendix F. The lateral stability derivate at this tail area is -1. the vertical tail area of the UAV will be 7. The tail area obtained after every iteration and its convergence are presented in Figure 15.0 14.1: Comparison of time requirement for prescribed turn angles of the iterated vertical tail area sizing calculation of 4.2 Horizontal Tail The horizontal tail size is determined by the elevator power to maintain the aircraft at equilibrium at maximum lift condition. a more complicated iteration was required to account for the pitching moment effects of the fuselage. or 3.0 ft2 is the minimum area needed to meet our maneuverability requirement.56 ft2.5 ft2 for each tail.3 10. In addition to satisfying equilibrium condition at maximum lift. Even though ground effect is not required for the horizontal tail sizing. and elevator deflections. Elevator size is fixed at 40% of the horizontal tail and maximum elevator deflection is fixed at 20°.0 Table 15. the horizontal tail has to be able to provide longitudinal stability as well. Convergence was determined when the output value of the tail area was within 1% of the input value.0 Yaw rate (rad/s2) 0.0315 90° turn time (s) 180° turn time (s) 15. 15.Tail Area (ft2) 4. which was calculated from the weight component analysis.0 ft2.G. we felt that it would be advisable to leave a margin of safety to account for the ground effect at landing.

Results show that the final value at convergence is approximately 7.Figure 15. Figure 15. The tail area yields a longitudinal directional derivate (Cm/CL) value of -0.7 ft2. the aircraft is able to maintain longitudinal stability with the given tail area.28 ft2.15.3 ft2 as well. We also attempted to initialize the iteration with an initial tail area of more than 18. Therefore.2: Horizontal tail size against number of iterations. which is stabilizing. 44 . The convergence of less than 1% is achieved after 27 iterations. with the final horizontal tail size of 7.3: Horizontal tail size converged to within 1% of original tail size.

) Width (in.66 ft behind the nose of the aircraft. making the Ww for each landing gear 290.22 Table 16.1 was used to calculate the diameter and width of rear and front tires in inches.2 illustrates how the landing gears will be retracted into the twin booms.63 Rear (in) 11.G. Given our gross takeoff weight of 644.1 is a constant term given by Raymer.G.) A 1. the rear landing gears are to be stored within the twin booms.1. the weight will be evenly distributed among the two.312 Front (in) 6. which determines the farthest allowed aft location of the center of gravity for the aircraft to be stable.24 ft. our aircraft meets the stability requirements of the neutral point and the actual C.48 2. range.51 0. Following the calculations in Appendix F.1 shows the values of A and B as well as the final diameter and width sizing of front and rear tires. Storing the landing gear in the booms also increases the space inside the fuselage while making use of twin boom inner capacity. Table 16. Since we are planning to install 2 rear landing gears. locations are within the usable C.8 lbs.349 0.00 4. and the approximate tire dimensions can be obtained from Table 16. This method assumed 90% of the aircraft weight to be carried by the rear tires while the remaining 10% was carried by the front tires. the stable most rear location of the center of gravity is 6. The actual farthest aft location of the aircraft’s CG is 6.1: Summary of diameter and width calculation. 45 . Diameter (in. Our UAV will implement a retractable landing gear system.1 and Figure 16. Ww is the weight carried by each tire. Landing Gear and Tire Design The landing gear and tire sizing were calculated using a statistical approach. Thus.3 Neutral Point One of the parameters calculated for the horizontal tail sizing is the neutral point. 16. Figure 16. which is forward of the aft limit of the center of gravity.15 lbs.715 B 0.1) A and B in Equation 16. A statistical tire sizing table was provided by Raymer [6].3 lbs and 64. Equation 16. To maintain stability of the aircraft. the weight carried by the front and rear tires were 580.15. 16.5 lbs respectively. Diameter orWidth (in) = AWw B (Eqn.

As seen from the figures above.Figure 16. 17. the front landing gear retracts backwards.2: Rear landing gear retraction. Our UAV needs an air inlet because the engine is mounted inside its fuselage. A simple hinge mechanism and electric motor were incorporated to retract the landing gears.1: Front landing gear retraction. In addition to providing a necessary component for combustion. and the rear landing gears retract forward. air is needed to dissipate heat from the radiator of our liquid cooled rotary engine. Air Inlet Sizing Our engine requires an air inlet of 80 in2. The rear landing gears in their down position were located slightly rear of the CG such that the rotation during takeoff can be maneuvered without a large pitching moment. 46 . Figure 16.

trim analysis must be performed to determine if the aircraft is able to balance its aerodynamic forces in equilibrium. we determined that the air inlet area will need to be 80 in2. we will need to evaluate the aerodynamic loads acting on the UAV in a trimmed condition.1). Trim Analysis In order to sustain steady flight. we conclude that a maximum area of about 40 in2 is necessary for our engine’s intake. thus helping to prevent damage or clogging of engine components (see Figure 17. However. but will be set back several inches. Also.We determined the required inlet area required by taking into consideration the following: engine displacement of 294 cm3. With the combined area required for the engine’s intake and the radiator. Trim curves generated at the critical design points are also 47 . In addition. Based on this we have found that an area of about 40 in2 will be sufficient for our radiator cooling. 40 for the engine’s intake and 40 for cooling the radiator. it has been found that typical radiators for this size of engine have approximately 60 to 70 in2 of surface area [12]. Using this information and simple volume flow rate calculations. air will have time to disperse and diffuse to a larger area than what our inlet allows. engine revolution limit of 8000 rpm and stall speed of our aircraft at about 35 knots. because our radiator will not be placed directly over the air inlet. 18. This inlet will be placed on the top side of the fuselage to prevent debris from being sucked in during takeoff and landing.1: Engine air inlet located on top of fuselage. for a particular symmetric maneuver or gust as specified by the V-n diagram. Engine air inlet (80 in2) Figure 17.

18.2 Trim Curves The following ten graphs show the trim curves for five different configurations and conditions.needed for determining the structural stability of the aircraft when subjected to the velocity-load factor combinations for symmetric maneuvers (zero pitching acceleration). we have not included the trim curve for this configuration. Also. This information is needed for the power-off and tail-off configurations within the range of operating angles of attack. the change in center of gravity between full-fuel and empty-fuel conditions is negligible.1 Required Aerodynamic Information Aerodynamic information such as of CL.1) shows the trim curves for major flight conditions at full fuel. The three aerodynamic quantities are obtained from Section 9. The first set of four graphs (Figure 18. the trim curves in Figure 18.2 are essentially the same. The next set three graphs (Figure 18.1 and Figure 18.2) shows the trim curves for major flight conditions at empty fuel. 48 . because the fuel is located in the wing at the aircraft’s center of gravity. 18. As a result. -17° < α < 16°. which details the aerodynamic performance at design points. Since takeoff with no fuel is not a feasible maneuver. CD and CM is needed to obtain trim curves.

49 .

1: Trim curves for major flight maneuvers with full fuel.Figure 18. 50 .

51 .2: Trim curves for major flight maneuvers with no fuel.Figure 18. The vertical force coefficient for the entire aircraft. CZA. shows the resultant force in the vertical direction from aerodynamic forces over the entire aircraft and is given by Equation 18. Each trim curve demonstrates the variation of four sets of non-dimensionalized force coefficients as functions of angle of attack.1.

1) We assumed that CXA and CX are approximately equal. 18. Furthermore.50 -1. CZ. Since we assume that the wing and tail are the only surfaces contributing significantly to the overall vertical aerodynamics force.90 52 . shows the necessary moment generated by the tail needed to sustain trimmedflight at varying angles of attack. V-n diagrams were created to show the variation in load factor with increasing airspeed for in-flight maneuvers and wind gusts. 18.1) The vertical force coefficient of the wing. the limit load factors were instead predetermined partially by the customer and by FAR Part 23. 18. the difference between the CZA and CZ shows the necessary vertical force from the tail required to achieve trimmed longitudinal flight. 19.⎛S CZA = CZ + CZT ⎜ T ⎜S ⎝ W ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (Eqn.2) Both of these values increase as the angle of attack increases. CZ = CL cos(α ) + CD sin(α ) (Eqn. since the force contribution from the tail in the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is negligible. This will eventually determine the amount of elevator deflection needed. From Customer Specifications: Maximum Positive Design Load Factor: Minimum Negative Design Load Factor: +3. Since current regulations and specifications do not specifically define the allowable load factors for an unmanned reconnaissance aircraft. gives the resultant vertical aerodynamic force on the wing of the aircraft (Eqn.2).1. 19.3) C X = −CL sin(α ) + CD cos(α ) (Eqn. the horizontal force coefficient for the entire aircraft. Lastly. CX decreases as angle of attack increases. 18. the moment coefficient of the aircraft neglecting the effects of the tail. CX. 18. The diagram illustrates the general maneuvering flight envelope and the limit loads (or the maximum aerodynamic loads the airframe must be able to sustain without permanent deformation) during various flight design points. shows the variation of the resultant force in the horizontal direction from aerodynamic forces as a function of angle of attack (Eqn. As shown in Figure 18. CMACT. Maneuver and Gust Envelope To further demonstrate the aircraft’s capabilities and performance.1 Maneuver Loading Flight load factors represent the ratio of aerodynamic force normal to the aircraft’s longitudinal axis to the aircraft’s weight.

Due to the absence of reliable gust loading specifications for UAV type aircraft. Although the amount of time spent in flight with the flaps deployed is much less than the amount of time without.3 Effect Due to Flaps The V-n diagram must also show the structural loading due to flap deployment.From FAR Part 23: VC (Cruise Velocity): 80 knots VD (Dive Velocity): 115 knots Load Factor at Point E: -1. we are able to display both the maneuvering flight envelope as well as the associated gust envelope.00 19. Consequently. this region is shown in green in the diagrams following. FAR regulations specify the vertical gust velocities at various design points that must be considered.2 Gust Loading During regular flight. the customer has suggested using the parameters as defined in FAR Part 23. it introduces higher structural loading than un-deployed at the same speed.00 0. These gust velocities at the design points are shown below. the limiting load factors for flaps deployed are listed below.4 V-n Diagrams By including the effects of the sharp gusts at the specified design velocities in the V-n diagram.2. As defined by FAR Part 23 [13].00 19.1 and Figure 19. please refer to Appendix I. The complete V-n diagrams for both cases of retracted and deployed flaps in empty and full fuel configurations are displayed in Figure 19. Design Point Positive & Negative Gust Velocity (ft/s) VC (80 kt) 50 VD (115 kt) 25 Table 19. Maximum Positive Design (with Flaps) Load Factor: Minimum Negative Design (with Flaps) Load Factor: +2. For a full description of the analysis process. The velocities corresponding to each design point are listed on each diagram. 19. as specified by FAR Part 23. atmospheric conditions such as a sudden or sharp gust will affect the aerodynamic forces acting on an aircraft and thus its load factor. 53 .1: Sharp in flight vertical gust velocities.

1: V-n diagram for the Big Brother XL4000 at dry weight. The four critical loading conditions (design points) are shown in the diagrams above (A. The respective velocities and load factors at these points were compiled and shown in the table below.D.E. 54 .Figure 19.2: V-n diagram for the Big Brother XL4000 with full fuel.and G). Figure 19.

Cza.99 3.m. we will be able to obtain the sectional lift. Wing Loading Before designing and analyzing the structure of the wing. The lift acts in the z-direction. pointing aft. we can obtain the wing angle of attack corresponding to Cza.00 G 61.Design Velocity (Full Fuel) Velocity (Empty Fuel) Load Factor Load Factor Point (kt) (kt) (full fuel) (empty fuel) A 63. the drag acts in the x-direction and the pitching moment acts in the y-direction. pointing in the direction of the lift forces.1) 1 2 ρVeq S w 2 Subsequently from the trim curve.fuel and full-fuel conditions will have to be considered. with the origin at the root of the wing and pointing towards the right wing tip. The forces and moments acting at each station can then be calculated by multiplying the coefficients 55 Cza = n zW . all of the forces and moments have to be accounted for. The loads acting on the wing consist of aerodynamic loads such as lift. The reference axes of the wing have to be chosen before we can determine the wing loading. 20. (Eqn. The x-axis is the aircraft reference axis. 20. 20. we have to determine the wing loads at the critical points in the V-n diagram.00 -1. The loading conditions for both empty.1.00 115.97 -1. pitching moment as well as inertial loads such as wing structural weight.00 3.90 -1.00 -1. we will first need to calculate the aircraft’s total lift coefficient. fuel weight and twin boom weight.23 51. with the first strip at the wing tip and the 100th strip closest to the fuselage. Using the wing angle of attack from the trim curve. The widths of the strips are smaller nearer the wing tip to better capture the variation of the load distribution near the tip. The z-axis completes the orthonormal axes. drag and the pitching moments. In calculating the distribution of loads across the span of the wing.50 3.50 D 115. The forces acting on the wing are then given as force per length in the span-wise direction.50 E 115.2 Aerodynamic Loads The aerodynamic forces acting on the wing are namely the lift. where nz is the load factor and Veq is the equivalent velocity corresponding to the critical design points in the V-n diagram.90 Table 19.50 3. which is obtained using the Eqn 20.00 115.1 Wing Discretization The overall load distribution is calculated by dividing each wing into 100 strips along the y-axis.60 53.2: Maneuver velocity and load factors at critical load conditions. drag and moment coefficient at each span-wise station from the MATLAB code LiftLine. drag. To calculate the distribution of the aerodynamic loads along the span. 20. The y-axis is the quarter-chord line of the wing in span-wise direction.

the resultant loads on the wing can be determined. We designed our fuel tank to carry 101 lb of fuel per wing or 15 lb of extra fuel than what is required for the entire mission. the span-wise stations that fall within this distance will have to carry the additional weight of the booms. After determining all the forces acting on the wing. The length of the fuel tank at each station is ½ of the chord length and the height is 45% of the maximum airfoil thickness. Since the structural wing box covers 50% of the chord.1: Fuel tank position in airfoil.3 Inertial Loads The wings are estimated to have a structural weight of 68.7 lb of fuel per wing. the twin booms are attached to the wing at 2⅓ ft to 3⅔ ft away from the root. MT. In addition. for both empty-fuel and full-fuel configurations.5c Figure 20.4 lb. with the center of gravity of the structure located at ⅓ of the chord behind the leading edge. 56 . To simplify our calculation. Finally the loads acting on each strip are calculated as the averages of the loads acting on the two stations spanning the strip. The total fuel required is 183. The forces are decomposed along the reference axes and then added together to give the resultant loads along the reference axes. namely VX. or 91.by the respective chord length and dynamic pressure. VZ. 20. The following five graphs show the various load distributions that the wing is subjected to.8 lb or 34. The fuel container is assumed to be a container that has the following rectangular cross section at each span-wise station: 0. Therefore. the design of the fuel tank ensures that the fuel container is contained within the wing box. 20. we assume that the structural weight is uniform across the span.4 Maximum Wing Loading The wing loading distribution will be performed at the four critical design points as indicated in the V-n diagram.4 lb per wing. MX and MZ.

2: Comparision of vertical shear loading Vz at various design points. From the above Vz graph. Design Point D corresponds to low positive angle of attack.Figure 20. which is caused by the offset from the fuel and twin boom inertial loads. 57 . A kink in the Vz graph can be noticed at ⅓ ft to 3⅔ ft from the root.3: Comparison of horizontal shear loading Vx at various design points. Figure 20. the maximum shear force in the z-direction will occur at Design Point D for the full-fuel configuration.

From the above Vx graph, the wing experiences the most x-direction shear force at Design Point A, which corresponds to high positive angle of attack at full-fuel configuration.

Figure 20.4: Comparison of torsional moment distribution MT at various design points.

The above graph shows the torsional moment distribution about the y-axis. The maximum torsion will occur at Design Point E for the empty-fuel configuration.

Figure 20.5: Comparison of bending momnet distribution about the x-axis Mx at various design points.

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The Mx graph shows that the maximum bending moment about the x-axis occurs at Design Point D, which corresponds to low positive angle of attack, for the full-fuel configuration.

