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“Nothing in this world without Vedas and Vedic Management”— Dr.

Saikrishna, Gajavelly

DEDICATED TO
HIS HOLINESS MAHARISHI MAHESH YOGI,

THE GUIDING LIGHT OF THE DISCOVERY OF VEDA AND THE VEDIC LITERATURE IN VEDIC MANAGEMENT

‘Here is the first and final disclosure of that

knowledge

presents every human being as of the the

embodiment

total creative process in Nature and renders

human life as a field of all possibilities.

“This offers mastery over Natural Law to everyone perfection nation Earth.” to and every on

Heaven

-- MAHARISHI
HIS HOLINESS MAHARISHI MAHESH YOGI

(DAWN OF TOTAL KNOWLEDGE)

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VEDIC MANAGEMENT
Displayed In the Blossoming Of a Beautiful Lotus on the Ground of a Muddy Pond

Modern Management and Ancient Vedic Management Discover the Eternal Vision in the Management

BY
Dr. SAIKRISHNA GAJAVELLY, MBA, PhD.
(Director of Vedhbharath Creations)

*JAI GURU DEV*
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

Dr. K.V. CHARI
(M.A Journalism, M.A Political Science, Vaidya Ratna, M.A History, MBA, PhD)
MAHARISHI VEDIC UNIVERSITY CO-ORDINATOR)

*JAI GURU DEV*

CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE NO.
CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION MANAGEMENT…...……………………………………………………...……1-2 VEDA AND VEDIC LITERATURES…..…..……………….……..……………3-7 CHAPTER 2 VEDIC MANAGEMENT….…………………….……………………….……..8-11 CHAPTER 3 VEDIC AND MANAGEMENT CORRELATIONS ……..…..………………..12-32 CHAPTER 4 VEDIC MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES…………..………………............……33-48 CHAPTER 5 MODERN MANAGEMENT AND ANCIENT INDIAN MANAGEMENT DISCOVER THE IMMORTALITY IN MANAGEMENT …….………………………... …..49-51 CHAPTER 6 MANAGEMENT FROM HARIDWAR TO HARVARD………………..................52

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APPRECIATION LETTERS ON MY RESEARCH

Dear Dr. Sai Krishna Gajavelly,

It is very kind of you to share your PhD dissertation with us on this day of remembering Maharishi. Maharishi would say to you "well done" and would certain feel your knowledge and wisdom of Vedic Management is worthy of the title PhD. Congratulations to you for your insights correlating the various parts of management with the Veda and Vedic Literature.

This knowledge should be taught to the students in the management schools. Our university is hoping to gain government approvals in India to resume MBA classes in collaboration with Maharishi Institute of Management, initially in Bhopal and Maharishi Nagar, but later at other MIM locations such as Hyderabad. Could you be interested in lecturing in such programs? What the students need is an acharya to guide them as they grow to be rishis.

I am happy to make your acquaintance and I shall now be sharing some other good news with you, in other emails.

DENNIS HEATON (Dean of International Programs) Phone (641) 470-1399 Maharishi University of Management www.mum.edu

Management has become a part and parcel in everyday life, let it be it home, office, factory, Government, or in any other organization where a group of human beings assemble for a common purpose, management principles come into play through their various facets like management of time, resources, personnel, materials, machinery, finance, planning, priorities, policies and practice. The term “MANAGEMENT” derived from MAN·AGE·MENT which has been used in different senses. 1 Administration Of Business

The organizing and controlling of the affairs of a business or a sector of a business 2 Managers As Group

Managers and employers considered collectively, especially the directors and executives of a business or organization. 3 Handling of something successfully

The act of handling or controlling something successfully 4 Skill In Handling Or Using Something

The skillful handling or use of something such as resources Management is required to plan, organize, coordinate and control the affairs of the organization. It brings the human and material resources together and motivates the people for the achievement of the objectives of the organization. Sometimes it is used to mean the group of managerial personnel in an organization. At other times, management refers to the process of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating and controlling. It is also referred to as a body of knowledge, practice and discipline. HISTORY: Organizations and management systems have been there since the beginning of human society. Even when man was a food gatherer and cave dweller, he realized his frailty, the dangers to which he was beset. He looked around him and drew lessons from their behavior patterns. And cogent thinking and analysis led him to form groups, for he

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had realized that he could not do everything by himself. And groups needed to be managed while management needed organizations. Moreover, management as we know that now a days its largely on American construct based on European roots. Historically modern management has developed as a discipline over the past couple of centuries. The first organizations of consequence in Europe and America, where the discipline of modern management developed, were governmental, religious and military institutions. From these came the initial concepts of leadership, the chain of command, coordination, control and functional specialization. The Roman Empire and the Catholic Church were particularly influential.

Emerging Management Positions New management viewpoints are emerging. Quality management emphasizes in achieving customer satisfaction by providing high quality goods and services. Reengineering the organization redesigns the processes that are crucial to customer satisfaction. Globalization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries used the term management in three different senses: • • • as a noun; as a process; and as a discipline.

When used as a noun, management refers to all those persons who are concerned with getting things done through others. When used as a process, management refers to all that a manager does. The various functions, which are performed by managers to make the efficient use of the available material and human resources so as to achieve the desired objectives, are summed up as management. Sometimes the term “Management” is used neither as the activity nor as the personnel who perform it, but as a body of knowledge, practices of management as a subject of study.

Vedic means pertaining to Veda. The Vedas are the collection of mantras. The word Veda is derived from the Sanskrit root “VID” which means “knowledge”, hence the Vedas are the books of Pure Knowledge. The Vedic literature is an age – old literature of India. It has been preserved generation, from parents to children, in the Vedic families of India. Vedic literatures are the ancient science (i.e. Physics, chemistry, mathematics, physiology, etc...). Vedic literatures were discovered by Rishi (Ancient Scientist, they had discovered the laws of universal). The Vedic scriptures are the spiritual literature of the ancient Indian culture, written in the Sanskrit language. They are comprised of a huge collection of books which include material (mundane), religious (ritualistic) as well as spiritual (monotheistic) knowledge. The Vedas are the greatest scriptures humanity can think of. They don't belong to any religion in particular but are eternal, everlasting truths. It's very important to know that "by the Vedas no books are meant. They mean the accumulated treasury of spiritual laws discovered by different persons in different times." The Vedas were revealed with the creation of universe and human beings. According to the Vedic astrological calculations it comes out to be (1, 97, 29, 49,088) one thousand nine hundred seventy two millions nine hundred forty nine thousand eightyeight years. And according to cosmologists also, the age of creation of universe come out to be about two thousand million years by different modern dating techniques. Despite of a Christian missionary’s approach. Max Muller confessed that Rk-Veda is the oldest book. He writes in the introduction of Rk-Veda thus. “After the latest researches into the history and chronology of the book of old testament. We may now safely call the Rk Veda the oldest book, not only of Aryan community, but of the whole world”. The Rishi was the first savant and expert who by virtue of his deep meditation and enhance had revealed the true spirit of the mantra or group of mantras in their literal, metaphysical and spiritual sense, and had further explained the same in details to other human beings. This experience was not, Rishis’s asserts, on the level of thinking, or theoretical conjecture, or imagination, but on the level of direct experience, which is more vivid, that NEWTON or EINSTEIN, when they discovered the laws of universal gravitation or special relativity, enjoyed a vivid experience of sudden understanding or kind of direct “insight” into these laws. 4

Vedic management means management through Veda- management through knowledge (Veda) and its infinite organizing power- management that is supported by the holistic value of Natural law and the innumerable specific value of Natural law- all the laws of nature discovered by the objective approach of modern science and through subjective approach of Vedic science- it is in full accord with all the knowledge of the Laws of Nature that are known to Chemistry, Physiology, psychology, Physics etc. Management is a systematic way of doing all activities in any field of human effort. It is about keeping oneself engaged in interactive relationship with other human beings in the course of performing one's duty. Its task is to make people capable of joint performance, to make their weaknesses irrelevant. The modern management concepts like vision, leadership, motivation, excellence in work, achieving goals, meaning of work, attitude towards work, nature of individual, decision making, planning etc., are all discussed in the VEDAS with a sharp insight and finest analysis to drive through our confused grey matter making it highly eligible to become a part of the modern management syllabus. From the pre-historic days of aborigines to the present day of robots and computers the ideas of managing available resources have been in existence in some form or other. When the world has become a big global village now, management practices have become more complex and what was once considered a golden rule is now thought to be an anachronism. No system of management in the world today is as perfect as the Vedic system of management because all systems of management derive their policies and procedures from the theories of economy, production, and sales, but they are not fully in accord with all the Laws of Nature that manage the order and evolution in the galactic universe. This is the reason why all the existing systems of management are prone to problems of instability and are unsatisfactory. The concept of management which is now studied in a very scientific manner had its origin right from the beginning of civilization. Efficient management techniques were discussed in Vedas and Upanishads.

