Science KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project one – Young Dragons Page 1.

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Summary

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Young Dragons summary
This curriculum resource is designed to use cycling and aspects relating to it in order to understand how science works. The materials use cycling and associated resources to explore scientific knowledge, theories and models to provide a deeper understanding of the scientific process.

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Batteries not included
Students will use and develop their knowledge of electricity in developing a safe lighting system for cycle users. This context requires them to explore ways of accessing energy that does not include batteries. Once the scientific aspects have been explored students will have the opportunity to develop their business skills as they take their initial ideas of a lighting system and go into production, then marketing, of this new product.

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Teaching delivery map

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Young Dragons teaching delivery map
Areas within government initiatives/programmes Initiative/programme Key Stage 3 (KS3) science Every Child Matters (ECM) How the project links to this initiative/programme Section 1 – How science works. Section 4 – Energy, electricity and forces.
• • • • • • • • •

Safe from accident, injury and death Develop enterprising behaviour Enjoy and achieve Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE) Motivation Social skills Energy and water Traffic and travel Inclusion and participation

Healthy Schools (HS) Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) Sustainable Schools (SS)

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Science KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project one – Young Dragons Page 1.3

Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons lesson plans
Batteries not included!
Context: The Mayor of London bans batteries because of their environmental damage. Students have to decide how they are going to overcome the problems of cycling to school on dark mornings or home in the twilight by using and/or developing a cycle lighting product that is more environmentally sustainable. This will include an enterprise activity that will require students to go through the processes of either developing a new product or selling the new product. Knowledge: Students will need to have some understanding of the history of cycle lamps, how they developed and the types currently available. Investigative science skills: Students will need to use their science skills to investigate different types of electrical energy generation. Business skills: Students will be required to develop their business skills in the product development area or in the sales and marketing area.

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Science KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project one – Young Dragons Page 1.4

Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons lesson plans
Batteries not included! (continued)
Activity 1 Setting the scene Activity 2 History of cycle lamps and safety Activity 3 What are the alternative sources of energy for cycle lamps? Activity 4 Developing the cycle lamp business Resources: Handout 1 Worksheet 1 Handout 2 PowerPoint 1 Worksheet 2 PowerPoint 2 Handout 3 History of cycle lamps Solar experiment Trevor Baylis Inducing an electrical current Producing an induced current The traditional cycle dynamo Developing the cycle lamp business
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Science KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project one – Young Dragons Page 1.5

Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons activity 1 – structure
Setting the scene The Mayor of London, in line with the need to help save global resources, has banned all batteries!*
Why has he done this? Teacher-led discussion on the problem with batteries and the benefits of using non-battery lights. Helpful information is set out below:

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

What takes 10 times more energy to produce than it gives out? The answer is a domestic non-rechargeable battery Over 400 million batteries are thrown away each year Recycling facilities are very limited There are two main types of batteries: rechargeable and non-rechargeable, each with their own physical and chemical properties. Batteries of all types are made from various heavy metal compounds and do not biodegrade after disposal In 1991, the European Union passed a directive to limit the pollution potential of batteries. Since then, battery manufacturers have reduced the amounts of heavy metals required to manufacture batteries and some, such as mercury, have been almost eliminated entirely. Although this has had the effect of reducing the pollution potential, the batteries are also much less valuable, making recycling a more expensive proposition Non-rechargeable batteries disposed of through the normal household waste stream are not classed as hazardous waste, as long as they are not thrown away in bulk Rechargeable batteries including car batteries, mercury dry cell types and so-called NiCd are classed as hazardous waste, no matter how small the quantity. Once collected they can be recycled: the cadmium from NiCd batteries is separated and refined so that it is 99.99 per cent pure and is used again for battery manufacture. The salvaged nickel is used for the production of stainless steel

• • •

* Note: This is a fictitious headline to set the scene for this activity. At the time of writing the Mayor of London has not banned all batteries.

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons activity 1 – structure
Setting the scene (continued)

Some larger shops offer recycling facilities for rechargeable batteries, although it is best to contact the manufacturer for guidance.
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

In terms of environmental benefit, it is best to avoid using disposable batteries where possible See also the Bitesize website: www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel/electricityintheory/ advancesinelectricaldevicesrev3.shtml

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons activity 2 – structure
History of cycle lamps and safety
Students investigate cycling safety issues with special reference to lights and also review some of the history of cycle lighting. Starter questions:
• • •
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Is it safe to ride home on your bike if you have no lights? Is it legal to do so? What did cyclists do before batteries were invented?