Figure 20.6: Comparing of bending moment about the z-axis Mz at various design points.

The Mz graph shows the bending moment distribution along the span of the wing about the zaxis. The maximum bending moment will occur at Design Point A, which corresponds to highpositive angle of attack, for the full-fuel configuration. The following table presents the maximum shear stress and moments that the wing will experience at 0% span (wing root), 27% span, 60% span and 75% span. Wing structural analysis will be performed at these four cross-sections at the design points where the wing experiences maximum shear stresses and moments.
Vz (lbf) Vx (lbf) MT (lbf-ft) Mx (lbf-ft) Mz (lbf-ft) 0% span 871.1 -223.4 441.7 5655 46.9 27% span 670 -148.3 314.2 2990 29.7 60% span 332.5 -61.5 156.8 760 10.1 75% span 179.6 -28.6 93.7 250.3 3.81 Design Point D (Fuelled) A (Fuelled) E (Empty) D (Fuelled) A (Fuelled)

59

21. Wing Structure
During flight, the aerodynamic loads from drag and lift will place the wing structure in bending as well as torsion. For the stability and safety of the aircraft, it is crucial that any loading up to the limit loads of the aircraft not cause permanent deformation of the wing. The wing cross section will be examined and defined in four locations: at 75% of the span (a required location), at 60% of the span (the fuel tank is present from 0% of the span up to 60%), at 27% of the span (note that the cross section at 25% of the span is required to be examined, however 27% represents the edge of boom, and clearly it makes more sense to define the structural cross section at this point rather than at 25%), and lastly at 0% of the span. For this analysis, the cross section will be assumed constant between analyzed locations. Thus, the cross section at 75% will be the constant cross section between 75% and 100%, the cross section at 60% will be the constant cross section between 60% and 75%, and so on. Note that this is conservative since the stress the cross section needs to carry increases from the tip chord to the root chord. The right hand coordinate system being used in this analysis is defined as follows: +y outboard of the left side of the aircraft, +x forward to the nose of the aircraft, and +z is vertical (up). 21.1 Wing Cross Section The overall layout of a cross section of the wing at an arbitrary wing station is shown Figure 21.1. There are two spars (numbered 5 and 6) and four flanges acting as spar supports (numbered 1, 2, 3, and 4). Note that angle spars are being used since they are relatively easy to machine to variable area cross sections that retain their overall shape compared to ‘hat’ and ‘zee’ stringers. Since the Big Brother 4000XL is a relatively small aircraft, 0.032” thick 2024-T3 clad aluminum will be used for the skin in the analysis of the aircraft. This thickness of skin is assumed due to manufacturing and assembly concerns.

Figure 21.1: Cross section of the wing at an arbitrary wing station. Note the stringers and flanges are not drawn to scale with the airfoil shape.

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1 Effective Skin Width While the bending stresses of the wing in flight are primarily carried by the stringers and flanges of the wing.1. The twisting moment (MT. [14] 61 . Mz.3.2 417.35 -8.9 732. Bruhn in Chapter 19 of Reference 14.1: Critical loading at the spanwise stations being analyzed. Station 75% 60% 27% 0% Vz (lbf) 164. Note that the bending loads and shear loads (Mx. The analysis in this section follows what is outlined by E. and an effective width of skin in compression will also carry some of the bending load. Also note that the skin in the vicinity of the rivet rows attaching the stringers and flanges to the skin of the aircraft will carry some of this bending stress within an effective width. Note that because of the low wing loading.3 Wing Bending Bending forces on the wing are created by the lift and drag forces across the span of the wing.) corresponds to Design Point E on the V-n Diagram of the aircraft at maximum weight. as is shown in Figure 21.7 670. Vz.2. 20.76 Mt (ft-lbf) 91.5 5.4 325.2 The stress distribution of stiffeners and sheet.9 Mx (ft-lbf) 213. 21.8 Mz (ft-lbf) -1.989.0 871. These items are shown in Figure 21.F.01 -6.1 Vx (lbf) 11. The majority of these stresses will be carried by the flanges that are reinforcing the wing and supporting the spars.59 42.0 2.99 Table 21.45 154.37 31.21. and the stress in the skin varies in between the stringers.70 18.0 304. The effective width is defined since the thin sheets that comprise skin tend to buckle at low loads.54 -3. Note that the stress on the sheet is variable.654. Figure 21. and Vz) correspond to Design Point D on the V-n Diagram of the aircraft at maximum weight. the full width of skin in tension can be considered to carry some of this load. the inclusion of stringers in the design of the aircrafts wing is not necessary.2 Loads The critical loads for each spanwise station under consideration are shown in Table 21.1.

as well as the stress in the stringer (σst).90 * t * E σ st (Eqn.3. and the entire width of the skin is assumed to carry load. however.1.032” thick sheet. 21. the material allowables are shown below in Figure 21. the material making up the skin of the aircraft is 2024-T3 clad aluminum sheet.2 Allowables As stated before.3.Instead of trying to account for this variable stress in the sheet. there is no effective width. 21. Note that the compression yield value for 0. Note that the width is defined per row of rivets attaching the stiffener to the skin.4. Note that the stress over the width is constant. This formula is shown in Eqn.3: The effective skin width. Graphically. the ultimate shear allowable is 37 ksi. 62 . is the critical value for design considerations in bending. [14] Note. the effective width is defined for ease of calculation by determining the width of skin around a stiffener over which the stress is constant.1) Figure 21. From Mil-Handbook 5-J. the modulus of elasticity of the skin (E). 2 * w = 1. The equation used for the effective width (w) in this report is dependent upon the skin thickness (t). For the shear flow calculations. Reference 23. that when the skin is in tension. 36 ksi. this is shown in Figure 21. 21.

As with the sheet.4: Mechanical properties of 2024-T3 Aluminum.5. [15] The material comprising the stiffeners is 2024-T351 clad aluminum extrusions. in this case 34 ksi. the material allowables are shown below in Figure 21. the critical allowable is the compression yield stress. Once again from Mil-Handbook 5-J.Figure 21. 63 .

S .3. military aircraft are not so strictly regulated. and is dependent on the applied stress as well as the allowable stress. which surpasses the 35% established in the above paragraph. = AllowableStress −1 AppliedStress (Eqn. and that a margin of safety of 1. Additionally note that if the margin of safety is in excess of +3.00. As this is an unmanned drone.50. 21.Figure 21. we believe that a margin of 1. refer to Appendix G.2.2. 21. Note that the minimum margin of safety in the wing section at 27% of the span is +HIGH. and there is leeway in determining the appropriate margin of safety levels for the aircraft. it will be noted as +HIGH.2) 64 . [15] 21.5: Mechanical properties of 2024-T3 Aluminum.35 is adequate. For a more complete explanation of the calculations that went into this table. The margin of safety equation is shown in Eqn. M .50 would be over designing the flight vehicle.3 Margin of Safety While passenger aircraft are required by FAR Part 23 and 25 to maintain design margins of safety of 1. A sample calculation of the steps to calculating the margin of safety for the wing elements in bending is shown below inTable 21.

All of the individual stringer areas as well as their corresponding margins of safety are presented in Appendix G.3551584 -1.583991636 8.88 24. The input forces of MT. Externally applied forces Vx and Vz create additional shear stresses if these forces are not applied at the shear center of the cross section of our wing.008 1 0.1 Shear Flow The shear center is the point in a cross section of a structure about which applied forces cause the structure to only bend.06288 0.36564 AZ'2 1.1 Yes 1641. it creates pure shearing stresses in the skin of the wing.5 Yes 2011.008 square inches starting at 27% of the span and extending to the tip of the wing.1756736 inches Z' 3.1756736 0.20872 AX'2 6.078005 -5.248506 0.06288 2.441251 10.053623041 90.7700815 5.3551584 -2.879825 3. 21.03 -353.88 AX' 0. 21.081353 AZ' 0.20894 -0.07693335 -2.7209074 8.1756736 1 0.81785076 10. as well as the stress present in the spars of the aircraft. and 0. Clearly the margins are well above what is required.S. as well as the location and thicknesses of the spars and the aircraft skin.379 21.3 Yes -1875.7E-14 208. denoted Mt in the loads section above. Vz. and not twist.2: A sample margin of safety results made at 27% of the span.475980256 -9. When the twisting moment MT is applied about this point.335 17.80811352 -9.4.30314949 Table 21.7005231 -1. For a more thorough explanation. this code takes the location and cross sectional areas of the stringers and sparcaps. Minimum M.120063 0. written by Nagaraj Banavara.153584285 0.632803974 X=X'-Xbar Z=Z'-Zbar 2.305896156 8.12787249 0.40954 0.56 288. as well as in the forward and aft spars.41476 -0. 75% Span +HIGH 60% Span +HIGH 27% Span +HIGH 0% Span +HIGH Table 21. refer to Appendix G.4 Yes -5. and Vx are used to compute the shear stress present in each section of the skin. however the stringer areas have not been further reduced so as to not make machining impractical.4 Wing Torsion Aerodynamic forces on the wing create a torsional moment on the wing.Wing Station: Flange No 1 2 3 4 Totals Flange No 1 2 3 4 Totals Strng A 27% Chord: 34.29 -288.014 17.3 6.3 24.1756736 1 0. Pass? -2766.2027404 2.311658 1. In Table 21.731872 4.51577296 0. 65 . Only the skin is assumed to carry this shear flow.761024 X' 6. however stringer areas have not been reduced out of manufacturing concerns [16].032 square inches from 0% of the span to 27% of the span.S.7 11. Note that these margins vastly exceed what is required.189365 -2.3: Minimum margins of safety at each span of the wing. As input.32 353.316579711 AX'Z' 2. We calculated the shear flow in each section of the wing making use of the Matlab code provided.67897138 103.268609 1.3 the minimum margin of safety present at each spanwise station is noted.24972 3.08903 Sigmab P=sigb*A M.008 1 0.932 Rivet Rows Total Area 0. This twisting action causes a shear flow in the skin covering the wing. Note that all stringer areas are 0.

032” until the tip of the wing.766 9. The forward spar thickness is 0.It is important to note that the trailing edge section of the wing is assumed to provide no structural support in the calculation of the stresses in the rest of the wing. Note that the stringers and spars for the wing were designed around the critical Tresca stresses. 66 . and 0% are shown in Appendix G.68 -818.6. the structure needs to be checked to ensure that the combination principle stresses do not exceed the yield stress of the material.S.5. the rear spar thickness is 0. 21.073 25.5 Tresca Yield Criterion While the various sections of the wing have passed the set margin of safety of 1. 21. 21.4: Shear flow information for the wing at the 27% station. The resulting shear flows. +0.62 Applied Shear (psi) 18.4 for the wing station at 27%.032 0.36 1.4. A plane stress representation of Mohr’s Circle is shown in Figure 21.000 M.050 0.95 +0. To stay within the required margins of safety.2 Shear Stresses As in the wing bending section.44 Table 21.000 37.032 0. and the relationships that can be derived from it follow.97 +2. and 75%.1 Principle Stresses The principles stresses can be easily found by using Mohr’s Circle after using the plane stress assumption.303.050” from 0% of the span to 60% of the span.35 without experiencing yielding in both bending and shear flow.41 +0. the shear flow in the wing is evaluated at four spanwise stations of the wing at 0%. 60%.000 37. This can be checked through use of the Tresca Yield Criterion. 60%.000 37.032” along the entire span.54 -299. 27%.032 Shear Flow (lbf/in) -600. and 0. Section Leading Edge Front Spar Rear Spar Wing Skin (greatest) Thickness (inches) 0. as is shown by the low margins of safety for the Tresca stresses given in the next section. A sample table of results is presented in Table 21. and margins of safety for the wing stations at 75%. spar thicknesses.581 Allowable Shear (psi) 37.355 26.

21. Whichever value has the greater magnitude will be used to calculate the normal stresses and the Tresca stress.3) σ n max = τ max + σz 2 (Eqn.Figure 21. 67 .5.2 Tresca Stresses and Margin of Safety From the bending and shear analysis sections. Note that both the maximum tension stresses as well as the maximum compressive stresses are shown. as is shown in Figure 21. 21. The margin of safety for the Tresca stress is then calculated with the 2024 T3 aluminum shear allowable of 37 ksi. this value in Table 21. the maximum stresses in each spanwise section are given in Table 21.4.5. 21.2).35.4) σ n min = σz 2 − τ max (Eqn. Note that the diagram shown assumes a plane stress situation. 21. 21.5 must be greater than 0. Note that τmax (the Tresca stress) is equal to half the difference between the maximum stress and the minimum stress. and has been adapted from [14].6: Mohr’s Circle is a graphical representation for finding the principal stresses given the normal stresses acting on a body.5) These three equations give what the principal stresses on the body are given the applied stresses. Recall that by using the margin of safety equation given in (Eqn. τ max = ⎜ ⎛σ z ⎞ 2 ⎟ + τ zx ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 (Eqn.

727 -27.838 +0.948 21.471 3. 68 .Spanwise Station Max Shear (psi) Max Tension (psi) Max Compressive (psi) Sigma_n max (psi) Sigma_n min (psi) Tresca Stress (psi) Minimum Margin of Safety 0% 9.341 9.144 -27.493 26.727 -21.343 -8.76 27% 26.159 +0.842 +2.36 Table 21.836 588 -221 21. however the Tresca stresses did prove to be the primary design driver as is evidenced by the low margins of safety in the table above.174 27.110 +0.69 75% 27.002 -5.352 11.42 60% 21.159 29 -29 27.5: Calculation of principal stresses and Tresca stress The above margins of safety clearly indicate that the Tresca stress does not exceed the allowable stress at any spanwise station.073 2.766 24.011 -2.

making it very mobile and operationally-ready for Intelligence.2 General Atomics GNAT-750 The GNAT-750. The UAV we are designing is primarily for long-duration border patrol and surveillance and is further constrained by the requirements stated on page iii. In addition.1 General Atomics RQ-1 Predator The Predator UAV. unswept. A. the configuration of each Predator UAV aircraft is such that it can be disassembled into six main components and loaded into a container. With a maximum takeoff weight of 1131 lbs. simply reducing the fuel load to meet our 21 hour endurance requirement easily brings the maximum gross take-off weight down to 875 lbs and to within our weight class. the GNAT is slightly outside of our required weight class. it has a range of 454 miles. Target Acquisition.Appendix A: Aircraft Design Comparisons Unmanned aerial vehicles are being widely used for a variety of missions. is a medium-altitude. Surveillance. makes for an excellent example of UAV design. cruise speed of 70-90 kts. A. and Reconnaissance (ISTAR) missions.1. of which only the cruise speed meets our requirement. Based on the information provided.000 ft [17]. which exceeds our maximum WTO of 1000 lbs. A-1 . as the wing is tapered. four existing UAVs that are similar to our design requirements are briefly described in this section to provide a preliminary idea of our UAV design. The design is characterized by its ability to minimize drag. which satisfy our mission requirements. illustrated in Figure A. This aircraft is illustrated in Figure A. and dash speed of 120 kts [18]. since the GNAT was designed for a loiter endurance of over 30 hours (requiring 426 lbs of fuel) [19]. However. an endurance of up to 40 hrs and a ceiling height of 27. Its WTO is 2300 lbs. It has a stall speed of 54 kts. long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle that operates on a 914 Rotax pusher propeller engine that provides up to 100 hp.2.1: The Predator UAV in flight. from reconnaissance and surveillance since 1950s to their recent more advanced combat and artillery co-ordination roles. and has a high aspect ratio. Figure A. having served as the first long endurance unmanned reconnaissance aerial vehicle and as the predecessor of the modern Predator and Prowler II. Capable of carrying 450 lbs of payload and holding up to 650 lbs of fuel.

is a medium altitude and endurance UAV system designed to fulfill electronic and optical surveillance roles. it is slightly shy of completely fulfilling our required specifications.3 Galileo Avionica Falco The Falco.700 ft [20]. with its inverted V-tail rather than a vertical fin and horizontal tail. A-2 . The primary element emphasized in the design appears to be the minimization of drag. unswept. the GNAT appears almost identical to its offspring.3: Galileo Avionica Falco in flight. The aircraft is powered by a 65 hp engine. giving it a maximum speed of 115 kts and an altitude ceiling of 19. illustrated in Figure A. From a design aspect. which benefits wing efficiency by removing prop wash over the wing which would have been introduced in a tractor configuration. In addition. as the wing is tapered.2: General Atomics GNAT-750 during flight. the Falco meets both of the weight requirements for our aircraft design.3. and has a high aspect ratio. Figure A. In addition. It also meets our endurance requirements. The twin boom configuration also allows the relatively heavy engine to be located near the center of gravity of the aircraft. the Predator. A. Its primary propulsion system is a single Rotax 582 pusher propeller located at the aft-end of the aircraft. The wings are mounted high on the fuselage. with a maximum endurance of 14 hrs. the fuselage is straight and streamlined. having a stall speed of 59 kts and a max speed of 115 kts. allowing optional external payloads of up to 55 lbs each to be attached to the external hard point located under each wing. Weighing in at 926 lbs maximum at takeoff with a maximum payload weight of 154 lbs. The twin boom design accommodates the pusher prop configuration. Increasing the power of the engine would be necessary for this airframe to achieve our speed and ceiling requirements. However. drag as well as weight is reduced.Figure A. The most distinct design features of the Falco are its slightly bent gull wings and its twin tail booms.

