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not considered such an evil ambition. McClelland saw power as a trait and a basic need, Machiavelli viewed it as a part of the strategy of Renaissance princes, and Nietzsche wrote a book called WILL TO POWER. As those in search of leaderly theory set sail from the Isle of Traits to the Isles of Behavior and Situation, power became less and less acceptable to the masses. Those who set sail for the Isle of Power see understanding WILL TO POWER as integral to leadership. Without power is leadership possible? Powerful leaders can fire, hire, promote and demote "at will." There are trappings of power, as some leaders have more privileges from power such as company cars and planes, more staff, bigger offices and budgets. People applaud and emulate, comply with willing acceptance and some fear, or resist those in power. Various cultures approach WILL TO POWER differently. Some Latin and Asian Pacific Rim cultures prefer lots of distance, respect, paternalism, and deference to those in power; authoritarian will is the way to lead. Some Anglo ones prefer low distance, with more participation and democratic counter-balance to leaderly power. French German and Italians are thought to prefer an "Eiffel Tower" cultural model and like to see the boss at the top of the Tower; leaderless, self-managed teams are not so popular there. Hofstede made a career pointing out country by country differences. That is, until people began to find cultural differences within countries that violated Hofstede's predictions. Among the inhabitants of Power Island are those who debate the power of higher order and lower order participants. And then there are the social exchange theorists that see power as an aspect of everyday life, like borrowing something from a neighbor, knowing they will soon borrow from you. We now have a dilemma. A contradiction between WILL TO POWER and WILL TO SERVE. It is the "Y" dimension of the IN THE BOX model of leadership.
. Y Dimension . persuading. And WTP is also a Will to Truth (TSZ. be they transactional or transformational. X Dimension .Theatrics of Power exercises and games to go along with this study guide.Transactional to transformational leadership. some are able to do good things with it. Figure 1: In the Box Model of Leadership. the power to transform the inherited advantages from generation to generation (WTP #362). (and) looks for potential motives in followers. autocratic) participation. Z is participation. 113). Y.Consult -. many leaders pursue power.From the Will to Server to the Nietzschean Will to Power. p.. X. 4). The Will to Power is specifically excluded from transaction and transformational leader theory by both Burns and Bass. a good hand at bargaining. and engages the full person of the follower" (p. "recognizes and exploits an existing need or demand of a potential follower. pp. & Z There are three dimensions in Figure 1 that summarize most of leadership theory. others are swallowed by power. 1978:169). "they are the superman's greatest danger" (TSZ. Nietzsche wrote about Will-toPower (WTP) and Thus Spoke Zarathustra (TSZ) as having something to do with the will to initiate and implement a goal as well as the more macro construct of Darwin's theory of natural section. Burns looked at modal thinking (the means over ends reasoning) in the early stages of development and held these leaders to be "transactional. as studied by Burns (1978) and Bass (1985). ." on the other hand. be it one-voice (monophonic. X is the behaviors of leadership. This is a classic dualism in leadership studies. reciprocating" (Burns. democratic) participation. A "transformational leader. I therefore treat it as a second dimension of leadership. 28. It is quite silly study leadership as just a well to serve. or many-voiced (polyphonic. but that a Will to Serve or a Will to Power. Y is the power of leadership. seeks to satisfy higher needs. The WTP is a will to overcome the small people." Transactional leadership "requires a shrewd eye for opportunity.