THINK!
Advice for cyclists Cyclists and drivers both have a right to use our roads – but sometimes they need to give a bit more thought to each other. The following is taken from the Department for Transport’s Think Road Safety website: www.dft.gov.uk/think/ Dos and don’ts for cyclists

Be visible. Ride well clear of the kerb, wear bright clothing and always use lights after dark or in poor weather conditions Show drivers what you plan to do. Always look and signal before you start, stop or turn Ride a straight line past parked cars rather than dodging between them Don’t jump red lights Don’t ride on pavements Don’t ride the wrong way up one-way streets, unless there’s a sign saying cyclists can Don’t ride across pedestrian crossings

• • • •

Source: www.dft.gov.uk/think/ © Crown copyright 2009

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons activity 2 – structure
History of cycle lamps and safety (continued)
Dos and don’ts for motorists

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Expect sudden movements by cyclists, especially in windy weather and on bad road surfaces Watch for cyclists on the inside when you turn left Always look for cyclists before opening a car door Give cyclists turning right extra consideration Don’t squeeze past cyclists – give them space, at least half a car’s width Don’t dazzle cyclists – use dipped headlights, the way you would with another car Don’t get annoyed when cyclists ride away from the kerb – they need to avoid drains and potholes, and be seen as they come to junctions with side roads

• • • • •

Source: www.dft.gov.uk/think/ © Crown copyright 2009

Further help is available at: www.whycycle.co.uk/safety-lights.htm History of cycle lamps Handout 1 shows some examples of old bicycles and bicycle lamps.

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons activity 3 – structure
What are the alternative sources of energy for cycle lamps?
There are two key areas for consideration:

Discuss the possible options and solutions. Include: wind, solar, wind-up and dynamo. How do these work? Once electrical energy is generated how will the energy be stored if it needs to be? Discuss this further with the students

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

1. Solar photovoltaic cells Try using a solar panel to generate electricity – see Worksheet 1: ‘Solar experiment’. Students should research what else solar power can be used for at websites such as: www.greenshop.co.uk (click on ‘Energy’, then ‘Gadgets’, then ‘Educational toys’) www.solarshopper.co.uk/Products/toys.html Encourage them to find as many novel uses as possible. 2. ‘Wind-up’ technology How does this work? Look at Trevor Baylis and the wind-up revolution he created with the wind-up radio. More information about Trevor is contained in the box on Handout 2. The clockwork radio is a radio powered by a clockwork wind-up mechanism that powers an electrical generator inside the radio. How is the energy stored? It’s not in batteries, so how? By using a constant velocity spring! This stores the generated energy as potential energy. Students could make a wind-up cycle lamp but please note that this technology is not readily available for schools. You may only be able to show the students a wind-up torch or radio.

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons activity 3 – structure
What are the alternative sources of energy for cycle lamps? (continued)
3. Dynamos Students need to appreciate that there are two types of dynamos – the traditional and the modern – although the scientific principles are the same. They first need to understand the concept of magnetic induction. Michael Faraday (1791-1867) Faraday was a British chemist and physicist who contributed significantly to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. In 1821 he published his work on electromagnetic rotation (the principle behind the electric motor). In 1831, Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction, the principle behind the electric transformer and generator. This discovery was crucial in allowing electricity to be transformed from a curiosity into a powerful new technology. During the remainder of the decade he worked on developing his ideas about electricity.
Source: www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/faraday_michael.shtml
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Magnetic induction
• •

View the PowerPoint presentation about induced current Carry out a traditional experiment with a voltmeter to show how induced currents are produced For graphed data, use a voltage sensor and a datalogger to show the voltage produced and simply move the magnet in and out of the coil. Or drop a magnet through a coil in the traditional experimental procedure. See Worksheet 2: ‘Producing an induced current’ Go back to the PowerPoint questions to show how the voltage can be altered

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons activity 3 – structure
What are the alternative sources of energy for cycle lamps? (continued)
Useful information can also be found on websites such as: www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks3bitesize/science/physics www.gcse.com/energy/generation.htm Traditional dynamos: How do they work? See the PowerPoint presentation about dynamos. Your science department apparatus will probably include a dynamo for the students to see working. Demonstrate this to them. A good working unit to demonstrate different forms of energy production and transfer is available from the Science Enhancement Programme (SEP) at: www.sep.org.uk New dynamos The new generation of cycle dynamos work on the same principle as the traditional ones – using a magnet and a coil – but here a moving magnet is encased inside the coil and a magnet is attached to the wheel of the cycle. As the wheel magnet passes the internal magnet it causes it to move/rotate and this movement creates the electric current. The ‘new’ dynamo
Coil
LED LED LED
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Coil
LED LED

Coil
LED LED

Coil
LED LED

Coil
LED

NS

NS

NS NS

NS

NS

See: www.freelights.co.uk/how.html for more information about no-battery bicycle lights.

