Server Virtualization


Server virtualization means creating multiple logical server OS instances on one physical piece of hardware. Each virtual machine is completely independent of the others and doesn’t ‘realize’ it’s virtualized. Server virtualization consolidates the operations of many dispersed servers onto fewer physical machines. Virtualization software decouples a server’s operating system from its physical hardware to create a “virtual machine”. This single software file encapsulates the entire server— its operating system, applications, and virtual hardware. Many virtual machines with heterogeneous operating systems can be run at the same time on the same physical host server, enabling the sharing of hardware resources. With virtualization, you can dynamically fire up and take down virtual servers (also known as virtual machines), each of which basically fools an operating system (and any applications that run on top of it) into thinking the virtual machine is actual hardware. Running multiple virtual machines can fully exploit a physical server’s compute potential — and provide a rapid response to shifting data center demands. A virtual server requires an average of one-eighth the power and cooling of a stand-alone server. The ability to run multiple virtual machines on a single physical server has significant implications for the energy required to power campus IT services. Each new purchase of server drives up power and cooling costs dividing physical servers into virtual servers is one way to restore sanity and keep IT expenditures under control.

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Server Virtualization

The concept of virtualization is not new. As far back as the1970s, mainframe computers have been running multiple instances of an operating system at the same time, each independent of the others. It’s only recently, however, that software and hardware advances have made virtualization possible on industry standard, commodity servers. In fact, today’s data centre managers have a dizzying array of virtualization solutions to choose from. Some are proprietary, others are open source. 1960 Virtualization was first presented in Time Sharing in Large Fast Computers in 1959 as an extension of the work being done into time-sharing on mainframe computers. The term virtualization originated in the IBM M44/44X project. M44 referred to the hardware, 44 were the virtual machines. 1970 IBM’s research continued through many other projects, and was soon joined by projects at other institutions, such as MIT’s Multics. All of these systems ran V. 1980 Availability of personal computers, main frames phased out.Virtualization . relegated to labs. Development of “purely” virtual machines. 2000 Dot-com boom: Massive need for servers to run Internet applications low Utilization. Development of server virtualization by VMware Desktop virtualization

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With virtual memory. Department of CS&E 3 STJIT. RNR . This blend of virtualization technologies . virtualization techniques can be applied to other IT infrastructure layers .Server Virtualization The term virtualization broadly describes the separation of a resource or request for a service from the underlying physical delivery of that service. Similarly.including networks. virtual infrastructure gives administrators the advantage of managing pooled resources across the enterprise. since the user experiences are largely unchanged. allowing IT managers to be more responsive to dynamic organizational needs and to better leverage infrastructure investments. storage. operating systems and applications. However. for example. and the applications running on it. storage and networking hardware. computer software gains access to more memory than is physically installed. The deployment of virtual infrastructure is non-disruptive. laptop or server. via the background swapping of data to disk storage.or virtual infrastructure provides a layer of abstraction between computing.

These are 1.1 TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS There are three fundamental technologies which one will produce the best results depends on the specific workloads to be virtualized and their operational priorities. Full Virtualization Para Virtualization OS Level Virtualization Full Virtualization The most popular method of virtualization uses software called a hypervisor to create a layer of abstraction between virtual servers and the underlying hardware. As a result. VMware and Microsoft Virtual PC are two commercial examples of this approach. which is small but significant. Department of CS&E 4 STJIT. whereas KVM (kernel-based virtual machine) is an open source offering for Linux. In a fully virtualized environment.Server Virtualization CHAPTER 2 TECHNOLOGY AND TRENDS 2. and without being aware that it is running in a virtualized environment. RNR . The main drawback is the processor overhead imposed by the hypervisor. 3. 2. The hypervisor traps CPU instructions and mediates access to hardware controllers and peripherals. full virtualization allows practically any OS to be installed on a virtual server without modification.

RNR . Virtual servers that are managed by the hypervisor are said to be running guest OSes. Para-Virtualization Full virtualization is processor-intensive because of the demands placed on the hypervisor to manage the various virtual servers and keep them independent of one another.1 Full Virtualization The hypervisor can run virtual instances of several different operating systems at the same time. One way to reduce this burden is to modify each guest OS so that it is aware it is running in a virtualized environment and can cooperate with the hypervisor. Fig 2. Department of CS&E 5 STJIT. and the virtual servers need not be aware that they are running in a virtualized environment.Server Virtualization the hypervisor runs on the bare hardware and serves as the host OS. This approach is known as para-virtualization.