Searcher Mk II has a gross takeoff weight of 820 lbs. it is capable of faster speed and higher flight ceiling.4: IAI-MALAT Searcher Mk II in flight.500 ft [21]. pictured in Figure A.and night-time observation. Its weight category is consistent with our design specifications. with maximum payload capability of 139 lbs. By switching to a more powerful engine. combined TV and forward looking infrared (FLIR) for both day.4. target-acquisition & artillery adjustment.A. It is powered by a rear-mounted 35hp Sachs piston engine.4 IAI-MALAT Searcher Mk II Searcher Mk II. It has a design ceiling of 18. Its payload consists of MultiMission Optronic Stabilized Payload (MOSP). it can stay in air for up to 14 hours. A-3 . and synthetic aperture radar. It is also equipped with a GPS system for real-time manual mission control. It has some variants being exported to the Indian Air Force and Singapore Air Force. Searcher Mk II is designed with a slightly swept-back wing and a twin-boom tail configuration. capable of flying a maximum speed of 110 kts and cruise at 55 kts. reconnaissance. is a multi-role UAV system used in the Israeli Air Force. Figure A. With a fuel capacity of 220 pounds. Its missions include surveillance.

Appendix B: Aircraft Configuration History Third Iteration Aircraft Design Drawings Aircraft Design as of 11/17—End of Engine Selection and Tail Sizing 1:67 Scale 1:125 Scale 15 ft 2.5 ft 2.09 ft from nose B-1 . ft 32 ft CG = 6.

87 ft from nose B-2 .7 ft CG = 5.Second Iteration Aircraft Design Drawings Aircraft Design as of 10/3—End of Initial Aerodynamic Design Iteration 1:67 Scale 1:125 Scale 15 ft 3 ft 37.

PROP_W.vstall.ADDPAY_X.a0.TAIL_X. a(n.Flaps Deployed \n2.1) = alfamin.WING_X.J).SAR_X. J=0.b.DATA_X). pitching moment.EOI_W. OutboardFlapLoc = InboardFlapLoc + bflap/2. This code was used to assist in calculations of the aircraft center of gravity.aa. CLwmaxFlap = CLFlapt(J). [Moment Mass cg_tot AC xw]=CG(WING_W.EOI_X.FGEAR_W. inc = 1.TAIL_W.RGEAR_X.m % Mainm.Flaps Retracted \n3.WING_X.CONTROL_X. while dcl>0 J=J+1.mthickwing).mo. for i = 1:1:101 if abs(y(i))< OutboardFlapLoc & abs(y(i))> InboardFlapLoc aa(i) = aa(i) .y.FUEL_W.c. clmax. % Angle of Attack range n = 1. cr. cl plot?(y/n) '. Mainm. end end [CLFlapt CDiFlapt clflap] = LiftLineP(awr. FUS_W.FGEAR_X. end awStallFlap = awr(1.ct.AR. end % Create range of alfas from -10 to 20 degrees for CLmaxac calculation awr=linspace(-10.POWER_X.aa. Df. [WING_W] = wingweight(AR. drag.CONTROL_W. bflap.RGEAR_W. % CG.FUEL_X. the code will calculate the cruise/dash conditions. mo. % Load Everythingv1. if qflaps == '1' Df = input('Flap Deflection Angle (deg) : '). and flap effects.TWIN_W.m Last changes made 10/02/2006 UAV Team 2 (UAVarsity) % This is the main file which executes other functions This file assumes % that the user created the necessary input parameters.taper. dcl=min(clMaxF-clflap(:.PR OP_X.Sw.J)).4m to load all necessary parameters needed.cwBar.'s').Dash \n(Select number) : '.m calculates the CG location as well as xw (Distance between CG and % AC) [mo.500).SAR_W.Cruise \n4.POWER_W. qflaps = input('1.Appendix C: MATLAB Codes Used in Calculations In order to calculate the performance parameters of our UAV. taper. cmac.agt.ADDPAY_W.DATA_W. lift.btail. a MATLAB code was implemented. % The code is designed such that it will calculate takeoff condition with % stall velocity and sea level density if the flap deflection angle (Df) is % greater than 0.'s').deltaAlphaLo. C-1 .InboardFlapLoc).ctail).20. W_TO = Mass. Sw. The code is presented as follows. if qflaps == '1' [deltaAlphaLo clMaxF cmacF deltaCDflap SF] = flapFX(cfc.y.St] = InputParameters(moairfoil. Else.c).Sw. runpermission = input('Do you want to generate max. b.FUS_X. x = TAIL_X .TWIN_X. dcl=1.cr.

'k:'). if qflaps == '1' v = vstall.Pro pDiameter. clmaxp=clmax*ones(101. [Cdtotal] = total_drag_coefficient (Cdo.y.St.FusLength.cwBar.aa.deltaCDflap. ylabel('C_L'). % Not the best design of code./(x-xw)).TAIL_X. Sw.'k-'.propbladearea.y. CLtail(n.'k:').cwBar. c). C-2 .1) = CLt. xlabel('y (ft)').*(x. clmax.Sw.clr(:.AirbrakeFrontalArea).title('(C_L_m_a_x)_w Profile'). else [CLr.clmax.clflap(:. end awStall=awr(1.aoa).xcmtail. for alfa = alfamin:inc:alfamax aoa = alfa.cwBar. [CLFlap CDi] = LiftLineP(aoa.J)).BoomDiameter.1).ctail). Df.1).y.J).*(cwBar. it will calculate the takeoff % condition.1) + inc.mo.sweeptail.FusLengt h.1). b. xlabel('y (ft)'). end Cmact(n. end CLmaxac=CLwmaxFlap. cl plot?(y/n) '.FusDiameter. Otherwise. when Df is greater than 0. clbr. CLwmax=CLr(J).clMaxF.ctail. [deltaAlphaLo clMaxF cmacF deltaCDflap] = flapFX(cfc./(x-xw)) + Cmact(n. clr. AR1r. Drag at % various angles of attack.xcmwing.y. Cmact(n.xw.rho. cmac.Sw. end CLmaxac=CLwmax. Again.BoomLength. taper. cdir. CLac = CLFlap. dcl=2. the code will % calculate the cruise condition. mo. mr.J).sweepwing. mo.*(x. runpermission = input('Do you want to generate max.Cdtrim).btail. CLFlapv(n. J=0. clar] = LiftLineP(awr.1) = a(n-1./(x-xw)).1) + cmacF. if runpermission == 'y' figure plot(y. end % This is the main for-loop which calculates the CL.v.InboardFlapLoc). aa.'k-'./(x-xw)) + cmac. CD.btail.mthicktail.CDi. rho = rhosl.*(cwBar.1) = Cmac_t(cmac.1) = CLFlap./(x-xw)) + cmac.if runpermission == 'y' figure plot(y.'s'). ylabel('C_L'). [Cdo a1 a2 a3 a4] = parasite_drag_coefficient(qflaps.c).Sw.clmax.*(cwBar.1) = Cmact(n.mthickwing. [Cdtrim CLt] = trimmed_drag_coefficient (CLFlap. Lift./(x-xw)). Code will be revised in the future to omit % unnecessary calculations that are made inside the for-loop.WING_X.Cmact(n.J). AZLr. bflap. if n > 1 a(n.FusDiameter. dcl=min(clmaxp-clr(:.upsweepangle.*(x. CDir.title('(C_L_m_a_x)_w Profile'). cr. while dcl>0 J=J+1.

WING_X.1) = CL.9*W_TO/2.*(x.v. CDoutput(n. CLoutput(n. if qflaps == '2' rho = rhosl.1). [Cdtotal] = total_drag_coefficient (Cdo.Sw.1) = Cdtotal.349.AR.CDi.CLoutput(n. v = vstall.FusLength.5*rho*v^2*CDoutput(n.mthickwing.312.deltaCDflap. end [Cdtrim CLt] = trimmed_drag_coefficient (CL.sweeptail. RearWheelDia = ADia*(RearWheelW^BDia).ctail).1) = 0.rho.cdi. CLac = CL.1)*Sw. Drag(n. else [CL.2) = CLoutput.cl. X = inv(A'*A)*A'*CDoutput.btail. CDoutput(n.clb. Lift(n.51. CLv(n.m.BoomLength.1) = CLt.1).Sw. Lift(n.1)*Sw.AZL. end if qflaps == '4' rho = rhodash. deltaCDflap = 0.Lift) C-3 .upsweepangle.St.5*rho*v^2*CDoutput(n.xcmtail. RearWheelW = 0.cwBar.xcmwing. BDia = 0.cwBar.*(cwBar./(x-xw)).1)*Sw.propbladearea.1) = CLac.xw. RearWheelWid = AWid*(RearWheelW^BWid).Cmact(n.c).1) = 0.1) = 0. CLtail(n. end if qflaps == '3' rho = rhocr.sweepwing.5*rho*v^2*CLoutput(n. K = X(2. v = vcruise. Drag(n. AWid = 0.aa.1)*Sw. end % Calculate K A = ones(size(CLoutput).y.mo. BoomDiameter.1) = 0. FrontWheelDia = ADia*(FrontWheelW^BDia).1).1) = CLac.715.FusDiameter./(x-xw)) + Cmact(n.2). A(:.clmax.^2.btail. end n = n + 1.cla]=LiftLineP(aoa.AirbrakeFrontal Area).TAIL_X. [Cdo a1 a2 a3 a4] = parasite_drag_coefficient (qflaps.Cdtrim). BWid = 0.ctail.5*rho*v^2*CLoutput(n.PropDiameter.1) = Cdtotal.mthicktail. % Plots if qflaps == '1' figure plot(a. ADia = 1.CDi. v = vdash. FrontWheelWid = AWid*(FrontWheelW^BWid). % Landing Gear Sizing FrontWheelW = 0.1*W_TO.

aat = -a0. y = -b*cos(theta)/2.5*Sw*(1.agt. wingweight.vstall.cr.Mass) xlabel('Angle of Attack (Deg)').hold on plot(awStallFlap.Lift) hold on plot(awStall.TWIN_X.x.RGEAR_X.TWIN_W.ADDPAY_X.1).Lift) hold on plot(a.PROP_W.ADDPAY_W. c = 2*b*(1-(1-taper)*2*abs(y)/b)/AR/(1+taper). With Flaps)') end if qflaps == '2' figure plot(a.EOI_X.CONTROL_X.FUS_X.FGEAR_W. taper = ct/cr.mthickwing) B = (750*3.EOI_W.69.Sw.y.m function [Moment Mass cg_tot AC xw]=CG(WING_W.title('Lift against Angle of Attack (Takeoff. ylabel('Lift (lbf)').m % This function calls the input paramters from the global space.m function [mo.POWER_W.b.CONTROL_W. aa = agt*2*abs(y)/b + aat.FUEL_W.DATA_W.WING_X. ylabel('Lift (lbf)'). With Flaps)') end InputParameters.btail.POWER_X.ctail) M = 100. theta = [0:pi/M:pi]'.FGEAR_X.cwBar.9*AR-4))/(1+0. cwBar = (cr+ct)/2.SAR_W.PR OP_X.c.m % This function calls the input paramters from the global space.TAIL_X.m function [WING_W] = wingweight(AR.FUEL_X. % It assumes that the paramters are generated using InputCG. mo = moairfoil*ones(101. WING_W = 69*(B*10^-6)^0.DATA_X) Moment=WING_W*WING_X+TAIL_W*TAIL_X+POWER_W*POWER_X+FGEAR_W*FGEAR_X+RGEAR_W*RGEAR_X+FUEL_W*FUEL_X+ FUS_W*FUS_X+CONTROL_W*CONTROL_X+TWIN_W*TWIN_X+SAR_X*SAR_W+EOI_X*EOI_W+ADDPAY_W*ADDPAY_X+PROP_W*PR OP_X+DATA_X*DATA_W.St] = InputParameters(moairfoil.a0. AR = b^2/Sw.Mass) xlabel('Angle of Attack (Deg)'). CG. Sw = b*cr*(1+taper)/2.ct. % It assumes that the parameters loaded from Everythingv1.SAR_X.title('Lift against Angle of Attack (Takeoff.aa.taper.Lift) hold on plot(a.AR.TAIL_W.11*100*mthickwing). St = btail*ctail. C-4 .Sw. FUS_W.RGEAR_W.

'TAIL_X'.'TAIL_X'.'CONTROL_X'. flapFX.'%f').'SAR_W'. TWIN_X=sscanf(char(answer(18)).'%f'). prompt={'filename desired for . TAIL_X=sscanf(char(answer(4)).'FUS_X'.'FGEAR_W'.'ADDPAY_W'.'SAR_X '.'WING_X'.mat file'}. TAIL_W=sscanf(char(answer(3)).'%f').'CONTROL_W'.Mass=WING_W+TAIL_W+POWER_W+FGEAR_W+RGEAR_W+FUEL_W+FUS_W+CONTROL_W+TWIN_W+SAR_W+EOI_W+ADDPAY_W+PRO P_W+DATA_W. 'SAR_X'.'POWER_W'. WING_X=sscanf(char(answer(2)).'%f').m % When launched.'%f'). it will prompt users to input the necessary parameters to run Main.'%f').'RG EAR_X'. Sw.InboardFlapLoc) %This function calculates the change in sectional properties of a wing with %a flap. Input parameters consists of airfoil properties as well as flap % chord. FUS_X=sscanf(char(answer(14)). ADDPAY_X=sscanf(char(answer(24)). answer=inputdlg(prompt.'%f'). FUEL_X=sscanf(char(answer(12)).'CONTROL_W'.'POWER_X'.'FUEL_X'.'%f'). title='Aircraft Properties'.'WING_X'.m % Save the input parameters as filename. Df. clmax.'WING_W'.'TWIN_W'.'%f'). WING_W=sscanf(char(answer(1)).'%f'). FUS_W=sscanf(char(answer(13)). FGEAR_W=sscanf(char(answer(7)).'FGEAR_X'.'FUEL_W'. RGEAR_X=sscanf(char(answer(10)).'FUS_W'.'%f'). CONTROL_W=sscanf(char(answer(15)).'Additional Payload'.'EOI_W'.'RGEAR_ W'. POWER_W=sscanf(char(answer(5)). mo. but equations for split and %slotted flaps are included if the type of flap is to be modified.'FGEAR_X'.'FUS_W'.'%f').'TAIL_W'. POWER_X=sscanf(char(answer(6)).'%f'). taper. InputCG.'%f').'%f'). AC=WING_X.mat file such that it is easy to % load the parameters in the future. FGEAR_X=sscanf(char(answer(8)).'TWIN_X'.'TAIL_W'.'%f'). cg_tot=Moment/Mass.'EOI_X'.'TWIN_W'. bflap.'%f').'%f'). A plain flap is assumed. span and wing surface area.'EO/I_X'. SAR_W=sscanf(char(answer(19)). ADDPAY_W=sscanf(char(answer(23)). EOI_W=sscanf(char(answer(21)).'EO/I_W'.'%f'). FUEL_W=sscanf(char(answer(11)).'FUEL_W'.'RGEAR_W'.'FUEL_X'.'RGEAR_X'.'%f'). function [deltaAlphaLo clMaxF cmacF deltaCDflap SF] = flapFX(cfc.'FUS_X'. TWIN_W=sscanf(char(answer(17)).'%f').'SAR_W'. filename=char(inputdlg(prompt.'%f'). given the input parameters of flap geometry and sectional %characteristics.'Additional Payload_X'}.title)). xw = cg_tot-AC. CONTROL_X=sscanf(char(answer(16)). cmac.'POWER_X'. title='File name'. prompt={'WING_W'. C-5 . SAR_X=sscanf(char(answer(20)).'TWIN_X'. save(filename.'ADDPAY_X').'FGEAR_W'. cr.m % This function calculates the changes in wing properties when flaps are % deployed. EOI_X=sscanf(char(answer(22)).'%f'). b. RGEAR_W=sscanf(char(answer(9)).'%f').'POWER_W'.title).'CONTROL_X'.