NS

NS NS

NS

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

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Young Dragons activity 3 – structure
What are the alternative sources of energy for cycle lamps? (continued)
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Students could make a ‘new’ dynamo of their own in the lab. There is a DIY kit available at: www.freelights.co.uk/kit.html with instructions at: www.freelights.co.uk/howmake.html Summary Students will now understand the different ways in which low-voltage electricity can be generated by simple, cost-effective methods. They will next need to consider which method is best for a cycle lamp.

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Teaching notes and lesson plans

Teachers only

Young Dragons activity 4 – structure
Developing the cycle lamp business
In developing the cycle lamp business there are two options for students: 1. Invent a new type of bicycle lamp – they will have to design the mechanism and outer casing, have it manufactured and then offer it to companies to sell (or sell it directly themselves). 2. They could market and sell a ‘ready-made’ product. Outline of possible options Make your own or sell someone else’s product? Key points for building own product: Research and development (R&D) Design of mechanism Design of casing Where to build Manufacturing costs Assembly costs Final costs Marketing and sales Key points for franchise/ supplier role: What to sell? Marketing Advertising Outlets: shop, direct, web, exhibitions, cycle events Excel sheets, forecasts Sales, margins, VAT

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

See Handout 3 for more information about the two options.

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Science KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project one – Young Dragons

Young Dragons...
Handouts and worksheets for photocopying
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Science KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project one – Young Dragons Page 1.17

Activity 2 Handout 1 Page 1 of 1

History of cycle lamps

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Old cycle lamp

Wind-up c ycle lamp

Old dynamo lamp

Old cycle lamp

Carbide lamp mp Modern cycle la

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Activity 3 Worksheet 1 Page 1 of 3

Name Class

Date

Solar experiment
An activity to show how a solar or photovoltaic cell functions
Introduction Use a solar panel to show how electricity can be produced by a photovoltaic cell. Safety You must a) Check all health and safety regulations relating to this activity, and b) Carry out a risk assessment Equipment list Option 1: Voltmeter, solar cell, crocodile clips, 4mm leads, bench lamp or similar light source Option 2: PC with datalogging software, datalogger voltage sensor, solar cell, crocodile clips, 4mm leads, bench lamp or similar light source Method Option 1:
• •
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Prepare the circuit as shown in the diagram Switch on voltmeter and face solar cell into window or use a bench lamp. Vary light source to show change in voltage output. Record maximum and minimum voltages in different conditions Try full sun/lamp, shaded and normal room light levels. Does a 50 per cent reduction in cell surface area equal a 50 per cent reduction in voltage?

Option 2:

Set up the apparatus as for Option 1 but connect a voltage sensor to the solar cell rather than a voltmeter. Connect the sensor to the datalogger and then to the PC. Open software Start recording and vary the light source to show how the datalogging software graphs the changes Use the PC to do an hour-long (or more) recording of the natural light changes within the room. This can also be used to illustrate the diurnal rhythm changes in light

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Activity 3 Worksheet 1 Page 2 of 3

Name Class

Date

Solar experiment
An activity to show how a solar or photovoltaic cell functions
Option 1 diagram

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

solar panel

voltmeter

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Activity 3 Worksheet 1 Page 3 of 3

Name Class

Date

Solar experiment
An activity to show how a solar or photovoltaic cell functions
Option 2 diagram

OR

computer solar panel

datalogger

voltmeter

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

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Activity 3 Handout 2 Page 1 of 2