In this context, it is enjoyable to mention that Vedic management spontaneously draws upon the infinite creativity of the infinite organizing power of the holistic value of Natural law lively in Rk Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda, and, at the same time, spontaneously draws upon the enormous creativity of the specific laws of Nature that constitute the thirty – six values of the Vedic Literature – 4 +36 = 40.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF VEDAS AND VEDIC LITERATURES
A) Vedas: Vedas are four: RK Veda: It contains various hymns about the deities for obtaining their grace it

contains the knowledge about creation and celestial bodies. “Rukh” means Vedic mantra. Sama Veda: Sama Veda is a collection of hymns or mantras with melody of music, rhythm, and precise swaras (musical pitch) in praise of deities. The seven notes of music (sa-ri-ga-ma-pa-da-ni) originated from samaveda. The Upaveda for Samaveda is Gandharva Veda Yajur Veda: For the mantras of Rk—Veda, it describes the methodology of performing yagnas and Karmic rites, the Upa—Veda is Dhanur Veda. 1) Shukla Yajur Veda: Mostly followed in North India. 2) Krishna Yajur Veda: Mostly followed in South India. Atharva Veda: Atharvaveda has the hymns, which protect us from evil forces, and also contains the knowledge about our health and various Technologies useful for day to today living. B) SIX VEDANGAS – Siksha, Vyakarana, Chandas, Nirukha, Jyotisya & Kalpa Sastras C) FOUR UPAANGAS – Mimamsa, Nyaya, Purana & Dharma Sastra D) 28 SASTRAS – Akshara – Laksha, Sabda Sastra, Lakshana Sastra, KanyaLakshana Sastra, Sakuna Sastra, Shilpa Sastra, Supa-Sastra, Malinee-Sastra, Kala Sastra, Samudrika Sastra, Dhatu Sastra, Visha Sastra, Chitra Karma Sastra, Malla Sastra, Parakaya Pravesha, Aswa Sastra, Gaja Sastra, Ratna Pariksha, Mahendrajala Sastra, Shakti Trantra, Soundamini Kala, Megha Sastra, Yantra Sastra, Shapatya Vidya and another four upavedas are Ayurveda, Dhanur Veda, Gandharva Veda, ArthaSastra.

E) SIX Pratishakhya -- Rk Veda Pratishakhya, Shukla—Yajur Veda Pratishakhya, Krishna—Yajur Veda Pratishakhya (Taittiriya), Atharva Veda Pratishakhya (Chaturadhyayi), Atharva Veda Pratishakhya, (Pushpa—Sutram) & Sama Veda Pratishakhya

EACH OF THE FOUR VEDAS IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS

1. Samhita: Mantra part of worshipping the deities. 2. Brahmanam: Explains the mantras and karmic rites 3. Aranyakam: Talks about the philosophical meaning of mantras 4. Upanishads: Para vidya – explains the intricacies in obtaining Liberation (moksha) and Knowledge of Cosmic secrets.

The concept of management which is now studied in a very scientific manner had its origin right from the beginning of civilization. Efficient management techniques were discussed in Vedas and Upanishads. The benefit of Vedic management is that while attending to any one part, its influences is enriching to every other part of science, commerce and arts. Vedic management is scientific management because whatever is Vedic is scientific; Vedic monument is problem – free, orderly management – equally nourishing to all – always evolutionary to everyone. This Vedic consciousness-based management training was distorted by the foreign influence in India for thousands of years, and even now the management of foreign influence is domination management system in India, rendering them totally incomplete and ineffective With Maharishi Universities of Management in America, Europe, and Russia and Maharishi Institute of Management in India, the field of management is now rising to enjoy the light of Vedic management – the light of perfection.

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Veda is knowledge. Knowledge blossoms when the knower, through the process of knowing, comes in contact with the object of knowing. That means;

Knowledge is Yogic (unified) value of knower, knowing, and know.

Veda

is

Samhita ( SAMHITA )

of

Rishi,

Devata, and Chhandas.

(Brahmanam)(Aranyakam)(Upanishads)

Management is managing unity functions of Vedic Management

inputs

Process

and Output

CHHANDAS (OUT PUT)

SAMHITHA

Unified Field Of all the laws of Nature

WHOLENESS OF WEALTH MAXIMISATION

MANAGEMENT

IS

PLANNING,

ORGANIZING,

LEADING

AND

CONTROLLING THE TRANSFORMATION OF INPUT RESOURCES INTO SUCCESSFUL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES.

Managers create and maintain an internal environment, commonly called the organization, so that other can work efficiently in it. A manager’s job consists of planning, organizing, directing and controlling the resources of the organization. These resources include people, jobs or positions, technology, facilities and equipment, materials and supplied information and money. Managers work in a dynamic environment and must anticipate and adapt to challenges. The job of every manager involves what is known as the functions of management: planning, organizing, directing and controlling.

CORRESP ONDING PART

CORRESP ONDING PART

CORRESP ONDING PART

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Veda & Vedic Literatures
Vedas have predominantly four main themes of Knowledge, activity, worship and human conduct including scientific and management technology or vigyanam. Four divisions of Social order, Beginning with the intelligent class of men, they are the top in the society they can design the rules and regulations to society, technically called Brahmanas due to their being situated in the mode of goodness

Management
Management implies substitution of exact scientific investigation and knowledge for the old individual judgment or opinion, in all matters in the establishment: Planning is the most basic and pervasive process involved in managing. It means deciding in advance what actions to take and when and how to take them. Planning must start from the top. The top management defines objectives for the entire company and they percolate down throughout the organization. Organizing refers to the formal grouping of people and activities to facilitate achievement of the firm’s objectives. Issues for discussion here are the types of organization structure, degree of centralization, level of management, span of control, delegation of authority, unity of command, line and staff relationship and staffing. Administration department can deal these activities. Leading carrying out the desired plans. It initiates the organizing and planned action and ensures effective performance by subordinates towards the accomplishment of group activities. Leading is called management in action. Group Leaders and entrepreneur can lead his groups. Controls provide a means of checking the progress of employees/labors performance and correcting plans for workers/organization performance.

Administrative class technically called the Ksatriyas they can create the structure of duties and functions for the attainment of the objectives of the society.

The mercantile men, called as Vaysyas are situated in the mixed modes of passions and ignorance.

Sudras or laborer class, are situated in the ignorant mode of material nature.