%Slotted clMaxF = clmax + deltaClMaxOdeltaCl*deltacl.8472E-05*Df^3 + 6.. eta = 7.775E+00*cfc + 9..665*cfc^3-9.. %Plain or Split %deltaClMaxOdeltaCl = 137. 'must be column vectors of the same length']) end.059E-14.MAA]=size(aa).[NAA.cl.4.560E-03*Df^2 + 5.2)~=1 error(['LiftLine input error: Section input arrays '.cdi.1246*cfc^2+0.MMO]=size(mo). c0 = cfc*cr*(1+2*InboardFlapLoc*(taper-1)/b). %Zero-Lift Angle of Attack %(Plain assumed) tau = 4.m.9924.7*cfc^1. Slotted assumed) deltaCmOdeltaCl = -0. %Split %eta = 1..clb. SF = bflap*(c0+cn)/2.8071E-01. ' of input arguments']) end.8256*cfc^2+..581E-06*Df^4 + 1.M]=size(aw). Split. [MAW.817*cfc^4+20. C-6 ..mo. [ny. %Slotted %Plain or Split LiftLineP. cn = cfc*cr*(1+2*(InboardFlapLoc + bflap/2)*(taper-1)/b).. [NMO.AZL. end. %Slotted deltaAlphaLo = -tau*eta*Df.4583E-07*Df^4 ..31*cfc^4 + 26.CDi.. %Plain. 'must contain at least 5 elements and the length'. %Section Pitching Moment Coefficient %(Plain.2078*cfc + 1.5611*cfc^5-17.277E-04*Df^3 . % Require a minimum of 5 sections including the % wing tip sections and the midspan section.375E+00*cfc^3 .4242*cfc+. %deltaCD = 0. % No slotted flaps moF = max(mo).1. %Plain %eta = 2. if MAW~=1 error(['LeftLine input error: aw must be a row vector']). Split.113*cfc^2 .1. if MY~=1|1~=MMO|1~=MC|1~=MAA|ny~=NMO|ny~=NC|ny~=NAA error(['LiftLine input error: Section input arrays '.MY]=size(y). cmacF = deltaCmOdeltaCl*deltacl. if ny<5|mod(ny. deltaClMaxOdeltaCl = 5. or Slotted %Drag due to Flaps %(Plain or Split assumed) deltaCDflap = 1.6.c) %LiftLine determines the performance of a wing using Glauert's solution % method of the lifting-line-theory wing equation.3849*cfc-0.1.1.292E-09*Df^5 .1.aa.759E-02*Df + 5.7778E-07*Df^3 . %Version: 2.0 %Code: Luis P Bernal %Date: 9/18/05 if nargin~=5 % Check number of input arguments error(['LiftLine input error: Incorrect number'.deltac = 0.1897E-02*Df + 8.9*cfc^1.003.3958E-04*Df^2 .. %Section Maximum Lift Coefficient %(Plain or Split assumed) deltacl = moF*tau*eta*Df.6409E-03*Df + 5.[NC..500E+00*cfc^2 + 3.2576.7714E-01..679E01.12*cfc^5 .cla]=LiftLineP(aw.38*(SF/Sw)*(sin(Df*pi/180))^2.m function [CL.886*cfc^3 .MC]=size(c).38*(SF/Sw)*(sin(Df))^2.3.4881E-05*Df^2 ..AR.y.128.

n) = n^2*P*(-1)^(n-1).Ao=theta. if y(1:ns)~=-y(ny:-1:ns)|abs(y(ns))>0.B=snt. if c(1:ns)~=c(ny:-1:ns) error(['LiftLine input error: The c values must '.daa=0. % Verify that the wing planform is symmetric and % includes the symmetry plane ns=fix(ny/2)+1. if theta(j)==0 B(j.1. elseif theta(j)==pi B(j. aw=aw*pi/180..b=2*b2.AR=b^2/S..A=aat.*(aat-cl.c(ny)=c(1).*c.0001*c(ns).1.cl=zeros(ny. 'be symmetric about the center plane and'. B(j.M). clb=theta./repmat(mo.b2=abs(y(1)).n) = snt(j.1.snt=zeros(ny. end.cla=theta.aa1=aa+0./repmat(c.mcs=mc(ns). end. for j = 1:ny for n = 1:ny snt(j.BI=snt.1)+repmat(aa..A2=theta. end.1. % Find CL CDi=(P^2*pi*AR)*(diag((repmat([1:ny]'. ' include the symmetry plane']) end..P=mcs/4/b.M)..CDi=CL. %Find CDi % Find section lift coefficient and induced drag % coefficient distributions cl=mcs*(snt*A).1.st=theta.ny.0001*c(ns) c(1)=0.:).cdi=cl.. % Initialize arrays theta=zeros(ny..cdi=cl.M)).M). % Evaluate the coefficient matrix.st=sin(theta).1.n)=sin(theta(j)*n).. if aa(1:ns)~=aa(ny:-1:ns) error(['LiftLine input error: The at values must '.n)*(mcs/mc(j)+P*n/st(j)).' must be an odd numebr']) end. % If chord at wing tips zero make it finite if c(1) < 0.A2=B\aa1.. mc=mo. end.mo=mo*180/pi.n) = n^2*P.c)). S=abs(trapz(y. CL=zeros(1.ny). % Compute the lift and induced drag coefficients % for different wing angles of attack aat=repmat(aw. else C-7 . else.M). aat=zeros(ny.1).AA=theta. % Find the An coefficients for the % 'Basic' and 'Additional' lift coefficient distributions if M==1 Ao=A.00001 error(['LiftLine input error: The y locations must '. 'be symmetric about the center plane']) end. %Evaluate constants including the wing Aspect Ratio.M)..aa=aa*pi/180.*A)'*A))'. B theta=acos(y/b2). % Construct the absolute angle of attack % array including all cases A=B\aat. 'be symmetric about the center plane']) end.. %Compute the An coefficients % Find wing lift and induced drag coefficient CL=P*pi*AR*A(1..M).

%Tail volume coefficient. AZL and circulation distributions m=P*pi*AR*AA(1).btail.m=m*pi/180.cwBar./(pi*et*ARt)*(St/Sw).TAIL_X. Cmac change due to the flaps are implemented in the flap section. end.daa=aw(2)-aw(1). AA=(A2-Ao)/daa.WING_X. should have value around .^2.v.045.A2=A(:.btail.m % This function calculates the trimmed drag coefficient.cwBar.xcmwing.mthickwing. Tail./c.FusDiameter.sweepwing. AZL=AZL*180/pi. Boom properties as well as density and velocity % values are necessary to calculate this coefficient.FusDiameter.WING_X.m % % % % % This function calculates the Cmact Cmac of the wing is Cmac of the airfoil section as our wing is unswept and has no taper.Ao=A(:. BoomDiameter. %Wing (the wing is represented as 1) WingRe = Re(rho.9 for turboprops vht=(x*St)/(cwBar*Sw).1).sweeptail.xcmtail.v.aoa) KF = 0.62e-7. %Oswald efficiency factor for the tail et=1. trimmed drag coefficient Cdtrim=CLt.Sw.propbladearea.64. Cmac of fuselage is calculated using the formula described above.Ab=Ao+(AZL-aw(1))*AA.PropDiameter. Fuselage.437. ARt = btail^2/(St). cla=(snt*AA)*mcs/m.mthicktail.Cmact.clmax.ctail.cwBar./c. % Find m.clb=(snt*Ab)*mcs.cwBar. trimmed_drag_coefficient. function [Cdtrim CLt] = trimmed_drag_coefficient (CL.045*ARt^.ctail) x = TAIL_X .upsweepangle.mju). %OUTPUT. function [Cdo a1 a2 a3 a4] = parasite_drag_coefficient (qflaps. cmfus = KF*FusDiameter^2*(FusLength)*aoa/(cwBar*Sw).AZL=aw(1)-Ao(1)/AA(1).BoomLength.Sw. parasite_drag_coefficient. % convert to degrees Cmact_t.St. C-8 . function [Cmact] = Cmac_t(cmac. a = 1116.rho.2).78*(1-.Sw.xw.m % This function calculates the parasite drag coefficient % Wing.FusLength.FusLength. Cmact = cmac + cmfus. %Lift coefficient of the tail CLt =(CL*xw/cwBar+Cmact)*x/(x-xw)*1/vht.AirbrakeFrontal Area) mju = 3.68)-.

Dq7=(.6/(xcmwing)*(mthickwing)+100*(mthickwing)^4)*(1.18*cos(sweepwing*pi/180)^. drag contribution of components with large form drag (fuselage % upsweep. else Cfboom = 0.25). %Speed Brakes (the speed brakes are represented as 7) Mlanding = (1. if FusRe < 500000 Cffus = 1.419*(Mlanding-.^2). Q3=1.65).1*propbladearea*pi*PropDiameter^2/4 % Propellar is assumed to be running at all times Dq6 = 0.^2. end FF1=(1+.v. else Cffus = 0. % Calculating Cdmis.BoomLength.328/sqrt(WingRe).mju).328/sqrt(BoomRe).v. else Cdmis=(1/Sw)*(Dq5+Dq6+Dq7).65).58*(1+0. propellar and speed brakes) % Fuselage Upsweep (the fuselage upsweep is represented as 5) Dq5=3.15*v)/a. % Propellar. FF3=(1+60/f3^3+f3/400).455/((log10(TailRe))^2.mju).FusLength.65). feathered (the propellar is represented as 6) % Dq6=0.58*(1+0.139+. end f3=BoomLength/BoomDiameter. end %Calculating Cdo C-9 . if BoomRe < 500000 Cfboom = 1.144*(v/a).34*(v/a)^. %Fuselage (the fuselage is represented as 2) FusRe = Re(rho. if qflaps == '1' | qflaps == '2'| qflaps == 1 | qflaps == 2 Cdmis=(1/Sw)*(Dq5+Dq6+Dq7+0.28). if TailRe < 500000 Cftail = 1.144*(v/a)^2)^0.ctail.161)^2)*AirbrakeFrontalArea.28). Q2=1.6/(xcmtail)*(mthicktail)+100*(mthicktail)^4)*(1.18*cos(sweeptail*pi/180)^.v. %Tail (the tail is represented as 4) TailRe = Re(rho.83*upsweepangle*(pi/180)*pi*FusDiameter^2/4.mju).328/sqrt(TailRe). %Booms (the booms are represented as 3) BoomRe = Re(rho.455/((log10(BoomRe))^2.328/sqrt(FusRe). else Cftail = 0.^0.144*(v/a)^2)^0.144*(v/a)^2)^0. Q4=1. end f2=FusLength/FusDiameter.58*(1+0.65). end FF4=(1+.58*(1+0.08.34*(v/a)^. FF2=(1+60/f2^3+f2/400).if WingRe < 500000 Cfwing = 1.455/((log10(FusRe))^2. else Cfwing = 0. Q1 = 1.455/((log10(WingRe)).

Cdo1=1/Sw*((Cfwing*FF1*Q1*Sw*2)+(Cffus*FF2*Q2*44. % Inputs are rho(density).7)/Sw. T0 = 288.m % % % % % Input parameters : Cdo : Parasite Drag Coefficient deltaCDflap : Drag increased due to the flap CDi : Induced Drag Cdtrim : Trimmed Drag function [Cdtotal] = total_drag_coefficient(Cdo. v(velocity). p0 = 1. % mju(coefficient of viscosity) function a = Re(rho.Cdtrim) Cdtotal = Cdo + deltaCDflap + CDi + Cdtrim.5e-3. %Leakage Drag Cdlp=.mju) a = rho*v*l/mju. function [rho] = density(h) %Code taken from McClamroch's notes Chp 2 Pg 15 and verified with standard %atmosphere tables in Appendix A and also with online sources.01325e5.7)+(Cfboom*FF3*Q3*22*2)+(Cftail*FF4*Q4*ctail*bta il*2))+Cdmis.m % Reynolds Number function. %Variables %h: %rho: altitude (ft) air density (slugs/ft^3) %Prepared by Zhiwei Song %=======predefined constants=========== a0 = -6.31432. a2 = (Cffus*FF2*Q2*44. rho0 = 1.v. Cdo = Cdo1 + Cdlp. a1 = (Cfwing*FF1*Q1*Sw*2)/Sw. R0 = 8.225.80665.08*Cdo1. R = R0/mol*1e3. Density. g = 9.CDi.m %This function takes calculates the air density for a given altitude in %English units. %======================================= C-10 . a3 = (Cfboom*FF3*Q3*22*2)/Sw. l(characteristic length). Re.15. total_drag_coefficient. a4 = (Cftail*FF4*Q4*ctail*btail*2)/Sw.deltaCDflap. mol = 28.l.9644.