Xen works well for BSD. Before an OS can run as a virtual server on the Xen hypervisor. are nearly as responsive as unvirtualized servers. Solaris. The advantage of Para-virtualization is performance. Fig 2. Linux. which cannot be modified. and other open source operating systems. but is unsuitable for virtualizing proprietary systems. it must incorporate specific changes at the kernel level. The gains over full virtualization are attractive enough that both Microsoft and VMware are working on para-virtualization technologies to complement their offerings. such as Windows. Because of this. a version of an operating system has been specially modified to cooperate with the hypervisor. Department of CS&E 6 STJIT. RNR .2 Para Virtualization Here. offering considerable performance improvement. Para-virtualized servers.Server Virtualization Xen is one example of an open source para-virtualization technology. working in conjunction with the hypervisor.

the two companies’ technologies were developed . PC hardware wasn’t designed with virtualization in mind — software alone had to shoulder the burden. an architecture that uses a single.Server Virtualization OS-Level Virtualization Still another way to achieve virtualization is to build in the capability for virtual servers at the OS level. Solaris Containers are an example of this. The obvious distinction is that with OS-level virtualization all the virtual servers must run the same OS (though each instance has its own applications and user accounts). AMD and Intel have added support for virtualization at the CPU level for the first time. Unlike mainframes. Department of CS&E 7 STJIT. it gains in native speed performance. With the latest generation of x86 processors. until recently. and Virtuozzo/OpenVZ does something similar for Linux. the host OS itself is responsible for dividing hardware resources among multiple virtual servers and keeping the servers independent of one another. In addition. there is no separate hypervisor layer. What OS-level virtualization loses in terms of flexibility. With OS-level virtualization. RNR . Instead. Unfortunately. standard OS across all the virtual servers can be easier to manage than a more heterogeneous environment.

but they are all running on top of the same operating system. virtual servers are still isolated from one another.Server Virtualization Fig 2. which has a hypervisor built in. Department of CS&E 8 STJIT.3 OS Level Virtualization In this case. RNR .

Server Virtualization 2.2 CURRENT TRENDS CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES IMPLEMENTATION Windows Server 2007 Hypervisor • – Hardware assisted virtualization Intel Virtualization Technology (VT) Department of CS&E 9 STJIT. RNR .

1 DESIGN Advantages • • • • • • • More efficient HW utilization More efficient staff Quick and nimble server provisioning Testing & Troubleshooting HW maintenance w/o app downtime Simplify system imaging Disaster Recovery Key Features Of server Virtualization Partitioning Isolatio nnnnnn nn Run multiple virtual machines simultaneously on a single physical server Each virtual machine is isolated from other virtual machines on the same server Encapsulation Hardware Independence Entire virtual machine is saved in files and can be moved and copied by moving and copying files Run a virtual machine on any server without modification Department of CS&E 10 STJIT.Server Virtualization CHAPTER 3 IMPLEMENTATION 3. RNR .

Virtualization layer makes the guest OS’s to feel that they have their hardware hardware.2Windows Server 2003 Implementation THE INTEL VT APPROACH Intel VT is a set of hardware enhancements to Intel platforms that can improve the efficiency and capabilities of software virtualization solutions. In hosted architecture Windows server 2003 is installed on the top of Here windows server 2003 directly communicates and controls the Guest OS’s are on the top of virtualization layer. The Department of CS&E 11 STJIT. RNR .Server Virtualization Fig 3. own independent hardware Windo ws Windo ws Windo ws Windo ws Virtualization Layer Windows Server 2003 R2 EE Hardware Fig 3.1 Key Features WINDOWS 2003 APPROACH • • • • • Windows server 2003 uses host architecture.