“To mange is forecast and plan, to organize, to coordinate and to control”
-Henry Fayol(Father Of Management) According to the three modes of material nature and the work associated with them, the four divisions of human society are created by me. And although I am the creator of this system, you should know that I am yet the nondoer, being unchangeable. (- Bhagavad githa 4.13)

Veda & Vedic Literatures
Vedic philosophy identifies four objectives to be sought in the human life. These are value system (Dharma), money (Artha), urges (Kama) and salvation (Moksha). These should be followed in such a way that value system (Dharma), should lead to achievement of money (Artha), money (Artha) should lead to achievement of urges (Kama) and finally urges (Kama) leading to attainment of salvation (Moksha). Swami Vivekananda says, “The basis of all systems social or political rests upon the goodness of man.” Thus value system (Dharma) is the first pillar in attainment of prosperity and happiness. The values from material to moral are approved by Vedas. Value system (Dharma) is superior to urges (Kama) as Lord Krishna says; “Value system protects you if you follow it” (Dharmo Rasshati Raksshata). Transcendental knowledge (Gyan) Action (Karma) Loka sangraha(general
Welfare)

Management
HIGH QUALITY (Dharma)

HIGH PROFIT (Artha)

LOW COAST (Kama)

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION (Moksha)

Stakeholder’s goals National goals Sarva Loka Hitam UNIVERSAL GOALS Individual goals Group goals

Science (Vigyan)

Cosmic laws of nature, human laws of nature, animal laws of nature, and all the laws of nature, including man made laws are rooted in Vedas. To create anything we require knowledge of making it; to create a pot, we should have the knowledge of making a pot; to cook food we require the knowledge of cooking; similarly to create this cosmos, the knowledge that the creator had applied is Veda.

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MAHARISHI’S VEDIC SCIENCE AS TRADITIONALLY RECORDED IN VEDA AND THE 36 BRANCHES OF THE VEDIC LITERATURE

Atma

Corresponding part in Management

VEDA

VEDANGA

Corresponding part in Management

UPANGA

Corresponding part in Management

AYUR- VEDA

Corresponding part in Management

BRAHMANA

Corresponding part in Management

PRATISHAKHYA
Corresponding part in Management

Figure17. Shows Veda and the 36 Branches of the Vedic Literature.

BRAHM --- TOTALITY

OVERALL VISION OF THE MANAGEMENT ORGANIZED ACCORDING TO VEDA AND THE VEDIC LITERATURE Managing Intelligence/skills

Corresponding part in Management

MANAGEMENT

Corresponding part in Management

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

Corresponding part in Management

MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT

Corresponding part in Management

PRODUCTION & QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Corresponding part in Management

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Corresponding part in Management

MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Figure18. Shows the various parts of Management that correlate with Veda and the Vedic Literatures 4

Figure 17.Shows Veda and the 36 Branches of the Vedic Literature.

Figure 18.Shows the various parts of Management that expression with Veda and the Vedic Literatures

MAHARISHI’S VEDIC SCIENCE AS TRADITIONALLY RECORDED IN VEDA AND THE 36 BRANCHES OF THE VEDIC LITERATURE

OVER ALL VISION OF THE MANAGEMENT EXPRESSION WITH VEDA AND VEDIC LITERATURES

The benefit of Vedic management is that while attending to any one part, its influences is enriching to every other part of science, commerce and arts. Vedic management is scientific management because whatever is Vedic is scientific; Vedic monument is problem – free, orderly management – equally nourishing to all – always evolutionary to everyone

In this context, it is enjoyable to mention that Vedic management spontaneously draws upon the infinite creativity of the infinite organizing power of the holistic value of Natural law lively in Rk Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda, and, at the same time, spontaneously draws upon the enormous creativity of the specific laws of Nature that constitute the thirty – six values of the Vedic Literature – 4 +36 = 40.

Atma (managing Intelligence/skills, the source of Veda, fully awake in its potentiality is Totality – Brahm. Atma is lively in its full potential when its self interacting dynamics, the 36 vales of the Vedic Literatures, together give rise to the structure of Veda (Pure knowledge) – the Laws of Nature, the Constitution of the Universe – which in turn evolve into the Management and the material creation (Vishwa) while ever remaining within the field of Atma. This Atma – Atma with the total memory of Veda and Vishwa within it – is Brahm, the totality – Ayam Atma Brahm.

.

RK VEDA (HOLISTIC)
As Rk Veda has a structure which is eternal, holistic, all time reality on its own level, the structuring dynamics of Rk Veda have to be self-referral, Therefore, all the other 36 aspects of the Vedic Literature assumes Nevertheless and one predominant quality as its specialty. In the remaining part of this Chapter, all the 36 branches (aspects) of the Vedic Literature will be briefly introduced. Their characteristic feature (specialty) will be highlighted in bold letters. The first three are: 1.Sama Veda 2.Yajur Veda 3.Atharva Veda

Rk Veda Holistic quality as comparing with Business and Organizational Management has a structure, which consists of holistic functions, operations and goals of Management, all time reality on its own Top Management level. The structuring dynamics of Management have to be self-referral of the Managers. Therefore, all the other 36 aspects of the Management Branches are self-referral. The first three branches are:

1. Financial Management 2. Human Resource Management 3. Marketing Management

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SAMA VEDA (FLOWING WAKEFULNESS)
Sama Veda, which expresses Samhita quality of consciousness with a predominantly Rishi value . Sama Veda is all that is pertaining to Rishi. It is flowing wakefulness.

Sama Veda flowing wakefulness quality concludes the Financial Management. Finance is the life – blood of every organization. It lubricates every organ and every functional area of the organization and maintains the health of an organization. At a moment the blood circulation in a human body stops, the human being collapses. Similarly the business organization also comets to standstill, the moment the finances exhaust in it. It ultimately leads to the collapse of an organization. Which expresses entire organization or business position and wealth of consciousness with a predominantly Input Value. Financial Management/Department is all that is pertaining to Input operations. It is flowing wakefulness of funds/money in the Business organization.

YAJUR VEDA (DYNAMIC CREATIVITY)
Yajur – Veda, which expresses Samhita quality of consciousness with a predominantly Devata value. Yajur – Veda is all that is pertaining to Devata. It is dynamic creativity.

Yajur Veda dynamic creativity quality leads to conclude the Human Resource Management. Human resources management is primarily concerned with the people’s dimension in the organization. It is a crucial subsystem in the process of Management. The success or failure of an organization not only depends on material, machines and

equipment but also on the personnel (called human resource) dynamic creativity who put in their best efforts for an efficient performance in job.

Human resource management is the management of employee’s skills, knowledge, talent, aptitudes, creative abilities etc.

ATHARVA VEDA (REVERBERATING WHOLENESS)
Atharva Veda, which expresses Samhita quality of consciousness with a predominantly Chhandas value. Atharva Veda is all that is pertaining to Chhandas. It is reverberating wholeness.

Atharva Veda reverberating wholeness quality concludes Marketing Management. It is subsystem in the Management it deals with out put. It is reverberating wholeness of Management.
MANAGEMENT

Reverberating Wholeness

FINANCIAL

HR

MARKETING

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Figure: 19

These three values, Sama (Fin), Yajur (Hr), and Atharva (Mkt) therefore constitute the first holistic aspects of consciousness with reference to Rishi(Input), Devata(Process), and Chhandas (Output) (See Above Table).

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STHAPATYA VEDA (ESTABLISHING)
Sthapatya Veda, which has predominantly Chhandas quality and is with reference to establishing everything in the light of Natural Law.

Production and Operational Management deals with Project Management. The very first step in project planning is the choice of the site where the production/ organization facilities are to be established. This problem is faced not only by manufacturing

concerns but also by services organizations like banks, hotels, hospitals distribution agencies, warehousing firms. Organization location may be understood as the function of determining where the plant should be established for maximum operating economy (output) and effectiveness. The selection of a place for locating a plant is one of the problems and perhaps the most important, which is faced by an entrepreneur while launching a new enterprise.

Vedic management refers live and work in buildings, built according to Vastu -Sthapatya Veda -- the Vedic Science and Technology of building according to Natural Law.

DHANUR VEDA (INVINCIBLE)
Dhanur – Veda, which has a predominantly Devta quality and is with reference to the invincible quality of consciousness.

Strategic management is a process. A process denotes that it has various activities and these must be performed in a systematic manner. From this point of view, a process appears to be a very simple phenomenon but in actual practice, the process becomes

much more complex where it works as an identifiable flow of information through interrelated stages of analysis directed towards the achievements of objectives. It will give invincible process for successful management.

GANDHARVA VEDA (INTEGRATING)
Gandharva Veda, which has a predominantly Rishi quality and is with reference to the integrating quality of consciousness.