able to create polyphonic leadership. 288). Some leaders cultivate one voice.To me. their words unhearable. and then of course make them all into a romantic narratives that fits the bureaucratic pension for monophonic (single voiced) influence. We can sense somehow the bureaucratic machine. to declare them romantic.then there were four voices . We sense the gap. and the SEPTET model. Fourth . SEAM looks at such behavior a strategy. but we can never quite make out the words. as it theater a metaphor). but little reflection. there is mostly monologue. tragic. we are intuitively aware of the simulation and almost can here the polyphony of voices. certainly for the secretary to speak would be unthinkable rebellion. Second . Table 1 integrates the Leadership Course with the Small Business Consulting Course (SEAM). In bureaucratic leadership. but it is rarely more than dialog. a mumbling sound. for example. and the power and . one that is on the stage but stays in the shadows. SEAM means Socio-Economic Approach to Management.In the Quest two or more players take the stage. other voices are there on the stage but forbidden to speak.there were two voices . p. As Kirkeby (2000: 232) argues it is the right of power to narrate events. Smith looked at global capitalism and say that without ethics events might well follow a logic of the market place that would not lead to ethical relations among buyer and seller. employer and employed. "the event is never over and done with" (Kirkeby. p. 287). And in this model. See Boje (2000c) for more on the multiple voices of leadership. In dialogue the "I" and the "Other" take the stage and we hear voices.From monophonic (single voice) narrative to (polyphonic) narrative. In the Fourth. their own. the quest journey. The Other gets to speak and be heard by the 'I. For any other voice to speak would be an act of bureaucratic espionage. monopolist and entrepreneur. It is the internal spectator. It is based on the idea that the Sociology of Work is embedded in an Economic Situation. one we sense is about to speak but does not. a mob about to take storm the stage. a murmur. We may hear a groan. there is mostly monologue. And the superleader is not satisfied with the happiness of the greatest number of workers or consumers (TSZ.287). or ironic. Z Dimension . comedic. and others are more pluralistic.This is a very special voice. even two actors on the stage visualize the dialogue of the Triad in their own head. First . and we know with one more step we will certainly fall into chaos.there was one voice -In bureaucratic theater.there were three voices . 2000: 237). the voice that speaks to us while observing the First and Second (the I and the Other) rehearse there dialogue on the stage in our mind's eye. And with the about to speak voice of the Fourth. drowned out by the one official narrator who is authorized to take centerstage and speak and speak some more. this voice that Kirkeby describes is the same one discovered long ago by Adam Smith. or they can only be whispered. and even chaos itself are just mythic metaphors some people have speculated and articulated about the web of human events (web is yet another one." Third . but as well in the head of the other. The Super leaders sees the abyss with the eyes of an eagle and grasps the abyss of poverty and misery with the talons of an eagle (TSZ. It is no longer the monologue of the I declaring the Other as villain.
rhythms. along the X. and in Will to Serve. The SEPTET is the seven elements of theatre.nmsu. X. called SEPTET http://business.edu/~dboje/388. Z . dialogs. and spectacles. Y .Power is the working conditions themes. coordination. it is a matter of the 3 C's (communication. Z Participation dimension (1 voice/many Coordination & Dialogs voices) Cooperation) Situation Inside of Box Box Training the Cast Work Organization Time Socio-Economic Characters Traits (Myers & Briggs) Frames Rhythms Spectacle s Organizing Situation (time & place) The SEAM METHODOLOGY applies to leadership IN/OUT OF THE BOX web site http://business. characters.nmsu. the oppression is unleashed. and Chaos/Complexity ideologies. SEAM also addresses levels of participation in the 3C's (dialogs of communication. Postmodern. & cooperation). Click Here to read more on SEAM applications applied to Enron Case.The BOX is situated. & cooperation). There are two important dimensions to situation. The "Time . Time and Space.The BOX located two elements of SEAM and SEPTET.edu/~dboje/septet/ For applications see ENRON is METATHEATRE Web Site. In Will to Power. It all depends upon the situation. Y. frames. Leadership is not just X (behavior). In our move OUT of THE BOX. or involves others in democratic action). That covers the X." Frames are ideologies. themes.participation is dialogic. the grasping together of behavioral acts and characters into strategy. X . and Z define the traits of leadership it the Box dimensions as well as the types of organizing frames. has to do with Bureaucratic. & Z axes we have "Training the Cast of Characters" (traits of leaders and followers). & Z dimensions of IN THE BOX.Behaviors is the strategic plots of leadership. See Figure 1 elements. invites reaction. Quest. and in the case of Work Organization. the Situation Dimensions of Leadership . we land in the land of Theatre.Box Dimensions disempowerment of the working conditions. Y. power attempts its exercise for the greater good. Y. Does the leader have one voice (monarch. In the Box. mono-phonic. the opposition of themes of oppression and resistance to oppression. it is theatre. autocrat) or does the leader invite dialog (consults with. and can be used to assess leadership. Table 1 Out of the box In the box SEAM/SEPTET LEADERSHIP X Behavior dimension Strategy Plot s (transaction/transformation) Y Power dimension (will to serve/will to Working C ondition Themes power) 3C's (Communication. We can now put it together. and Z (participation). and the "Work Organization Frames. coordination. The Elements Suspended Within the Box . and Theatre approach to consulting. Y (power). The SEPTET elements in Table 1 are plots.