VT is designed to eliminate these virtualization holes and the need for workarounds by running the VMM in a root layer. While this approach works. CPU state context switching. Today. nontrapping instructions. The way virtualization is handled in a software-only mode is to run the VMM in ring 0. it does present some challenges in terms of ring aliasing. thereby keeping the traditional ring structure of ring 0 for the operating system and ring 3 for the application software (see Figure ) Department of CS&E 12 STJIT.Server Virtualization Intel Architecture is based on a ring privilege concept with four levels of privilege: ring 0 through ring 3. a new ring layer. RNR . excessive faulting. and which can lead to performance or reliability issues with the solution. thereby deprivileging the operating systems to ring 1. Going forward. the most privileged layer. virtualization of current x86 CPUs requires complex software workarounds. Ring 0 defines the highest privilege level and is dedicated to the operating system in a native environment.

Server Virtualization Fig 3. continuous workload consolidation across physical servers and VMotion™ technology for virtual machine mobility. Windows 2003. Unique to VMware is the VMotion technology. With VirtualCenter. On top of this platform. VMware’s VirtualCenter provides management and provisioning of virtual machines. VirtualCenter is virtual infrastructure management software that centrally manages an enterprise’s virtual machines as a single. an administrator can manage thousands of Windows NT. Windows 2000. RNR . logical pool of resources.3 Intel Approach LIVE MIGRATION OF VIRTUAL MACHINES WITH VMOTION Migrate running virtual machines between hosts VMware’s virtual machine (VM) approach creates a uniform hardware image – implemented in software – on which operating systems and applications run. Linux and NetWare servers from a single point of control. Department of CS&E 13 STJIT.

Server Virtualization whereby live. RNR .4 -Vmotion Department of CS&E 14 STJIT. running virtual machines can be moved from one physical system to another while maintaining continuous service availability. VMotion thus allows fast reconfiguration and optimization of resources across the virtual infrastructure CUSTOMER IMPACT • • • • • Zero downtime Continuous service availability Enables seamless transition of live virtual host between physical servers Dynamic Resource Allocation across servers – respond to load changes HW maintenance Fig 3.

and then more recently Unix/RISC system vendors began with Department of CS&E 15 STJIT. Today. operating system level virtualization.Server Virtualization CHAPTER 4 ARCHITECTURE DESIGN 4. virtualization can apply to a range of system layers. and highlevel language virtual machines. including hardware-level virtualization. Hardware-level virtualization was pioneered on IBM mainframes in the 1970s. RNR .1ARCHITECTURE A key benefit of virtualization is the ability to run multiple operating systems on a single physical system and share the underlying hardware resources – known as partitioning.

RNR .Server Virtualization hardware-based partitioning capabilities before moving on to software-based partitioning. The latter approach provides customers with the capability to implement an OS-neutral management paradigm. robustness and performance. Since it has direct access to the hardware resources. Hosted approach provides partitioning services on top of a standard operating system and supports the broadest range of hardware configurations. enabling greater scalability. Hosted architecture Hypervisor architecture. a hypervisor is more efficient than hosted architectures. 2. Hypervisors can be designed to be tightly coupled with operating systems or can be agnostic to operating systems. thereby providing further rationalization of the data center. The two approaches typically used are 1. Hosted Architecture • Installs and runs as an application • Relies on host OS for device support and physical resource management Hypervisor architecture is the first layer of software installed on a clean x86-based system (hence it is often referred to as a “bare metal” approach). Department of CS&E 16 STJIT.

1 Host Architecture Bare-Metal (Hypervisor) Architecture CHAPTER 5 APPLICATION DOMAIN 5.Server Virtualization Fig 4.1 APPLICATION AREAS Areas of Application Department of CS&E 17 STJIT. RNR .

RNR . Chat Servers Chat servers enable a large number of users to exchange information in an environment similar to Internet newsgroup that offer real-time discussion capabilities Department of CS&E 18 STJIT. Audio/Video Servers Audio/Video servers bring multimedia capabilities to Web sites by enabling them to broadcast streaming multimedia content.Server Virtualization Application Servers A term often used synonymously with operating system. a platform is the underlying hardware or software for a system and is thus the engine that drives the server.

regardless of location. List Servers List servers offer a way to better manage mailing lists.Server Virtualization Fax Servers A fax server is an ideal solution for organizations looking to reduce incoming and outgoing telephone resources but that need to fax actual documents FTP Servers One of the oldest of the Internet services. Groupware Servers A groupware server is software designed to enable users to collaborate. or advertising Mail Servers Department of CS&E 19 STJIT. File Transfer Protocol makes it possible to move one or more files securely between computers while providing file security and organization as well as transfer control. whether they be interactive discussions open to the public or one-way lists that deliver announcements. via the Internet or a corporate intranet and to work together in a virtual atmosphere IRC Servers An option for those seeking real-time discussion capabilities. Internet Relay Chat consists of various separate networks (or "nets") of servers that allow users to connect to each other via an IRC network. RNR . newsletters.