^2).*rho.5. %Calculating temperature at altitude h p = p0. h.*(T. and K. return %Converting density to slugs/ft^3 thrust_levelflight.*(W.^2))). %weight. % %Formulas taken from notes Aircraft Performance pg 6 %Input parameters can be row vectors if needed.*(T./rho). It also plots the actual available power of the engine %given the power of the engine(ideal) at sea level. parasitic drag coefficient. P_needed] = power_levelflight(V_initial./CD_o)./(rho./T0).m %This function calculates power required for steady level flight given %a range of true air speeds. parasitic drag coefficient. CL_minthrust] = thrust_levelflight(V.5)).*((K. W. CD_o./T0).*(V. %weight. wing area./S). %Variables: %Inputs: %V: %rho: %S: %CD_o: %W: %K: %Outputs: %T: %V_minthrust: %S_minthrust: %CL_minthrust: %Written by Zhiwei Song T = (0.^(-g/a0/R-1).5.*(V.^0./CD_o)^0.m function [T. %Calculating pressure at altitude h rho = rho0. and K.^0. CL_minthrust = (CD_o. S. K.*rho. W.*S.^2). P_engine. %Converting altitude in ft to km T = T0 + a0*h*1e3. function [V_max.^(-g/a0/R). S.h = h*0.5. CD_o. altitude. %Calculating density at altitude h in kg/m^3 rho = rho*0. air density.5).5. S_minthrust = (2*W. V_minthrust. rho. wing area.^2))./K).3048/1000./(0. D_prop.^0. K) %This function calculates thrust required for steady level flight given %true air speed.*CD_o) + ((K. return True air Speed (ft/s) Air Density (slugs/ft^3) Wing Area (ft^2) Parasitic Drag Coefficient Aircraft Weight (lbf) Aerodynamic parameter Thrust (lbf) Speed for minimum thrust (ft/s) Wing area for minimum thrust (ft^2) Lift coefficient at minimum thrust Power_levelflight. V_final. V_minthrust = ( (2.*((K.*S)). S_minthrust.*(W.*(V.00194032. plotvariable) % %Formulas taken from notes Propulsion System Design pg 14 %Variables: C-11 .

eta_i(i) = 2/(1+sqrt(1+CT(i))). A_prop = pi*(D_prop/2).P_engine_i(j)).001818182. C-12 . W. V (kts)').2) error(j) = abs(P_needed(j) .592483801.'Power Provided By Engine').1:V_final]*1. rho.*0. %Calculating the various parameters at each test airspeed for i = 1:size(V. title('Plot of Airspeed versus Power Needed and Power Output').2)) %Check that power needed exceeds %power available for j = 1:size(V. end Please redefine range of V').V. end %Calculating maximum attainable air speed if P_engine_i(size(V. K). S. end V = V. legend('Power Needed for Level Flight'. %Creating a row vector of test airspeeds %in ft/s rho = density(h). V_max = V_max.592483801.5*rho*(V(i)^2)*A_prop). P_engine_i(i) = P_engine*0. P_needed(i) = T(i)*V(i)/eta_i(i)*0.P_needed. end counter = find(error == min(error)). %Entry where minimum error occurs V_max = V(counter).*0.2) T(i) = thrust_levelflight(V(i).P_engine_i) xlabel('True Air Speed.85*eta_i(i)*rho/density(0). ylabel('Power (hp)'). CT(i) = T(i)/(0. else display('V_max does not fall within specified air speed range.68780986. if plotvariable == 1 plot(V. V_max = 'not found'.%Inputs: %V_initial & V_final: % %h: %P_engine: % %D_prop: %S: %CD_o: %W: %K: %plotvariable: % %Outputs: %P_needed: % %V_max: %Transients: %V: %rho: %A_prop: %T: %CT: %eta_i: %P_engine_i: % %Written by Zhiwei Song Provides the bounds of which to iterate V across (kts) Altitude (ft) Power of the uninstalled engine at sea level (hp) Diameter of propeller (ft) Wing Area (ft^2) Parasitic Drag Coefficient Aicraft Weight (lbf) Aerodynamic parameter Boolean Variable that determines whether function plots the power curves Power required for steady level flight (hp) Maximum airspeed (kts) A row vector containing airspeeds Air density (slugs/ft^3) Area of propeller (ft^2) Thrust (lbf) Coefficient of thrust Propeller efficiency coefficient Ideal power output of the engine in flight at altitude (hp) V = [V_initial:0.2)) < P_needed(size(V. CD_o.

'-k'.m %This function plots the flight envelope of the aircraft.0). h(i).return flight_envelope. Note that this is not the same as the stall speed that is determined by aerodynamic properties of the aircraft. D_prop.2) %Ensuring that sizes of the vectors match up error('Dimensions of altitude vector and CD_o vector do not match') end if size(h. function [V_max.2) == 1 %Creating a row vector of CD_o if only one value is given CD_o = CD_o*ones(size(h)). V_final. end if size(h.2) == 1 %Creating a row vector of K if only one value is given K = K*ones(size(h)). Stall airspeed calculated from aerodynamic parameters of the aircraft (kts) if size(CD_o.V_min.2)~=size(CD_o.'-k'. S. S. K(i).2)~=size(K.h.V_min(i)] = power_levelflight(V_initial. P_engine.V_stall] = flight_envelope(h. plot(V_max. V_final = 150.0:1:160. D_prop.CL_max).V_stall. K. CD_o(i). end if size(K.CL_max) %Variables: %Inputs: %h: % %P_engine: % %D_prop: %S: %CD_o: %W: %K: %Outputs: %V_max: % %V_min: % % % % %V_stall: % %Written by Zhiwei Song V_initial = 10.ceiling. W. %Plotting flight envelope ceiling = 27000.S. h. V_min.W. W.h. P_engine.2) [V_max(i).2) %Ensuring that sizes of the vectors match up error('Dimensions of altitude vector and K vector do not match') end %Finding the maximum and minimum airspeed attainable at each altitude test case for i=1:size(h. CD_o.'--') xlabel('True Airspeed V (knots)') ylabel('Altitude h (ft)') title('Flight Envelope') C-13 . h(i) end %Calculating stall boundary [V_stall] = stall_boundary(h. %Setting a range of V (kts) to iterate across A row vector of altitudes at which to determine V_max (ft) Power of the uninstalled engine at sea level (hp) Diameter of propeller (ft) Wing Area (ft^2) Parasitic Drag Coefficient Aicraft Weight (lbf) Aerodynamic parameter Maximum airspeed possible with available power (kts) Minimum airspeed possible with available power from engine (kts).

P_engine.*W.^0. function [total_fuel_consumed.*S)).2) rho(i) = density(h(i)). S.592483801.m %This function calculates the total fuel expended during a steady level %flight at a defined altitude and velocity for a defined duration. %Variables %Inputs %h: %W: %S: %CL_max: %Output %V_stall: A row vertor of test altitudes (ft) Weight of aircraft (lbf) Wing Area (ft^2) CL_max of the wing Stall velocity (kts) %Prepared by Zhiwei Song for i = 1:size(h.0036*(P_sealevel^2) + 0. End fuelflowrate. D_prop.9915)/3600. function [V_stall] = stall_boundary(h. K) C-14 .W_final] = fuel_levelflight(h. %Variables %Input %P_sealevel: %Output %fuel_rate: Output of engine at sea level Fuel mass flow rate (lbs/s) fuel_rate = (0. This data is required for the stall boundary of the flight %envelope.2406*P_sealevel + 2.m %This function calculates the stall boundary of the aircraft over a range %of altitudes.5)*0.m function [fuel_rate] = fuelflowrate(P_sealevel) %This function determines the fuel flow rate for the AR 801 engine for a given %throttle setting.W. W_initial. The equation was obtained from engine data obtained %from the engine manufacturer.Stall_boundary.S./(rho(i). Fuel_levelflight. %calculating density at the respective altitudes V_stall(i) = ((2. duration. CD_o. V.CL_max) %This function uses the equations for stall boundary from Aircraft %Performance notes pg 13. The %function updates the current weight of the aircraft for every predefined %step in time to account for the fuel burnt during the steady level flight %phase. It outputs both the total fuel consumed and the final weight of %aircraft at the end of the phase.*CL_max.

S. W_current = W_current . h. The function is iterative and %recalculates the maximum climb speed and aircraft weight at a predefined %altitude interval. if mod(duration. %subtracting expended fuel %weight from aircraft weight %at the end of each iteration end W_final = W_current.W_final.mod(duration. D_prop.%Variables %Inputs %h: %V: %duration: %P_engine: %D_prop: %S: %CD_o: %W_inital: %K: %Outputs %total_fuel_consumed: %W_final: %Transients %W_current: % %P_needed: %P_generated: % % %Written by Zhiwei Song Altitude of flight (ft) Speed of flight (knots) Duration of phase (seconds) Power generated by the engine at sea level (hp) Diameter of the propeller (ft) Wing Area (ft^2) Parasitic Drag Coefficient Starting weight of the aircraft (lbs) Aerodynamic parameter Total fuel consumed during the phase (lbs) Final weight of the aircraft (lbs) Weight of the aircraft during the current iteration (lbs) Power required for flight (hp) Sea level power that engine needs to generate to produced required power for flight (hp) step = 10.step) ~= 0 %if duration entered is not divisible by step duration = duration + (step . K. P_engine. K). fuel_consumed = step*fuelflowrate(P_generated).85/eta_i. It %assumes that the engine is operated at full throttle during the entire %climb maneuver. P_engine.step)). W_initial. S.total_time_taken] = fuel_climb(h_initial. h_final.W_final. %size of iteration step W_current = W_initial. eta_i) %Variables %Input %h_initial: %h_final: %P_engine: %D_prop: %S: %CD_o: %W_inital: %K: Starting altitude (ft) Final altitude (ft) Power generated by the engine at sea level (hp) Diameter of the propeller (ft) Wing area (ft^2) Parasitic drag coefficient Starting weight of the aircraft (lbs) Aerodynamic parameter C-15 . function [total_fuel_consumed. P_generated = P_needed/0. Fuel_climb. total_fuel_consumed = W_initial . %round up end for time = 0:step:duration [P_needed.m %This function calculates the fuel expended during a climb phase.fuel_consumed.eta_i] = power_levelflight2(V.hor_dist_covered. CD_o. CD_o. It also assumes that the aircraft is flying with maximum %climb speed permissible by the engine. W_current.

%time taken to complete each iteration fuel_consumed = time_taken*fuelflowrate(P_engine*rho/density(0)).i)=wingloads2(:.'E Empty'. VxEmpty(:.'D Fuelled'.VzFuel. total_time_taken = total_time_taken+time_taken.'A Empty'. i=1. MxFuel(:.'G Fuelled'.VxFuel.85*eta_i*rho/density(0).i)=wingloads2(:.'E Fuelled'. LoadMain. choice = 1.1). %calculating density at current altitude P_avail = 550*P_engine*0.i)=wingloads1(:.m %This program calculates and compares the load distribution along the span of the wing.'E Empty'.VxEmpty.'E Fuelled'.'G Empty'). MTFuel(:. while choice < 8 [wingloads1 y fuel_weight]=LoadFunc(choice). end figure(1) plot(y.i)=wingloads1(:.'D Fuelled'.'D Empty'.i)=wingloads1(:.':') legend('A Fuelled'. i=i+1. hor_dist_covered = v_horizontal*time_taken + hor_dist_covered.5). fuelflow = fuelflowrate(P_engine).'G Fuelled'.3).W_final. VzEmpty(:.1). MzFuel(:. end W_final = W_current. xlabel('y (ft)') ylabel('Vz (lbf)') title('Vz') figure(2) plot(y.y.i)=wingloads1(:.i)=wingloads2(:. W_current = W_current .fuel_consumed. for h = h_initial:step:h_final rho = density(h). total_fuel_consumed = W_initial . MzEmpty(:. VxFuel(:. vclimb_max = P_avail/W_current (4/3)*sqrt((2*W_current/(rho*S))*sqrt(3*(K^3)*CD_o)). choice=choice+2.2). VzFuel(:. xlabel('y (ft)') ylabel('Vx (lbf)') C-16 . hor_dist_covered = 0.5). %setting the altitude iteration step size W_current = W_initial. MxEmpty(:.i)=wingloads2(:.4).':') legend('A Fuelled'. MTEmpty(:.3).2).%corresponding horizontal speed time_taken = step/vclimb_max.'D Empty'.i)=wingloads2(:.VzEmpty.'G Empty').%calculating maximum climb speed v_horizontal = sqrt( 2*W_current/(density(h)*S)*sqrt(K/CD_o)).'A Empty'. %calculating fuel consumption at max throttle total_time_taken = 0.y.i)=wingloads1(:.4). [wingloads2 y fuel_weight2]=LoadFunc(choice+1).%Output %total_fuel_consumed: %W_final: %hor_dist_covered: % %total_time_taken: % %Written by Zhiwei Song Total fuel consumed Final weight of the Horizontal distance (ft) Total time taken to phase (s) during the phase (lbs) aircraft (lbs) covered during climb complete the climb step = 100.

Empty fuel W=W_empty. else display('You have entered an invalid choice').MTEmpty.nz=-1.'E Empty'. W=W_full.3.MxEmpty. Empty Fuel W=W_empty.5.nz=-1.'D Fuelled'. TrimMain2.'G Empty').'D Fuelled'. TrimMain2.nz=3.MTFuel. %DesignPoint G. W=W_empty.'G Empty'). elseif choice == 4. TrimMain2.9. xlabel('y (ft)') ylabel('MT (lbf)') title('MT') figure(4) plot(y.5. Fully fuelled %DesignPoint A.yp. elseif choice == 8.'A Empty'.title('Vx') figure(3) plot(y.':') legend('A Fuelled'. Fully fuelled W=W_full. elseif choice == 2. elseif choice == 7. %lbf W_empty=461.m %This programme calculates the load on the wing function [wingloads. elseif choice == 6. V=194. elseif choice == 5. Empty fuel TrimMain2. %DesignPoint E.'G Fuelled'. elseif choice == 3. Fully fuelled W=W_full. end C-17 . fuel_weight] = LoadFunc(choice) %-----------------Aircraft weight--------------------W_full=644.nz=-1.8.'A Empty'. %lbf %----------------------------------------------------if choice == 1. xlabel('y (ft)') ylabel('Mx (lbf)') title('Mx') figure(5) plot(y.'G Fuelled'. TrimMain2. %DesignPoint D.'G Fuelled'.MzEmpty.MzFuel.4.y.y.9. TrimMain2.y.nz=3.'D Empty'.'D Empty'.'E Empty'.'E Fuelled'. V=194.nz=3.MxFuel. Fully fuelled W=W_full.7. xlabel('y (ft)') ylabel('Mz (lbf)') title('Mz') LoadFunc.nz=3.'D Empty'. %DesignPoint D.'D Fuelled'.5. V=87. TrimMain2.5. V=91. Empty Fuel W=W_empty.'A Empty'. %DesignPoint E.':') legend('A Fuelled'.'E Fuelled'.'E Fuelled'.':') legend('A Fuelled'. %DesignPoint A.nz=-1. %DesignPoint G.'G Empty'). V=103. V=107. TrimMain2.'E Empty'. V=194.3. V=194.

mat %--------------------%User Input Parameters %--------------------cdo=0. DCw(j)=(dCwdy(j)+dCwdy(j+1)).17*c(i)*rho_f.y]=sectionalCLCDi(aw.1).225. %tip chord Cmo=-0. rho_f = 44.*Dy(j).5*rho*V.25. Sw=74. %Begin Iteration for i=1:M+1 dLwdy(i)=q.1008*ones(M+1. %Total normal force coefficient aw=16+33*(Czabar-Cza(end)).*V. %fuel weight end %boom consideration for j=1:M Dy(j)=abs(y(j)-y(j+1)).0023423.*w_w.*W. else fuel_tot(j)=0.*c(i)./(0./2 + fuel_tot(j)./2.load aircraftCza. fuel_tot(j) = fuel(j)*Dy(j). end if choice == 2 || choice == 4 || choice == 6 || choice == 8 fuel_tot(j) = 0.33 & y(j)>-3. %chordwiseForce/ft dMacdy(i)=-q.*(c(i))./2. %dash %--------------------%================================================================= %This part of the code needs updating when the stall angles change %================================================================= Czabar=nz.*Sw).cdo).c. %root chord ct = 2.*sind(alfa). %boom weight per ft else B(j) = 0. %cruise %rho=0.%sectional moment coefficient rho=0. %zero lift AoA cr = 3. end %====== fuel weight ======= %fuel weight concentrated near to the wing root if y(j) > -7 fuel(j) = (w_f(j) + w_f(j+1))/2.*c(i). DMac(j)=(dMacdy(j)+dMacdy(j+1)). %Profile drag coefficient %Number of spanwise stations %fuel density. %lift/ft dDwdy(i)=q. %======= account for twin booms ========= if y(j)<-2.cd.*rho.8/b./2.*cosd(alfa).*cosd(alfa)-dLwdy(i). %spanwise lengths of stations DNw(j)=(dNwdy(j)+dNwdy(j+1)).4.*cd(i).*cl(i).0077. w_f(i) = -0.*Dy(j)./(Cza(end)-Cza(1)) %Finding aw from Trim Curve alfa=aw+a0.*Cmo(i).^2.*Dy(j).^2. %pitching moment/ft dFIGzdy(i)=-nz. M=100. %Freestream dynamic pressure %================================================================= %Generate sectional cl and cd of wing [cl.1.67 B(j) = -60. lbs/ft^3 %wing area %wing span w_w=68.00237. b = 27.^2. %drag/ft dNwdy(i)=dLwdy(i).988. %normalForce/ft dCwdy(i)=dDwdy(i).5. C-18 . %weight of wing/ft a0=-4. q=0.45*0.001266.5*c(i)*0. %sea level %rho=0. end DFIGZ(j)=(dFIGzdy(j)+dFIGzdy(j+1))*Dy(j).