Spectacle disguises and conceals the dark side of enterprise. the integrated theatre where the image of the firm is stage produced. WILL TO POWER became associated with the dark side of power. There are four types of spectacle: concentrated theatre of the firm. government. MacGregor wrote about the power of leaders. each organizational environment has its rhythm (ranging from placid. its cycles. 1991). 1931: 4). and the field of Leadership spent the next fifteen years focused on WILL TO SERVE aspects of leaderly power. French and Raven see five sources of power for those seated at higher level in the hierarchy. Machiavelli About the X Dimension . many lower participants can resist change. Marx developed the idea of product fetish. and the megaspectacle where the gig is up and the spectators become aware of the difference between mask and real (as in Enron when spectacle turned to mega-scandal). Leaders who manage rhythm.In leadership theory of old. revolutionary. implement their own agendas and fight off boss-power. the diffuse theatre that plays in the marketplace.leaders are conferred the formal right to demand compliance from subordinates. and heroic leaders. and you fall behind. the Machiavellian Prince and Superman (Nietzsche) theories of leadership paid great attention to the WILL TO POWER. but wanted to limit leadership to a study of just the "Good Leaders" those who used their Power. Get out of step. just-in-times. POSITION POWER TYPES (have access based on formal position): Legitimate Power . you loose the pattern. spectacle has "a strange hypnotic power that deluded the spectator" (Fetter. And there are rhythms that make up the situation. The tactic here is to stress the legitimacy of one's position and set role expectations. etc. but in reality. but in recent decades leadership has been locked in the prison house of the WILL TO SERVE.access and mediation of instrumental rewards others value. each has its tactical use according to Yukl and Falbe (1990. French and Raven (1968) We think that top executive hold all the power. He wanted to limit leadership to the positive side of moral behavior. In Figure 1. but did not foresee how prevalent the Spectacle would become in contemporary society. random. reform. get their organization in sync with the rhythm of their environment. On the formal side of the game table. with a definite Will to Serve. Everybody lives their life according to a rhythm. work temp. He was therefore not going to focus on Maciavelli or Nietzsche. that was his critique of Marx. Power is a game of centrality in various resource and person networks. Reward Power . seasons. Somewhere along the line. The second dimension of the situation is the Spectacle. Accumulate things of .Rhythms" of the situation has to do with the patterns of our life. James MacGregor Burns (1978) wrote an amazing book about the various types of Leaders. he wrote of opinion leaders. to the more turbulent ones). The tactic is to stress the instrumentalities that come from doing the tasks. Each situation has its own rhythm. Guy Debord (1967) says we have moved from a production organization to a consumption organization.
influence stemming from one's affective regard (attraction) for.Health Organization (link down). If you want to test the power of lower participants.Develop your own power map. p. Prentice-Hall. Group Theory and Group Skills (7th edition). including knowing the rules. Include both your opponents and allies. A power map depicts who and where the resources and power wielders are in your organization and who tends to ally with whom. Mapping Power Exercise . Indicate: What are the different centers of power? What are the different levels of power (from most to least powerful)? Who has power over whom. and information) you need to succeed in your goals. 229-270 in Joining Together. MIXED TYPE (a bit of both though some place referent as a position type): Referent power . They control such instrumentalities as. Coercive Power. people. Inc. watch what happens to your access to these instrumentalities when a secretary or clerk you offend tightens up all the rules on you. another person in power position. Power of Lower Participants David Mechanic (1962) found that people without formal position power.based on fear and the ability to punish and others fear of punishment.Write a paragraph on "How do you get your way?" This was an experiemtn by Falbo (1977). The tactic here is rational persuasion. but "lower participants" also exercise significant power.based on expertise. Johnson. (2) people needed to do a job.value to other or information of use to others. Exercise . The tactic here is to apply pressure. At the center of this map is YOU. and as you move to the edges. EPA and OSHA inspectors can mess with you if you give them a hard time. Johnson and Frank P. The tactic here is inspirational appeals and ingratiation attempts that build trust and common interest. Tactic is to build your credentials (as you are doing now by being in college or some training program). and what kind of power? Use arrows or .based on Star Power Exercise Johnson. the people who control resources (information. Draw maps of power in an organization you work in. and (3) information or knowledge. Accumulate punishments which could be levied on other or accumulate damaging information Consult . it is about the resources people have or do not have access to and how they use them. or identification with. not seated at the top. PERSONAL POWER TYPES (stem from personal talents and skills): Expert Power . Weber (1947) looked at charisma that is endowed by followers in the wisdom and infallibility of a leader with supernatural ability. OTHER RESOURCES: Power Exercise . A power map is not the same as an organization chart. David W. competence and information (and knowledge). Lower participants can occupy central positions in the information and resource flow that give them significant sources of power to resist the power of those in formal positions of authority. (1) access to resources such as materials and budgets.Theatrics of Power exercises and games based on French and Raven classification.