This entire exchange is mediated by the browser and server talking to each other using HTTP. Also read Server Watch’s Web Server Basics article. CHAPTER 6 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT Department of CS&E 20 STJIT. Proxy Servers Proxy servers sit between a client program (typically a Web browser) and an external server (typically another server on the Web) to filter requests. News Servers News servers act as a distribution and delivery source for the thousands of public news groups currently accessible over the USENET news network. and share connections. RNR . a Web server serves static content to a Web browser by loading a file from a disk and serving it across the network to a user's Web browser.Server Virtualization Almost as ubiquitous and crucial as Web servers. Telnet Servers A Telnet server enables users to log on to a host computer and perform tasks as if they're working on the remote computer itself Web Servers At its core. mail servers move and store mail over corporate networks (via LANs and WANs) and across the Internet. improve performance.

and test coverage. and Xen. RNR . IBM. Intel. development staffs can create and test a wide variety of scenarios in a safe. Using virtual machines. Microsoft. etc are doing research • • • To reduce the complexity in the design of virtual servers.Server Virtualization The first challenge the Intel Company is undertaking is orchestrating VMM support for Intel VT with the software suppliers: VMware. To solve the licencing issues. Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V provides a great platform for your test and development environments A number of companies including Microsoft. Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V helps maximize utilization of test hardware. contributing to reduced costs. improved lifecycle management. self-contained environment that accurately approximates the operation of physical servers and clients. To produce the cost effective virtual servers CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION Department of CS&E 21 STJIT. With extensive guest OS support. Success in this rollout would lead to increased credibility for the solution and would assist Intel in staking out a winning position in the virtualization of x86 systems. The rollout of the VT hardware and supporting monitors is being accomplished by focusing on the needs of end users.

`This move helps to ensure the availability of efficient. for virtualization to reach its full potential and broaden the portfolio of applications it can run efficiently.Server Virtualization 7. The emergence of virtualization as a horizontal enabling technology is a major reason customers are so bullish on the solution. to application life-cycle extension. to high availability and disaster recovery.1 CONCLUSION Virtualization is shaping up to be one of the major trends that impacts the server market as well as customer datacenters. The technology is already finding a broad set of usages. ranging from improved hardware utilization in test and development infrastructure. and highperformance platforms running a wide range of virtualization technologies. 7. robust.2 FUTURE TECNOLOGY Virtual Server Growth • There will be a tremendous growth in virtual servers 22 STJIT. RNR Department of CS&E . However. tighter integration with hardware is necessary. Intel is making the investments needed to allow more widespread and mainstream adoption by working to incorporate VT in the entire range of the company’s platforms.

The expectation is that these organizations will increase that percentage to nearly 50% by the end of 23 STJIT.vmware.7 billion market in 2011 Total virtualization of companies increases efficiency Virtualization of storage Application virtualization REFERENCE • VMWare: www. Recent survey work by IDC suggests that one-fifth of the server installed base of companies that already employ virtualization technologies is virtualized. RNR Department of CS&E .Server Virtualization • • • 1Million servers by 2009 Virtualization will be the norm All workloads will be virtualized in 2-4 years The outlook for virtualization is incredibly strong. as detailed in the following sections Virtualization Market Growth • • • • • • 5 fold growth in virtualization market place More expensive servers Virtualization services are predicted to be a $11. There is growing evidence that the technology is moving beyond early adopters and is gaining acceptance among more mainstream customers as the market finds additional uses for virtualization and a wide range of benefits.

Server Virtualization • Virtual Server: RNR .com Department of CS&E 24 • • • • www.pcworld.

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