mat.cwBar.m %TrimMain2. Mx(J+1)=Mx(J) + (Vz(J). load Efull. Cmact=CDCLCmact(:.alfamin./2) + (DFIGZ(J). Vz(1)=0.3)./2).Cz. Dxcg(j)=(c(j)/12+c(j+1)/12)/2.Czt] = trimanalysis(a0.xcg_t.alfamax. Vx(J+1)=Vx(J)+DCw(J).Cmact. end fuel_weight = sum(fuel_tot).xcg_w. load Dempty.Czt] = trimanalysis(a0. for H=1:M yp(H)=(y(H)+y(H+1))/2.Cz.CLoutput. elseif choice == 3 load UAVspecs.at0.ARt).3).Cx.Czt] = trimanalysis(a0.CLoutput.CDoutput.ARt).xcg_t.3).ARt).Cmact. Mz(J+1)=Mz(1)-(Vx(J).St.*Dy(J). elseif choice == 2 load UAVspecsNoFuel.m Last changes made 11/29/06 UAV Team 2 (UAVarsity) %This program calculates the trimmed forces acting on the wing.2). Cmact=CDCLCmact(:.cwBar. Cmact=CDCLCmact(:.Czt] = trimanalysis(a0.3). %y location of each spanwise station end end TrimMain2.mat. CDoutput=CDCLCmact(:. CLoutput=CDCLCmact(:. load Aempty.alfamin./2).alfamin. [Cza. [Cza.CLoutput.alfamax.DFIGZ(j) = DFIGZ(j) + B(j)*Dy(j).Cz. MT(1)=0. [Cza.*Dy(J)) + (DNw(J).Cx.ARt). MT(J+1)=MT(J)+DMac(J)+(DFIGZ(J).St.*Dxcg(J)).1).Cx.cwBar. CLoutput=CDCLCmact(:.Sw. for J=1:M-1 Vz(J+1)=Vz(J)+DNw(J)+DFIGZ(J).alfamax.CDoutput. Mx(1)=0.CLoutput.Cx.*Dy(J))-(DCw(J).Cmact.alfamin. [Cza.2).mat.mat.xcg_w. Cmact=CDCLCmact(:.at0.mat. CDoutput=CDCLCmact(:.xcg_w.St.AR. CDoutput=CDCLCmact(:.mat.xcg_w. elseif choice == 4 load UAVspecsNoFuel.AR. C-19 .at0.1).at0.cwBar.St.1). CLoutput=CDCLCmact(:.Sw.AR. Cmact=CDCLCmact(:. CLoutput=CDCLCmact(:.*Dy(J).CDoutput. Mz(1)=0.Cz.Sw.Sw. load Dfull.alfamax.2).AR.3).mat. end wingloads=[Vz' Vx' MT' Mx' Mz'].CDoutput.xcg_t.2). load Afull. Vx(1)=0. CDoutput=CDCLCmact(:.Cmact.mat. CLoutput=CDCLCmact(:. CDoutput=CDCLCmact(:.1). if choice == 1 load UAVspecs.mat.1).xcg_t. elseif choice == 5 load UAVspecs.2).*Dy(J).

at0. [Cza.Sw.CDoutput. Cmact=CDCLCmact(:.ARt). load Gempty.ARt).cwBar. elseif choice == 8 load UAVspecsNoFuel.xcg_w.Cz.[Cza.Cx.St.Cx.Cmact.alfamin.cwBar.CDoutput.Czt] = trimanalysis(a0.AR. CLoutput=CDCLCmact(:.') break end C-20 .mat.St.at0. Cmact=CDCLCmact(:.alfamax.xcg_w.2). elseif choice == 6 load UAVspecsNoFuel. CDoutput=CDCLCmact(:. load Eempty.3).xcg_t.Cz.CDoutput.mat.mat.CDoutput.3). [Cza.Czt] = trimanalysis(a0.alfamin.Sw. CDoutput=CDCLCmact(:.CLoutput.Czt] = trimanalysis(a0.Sw.1).cwBar.Cx.AR.alfamax.ARt). elseif choice == 7 load UAVspecs.2).2).at0.St.Cmact.alfamin.alfamax.1).Cz.at0.AR.alfamax.xcg_w.CLoutput.1).xcg_t.xcg_t.xcg_w.3).xcg_t.CLoutput.cwBar. else display('You have entered an invalid choice.alfamin.Cz. CDoutput=CDCLCmact(:. CLoutput=CDCLCmact(:.Cmact. [Cza. load Gfull. Cmact=CDCLCmact(:.Cx.Cmact.CLoutput.Czt] = trimanalysis(a0.ARt). CLoutput=CDCLCmact(:.Sw.St.AR.

D. The change in pitching moment due to the flaps calculation can be found in the flap section.2 Aircraft Pitching Moment Coefficient (without Tail) The aircraft pitching moment coefficient without the tail is given by the following equation. ( CM )ac−t = ( CM AC ) + (C ) w M fus + ΔCM AC ( ) flaps (Eqn.Appendix D: Aerodynamic Performance Calculations D. given by the following equation. Lastly.1) The aerodynamic pitching moment is changed as well.3) The wing pitching moment ( CM AC ( ) w ) is equivalent to the pitching moment of the airfoil since the wing has no sweep.1: Δcm / Δcl vs. Δ cm ⋅ Δcl Δcl (Eqn. D. D. Δ cm = where Δcm / Δcl – is given in Figure D. D.is the flap effectiveness η . The airfoil pitching moment is -0. the pitching moment due to the fuselage is given by the following.2) Figure D.is the viscous correction factor (Eqn.1.1 Aerodynamic parameter changes due to flaps Δcl = (m0 ) flapped τηδ f where τ . flap chord ratio. D-1 .13 for the NASA GA(W)1.

( CM ) fus =

K f l fus D fus 2 cS

α

(Eqn. D.4)

Kf is an empirical pitching moment factor, which can be obtained by looking up the tabulated Kf value for different wing AC location on the fuselage. For our design, the wing is located approximately at 42% of the fuselage and the corresponding Kf value is 0.018. D.3 Parasite Drag Coefficient The parasite drag coefficient (CD0) during takeoff, cruise and dash were calculated using Eqn. D.5.

CD 0 =

1 ∑ ( C fc FFcQc Swetc ) + CDmis + CDL&P S

(Eqn. D.5)

The subscript c denotes component c. A total of 4 components were considered for the calculation: wing, fuselage, twin booms and tail. Cfc is the friction coefficient, FFc is the form factor, Qc is the interference factor and Swetc is the wetted area. CDmis is drag contribution of aircraft components with large form drag, such as non-retracted landing gear and fuselage upsweep. CDL&P is the drag associated with air leakages and protuberance, which is usually 8% of the CD0. To calculate Cfc, Eqn D.6 was used.

Cf =

0.455

( log10 Re )

2.58

(1 + 0.144M )

2 0.65

(Eqn. D.6)

This equation assumes that the Re is above 500,000. Given the dimensions of each component, even at stall conditions, the Re was above 500,000. Fuselage length and boom length were used as characteristic length while the mean aerodynamic chord was used for wing and tail. Form factors for wing and tail used the formula shown in Eqn D.7.
4 ⎡ 0.6 t 0.28 ⎛ t ⎞ ⎤⎡ FF = ⎢1 + + 100 ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 1.34 M 0.18 ( cos Λ m ) ⎤ ⎦ ⎝c⎠ ⎥⎣ ⎢ ( x / c )m c ⎣ ⎦

(Eqn. D.7)

The variable (x/c)m represents the chordwise location of the airfoil maximum thickness while (t/c) is the airfoil maximum thickness. The sweep angle ( Λ m ) was set to 0 since the swept wing only benefits flight as transonic speeds. For fuselage and booms, slightly different equation was used to calculate the form factor.

D-2

⎛ 60 f ⎞ l FF = ⎜1 + 3 + ⎟, f = f d 400 ⎠ ⎝

(Eqn. D.8)

As shown from Eqn D.8, only length and diameter of fuselage and boom were required to calculate the form factor. The interference factor, Q, was set to 1 for all components except the tail, which was set at 1.08 due to the H-shape of the tail. The surface wet area for each component was simple to calculate since the dimensions of geometry were specified from the beginning. The miscellaneous drag mainly comes from the fuselage upsweep. In addition, the fuselage upsweep, windmilling propellers, and speedbrakes add to the miscellaneous drag. However, we assumed that the propeller does not stop and no speed brakes are applied. Eqn D.9 shows the drag contribution due to the fuselage upsweep. CDmis = 3.83θ A (Eqn. D.9)

θ is the upsweep angle in radians and A denotes the fuselage cross-sectional area. A MATLAB code was created to calculate the CD0 of the aircraft (Appendix C)
D.4 Trim Drag Coefficient The trim drag is the induced drag of the tail. CDtrim = CLt 2 St π et ARt S (Eqn. D.10)

Eqn D.10 was used to calculate the trim drag. e is the Oswald efficiency factor while the coefficient of lift of tail was calculated from obtaining CL of the wing and the aircraft pitching moment without the tail.

D-3

Appendix E: Takeoff and Landing Calculations
E.1 Take off The ground roll can be computed with the following equations, where μ is the friction coefficient of the ground, Vi is zero, and Vf is 1.1 times stall speed.
2 ⎧ ⎫ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎪ KT + K AV f ⎪ SG = ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎨ 2⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ 2 gK A ⎠ ⎩ KT + K AVi ⎭ ⎛T ⎞ KT = ⎜ ⎟ − μ ⎝W ⎠

(Eqn. E.1) (Eqn. E.2)

KA =

ρ
2(W / S )

( μC

L

2 − CD0 − KCL

)

(Eqn. E.3)

The rotation distance can be computed next, where VTO is 1.1 times the stall speed of 35 knots. The rotate time, trotate, is 1 second.

S R = VTO ⋅ trotate

(Eqn. E.4)

R is the radius of the arc about which the aircraft rotates during transition, as shown in Figure 14.1.

⎛T −D ⎞ STR = R ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ W ⎠VClimb

(Eqn. E.5)

The vertical distance traveled as UAV transitions to steady climb is a function of R and the flight path angle, γclimb.

hTR = R(1 − cos(γ climb ))

(Eqn. E.6)

The horizontal distance traveled as UAV climbs to avoid the obstacle is computed last.

SC = E.2 Landing

hobstacle − hTR tan(γ climb )

(Eqn. E.7)

The total horizontal distance traveled as the UAV clears obstacle and approaches the runway depends on the obstacle height, the flare height, hF, and the flight path angle.

E-1

9) The vertical distance traveled during the flare maneuver depends on the flight path angle and the radius.10) The distance traveled on the runway after touchdown and before brakes are applied depends on the touchdown velocity. E. of the arc that the aircraft makes as it transitions to flare.14) E-2 . S FR = VTD ⋅ td (Eqn.13) KA = ρ 2(W / S ) ( μC L 2 − CD0 − KCL ) (Eqn. E. E.15 times the stall speed. The touchdown velocity is 1.11) Finally. the distance traveled while the brakes are applied until the UAV comes to rest is calculated by the following equations.12) (Eqn. hF = R (1 − cos γ a ) (Eqn. E. S F = R ( sin γ a ) (Eqn. E. R. E. td. and the time.Sa = hobstacle − hF tan(γ a ) (Eqn. ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎧ ⎫ KT SB = ⎜ ⎟ ln ⎨ 2 ⎬ ⎝ 2 gK A ⎠ ⎩ KT + K AVTD ⎭ ⎛T ⎞ KT = ⎜ ⎟ − μ ⎝W ⎠ (Eqn.8) The horizontal distance traveled as the UAV flares up and prepares to land depends on the radius. VTD. E. and td will be 1 second. before the brakes are applied.

The fuselage contribution to direction stability. SVT. F.7 Next.2) SVT = = 10. Therefore. Given the nature of our aircraft design. For simplification. The last two terms are correction factors that compensate for the wing geometry and sidewash and interference due to wing-fuselage combination. is based on existing aircraft designs.7 ft. is obtained using the following equation: (C nψ )ac = (C nψ )W + (C nψ ) fus + (C nψ )prop + (C nψ )v + Δ1C nψ + Δ 2 C nψ (Eqn. Since our wing is un-swept. is given by equation (109): V (C nψ ) fus = fus (K 2 − K1 ) (Eqn. The wing contribution to directional stability. the fuselage is viewed as a 6-ft cylinder with diameter 2 ft having a 2-ft tall cone attached to each end. is related to the vertical tail volume coefficient by: C bS (Eqn F.3) Where W.25 (Eqn. The twin booms are simplified as two cylinders with a diameter of 6 inches and length of 8. Vfus.5 (Eqn. Vfus is calculated to be: F-1 0 nψ W = −6 × 10 −5 (Λ0 ) 0. an estimate of the directional stability of the aircraft. F.25 ft2. F. fus.04 × 27 × 74.Appendix F: Tail Sizing Calculations and History F. our initial estimate of vertical tail area is: 0.5) 28. Given that SW = 74. The coefficient is selected s 0.4) . (Cnψ)ac.04.1) SVT = VT W LVT Where b is the wing span. SW is the wing planform area and LVT is the distance from the aerodynamic center of the wing to the aerodynamic center of the tail. The vertical tail area.1 ft. (Cnψ)fus. The initial estimate of the vertical tail volume coefficient. is taken as the combined volume of the fuselage and the twin boom. (Cnψ)W. which is typical for small single-engine aircraft.7 SW b Where Vfus is the fuselage volume and (K2 – K1) is a function of the fineness (length to diameter) ratio of the fuselage. the propeller and the vertical tail respectively. the fuselage volume. Vertical Tail The equations and intermediate values obtained in the vertical tail calculation are presented in this section. CVT. the fuselage. F. given by: (C ) Where Λ is the sweep angle of the wing at quarter chord. b = 27 ft and LVT = 7.4 ft 2 7.1. prop and v denote the contributions to directional stability by the wing. the wing contribution to directional stability is 0. is obtained from equation (108) from the aforementioned lecture notes.

05⎛ 10.25 × 27 The propeller contribution on directional stability.11 × 10 −5 (Eqn. The propeller is located 3. (C ) nψ v The initial tail has an effective aspect ratio of 2. Reading off the Fig 10 of the lecture notes.2 (Cnψ ) fus = (Eqn.12) Δ 1C nψ = −0.0019 (Eqn. F.5 ⎞ ⎟ + 2⎜ 8.25 × 27 ⎣ ⎦ The tail contribution. is given the following equation: ⎡ ⎛ dCYp ⎞ ⎤ 2 ⎢ πD p l p ⎜ ⎜ dψ ⎟ N p ⎥ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ (C nψ )prop = 1.8) ⎥ ⎢ 4 SW b ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ Where Dp is the diameter of the propeller. Therefore. the correlation factor (K2 – K1) is 0. lp is the distance from the propeller to the center of gravity of the aircraft.7 ⎞1 = −0.5 and this gives us a lift curve slope of 0.41 ⎞⎛ 7. is to account for the contribution to directional stability due to sidewash and interference flow from the fuselage-wing combination. For the design of our UAV.V fus = Vcyl + 2Vcone + Vboom 2 2 ⎡ ⎛ 2 ⎞2 ⎛1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎤ ⎜ × 2 × ⎛ 2. Given the high wing geometry.0002 The second correction factor. and ηv is the vertical tail efficiency. dCYp/dψ is estimated to be 0. F. we are using a single twin-bladed propeller of diameter 5 ft for the aircraft.9) ⎢ ⎥ 4 × 74.7 × 74.00165 based on the lecture notes. (Cnψ)v.2 ft 2 (Eqn. the tail contribution is: (Cnψ )v = −0.25 ⎠⎝ 27 ⎠ The first correction factor. Np is the number of propellers. Therefore.05. Δ 2 C nψ = 0. Δ2Cnψ.1× ⎛ 0. The vertical tail efficiency is assumed to be 1.00165 × 1⎤ = −9.5⎡π × 5 × (− 3.7) × 0. (Cnψ)prop.11) ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 74. The wing of our aircraft is mounted on top of the fuselage.10) = − a v ⎜ VT ⎟⎜ VT ⎟η v ⎜S ⎟ b ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ W ⎠ Where av is lift curve slope of the vertical tail. F. F. and the correction factor is: (Eqn. and dCYp/dψ is the rate of change of the yawing moment coefficient due to the side force of the propeller with respect to ψ.5 ⎞ ⎟⎥ = 26. F.5⎢ (Eqn. The contribution of propeller to directional stability is: 2 (C nψ )prop = 1. given in Fig 35 as a function of the aspect ratio of the tail.76) × 0.76 ft behind the center of gravity of the aircraft.6) = π ⎢6 × ⎜ ⎟ + 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎝2⎠ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ Our aircraft has a fineness ratio of 5. F. is determined by the wing geometry. the fuselage contribution to directional stability is: 26.8.0006 (Eqn. is given by: ⎛ S ⎞⎛ L ⎞ (Eqn.13) F-2 . F.8 = 3. Δ1Cnψ. F.65 × 10 − 4 28.