Trevor Baylis
Inventor of the wind-up technology

Trevor G Baylis was born in Kilburn, London, in 1937 and spent his boyhood in Southall near London. Trevor was always an avid swimmer and by the age of 15 he was swimming competitively for Britain. At 16 he joined the Soil Mechanics Laboratory in Southall and began studying mechanical and structural engineering at the local technical college. At 20 years of age he began his National Service as a physical training instructor, and he swam competitively for the Army and Imperial Services. Upon leaving the army in 1961, Trevor joined Purley Pools as a salesman. He quickly advanced in this firm and was soon involved in research and development. He went on to start his own successful swimming pool company. His love of swimming led Trevor to work as a stuntman on various television shows, performing escape feats underwater. Trevor’s house even has an indoor swimming pool where he can relax. His other passion has been inventing, especially inventing products that might help the physically handicapped. Another part of his house has a fully equipped workshop. In 1991, Trevor watched a programme about the spread of AIDS in Africa, which observed that in many regions radio was the only available means of communication, but the need for batteries or electricity made them too expensive or too difficult to access. There was a need for an educational tool that did not rely on electricity. Trevor picked up on the word ‘need’. Need is the catalyst for an inventor’s ‘raison d’être’ and Trevor rose to the occasion. In his workshop at home he experimented with a hand brace, an electric motor and a small radio. He found that the brace turning the motor would act as a generator that would supply sufficient electricity to power the radio. The addition of a clockwork mechanism meant that a spring could be wound up and that as the spring unwound the radio would play. His first working prototype ran for 14 minutes on a two-minute wind. Trevor had invented a clockwork (wind-up) radio!

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

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Activity 3 Handout 2 Page 2 of 2

Trevor Baylis
Inventor of the wind-up technology

Trevor attempted to promote his invention, but manufacturers were not convinced of its commercial value. After many rejections Trevor got lucky. In April 1994 Trevor’s invention was featured on the BBC programme Tomorrow’s World. The product’s potential was immediately recognised by corporate accountant Christopher Staines and South African entrepreneur Rory Stear. In South Africa, the details of the invention were broadcast over a Johannesburg radio station. Hylton Appelbaum, head of the Liberty Life Group, heard the broadcast and was immediately impressed by the relevance the ‘Freeplay’ technology had to South Africa, a country where the vast majority of people are rural and poor, and do not have access to electricity. With funding from the Liberty Group, Staines and Stear in 1995, Trevor set up BayGen Power Industries in Cape Town. Next, the possibility of having disabled people do the radio assembly was considered. Dr William Rowland, President of Disabled People South Africa endorsed the idea. Liberty Life provided the funding to begin production in conjunction with a group of organisations for the disabled, who became business partners in the venture. Technical development was provided by the Bristol University Electronics Engineering Department. Shortly thereafter production of the radio began in Cape Town by BayGen Products PTY South Africa. In June of 1996 the Freeplay radio was awarded the BBC Design Award for Best Product and Best Design. Trevor Baylis met Queen Elizabeth and Nelson Mandela at a state banquet and went to South Africa with the Dutch Television Service for a programme that documented his life. He took part in the BBC’s update of the QED programme ‘The Clockwork Radio’, which was broadcast in September 1996. In 1997, the new-generation Freeplay Radio 2 rolled off the production line in South Africa. Smaller and lighter than the original model, the new radio had been designed specially for the Western consumer market and would run for up to an hour with a 30-second wind-up. Trevor participated in the Sky TV programme Beyond 2000 featuring his inventions. He was awarded the President’s Medal by the Institute of Mechanical Engineers and addressed the Conference of Commonwealth Ministers in Botswana for the British Council. In October, Trevor was awarded the OBE by the Princess Royal at Buckingham Palace, and was featured in an edition of This Is Your Life.
Source: http://windupradio.com

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

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Activity 3 PowerPoint 1 Page 1 of 2

Inducing an electrical current
Science Young Dragons Activity 3 Inducing an electrical current

Dynamos – How they work.

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Curriculum Focus on Cycling 2009

Transport for London

Science Young Dragons Activity 3 Inducing an electrical current

Induced current

Curriculum Focus on Cycling 2009

Transport for London

Science Young Dragons Activity 3 Inducing an electrical current

Induced current
– – – What happens when you move a magnet into a coil of wire? What happens when you hold the magnet in the coil of wire? In what direction is the current produced when you push the magnet into the coil? … and when you pull the magnet from the coil, keeping the magnet pole in the same direction? – What happens when you reverse the poles and repeat the actions above?

Curriculum Focus on Cycling 2009

Transport for London

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Activity 3 PowerPoint 1 Page 2 of 2

Inducing an electrical current
Science Young Dragons Activity 3 Inducing an electrical current

How can you increase the current? – – – – Move the magnet in and out faster? Use a stronger magnet? Increase the number of ‘turns’ on the coil? Increase the size of the coil?
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Curriculum Focus on Cycling 2009

Transport for London

Science Young Dragons Activity 3 Inducing an electrical current

Questions – Does it matter if the magnet is inside the coil? – Can the magnet be outside the coil? – Can you move the coil, not the magnet? – Can you use a magnetic field rather than a bar magnet?