Generally, an office is said to be a place where clerical work is done to co-ordinate and control the affaires of the organization. But this definition is narrow in its meaning, since place is not an essential ingredient of office work. Further, modern office is not confined to paperwork. With the advent of intercom, Telephone, Music, Songs, Computer, Taperecorder, Video etc. Office Management is integrating with event management (i.e. Conducting Meetings, Anniversaries, Guest Events, and Weekend events etc.).

SHIKSHA (EXPRESSION)
Vedanga represents the body of Veda. The first aspect of Vedanga, Shiksha, is that quality which accounts for the mechanics of expression of Veda.

Financial Management represents the blood of Management. The first aspect of Financial Management, Invest management is expression of all investment decisions in the organization. This relates to the investment in capital asserts and current assets. Evaluation of different capital investment proposals and selection of the overall objective

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of enterprise must be done. Investment in current assets depends upon the credit and inventory policy of the business. Credit policy depends upon the targeted growth sales and availability of finance. Inventory policy depends upon the production, prices of raw material and availability of funds etc.

KALPA (TRANSFORMATION)
From that level of expression, Atma gets transformed from unmanifest into manifest. This transformation is Kalpa. Kalpa is the fundamental value, which transforms the being – level into the becoming – level. It describes how singularity brings in diversity through the self- referral quality of consciousness.

Investment theories are not complete and effective unless they are transforms with strategic management. Strategic management considers the markets, whether relating to capital, product or labor, as imperfect and changing. Hence, strategies are developed to manage the business firms in uncertain and imperfect market conditions and environment. Proper corporate strategies have to be devised for proper implementation of corporate policies. Thus the above is the transformation with financial management to other disciplines.

VYAKARANA (EXPANSION)
From Kalpa’s transformation emerges the quality of progression and expansion. This is Vyakarana.

Financial Management refers to financial functions of the organization. International financial management expansion is with the financial function of an overseas business. Specifically “ the finance function of an international business deals with investment decisions – decisions about what activities to be financed. Investment decisions – decisions about how to finance those activities. Strategic Finance Management decisions — decisions about how to manage the firm’s financial resource most efficiently. Towards understanding international financial management normally, a distinction is drawn between institutional and additional dimension.

Therefore these three values of Shiksha, Kalpa, and Vyakarana (expression, transformation, and expansion) are upheld by a reverse process, which keeps any step of expression, transformation, and expansion connected with the source. This maintains connectedness with Atma – self-referral consciousness. This connection of the three qualities to their source, Atma, is upheld by Nirukta, Chhanda, and Jyothish.

The institutional dimension is to take care of financial institutions, structure and systems, specific to countries. The additional dimension is to take care of those problems of financial control, regulations and management that are peculiar to international (compared to domestic) operations. Given this perspective, we would like to concentrate on a few selected issues. These three qualities of Investment Management, Strategic Financial Management, and International financial management upheld by Statistic management, corporate taxation, and Portfolio and derivative management.

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Whatever is being expressed is being dissolved. Homeostasis is maintained within dynamic change. This returning, self-referral value expresses itself through Nirukta.

Portfolio and Derivative Management expresses the Combinations of funds and maintained funds with low risk and profit maximization within share market change. This returning, self –referral values expresses itself through risk analysis. It will explain the value of funds in future that there is a specific balance and a measuring risk in time and space.

NIRUKTA (SELF- REFERRAL)
Whatever is being expressed is being dissolved. Homeostasis is maintained within dynamic change. This returning, self-referral value expresses itself through Nirukta.

A Portfolio is a combination of different investment assets mixed and matched for the purpose of achieving an investor's goal(s). Items that are considered a part of your portfolio can include any asset you own-from shares, debentures, bonds, mutual fund

units to items such as gold, art and even real estate etc. However, for most investors a portfolio has come to signify an investment in financial instruments like shares, debentures, fixed deposits, and mutual fund units. Improve credit / risk and product delivery of self –referral intelligence

CHHANDA (MEASURING)
Whatever is being expressed is being dissolved. Homeostasis is maintained within dynamic change. This returning, self-referral value expresses itself through Nirukta. In both these values, forward and backward there is a specific there is a specific balance and a measuring quality in time and space. This specific measuring is Chhanda.

Corporate tax measuring tax levied by various jurisdictions on the profits made by companies or associations. The measure of taxable profits varies from country to country

JYOTHISH (ALL - KNOWINGNESS)
Chhanda’s specific measuring and in this simultaneous co – existence of two value of awareness, there is all – knowingness. This all – knowingness in opposite directions is Jyothish.

Statistic management is management analysis for management by facts & figures Represents Decisions based on use of specific techniques, the all – knowing quality of self – referral consciousness. It is that value which sees the past, connects with the present, and foresees the future. Jyothish is the science of prediction, based on mathematical calculations

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NYAYA (DISTINGUISHING AND DECIDING)
The first value of Upanga, Nyaya, represents that the value which allows to see going and coming back at the same time, distinguishing and deciding, and coexistence of opposite values. Business Law is a branch of General law. It relates to Industry, trade and commerce. It should be noted that Business Law is not altogether but distinguishing and separate from other branches of Law. In its application, recourse is often taken to other pieces of legislation. Laws are such that all are interrelated. It is only a matter of convenience that legislation is classified into Business Law, Labour Law, Industrial Law, Mercantile Law, etc. These Laws are essential in deciding of Contracts, sale of goods, partnerships, negotiable instruments, companies co—operative societies etc, consumers are a special constituent of any business. The consumer’s movement has gained significant importance of late consumers Protection. Act not only recognizes the importance of safeguarding the right and interest of the consumers, but also puts every business on alert and answerable to the consumer, the ultimate master.

VAISHESHKA (SPECIFYING)
Vaisheshika deals with specific aspects of infinity – points as specific values of infinity and their specific sequence. What are these points and their sequence?

A manager has to perform various functions. His responsibilities are manifold and he is the key man in the organization. His performance directly affects the success of an enterprise. Therefore, the person occupying the position of a manager must posses specific qualities, important of which are roles and responsibilities of the manager.

Vaisheshika deals with specific aspects of infinity – points as specific values of infinity and their specific sequence. What are these points and their sequence? This is counted in terms of 25 values described in Samkhya, which represents enumerating quality of consciousness.

Corporate policies and practices which guides to think in decision – making. Policy lays down the course of action selected to guide and enumerate present and future decision. Policy as a general statement of understanding lays down the limits within which decisions are to be made and thereby assures consistence and unified performance. Policies can originate at any level in the organization and a manager should lay down policies within the limits of his authority and also within limits set by earlier policies and decisions of his seniors. Generally speaking, policies tend to be more broad and basic as one goes up the echelons of management hierarchy.

YOGA (UNIFYING)
Vaisheshika deals with specific aspects of infinity – points as specific values of infinity and their specific sequence. What are these points and their sequence? This is counted in terms of 25 values described in Samkhya, which represents enumerating quality of consciousness. However, this is not in the classical points which are there in the state of unity; and therefore, as a complete contrast to the consideration form the value of the points, we have that unity, oneness, singularity. This unifying value is handled by Yoga, in unity value, the goal of “know thyself” is reached: “I know myself”. And immediately, through the process of knowing oneself, the concept of knowing (Rishi) Input, process of

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knowing (Devata) Process, and known (Chhandas) Output emerges. As a result, dynamic activity (Karma) (work) emerges.

Stress management is unifying value for successful management. First, stress is an independent variable influencing employee satisfaction and performance. Second, it is incumbent on management to improve quality of life of organizational members. As stress is linked to coronary heart disease, a reduction in stress is expected to improve longevity of workforce. Yoga is probably the most effective remedy for stress. Yoga has been used in our countries for centuries. Its usefulness has not been realized with greeter enthusiasm in our country and abroad.