60 × 10 − 4 (Eqn.25 ⎞ = −0.3 × 10 − 4 × 74.0005⎜ 2 ⎟ (Eqn. Therefore. While the vertical tail area of 4. the new tail contribution should be: (Cnψ )v new = (Cnψ )desirable − (Cnψ )W + (Cnψ ) fus + (Cnψ )prop + +Δ1Cnψ + Δ 2Cnψ = −8. c ⋅S S HT = C HT w w (Eqn. the estimate for the aircraft can be obtained: (Cnψ )ac = (C nψ )W + (C nψ ) fus + (Cnψ )prop + (C nψ )v + Δ1Cnψ + Δ 2 C nψ (Eqn.75 ft S w = 74.7 (Eqn.2 Horizontal Tail The first iteration of the horizontal tail sizing is presented in this section.11× 10 −5 + −0.19) LHT Where: cw = 2.18) The calculated vertical tail area is 4.52 ft 2 1 × 0. F. F.34 ft2 may be able to provide directional stability to the aircraft.0002 − 0.05 × 7.5 = −1. F.25 ft2 C HT = 0.00125 An estimate for the desired directional stability is provided in equation (127) of the notes: 0. The vertical tail area has to be altered to match the desired directional stability.25 × 27 = = 4.3 ×10−4 (Eqn. The horizontal tail size of BBXL was begun with a simplified calculation using the following equation where we assumed the volume coefficient of the horizontal tail to be the same as that for a typical small single-engine aircraft.7 ft F-3 . it does not guarantee that the aircraft will have sufficient maneuverability. and therefore the initial estimate of the tail area is not good enough to provide a desired directional stability. F.52 ft2. F. the new vertical tail area is: − (C nψ )v S W b S VT = η v a v LVT [ ] S VT 8.14) (Cnψ )ac = 0 + 0. Iterations will be performed until the tail area at the end of iteration is within 1% of the tail area at the beginning of the iteration.0005⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 27 ⎠ 0.16) The desired directional stability is only about 1/10 of the actual aircraft stability.0006 = −0.Now that we have all the terms that contribute to directional stability. F.000238 − 9.00002 + 0. F.7 LHT = 7.15) ⎝b ⎠ For our aircraft. or 6% of the wing area.5 ⎛ SW ⎞ (C nψ )desirable = −0. the desired directional stability is: (C ) nψ desirable ⎛ 74.17) [ ] [ ] Using the new Cnψ value and equation (123).

S HT = 0.1 ft ao= 0.24) 57. F.12 (lift curve slope of 2D horizontal tail) r=1 (correction factor of end plates) Dtb= 0. HT aT = (Eqn.25 ft = 18. The total volume of the fuselage and the twin boom is given by: 2 2 2 ⎛ Df ⎞ 4 ⎛ Df ⎞ ⎛D ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + (L f − 4)π ⎜ ⎟ + 2π ⋅ Ltb ⎜ tb ⎟ Vf = π⎜ (Eqn.26) F-4 .7 2. and the lift curve slopes of the wing and horizontal tail. F. wing area.HT = 0.21) cw ⋅ S w Before using iterations key parameters that affect the performance of the horizontal tail must first be calculated.25) S w 74.5 ft (twin boom diameter) 2 ( 27 ft ) b2 AR = = = 9. F. These parameters include the volume of the fuselage.3 ⋅ r ⋅ ao 1+ π AR ao . S HT . we estimated the horizontal tail are to be 18.new = (Eqn.3 ⋅ r ⋅ ao .new ⋅ LHT C HT .7 ft 2 2 = 2.75 ft ⋅ 74.25 ft 2 ARHT = ( bHT ) S HT 2 = ( 6. This value was a good start to our horizontal tail sizing iterations which includes more aerodynamic parameters for the desired horizontal tail performance. and the moment arm between the horizontal tail and the aerodynamic center. twin booms. F. Note. F.82 (Eqn. F.22) ⎜ 2 ⎟ 3 ⎝ 2 ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ The lift curve slopes of the wing and the horizontal tail are obtained from the following equations: ao (Eqn.56 ft 2 7. we began our calculations with the value of 0.7 ft (Eqn.56 ft2. F.10 (Eqn. HT 1+ π ARHT Where: (fuselage diameter) Df = 2 ft Lf = 10 ft (fuselage length) (twin boom length) Ltb= 8.11 (lift curve slope of 2D wing) ao.20) By assuming the horizontal tail volume coefficient to be 0.7 for the horizontal tail volume coefficient but it will change with each iteration using the below equation.28 ft ) 18.7 and using previously calculated values for the wing mean chord.23) aW = 57.

they are used to find the stability derivative of the aircraft without the effects of the propellers using equation (52): xcg − xac ⎛ Cm ⎞ ⎛ Cm ⎞ at ⎛ dε ⎞ +⎜ (Eqn.22 ft (Eqn.1 ft ⎜ ⎟ = 26.7 S w ⋅ c w ⋅ a w (Eqn. This downwash of a horizontal tail causes a reduction in the angle of attack and therefore the lift.281 (Eqn. F.22 ft 3 0.3393) = −0.0392 − ⋅ 0.82 (Eqn.3393 dα π ⋅ 9.32) (Eqn. Because the primary function of the horizontal tail is to counter the moments created by the fuselage and wings this term is essential to the calculation of the desired horizontal tail area.0913 57.35) ⎜C ⎟ = ⎟ 2.12 aT = = 0.7 74. F. we are able to obtain: ⎛ Cm ⎜ ⎜C ⎝ L V ⎞ K ⎟ = fus ⋅ ⎟ ⎠ fus 28. F.29) 57.8 ⎜ ⎟ = ⋅ = 0. Using the values calculated above.0913 ⎝ L ⎠ ac We then use these values to find the neutral point. F. F.11 1+ π ⋅ 9.10 After we found these values we can apply them to find the rate of change of moment coefficients with respect to lift coefficient of the fuselage.75 ft 0.5 ft ⎞ 3 π⎜ Vf = ⎟ + (10 ft − 4 ft ) π ⎜ ⎟ + 2π ⋅ 8.25 ft ⋅ 2. F.28) aW = = 0.0913 ⎝ L ⎠ fus Where K is an empirical factor based on experimental results and can be found by reading from Figure 10 in the Static Stability for Aircraft and Trim Curves Lecture Notes.7 ⋅ 1 ⋅ (1 − 0.8 for a fuselage fineness ratio of 5.0392 (Eqn.3 ft 0.Using these values we find: 4 ft ⎛ 2 ft ⎞ ⎛ 2 ft ⎞ ⎛ 0.3 ⋅1⋅ 0.82 0. The average angle of downwash at the tail is given by ε.12 1+ π ⋅ 2.24 ft − 6.0913 = 0.33) After finding the values of these parameters.11 (Eqn.3 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 0. the most aft location of the CG before the aircraft becomes unstable by applying the following equation: F-5 . F.6 = ⋅ 0.75 ft ⋅ 0.27) 3 ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 0. F.30) 2 2 2 ⎛ Cm ⎞ 26. This is given below: d ε 114.059 (Eqn.31) 2 ⎜C ⎟ 28.34) ⎜ ⎟ = ⎟ − ⋅ CHT ⋅ηt ⎜ 1 − ⎟ c ⎝ dα ⎠ ⎝ CL ⎠ ac ⎝ CL ⎠ fus aw ⎛ Cm ⎞ 6. It is also important in our analysis to include the changes of the angle of attack as it is related to the downwash angle. This value was interpolated to be 0.6 = ⋅ aw dα π AR dε 114.059 ⎜ + 0. F.

and resulted in ( ) ( dα ) increased by 20% for maneuverability) minimal effects of less that 0.7 ⋅ 1 ⋅ (1 − 0.8 ( d β dα ) values of 1.3 ft 0.75 ft = 7.40) We then found the value that represents the shift in the stick-fixed neutral point from propeller wind milling to critical power on flight configuration.36) −⎜ ⎟ + ⋅ CHT ⋅ηt ⎜ 1 − ⎟ c ⎝ CL ⎠ fus aw ⎝ dα ⎠ 6.0913 0.00165(1. F.37) 2.35 and 1. It was decided to average these values to 1. xcg ge = N oWind ⋅ c xcg ge = 2. lp = -3.00165) = 2.0392 + ⋅ 0.07 dα ⎝ dα ⎠ pT =0 No = ( ) Where: Np= 1 ⎛ dCN ⎞ = 0.7 ⋅ 1 (1.2 = 1.562 − 1 ⋅ − ⋅ 2 2 0.8)(− 3.75 ft ⋅ 0. F. F. This shift was taken from empirical data determined for a single engine.38) N oWind = N o − N p − t HT t ⎜ ⎟ S w c ⋅ aw aw 0.25 ft ⋅ 2. F. F.059 No = − 0.00 (Eqn.39) (Eqn.41) To find the neutral point with power on we sum the shift in the stick fixed neutral point with the shift associated with the wind milling of the propellers. This stick fixed neutral fixed point comes as a result dC L of the CG moving further aft.42) F-6 .635 ft 2 0.5.75 ft 0.xac ⎛ Cm ⎞ at ⎛ dε ⎞ (Eqn.0913 The stick fixed neutral point with wind milling propellers is calculated at the point where dC m is zero. dβ ⎛ dCN ⎞ l S ⎜ dα ⎟ pT =0 dα p p a C η d β ⎛ dC ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ N (Eqn.635 ft2 N oWind (length of the propeller relative to the CG) (area of our 5ft diameter propeller) 0.85 were used.76 ft Sp= 19. F.5546 ⋅ 2.3393) = 2.07 74.55 (Eqn.0913 We then found the CG location due to ground effects from the wind milling propellers.059 0.544 = 2. F.00165 ⎜ dα ⎟ pT =0 ⎝ ⎠ (number of propellers) (attained from approximate empirical data) (approximately 1 + d ε NOTE: ( d β dα ) =1. N oPower = N oWind + ΔN o (Eqn.8)(0.02 ft (Eqn. ΔN o = 0. and the aircraft is stable.5·1.1ft2 in the final SHT.76 ft ) 19.

75 ft − 2.47) δ eo = − = 10. F.43) This result comes from the requirement that the aircraft must have a stick-fixed longitudinal stability with power on. We then found the CG location when the power in the below expression. F. δ e.544 + (0.75 ft ⋅ 2.59 The most forward location of the CG is used to find the change in the moment coefficient as it related to the change in the lift coefficient. ⎛ dCm ⎞ ⎜ dCL ⎟ fwd ⎝ ⎠ (Eqn.87 ⎜ = −15.653 (Eqn.4 SHT) −Cmac α − o (Eqn.059 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 0. F.544 = −0.new = = 0. xcg fw ⎛ dCm ⎞ − N oWind (Eqn. F. F-7 .48) ⎜ ⎟ = c ⎝ dCL ⎠ fwd δ eo = ⎛ dC m ⎞ 6 ft ⎜ (Eqn. F.new = ⎛ dδ e ⎞ atηtτ ⎜ dCL ⎟ max ⎝ ⎠ − 0.46) at ⋅ CHTηtτ τ − (− 0.50) ⎛ dδ e ⎞ − 20 − 10.7 ⋅ 1 ⋅ 0.51) ⎜ dC ⎟ = ⎟ 1.52) CHT . F.544 = 7.59 ⋅ −15.00 ft (Eqn.362 ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ fwd Because the most aft location of the CG corresponds to CLmax.1 (zero lift angle of attack) αo= -4° τ = 0. Where: (wing pitching moment coefficient at aerodynamic center) Cmac = -0.44) xcg ge power = 2. The most forward location of CG is assumed to be 6 ft from the nose. F.49) ⎜ dC ⎟ = 2. we then found the maximum change of the elevator angle below.91 (Eqn.91 We then use this new volume coefficient to calculate a new horizontal tail area.53) 0.N oPower = 2. F.059 ⋅ 0. F. we then found the new horizontal tail volume coefficient in the below expression.362 C HT .94 ⎝ L ⎠ max Using the above value. F. F.1) −4 (Eqn. xcg ge power = c ⋅ N oPower (Eqn.87° 0.544 (Eqn.max − δ e 0 ⎛ dδ e ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = CL max ⎝ dCL ⎠ max (Eqn.59 (elevator effectiveness given the elevator area = 0.59 0.00) = 2.45) The deflection angle when the lift coefficient is equal to zero is found below.

the aircraft’s landing gear will need to be significantly longer.1 V-Tail Configuration The inverted V-tailed configuration was considered because it is a characteristic feature of many of the US-manufactured UAVs. we decided that the twin boom tail configuration is the best to suit our mission requirements.75 ft = 17. Based on our aircraft specification.3 Tail Configuration History The relaxed design requirements for the unmanned aircraft left us substantial freedom in its design.S HT = S HT . and tailless (flying wing). F. After reviewing various proven designs. the interference drag and spiraling tendencies are significantly reduced when using a V-tail design. Also. Vtail. many different types of tail configurations were considered before we came to our baseline design. the V-tail reduces wetted area and will benefit the aircraft design by reducing the aircraft weight.3. and this value is about 7% different from the tail area at the beginning of the iteration. The twin boom tail configuration however could force the wing structure to be more robust than a traditional design. the booms could create additional wetted area. For these reasons. Theoretically.new = CHT . Therefore. Also. The long slender booms also allow the tail of the aircraft to be positioned farther aft of the wing.2 Twin Boom Tail Configuration A twin boom configuration was considered because such a configuration can accommodate a pusher prop layout while allowing the heavy engine to be located near the center of gravity of the aircraft.6 ft2.55) 7. F.32 ft 2 (Eqn. F. F. extensive NACA research suggests that the V surfaces need to be enlarged so that they have the equivalent wetted area as a conventional design in order to provide good stability and control [6]. Also. and it will require more stringent ground clearance for landing and take-off. maximizing the moment arm of the tail surfaces without having to incur the full weight penalty of building an equivalently long fuselage.7 ft The first iterated horizontal tail area is 18. However. which could increase the drag on the aircraft. because of the inverted V arrangement. further iteration is required until the tail area convergence is less than 1%. Figure illustrates the twin boom tail configuration.25 ft 2 ⋅ 2.3.54) 0. boom-tail. Three tail configurations were considered. we decided not to include an inverted V tail design into our baseline design. F-8 .new S w c LHT (Eqn.653 ⋅ 74. Below provides a detailed analysis of the pros and cons of the three designs. because the booms are usually fixed to the wing. F.

a problem with this design is that the wing must be designed very carefully so that the wing can be stable with limited control moments. F. many flying wing designs suffer from stability problems [8]. The flying wing would be a risky design to pursue because many other flying wing designs have had stability problems [9]. Eliminating these components would also improve the structural efficiency of the aircraft.1: A typical UAV twin boom configuration [7].3. F-9 . However.Figure F. The flying wing configuration eliminates the fuselage and all tail surfaces—reducing the wetted area and drag. Because of the complexity of the flying wing design. Even with these compromises.3 Flying Wing Configuration A flying wing design was considered because of its inherent efficiency. we decided not to incorporate this design in our UAV. Reducing the drag and the structural mass of the aircraft would mean that it could have longer endurance and require less fuel. Because of this restriction. compromises usually need to be made in the design that could counteract the structural and aerodynamic advantages that the flying wing has.