the L-M-X model focus is on the dyad. there is a Burns and Otte 1999) summarize LMX in 3-phase model of leader-member roles: In the first phase. Therefore. Thibaut and Kelley (1959) defined power as having behavioral or fate control over the behavior of another. In the second phase. the leader communicates the desired role to the member. LMX does not assume leaders behave the same to every member of the group. members of a group will not report that the same leader traits or behaviors. Others such as Alvin Gouldner looked to the differentiation of social roles that were build upon exchange relationships. is treated as the unit of analysis in leadership. and Dansereau. Leaders accomplish their work through role sets. The in groups have lots more power options than those at the margins. When neighbors exchange favors. Whereas both trait theory and situational theory concentrate attention on the leader. the member's role behavior transmits feedback to the leader (monitored behavior). Graen. The work of Dansereau. 1981: 169). Graen and Cashman (1975). Role Taking. 1976). with no reciprocal contribution from the member. During Role Making. when children trade and borrow toys. Share the results of the activity during the class session. Leader-member exchange theory maintains that the leader and each individual member of a work group have a unique "dyadic" relationship. Finally. Role Making. And therefore. and others power is a function of social exchange. The member then receives and interprets these sent expectations (received role) and may modify his or her role behavior. The Role theory of Katz and Kuhn (1966) is the original theoretical base of the LMX (Graen. rather than the work group or the individual. In leadergroup interactions. a manifestation of an asymmetry in the relationship conceived in terms of control of information and personal affection and the exchange of social values (Stogdill. and Graen (1973). members of the dyad . Leaders give more positive tasks to members who they feel support them. watch one another's property. The leader communicates to the member a set of expectations regarding the appropriate role behavior of the member (role expectation).other symbols to indicate some of these relationships. and Haga (1975) and Grain (1976) proposed that leader-member relationships are heterogeneous and thereby established Leader-Member Exchange Theory. judgments are made and opinions are formed by the leader and the member of each dyad. VERTICAL DYAD: Leader-Member Exchange Theory Leaders can create in groups and out groups. Blau (1964). Social Exchange For Homans (1958). the dyad. the relationship continues to develop and both parties contribute to defining the role of the member. Graen and Cashman (1975) coined the term vertical dyad linkage (VDL) . in which the leader is most influential. Each dyad is seen as a social exchange or negotiated transaction of leadermember. Cashman. when you build up idiosyncrasy credits. Social exchange is everywhere.
said the you can not delegate. the nature of the exchange becomes routine and established. or give anyone power. Then there is the problem of what are we talking about when we say "empower. the people themselves must grow their own. have plants or their desks. In many ways all the empowerment-hype is a rehash of what people learned and forgot about delegation. Graen. power is something the individual must "grow" themselves. or sit in on a briefing? Or. and Haga (1975) and Graen and Cashman (1975) described negotiating latitude (a continuum: at the low-negotiatinglatitude end of the continuum) as the extent to which a leader allows a subordinate to identify his or her own role development. Leaders with lower levels of power motive were observed to accord more negotiating latitude to members with low need for power than to members with high power motives (Burns & Otte. and they hypothesized that this negotiating latitude was central to the evolution of the quality of the leader-member exchange (Burns & Otte. and resources? What do you think? . share. Negotiating Latitude Construct. Leaders with high power motives accorded more negotiating latitude to members with high need for power than to their colleagues with low power motive. Role Routinization." Are people empowered. Yet. In the final phase. 1999) Leader and member need for power appeared to play a role in determining the level of negotiating latitude accorded the member. strategies.initially employ the process of organizing their roles. Dansereau. their active and real participation and control over policies. Mary Parker Follett the greatest of all consultants ever. is empowerment something to do with the governance of the firm. if they get to move their file cabinet. You can not delegate (you can abandon or force). 1999). EMPOWER It is talked about as if some boss can hand a subordinate or a team of them power. A traditional work unit becomes differentiated during Role Making.
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