KARMA MIMAMSA (ANALYSIS)
Through the process of knowing oneself, the concept of knowing (Rishi) Input, process of knowing (Devata) Process, and known (Chhandas) Output emerges. As a result, dynamic activity (Karma) (work) emerges. This is the field of analysis of action – Karma Mimamsa.

Business Process Reengineering is analysis of business process through the financial behavior, Organizational Behavior, Marketing behavior and it will develop new methods to the organization for successful management in changing situations.

VEDANTA (THE TRANSCENDENT)
Yoga and karma Mimamsa both together find themselves as being the total opposite qualities of Vedanta. Wholeness left to itself, but fully awake – the transcendent

In the normal sense the term "Business" includes every type of economic activity carried on by a business enterprise like manufacturing, marketing, trading, importing, exporting and providing various types of services and such activities may be conducted by an individual, a partnership firm or a limited company. However as we are concerned with the ethical values of a modern corporate entity, in the fitness of things it is felt the usage of the term "Management Ethics" rather than the term "Business Ethics" will be more appropriate for our discussion. When it comes to governance of companies we use the term "Corporate Governance" and not "Business Governance". As the transcendent values and principles exhaustively discussed in Vedanta are identified as core human virtues, it is expected that every member of the board and senior management team to carry on the business activities on ethical lines and by fair means for common good of society rather than promotion of their self interest and personal enrichment, there will be conflicts, frictions, disagreements and disputes between them relating good corporate governance, which may come out in the open sullying the good image and reputation of an organization nurtured and built over a period of time. In the broader sense business ethics involves a number of complex areas of a business management and administration such as economic systems, organizational constitution, organizational policy, business strategy based on intuition and level of existing and anticipated competition in the market place, functional operations and individual conduct of the core team, which can throw light to the level of ethical values and practices existing in a corporate enterprise and how they can be improved by pedagogy. In substance business ethics aims at to manage all relationships both internal and external with total commitment and integrity and with a view to ensure the long-term survival of a corporate organization. An organization can

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grow, expand and successful only if there is adequate disclosure of information at all levels, cross fertilization of ideas more so with the active involvement of a knowledgeable and talented work force, transparency in business dealings resulting in shared vision and values.

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AYUR -- VEDA (PRODUCTION AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT)
Ayur – Veda emerges as a balancing quality of consciousness, which is a self –

sufficient loop formed by the six Samhitas of Ayur –Veda: Charka, Sushruta, Vagbhatt, Bhava Prakash, Sharangadhara, and Madhava Nidana. Ayur – Veda eliminates the mistake of the intellect, which sees the parts of life as separate from the holistic value of life. It is the perfect science of health and total integration.

Production and Quality Management emerges, as a balancing quality in creation of goods and services to satisfy human wants. It involves the transformation inputs (resources) into outputs (products). Production is the process of transformation of inputs into a specified set of outputs. Operations Management involves in Production Management and is the systematic direction and control of the process that transform inputs into finished goods and services. The operations function comprises a significant percentage of employees and physical assets in most organizations.

Quality Management:

•What is quality? Dictionary has many definitions: "Essential characteristic," "Superior," etc.

Some definitions that have gained wide acceptance in various organizations: "Quality is customer satisfaction," "Quality is Fitness for Use."

•The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the American Society for Quality (ASQ) define quality as:

"The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs." Production and Quality Management incorporates many tasks that are interdependent, but which can be grouped under six main factors:

NAME OF AYUR-VEDA CHARAKA

QUALITY Holding Together Nourishing & Supporting.

In Production And Quality Management Total Quality Management (TQM) Business Environment Managerial Communication Accounting Management Production and Operational Management Operations Research

SHUSHRUTA VAGBHATT BHAVA PRAKASHA SHARANGADHARA MADHAVA NIDANA

Balancing Communicating & Eloquence Enlightening Synthesizing Diagnosing

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BRAHMANA (HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT)
Brahmana is a fifth loop of the Vedic Literature, consisting of Smriti. Purana, Itihasa, Brahmana, Arayanaka, and Upanishad arises. It describes the Rishi, Devatha, and Chhandas qualities of self-referral consciousness within the Samhita quality of self – referral consciousness looping back into itself, with the following respective qualities: memory: ancient, eternal; blossoming; structuring; stirring; and transcendental self – referral Human resources Management plays a crucial role in the development process of modern economics. It is, through the combined effort of Input, Process and output. It will deals with Man, Material and organizational goals. Human resource management has a significant role in today’s organization. It takes lead in assisting management with the “People” component of the organization. Moreover, employees of an organization can assist in gaining and maintaining a competitive advantage. An efficient human resource management takes work from the whole personnel and gains the objective. Human resource management has a place of great importance. Human resource management can be discussed from six standing points. NAME OF BRAHMANA SMRITI PURANA ITIHASA BRAHMANA ARANYAKA UPANISHAD QUALITY MEMORY ANCIENT ETERNAL BLOSSOMING STRUCTURING STIRRING Transcendental self- referral In HRM Data base Management Systems (HRIS) Strategic Human Resource Management Human resource Development International HRM Labour Laws Industrial psychology and Relationships

PRATISHAKHYA (MARKETING MANAGEMENT)
This is how Rk Veda and the whole Vedic Literature emerge within the pure Self, Atma, in its self – referral quality, expressing, transforming, expanding, silence and dynamism, sounds and the gaps between sounds; always coming back to the source via the loops at the basis of the structuring dynamic of pure knowingness.

Ultimately, via the six Pratishakhya, Atma emerges as unity and diversity, wholeness and all the point values integrated together within the self-sufficient, self-referral, omnipresent, holistic value of totality – Brahm. Ayam Atma Brahm; "This Atma is Brahm".

Marketing Management is widely concerned with "Fill and Sell the needs to the society with higher satisfaction. "Unity in Diversity" is the keynote of society especially in India. The complex nature of Marketing Management can be understood through the concept of Indian as a matrix society. In this matrix, one side of the matrix represents caste, class, community and categories and the other represents region, religion, rural and urban dimensions. These all diversify groups are living in one society. Marketing management deals with "Society in Diversify" groups for fill and sell needs of the society.

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Marketing Management can be discussed from six methods. NAME OF QUALITY PRATISHAKHYA RK VEDA ALL PERVADING FIELD OF CONSCIOUSNESS SHUKLA – YAJUR VEDA SILENCE KRISHNA-YAJUR-VEDA (TAITTIRIYA) ATHARVA VEDA (CHATURADHYAYI) ATHARVA VEDA UNFOLDING Consumer Behavior Marketing Research and Brand Management DISSOLVING Rural, Services And Direct Marketing OMNIPRESENT Supply and Demand Management International marketing management Advertising and sales management In MARKETING MANAGMENT

SAMA VEDA (PUSHPA – UNMANIFESTING SUTRAM)

Veda and the 36 aspects of the Vedic Literatures will be discussed in grater detail in following chapters. They are the subject of extensive study and research at Maharishi Vedic Universities and Maharishi University of Management around the world.

Management makes the art and science of getting things done through the efforts of other people. It also refers to decision – making. Management is a distinct process consisting of planning organizing, activating and controlling performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of human beings and other resources. Management makes the people relies the objectives of the group and directs their efforts towards the achievement of these objectives. It aims at achieving economic and social objectives. Just as land, labour and capital are the factors of production and are essential for the production of goods and services, management is a factor of production that is required to co-ordinate the other factors of production for the accomplishment of predetermined goals. Management is applicable in all types of organizations. Wherever there is human activity, there is management. It is needed, at all levels of organization. Management cannot perform in the absence of authority. It is rule making and rule enforcing body. Management is a dynamic function and it has to be performed continuously. The art of the manager is essential to make the best use of management science, in the present days management is recognized as profession. A Vedic science which bestows upon the practitioner an immense Power, Prosperity & Peace is based on the five elements of nature (Earth, Water, Fire, Air & Ether). This science first reduces each key aspect of your career and business into the five elements and then strikes balance to give you desired results. In simple words, it is the use of spiritual and celestial forces which are running each and everything in very subtle and mystical way. Every successful idea, strategy and innovation has a mystic element which when identified can do wonders to even ordinary management concepts and processess. The principles and concepts of vedic management ignite a unique natural connection which is in complete harmony with your nature and the given situation. It is simply things. finding the joy of greatness in whatever you do to manage

Labour Land

Capital

Technology

Management
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“O God! Make me immortal where in happiness and bliss are in abundance. And desires are fulfilled and be gracious for attainment of that state of prosperity” (RV.9.113.11) “ O man! Come here, obtaining the fear of death (or loss), enjoying longevity and excellent quality. May you be pure and virtuous and possess the wealth and progeny. (RV.10.18.2) A manager is responsible for making decision on matters falling within the scope of his authority and normally decisions which can be taken at a given level, should not be referred to higher levels. A manager should use his skills and intelligence while deciding on a problem because quality of decisions made by him indicates the extent of responsibility discharged. When a manager makes a decision, it is, in effect, the organization response to a problem.