008 0.45 4 (in2) 0.02 0.20 8 (in2) 0.10 6 (in2) 0.008 0.01 0.40 4 (in2) +7.02 0.008 0.20 7 (in2) 0.36 +0.008 0.90 +0. some of the margins present are vastly in excess of what they need to be.11 +0.69 +0.008 0.66 7 (in2) +9. that would be impractical to conduct at this early stage of development for the Big Brother 4000XL. The margin of safety for each stringer at each station is: 75% 60% 27% 0% 1 (in2) +8.01 +1.015 0. For reference.91 +0.01 0.47 3 (in2) +6.30 5 (in2) 0.02 0.69 +0. as well as the margin of safety for each stringer.11 +2.43 +0.36 G-1 .73 6 (in2) +12.20 Associated with each stringer is a margin of safety for the bending loads present on the wing.008 0. The table below presents the stringer areas: 75% 60% 27% 0% 1 (in2) 0.05 0.36 +0.75 +1.56 +0.41 +2.01 0.74 +4.15 0.1 0. Also noted are the stringer areas present at each spanwise section of the wing.13 +0. Also note that due to coupling between the load carrying stringers.66 +0.30 2 (in2) 0.70 +2.61 +0.69 +0.30 3 (in2) 0.91 2 (in2) +6.87 +0. Additionally.75 +0.1 0.06 +0.50 +0.25 0.09 +18.1 Stringer Areas and Margin of Safety To reduce the weight of the wing skeletal structure.75 5 (in2) +31. it would be almost impossible to ensure that all the stringers were at the design margin of safety of +0. the stringer numbering scheme is also shown. the diagram below shows the location of each stringer at an arbitrary spanwise station.15 0.015 0.35 without a highly detailed analysis.15 0. as was introduced in Section 20: Wing Structure. G.Appendix G: Structures Calculations This appendix outlines the procedure to calculate the bending margins of safety present on the stiffeners of the wing. the cross sectional area of each stringer has been tailored to the stresses at its particular location.1 0.008 0.008 0.37 8 (in2) +8. As is noted in the Wing Structure section. However practical considerations dictate how small the stringer can reasonably be machined.

The spreadsheet below summarizes what was calculated. The total area of the stiffener is the sum of the stringer area as well as the area of the effective skin. The z location Z’ (height above the chord line) of the stringer is entered as well as the x location X’ (distance back from the leading edge G-2 . the area of the stringer is entered into the first column. this area includes the effective area of the skin. the method for calculating the bending margins of safety on the wing are outlined in Chapter 19 of Reference 22. There is only one rivet row for each stiffener since the stiffeners are all angle extrusions more than one is not necessary.G. In this spreadsheet. Note that a program was set up to iteratively calculate the effective width of skin included with each stiffening member. Note that if the skin around the stiffener is in tension.2 Bending Calculations As stated previously. and the resulting stress and margin of safety present in that member. The full spreadsheet for the calculations at 27% of the span is shown below. The number of rivet rows attaching each stiffener to the sheet is needed to take into account the effective width of the skin.

The equation for Zbar is: Zbar = ∑ A * Z' ∑A str str (Eqn. The calculation of this value acts as a check on the computation. of the section are computed.g. for a given margin of safety. Next in the table are the products A*X’*Z’.3) (Eqn.2) (Eqn. the values of Z and X with respect to the c. and A*X’2. Note that the calculation of these values make use of the parallel axis theorem. which are used in calculating the moments of inertia Ixx. A*Z’2. Also calculated is the area of the stiffener multiplied with Z’. G. Their equations are shown below: Ixx = Izz = (∑ A str * Z ' 2 − (∑ Astr )* Zbar 2 * X ' 2 − (∑ Astr )* Xbar 2 ) (Eqn.5) K1 = K2 = K3 = Ixz Ix * Iz − Ixz 2 Iz Ix * Iz − Ixz 2 Ix Ix * Iz − Ixz 2 (Eqn. location of the section. these values are used in computing the c. The values of the area moments of inertia are noted on the table. G. The stress due to the bending moments present at a location in the cross section is then given by the equation: σ b = −( K 3 * Mz − K 1 * Mx) * X − ( K 2 * Mx − K 1 * Mz ) * Z Where the constants K1. G. the sum of P over all the stiffeners should be zero. G. G. G-3 . the design moments Mx and Mz must be specified. To find the stress present in the stiffener. and then with X’. Finally. G. G.4) (∑ A str ) Ixz = (∑ Astr * Z '*X ') − (∑ Astr )* Zbar * Xbar In the table.6) (Eqn. since in order for the structure to be in static equilibrium. which is noted as Zbar and Xbar in the chart. We can see from the spreadsheet that it is very close.of the section). and K3 are defined as: (Eqn.g.8) The stress present in each stiffener is then noted in the table. K2. Izz. and Ixz. G.1) The equation for Xbar is similar. The margin of safety in the stringer can then be found using the compressive yield allowable Fcy and the tension yield allowable Fty.7) (Eqn. The force P in the stiffener can then be computed as the product of the stiffener area and the stiffener stress.

471 6.032 0.S.088 Allowable Shear (psi) 37.000 M.627 Allowable Shear (psi) 37.000 M.032 Wing Skin (greatest) 60% of the span: Section Thickness (inches) Leading Edge 0. 75% of the span: Section Thickness (inches) Leading Edge 0.032 0.72 698.032 Front Spar 0.the spreadsheet indicates whether the margin in that particular stringer exceeds the desired margin.450 4.67 Shear Flow (lbf/in) -174.80 +HIGH +0.46 -208.032 0.170 6.00.032 Shear Flow (lbf/in) -421.050 0.000 37. +HIGH is shown.032 Rear Spar 0. +HIGH +HIGH +2. G.69 +1.842 Allowable Shear (psi) 37.000 37.83 Applied Shear (psi) 13.000 37.42 -136.76 -442.752 5. Recall that for margins of safety higher than +3.58 -212.428 21.09 Applied Shear (psi) 5.S.000 M.836 13.032 0.512 27.36 +0.032 Wing Skin (greatest) 0% of the span: Section Leading Edge Front Spar Rear Spar Wing Skin (greatest) Thickness (inches) 0.000 37. +1.3 Shear Flow Calculation Results Below are the critical results from the shear flow Matlab code that was provided.000 37.S.276 9.000 37.93 Shear Flow (lbf/in) -312.79 +HIGH +0.40 896.90 +HIGH G-4 .07 -173.000 37.45 -610.000 37.85 473.032 Rear Spar 0.97 Applied Shear (psi) 9. +2.032 Front Spar 0.000 37.159 19.

1: AR801 manufacture’s data.1 Fuel Consumption Data Table H. H. H-1 .Appendix H: Detailed Fuel Requirement Calculations The fuel requirement calculations were made based on the mission profile outlined in Section 2: Mission Description and Analysis.2406x + 2.2: Constructed fuel consumption curve. Fuel Comsumption 30 y = 0. Horsepower vs.9915 2 25 Fuel Comsumption (lb/hr) 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 Horsepower 40 50 60 Figure H.0036x + 0.

m).85ηi = Wcurrent − Wfuel (Eqn.4) Therefore the fuel consumed and aircraft weight after each step is given by: Wfuel = tstep c Wnew Pavailable 0. the engine is assumed to be operated at full throttle and is assumed to be climbing at the maximum climb rate. with the fuel weight and horizontal distance of each climb step being summed up. H-2 .6) where c is the specific fuel consumption of the engine given in units of lbs-hp-s.5) (Eqn. H.7) The above calculations are then repeated until the required climb altitude is attained. H. H. Also. the horizontal distance covered per step is given by: distance = Vtstep (Eqn.85ηi ρaltitude (P ) ρsea level shp sea level (Eqn.3) 2Wcurrent ρS The time taken to complete each 100 ft step can thus be calculated by: tstep = 100 Vclimbmax (Eqn. H.2 Climb During climb. which are calculated in steps of 100 ft to account for the changing ambient air density and the reduction in weight of the aircraft due to fuel consumption. Firstly.2) (Eqn.1) Thus maximum climb rate and the corresponding horizontal velocity are given by: Vclimbmax = V= Pavailable 4 2Wcurrent 3K 3CD0 − Wcurrent 3 ρS K 3CD0 (Eqn.H. The fuel required for each climb maneuver can be calculated with the following equations. H. the power available is calculated via the following equation where the altitude is taken to be the altitude at the beginning of each step: Pavailable = 0. These calculations are performed via a MATLAB code (fuel_climb. H. H.

H.12) (Eqn. the thrust and power required to fly at the defined speed is calculated by the following equations: 2 KWcurrent 1 2 T = ρaltitudeV SCD0 + 1 2 ρaltitudeV 2 S 2 T CT = 1 ρaltitudeV 2 ADp 2 2 ηi = 1 + 1 + CT (Eqn. Firstly.3 Steady Level Flight During the steady level flight phases of our mission profile. which are performed in steps of 1s to account for the changing weight due to fuel consumption during flight. the phase duration and flight speed are defined.85ηi = Wcurrent − Wfuel (Eqn.13) where c is the specific fuel consumption of the engine given in units of lbs-hp-s. H. H.10) (Eqn. H. During these phases.11) Prequired = TV Thus the fuel consumed per 1s time step and aircraft weight after each time step is given by: Wfuel = c Wnew Prequired 0. These calculations are performed via a MATLAB code (fuel_levelflight.m). with the fuel weight and horizontal distance of each time step being summed up. The fuel required for each steady level flight phase is calculated via the following equations.H. dash and loiter. H. namely cruise.9) (Eqn.8) (Eqn. H. The above calculations are then repeated until the required flight duration is attained. H-3 .

1) Since our pusher-propeller engine is aligned parallel with the aircraft x-axis. I. This calculation was performed using Professor Friedmann’s lecture notes on Flight Envelope and V-n Diagrams. I.2) The aerodynamic loading of the aircraft in the z-direction can be represented by a coefficient (Cza).25 to determine the dynamic normal force coefficient. (Eqn. The flaps design velocity must not be less than 1. (Eqn.Appendix I: V-n Diagram Calculations This appendix outlines the steps and procedures taken to calculate the flight maneuver envelope and gust-loading envelope and display the results in the form of V-n diagrams. This was previously determined by the trim curves and is represented by the equation below. In most cases. I. (Eqn. The equation for the load factor is listed below in Equation G.6) I-1 . This velocity is determined by the equation below.1 Maneuver Envelope The non-dimensional load factor is the ratio of the projection of the aerodynamic and propulsive loading in the aircraft z-axis and the weight of the aircraft.1 except the normal aerodynamic force coefficient is determined with the set of aerodynamic data determined for the flaps down case. (Eqn.2 Loading From Flaps When the flaps are deployed.4 times the stall speed with flaps retracted or 1. I.1. I. (Eqn. we assume that the propulsion system has no net loading in the z-axis direction.5) The load factor for the flaps deployed case is quite similar to Equation G. the maximum positive normal loading coefficient is multiplied by a factor 1. (Eqn.4) I. shown below.8 times the stall speed with flaps deployed (whichever is greater).3) From convention. it changes the net aerodynamic forces acting on the z-axis of the aircraft. I. I. The maneuver envelope in the case of flaps deployed must extend up to a maximum design velocity expected for operation with flaps deployed. the loading from flaps deployed will increase and will thus require separate analysis.

I. particularly if the load factor due to the gust loading exceeds that of the limit loads specified by FAR and by the specifications.8) The variable a is the partial derivative of the coefficient of normal force with respect to the angle of attack and is shown in Equation G. (Eqn. and gust could be plotted as a function of flight velocity.3 Gust Loading Envelope The effect of a sharp gust may be very devastating to an aircraft. The gust load factor begins at a n=1 and extends linearly and equally in the positive and negative direction as can be seen in Equation G. the load factors due to maneuver. (Eqn.11) I.I. I. (Eqn. I.9) The variable is the airplane mass ratio is represented by the following equation.9. The design velocities from which to base the wing loading calculations were predetermined by FAR Part 23 and are listed in Section 18 of the body.10) The variable is the gust alleviation factor and is displayed below.7) This can be rewritten as the equation shown below. I. All the analysis and plotting were performed using Microsoft Excel.7. I. flaps. (Eqn. (Eqn. I-2 .4 Compilation of Load Factors and Plotting From the steps.

” L3 Communications. <http://www.com/2intro. 18 Aug 05.faa. <http://www.co. Daniel P. <http://aluminiumracing. Aircraft Spruce & Specialty Company .gov/Regulatory_and_Guidance_Library/rgFAR. “Prince Aircraft Company P-tip Props”.pdf>. 16 Sept 06 <http://www.jp/hks_aviation/english.uk/index.AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL.uavenginesltd. Version 2.” Sandia National Laboratories.php?id=403> “AR801-50BHP Rotary Engine for Drones and UAVs” . Lynn Lane Shenstone. Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach Third Edition. Inc. <http://www. “HKS 700E” . 2004.html> “Advanced EO/IR/LD for TUAV.m.htm>.HKS Aviation.2006.Airframe Parts – Propellers.l3com. 15 Feb. Bernal. “Part 23 .Aluminum Racing Products. LiftLine.uavenginesltd. MATLAB® “2 Stroke Rotax Aircraft Engines” Kodiak Research. AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES” .UAV Engines.com/csw/Product/docs/31-Mini%20UAV%20Data%20Link%20MUDL%20gen2. 2005 <http://www. Regulatory and Guidance Library.nsf/MainFrame? OpenFrameSet>. <http://www. Luis P. 04 Nov 06 <http://www.co. <https://peoiewswebinfo.” APM UAV Payloads.com/catalog/appages/powerfin.php>. UTILITY. Katelyn M.com/index_e.Airframe Parts – Propellers. Aircraft Spruce & Specialty Company .htm> “Mini UAV Data Link.uk/fileadmin/datapack/AR801. Reston.aircraftspruce.army.mil/portal_sites/IEWS_Public/rus/eoir. Bohuslav Pejznoch. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] J-1 .htm#Radiators>.Appendix J: References [1] [2] [3] “What is Synthetic Aperture Radar. ACROBATIC.kodiakbs. .aircraftspruce. <http://www.com/catalog/appages/princeprops. 17 Sept 06.gov/RADAR/whatis.Federal Aviation Administration.monmouth.co. <http://www. Raymer.php>.htm>.” UAV Engines Ltd.sandia. VA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.0. “Aluminum Racing Products [Radiators]”.pdf> “AR801R – 51 BHP – Rotary Engine for UAVs. “Powerfin Composite Propellers”.hkspower. Mileshosky.airweb.

01 Nov 06. Shear Flow and Shear Stress Calculation. <http://www. 17 Sept 06. “RQ-1 Predator Medium Altitude Endurance (MAE) UAV” GlobalSecurity. J-2 . 17 Sept 06 <http://www. U.uavforum.airforce-technology.. MATLAB® “Predator – Unmanned Aerial Vehicle UAV” Airforce-Technology. Indiana: Jacobs Publishing.bharat-rakshak. Banavara. <http://www. Carmel. E. Nagaraj.MIL-HDBK-5H: Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures (Knovel Interactive Edition).globalsecurity.F.com/datasheets_ga/FALCO.pdf>.com/projects/predator>.htm>. Inc.” Indian Air Force.com/IAF/Images/main. “Vehicles | Production | Gnat 750” UAV Forum. “UAV Operations in the Indian Air Force.php?g2_itemId=2885>. Bruhn. <http://www. “FALCO – Surveillance UAV System” SELEX.com/vehicles/production/gnat750. 17 Sept 06.selexsas. 1973. Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle Structures. 17 Sept 2006.org/intell/systems/predator-specs.[14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] Military Handbook . 17 Sept 06.S.htm>. Department of Defense. <http://www.

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