Decisions should be thought of as means rather than ends. Every decision is the outcome of a dynamic process, which is influenced by multiple forces. This process could be depicted as follows; • Specific objectives • Problem identification • Search for alternatives • Analysis and evolution of available alternatives. • Choice of alternative • Implementation Results • Feedback
“DECISION MAKING IS THE PROCESS OF SELECTION ONE FROM ALTERNATIVE COURSE OF ACTIONS”

Decision making process in RK –Veda: “Let us assimilate the noble thoughts and actions form all sources” (RV.1.81.1) “O men! Assemble at a common place and take decision unanimously. Do not instigate against each other” (RV.7.76.5)

The word "management" and "administration" are somewhat different when defined in a dictionary. But in the real world of business, they are the same unless one begins splitting hairs. Some might say that administration involves more things of a paper-pushing or clerical nature. And some may think that management implies some authority over others that administrators do not have. If a company makes this distinction, so be it. But in general, business administration and business management are the same. According to Modern Management, experts have classified Administration and Management as:

Management above Administration Management Equal to Administration Management below Administration
In our Vedic traditions defined Jagat (universe) Entire Management, Brahman (Administrator) Administration Different scholars conceived the relation between Brahman (administration) and Jagat (Entire Management) in different ways. These can be broadly classified into six types. They are: Jagat is Brahman (Suddhadvaitha) Management is Administration Brahman is Jagat (Vaisistadvaita) Administration is Management Brahman and Jagat are the same. That is Jagat is Brahman and Brahman is Jagat (Advaita). Administration and Management are the same. That is Management is Administration and Administration is Management. Brahman and Jagat are two different things. (Dvaita) Administration and Management is different things. Brahman is different from Jagat but Jagat is not different from Brahman. (Dvaitadvaita). Administration is different from Management but Management is not different from administration. The relation between Jagatand Brahman is indescribable (Mayavada). The relation between Management and Administration indescribable.

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This discovery of Veda in the Management makes the study and knowledge of Management a study and understanding of Veda, as mentioned in one of the aspects of the Vedic Literature, the Bhagavad – Gita(15.1):

FORMAL AND INFORMAL ORGANISATION DIAGRAM (Bhagavabad Gita15.1) BG 15.1: The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: It is said that there is an imperishable banyan tree that has its roots upward and its branches down and whose leaves are the Vedic hymns. One who knows this tree is the knower of the Vedas.

This is an extraordinary representation of the Organization structure system, showing Chairman and Managing Director at the top of the chart and branches with sub branches below, this is the structure of the organization. He who knows they can know the process of management in the organization.

'VEDA' Model
In 'VEDA' model, the four letters, V, E, D, A stand for Vision, Enlightenment, Devotion and Action. Thus, this model is a model of transcendental leadership and management. Transcendental leaders convert their vision into reality through enlightenment, devotion to the cause and through action or nishkam karma.

It may be indicated that in 'VEDA', four merges find an integration as V (Vision) is indicative of raj-yoga, E (Enlightenment) is indicative of Jnana yoga, D (Devotion) indicates Bhakti yoga and A (Action) indicates Karma yoga. 'VEDA' model also provides a basis for integration of the Dwaita. Vishishta adwaita and Adwaita, wherein 'Vision' (V) connotes the 'Mountain top of Adwaita', Enlightenment (E) corresponds to 'Adwaita', Devotion (D) corresponds to 'Vishishta - adwaita' and Action (A) corresponds to 'Dwaita'.

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Sama Veda represents the totality of financial management. Finance is the life – blood of every organization. It lubricates every organ and every functional area of the organization and maintains the health of an organization. At the moment the blood circulation in a human body stops, the human being collapses. Similarly the business organization also comes to standstill, the moment the finances exhaust in it. It ultimately leads to the collapse of an organizational. Thus, we can easily understand the finance is flowing wakefulness in an organization Though a few of the critics observed that it is the money and finance which are instrumental for “ Value erosion”, in the society it is impossible in the modern business world, to carryout any business activity without finance. Finance is the root cause for the development of trade and industry. It is the money, which gives practical shape to one’s ideas. Right from the inception of a business organization to procure fixed assets, current assets, its sustenance, expansion and growth, at every stage, finance is required.

VEDIC APPROACH: This quality of wakefulness is the silent state of Law, which is fully awake within itself. It is actually not awake within it self; he who is awake is not separate from wakefulness. Law in its self-referral state of wakefulness is the operator itself, at the same time it is the process of operation; that means it is the operating principle or operating reality; it is the operator that is operating from within itself with all the tool and systems of operation lively within it – it is everything; the operator (Manager), the process of operation, and the object – it is all the three in itself. It is wakefulness itself. That is why it is called the absolute manager on the ground of absolute managing power

This is the vision of the evolution of Law. It is one, it is three – it is one (Financial Management), it is many (It is arranges Hr, Marketing, Production, Office departments) it’s impact all of them. Artha Sastra (Money or Financial Studies): During the Vedic period Sage Vyasa is said to have composed a work on Artha Sastra (Financial Studies) of three chapters, these are related to modern fund management, invest management and dividend management in which he teaches 82 ways of earning money, event while leading a righteous life. Under this head, there are Nitisatra, Shilpasatra, the sixty-four kalas and also other physical and metaphysical subjects. The famous Artha satra texts are Kautilys’s Artha Sastra and Sukraniti. The Arthasastra tradition of Vedic management views the pursuit of artha (Money or Finance) as an important goal of human existence. Artha is usually understood to stand for material well – being, as well as for the means of securing such well being, particularly wealth. Thus, in this ancient tradition the materialistic dimension is highlighted. However, this tradition also recognizes the existence of the “Law of fish” (Matsya nyaya), wherein the tendency of the stronger to swallow the weak is recognized. As Kautiliys’s Arthasastra gave primacy to the materialistic dimension, it could anticipate a number of ideas that modern society, with its materialistic orientation, has “discovered: during recent years. Arthasastra contains a number of “modern Financial and organizational management ideas” ESSENCE OF VEDIC ECONOMIC THOUGHTS Vedic economic thoughts are focused on sacrifice for others. According to Manu-Smriti “Among all purity, purity of the money is supreme.” The five governing principles for purity of money are: 1. It should not cause any adverse impact on any living being. 2. It should not cause any kind of physical harm to us. 3. Money should be earned through our own efforts and not fetched from efforts of others. 4. Money should be earned through legitimate virtuous means only.

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5. The earning process should not be an impediment to learning process. Furthermore, Vedic economics advocates the free and uninterrupted flow of new ideas, knowledge, products, materials and money from one corner of the world to another so as to ensure the prosperity for all. Ideally speaking, money should continuously flow from the customers to suppliers; Materials should continuously flow from suppliers without any accumulation at any stage, get processed and reach customers as finished products without any rejection and rework. Any interruption in flow at any stage leads to addition of non-value adding activities and additional cost. According to kaizen guru, Masaaki Imai, “generally speaking there are about one thousand non-value-adding activities for a single value adding activity. However, some efficiently run organizations have been able to bring non-value-adding activities down to two hundred per value adding activity”. The additional cost as caused due to the interruption in the free flow of money, goods, and resources is passed on to the various stakeholders, which hinders the achievement of ultimate objective of prosperity for all. If it happens, it will lead to the realization of the Vedic economic system which is superior to all present day economic systems as given in the “Supply and demand matrix”

SUPPLY AND DEMAND MATRIX

The matrix as conceived and developed by authors, by integrating the modern as well as Vedic economic concepts, clearly exhibits the state of affairs of different levels of economic growth. Looking at the matrix in Figure, one would conclude that highest rate of growth can be achieved only through the Vedic economic approach, where welfare of all happens to be the prime concern. In essence, Vedic economy emphasizes on the following four concepts to be observed by the business organization for its growth and prosperity: 1. Yagna spirit. Sacrificing individual desires in favour of community benefits. Lord Krishna says in Bhagwad Gita (3-13), that all sorrows from the society would be removed if socially conscious members of a community feel satisfaction in enjoying the “Remnants” of their work performed in “Yagna spirit” (Selfless welfare of others). 2. Sreyas. Preferring of long-term benefits over short-term gains. This will lead to welfare of all rather than benefit of only a few. 3. Sharing. Sharing the business prosperity with all the stakeholders of the business. Rig-Veda offers comprehensive vision of excellence for corporate life in the Sangathan Sukta (Synthesis of Vedas). 4. Cosmic harmony. Non-disturbance of any thing in the environment. Bhagwad Gita says universe is an undivided whole, where every particle is connected with every other particle. Hence, doing well to others ultimately does well to the doer. Corporate world has forgotten to take care of this aspect in the past; leading to the industrial recessions, trade union struggles and other problems. However, the initiatives like ISO 9001, ISO-14001, SA-8000, OHSAS-18001 and the Global Compact etc. are a good beginning in this direction.

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Human resources management is primarily concerned with the people’s dimension in the organization. It is a crucial subsystem in the process of Management. The success or failure of an organization not only depends on material, machines and equipment but also on the personnel’s (called human resource) who are put in their best efforts for an efficient performance at job. Human resource management is the management of employee’s skills, knowledge, talent, aptitudes, creative abilities etc. Yajur Veda represents the totality of the transforming, processing, and interpreting apparatus. It is within these structures in the Human resource Management that manages human’s economical and non-economical human activities in the organization. Yajur Veda divided into two categories: Shukla (White) and Krishna (Black). Human life is built around work. Every human being is busy in one activity or another to satisfy his ever growing wants. The total of all these activities may be broadly classified into two categories. These are 1) Economic and 2) Non – economic activities. Human activities related to production and exchange of walth is called economic activities. On the other hand, non – economic activities are inspired by human sentiments of charity, religion, love, patriotism etc. the services rendered by a house wife right from the morning to evening, through her life to the members of her family and social reforms undertaken by the social servants can be cited as the examples of non – economic activities. Human resource management can manages all these activities successfully. E C O N O M I C A L N O N E C O N O M I C A L

HRM manages all human activities at individual, society and organizational level as an illustration of Yajur – Veda.

The Vedic model with its emphasis on holistic human resource management, development provides us a new model for the future development of human resources, in which “spirit of capital” or the Artha dimension of life is not negated but is driven by Dharma or Ethics. Thus, “Dharma driven Artha” or the “spiritually guided materialism” represents a balanced approach to development. While western ethos are rooted in individualism or the primacy of self – interest, Eastern ethos favor lokasangaraha (Employment) or the primacy of collective interest ad altruism. What is required is a balance between the two.

The intellectual foundation of the Vedic model could be traced to three fundamental “theories” from Vedic scriptures Viz. the panchkoshas theory, the Purushartha theory

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and the theory of gunas. The essential aspects of the three are presented below. By combining the three theories we can arrive at the foundational basis of the Vedic model.

The panchakoshas theory provides a framework for holistic self – development. It identifies five levels of self –development viz. the physical, psychological, mentological, intellectual and the spiritual consistent with the Annanmaya, Pranammaya, Manomaya, Vijanmaya and Anandamaya koshas. It provides foundations for the ideas of

“Panchamukhi vikas” or five fold holistic development “Physical, Practical, Aesthetic, Moral ad Intellectual” at the Individual level. BHAGAVAD GITA 8.27 These two, Shukla and Krishna (the bright (Economical and the (Non Economical)dark), are held to be the world’s eternal paths

These two, (Economic and Non –Economic) activities are held to be the world’s eternal paths to the human being. WORK COMMITMENT

“One should wish to live in this world doing hard work for hundred years as there is no other way for one’s own salvation. A selfless and detached action keeps the doer away from harm.” UTILIZATION OF HR (Yajur Veda.40.2)

“O man! Enjoy whatever God gave you. Lost not after any one’s resources.” HR MANAGER ROLES (Yajur Veda.40.1)

“Judicious activity and heroism are my two (Economic and Non-economic) hands” LEADERSHIP (Yajur Veda.20.7)

“Oye man! The pathway which thou traversed now in different from that of the enlightened persons; may evils walk far from it so that thou mayest be able to peruse the supreme path by righteousness” “Let your mind be possessed of noble thoughts and intentions” (Yajur Veda.34.1) LEADER “Let us follow the path of righteousness” (Yajur Veda.7.45) FOLLOWER

Marketing management is the art and science of applying core marketing concepts to choose target markets and get, keep, and grow customers through creating, delivering, and communicating superior customer value. It is reverberating wholeness of Management.
MANAGEMENT

Reverberating Wholeness

FINANCIAL

HR

MARKETING

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Figure: 19

These three values, Sama (Fin), Yajur (Hr), and Atharva (Mkt) therefore constitute the first holistic aspects of consciousness with reference to Rishi(Input), Devata(Process), and Chhandas (Output) (See Above Table).

Marketing management, marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering, and exchanging products and services of value freely with others. As a managerial definition, marketing has often been described as “the art of selling products.” But Peter Drucker, a leading management theorist, says that “the aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Ideally, marketing should result in a customer who is ready to buy.”

Philip Kotler: Marketing Management, Millennium Edition

Marketing Management is widely concerned with “Fill and Sell the needs to the society with higher satisfaction. “Unity in Diversity” is the keynote of society especially in India. The complex nature of Marketing Management can be understood through the 4

concept of Indian as a matrix society. In this matrix, one side of the matrix represents caste, class, community and categories and the other represents region, religion, rural and urban dimensions. These all diversify groups are living in one society. Marketing management deals with “Uinity is in diversity” groups for fill and sells needs of the society. In this matrix, one side of the matrix represents caste, class, community and categories opposite side target markemarket, customer needs, integrated marketing, and profitability and the other represents region, religion, rural and urban dimensions. These all diversify groups are living in one society. Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest definitions of marketing is “meeting needs profitably.” Region Caste Religion Rural Urban Target Market Customer Needs Integrated Marketing Profitability MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Class

Community Categories

VEDIC MODEL “UNITY IS IN DIVERSITY” QUALITY IN MARKETING MANAGEMENT

“I am Invincible” (Atharva Veda 19.51.1) “O man! Live a long life having the life force under (Market control) control” (Athrva Veda.
.1.48.4)

Oye Mankind ! proceed onwards from the existing status and rise utmost by breaking into pieces the net work of evils which degrade you, and even death. (Athrva Veda. 8.4)

Sri Rama teaches the secrets of administration & governing principles to this brother king bharatha, when the latter meets the former in the forest. Sage Valimiki had wonderfully composed 100 Verses, which reveal the knowledge of good governance. 100th Sarga of Ayodhya Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana contains the 100 verses about the governing techniques. Let us discuss a few of them. “While appointing people to various positions in your organization, you might have appointed intelligent people for the high positions; mediocre people for the middle level positions; people with low intellect for lower positions. (Ay.K-100/26) -- Sri Rama’s Advice to Bharatha)

You might have appointed your council of managers, who are loyal to you, who are fearless, straight forward, highly ethical in their conduct, who are well versed in the matters of political science & management, who have good family background and come from high lineage, who behave accordingly after understating your intentions; (Ay.K-100/16) “Hope, your decisions are not agitating the people. Hope, you are being rightly advised in this regard by your ministers” (Ay.K-100/28) “You might have appointed an efficient person as your Army general, who knows the art of warfare, who is loyal to you and how is contented with your remuneration and honours, ” (Ay.K-100/31) “Remuneration & Salaries are to be paid regularly to employees without delay and default. Other wise they express disregard to the royal authority. Hope you are honoring your commitment from time to time ” (Ay.K-100/34) “Persons who are native & born in your country, persons who can understand the feelings & opinions of other kings, persons who convey the message to other kings without distortion, who have tact & common sense, who exhibit a high degree of discrimination in matters pertaining to relations with other kings should be appointed as ambassador. ” (Ay.K-100/35) “Have you appointed spies to monitor the 18 classes of people, who reside in other countries and fifteen categories of people who reside in your own organization?” (Ay.K-100/37) “Do the people who depend on agriculture, cattle rearing and commerce feel happy about the state of affairs of your governance? In their happiness and well-being lies country’s prosperity. ” (Ay.K-100/48) “Are you protecting all kinds of citizens of your organization? It is the fundamental duty of the manager to protect his subjects at all times. ” “Hope, you are not very intimate with your employees or subjects and at the same time your are not distancing them from meeting you. A manager has to maintain a proper balance in his relationship with his sub-ordinates.” 4

“I believe that you are not enjoying all alone the Wealth & delicious food. Hope you are sharing them with your kith and kin.” “Are you befriending seniors, intellectuals, and the youth of your organization with your good words and good gifts?” (Ay.K-100/62) “Rama proceeds to exhort Bharata o the ways and means of protecting places, forts, water bodies etc and gives guidance for maintaining cities and villages. (Sarga-100)

Modern Management and Ancient Vedic Management Discover the Eternal Vision in the Management
Managing intelligence

Figure: 85

(Management)

Business & Organizational Management

FINANCE

HR

MARKETING

The vision is that Sama (Financial Management/ Department) contains Yajur (HR Management/Department) within it, which contains Atharva (Marketing

Management/Department) within it; and Atharva (Mkt) can be seen as Containing Sama (Fin), Yajur (HR), and Rk (Organisational Management/ Director/ General Manager) within it. It is enjoyable to observe that the fully awake, self-referral intelligence of Atma (managing intelligence) hears and sees the structuring dynamics of these four Veda in terms of Six Vedangas, Six Upanga, Six Brahmana, Six Upa – Veda, Six Ayur Veda Samhita, and Six Pratishakhyas. In Management managing intelligence hears and sees the structuring dynamics of these four management intelligence in terms of six Financial management, Six management development, Six human resource management, six Production and quality management, and six Marketing management braches. All these four independent qualities of WHOLENESS –Rk, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva -- should be understood as absolute values of WHOLENESS, Each being independent of each other contains the others within it. This question on the reality of the four Veda in one WHOLENESS of Atma (Managing intelligence) is resolved when we understand them all as absolute realities. Each being Absolute (non –relative) can be easily seen to be one within the other --- four Absolutes in one absolute value of Atma (Managing Intelligence) –TOTALITY --- Brahm. This is how we have the vision of Rk, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva (Business& organizational Management, Financial, Human resource and Marketing Management) within the fully awake Atma (managing intelligence) of anyone.

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Atma (Management (Managing Intelligence)) awake within itself has four qualities –self –referral Vrittis (impulses) within its self-referral, unmanifest reality – the ocean of WHOLENESS, infinity, in the state of pure wakefulness.
MANAGING INTELLIGENCE

Business & Organizational Management

FINANCE (Input)

HR (Process)

MARKETING (Output)

These Vrittis -- Rk, Sama, Yajur, and Atharva (Organizational Management, Financial, Human resource and Marketing Management) qualities of intelligence – are the selfexpressed Shruti –that which is heard by Atma (managing intelligence) itself in its eternal state of Unity, Brahm Chetana – fully awake Atma (managing intelligence)—the state of Brahm – ayam Atma Brahm – Totality. This supreme state of knowledge is expressed in India in a simple proverb. JANAT NUMAHI TUMAHI HOI JAI The intellect that knows you becomes you; it becomes identified with you; It no more remains separate from you; it becomes the embodiment of pure knowledge. (Bagavad—Gita, 2.72) ESHA BRAHMI STHITIH: PARTH NAINAM PRAPYA VIMUHYATI Once achieved, it is never lost --- life in enlightenment – life of the individual a lively field of all possibilities – the ability to achieve anything through mere desiring. This knowledge is contribution for everyone in all generations to enjoy full enlightenment – Heaven on Earth. It needed a Maharishi of the scientific age to revive the COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE of Natural Law and provide a practical Programme for everyone to enjoy Heaven on Earth. “Be a conscious person and make your progeny noble and virtuous”(Rk Veda.10.53.6) “Totality consciousness people, those who possess self –confidence attain greatness by virtue of lofty enterprises and constant efforts” (Rk. Veda .85.7)

It is these innocent expressions of knowledge on Indian soil that makes India the land of Veda. This great dignity of India, the Land of the Veda, is now regaining its original dignity and glory.

BHAGAVAD-GITA 9.2

“This knowledge is the king of education (MANAGEMENT), the most secret of all secrets. It is the purest knowledge, and because it gives direct perception of the self by realization, it is the perfection of religion. It is everlasting, and it is joyfully perfomed.” The chapter of Bhagavad – gita is called the king of management education because it is the essence of all doctrines and philosophies explained before. Amongthe principal philosophers in India are Gautama, Kanada, Kapila, Yajnavalkya, Sandilya and Vaisvanara. And finnaly there is Vyasadeva, the author of the Vedanta – Sutra. So there is no dearth of knowledge in the field of philosophy or transcedetal knowledge. Now the Krishna says that this Ninth Chapter is the king of all such knowledge, the essence of all knowledge that can be derived from the study of the Vedas and differet kinds of philosophy. It is the most confidential because confidential or trancedetal knowledge involves understranding the difference between the soul (managing intelligence) and the body (Management theory).

This Vedic consciousness-based management training was distorted by the foreign influence in India for thousands of years, and even now the management of foreign influence is domination management system in India, rendering them totally incomplete and ineffective With Maharishi Universities of Management in America, Europe, and Russia and Maharishi Institute of Management in India, the field of management is now rising to enjoy the light of Vedic management – the light of perfection.

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Haridwar symbolizes the self-evolution and transcendental view of existence. Harvard symbolizes the corporate management primarily in its market or transactional view of the world. In contrast, for a holistic approach there is a need to create a bridge between the two. This would lead to creation of a better world as both material and spiritual dimensions of life are integrated together. Accordingly, corporate world today needs 'Corporate Rishis' who can re- see the reality in a new perspective to improve the material and spiritual conditions of humanity. This is also the essence of Vedic integration of modern management, new age management and transcendental management in the form of 'Vedic Management'. It implies that time has come now to give due consideration to holistic and transcendental concepts in management and leadership. Thus, market karma, social dharma and leadership charisma Representing an integration of transactional, transformational and transcendental views of life, should constitute the tripod of new management thought. This would ensure that corporates and other social institutions contribute to the development of the people and society to convert the vision of 'sacro-civic society' into a reality wherein autonomy, harmony and symphony prevail in social relationships. This would also ensure proper balancing between prosperity, equity and spirituality as envisaged in the Vedic-vision given by the Vedic seers. “ASATHO MAA SAT GAMAYA”: LEAD US FROM BAD TO GOOD “THAMASO MAA JYOTHIR GAMAYA”: LEAD US FROM DARKNESS TO LIGHT “MRUTHYORMAA AMRUTHAM GAMAYA”: LEAD US FROM THE SUFFERING TO HAPPINESS

VEDIC MANAGEMENT