Curriculum Focus on Cycling 2009

Transport for London

Science KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack Project one – Young Dragons Page 1.25

Activity 3 Worksheet 2 Page 1 of 3

Name Class

Date

Producing an induced current
Introduction Use a magnet and coil to show how a current can be induced. Safety You must a) Check all health and safety regulations relating to this activity and b) Carry out a risk assessment Equipment list Option 1: Voltmeter, bar magnet, coil (or wire to make your own coil), crocodile clips, 4mm leads Option 2: PC with datalogging software, datalogger voltage sensor, bar magnet, coil (or wire to make your own coil), crocodile clips, 4mm leads Method Option 1:
• •
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Prepare the circuit as shown in the diagram Connect the voltmeter and move the magnet into the coil. Record what happens on the voltmeter. Hold the magnet steady in the coil – what is happening to the voltmeter? Pull the magnet out from the coil – record what is happening on the voltmeter Try moving the magnet in and out of the coil quickly; use a stronger magnet; increase the number of turns on the coil. In each case record the changes that take place

Option 2:
• •

Set up the apparatus as shown in the diagram. Open the software Start recording and move the magnet into the coil. Any changes will be recorded on the monitor screen. Hold the magnet steady in the coil then pull the magnet out from the coil. Look at the graph to see the results Try moving the magnet in and out of the coil quickly; use a stronger magnet; increase the number of turns on the coil. Look at the graphed data and explain the differences Use the fast-capture capacity of the PC and datalogger to show what happens when the magnet is dropped through the coil – make sure you catch it! Repeat with different coils and magnets and overlay the graphs to show the differences

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Activity 3 Worksheet 2 Page 2 of 3

Name Class

Date

Producing an induced current
Option 1 diagram Induced current using a voltmeter and produced by simple movement of magnet into and out of coil

voltmeter

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

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Activity 3 Worksheet 2 Page 3 of 3

Name Class

Date

Producing an induced current
Option 2 diagram Induced current produced by: a) simple movement of magnet into and out of coil or b) by dropping a magnet through the coil
Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

computer

datalogger

voltmeter

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Activity 3 PowerPoint 2 Page 1 of 1

The traditional cycle dynamo
Science Young Dragons Activity 3 The traditional cycle dynamo

Dynamos – How they work.

Curriculum Focus on Cycling 2009

Transport for London

Science Young Dragons Activity 3 The traditional cycle dynamo

Cycle dynamo
rotor tyre

magnet attached to rotor

soft iron core

coil of insulated wire

to the lighting circuit

Curriculum Focus on Cycling 2009

Transport for London

Science Young Dragons Activity 3 The traditional cycle dynamo

Cycle dynamo
magnet attached to rotor soft iron core coil of insulated wire

rotor tyre

to the lighting circuit

rear light

front light

dynamo

Curriculum Focus on Cycling 2009

Transport for London

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

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Activity 4 Handout 3 Page 1 of 4

Developing the cycle lamp business
Key points for building own product:

Research and development of product type: You should use the information gathered from the experimental activities to decide on the energy source for the cycle lighting, for example, solar, dynamo, etc Design of mechanisms: You need to decide how you will design the internal mechanisms to a size that will be ideal for a cycle lamp. It must be small and light yet robust and durable Design of casing: The outer casing or enclosure will be determined to some extent by the mechanism used. How big does it need to be? Shape is important because it needs to be streamlined and attractive to cyclists. Is it waterproof, strong and durable in case it is dropped or knocked or the bicycle falls over? Talking to other specialists: Your cycle lamp business may be responsible for and very good at research and development but is it equally good at design, marketing and selling? You need to discuss the development with the different teams involved, or use external help if there is a small company nearby. Outside specialists may know more about the market trend, design, what’s ‘cool’, etc. It is not just a question of making a product but making sure that everyone wants one (even if they do not need one!) Where to build: Will the cycle light be built in-house, or is it to be made elsewhere? Many products are now manufactured in the Far East to take advantage of lower labour costs. You need to decide if this is something your business should do, or can the product be built in the UK, or possibly Eastern Europe? You should consider what this means in terms of monitoring quality and manufacturing Manufacturing costs: The manufacturing costs will be a major factor in the final price of the cycle lamp. You should research what price your ‘competitors’ sell cycle lamps for

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

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Activity 4 Handout 3 Page 2 of 4

Developing the cycle lamp business
Key points for building own product (continued):

Final costs: The final cost is a combination of the manufacturing costs plus the assembly costs, and possibly the cost of shipping if the product is made overseas. How does this cost compare with competitors? Have you included import taxes if the product is being made overseas? Making a spreadsheet to list the different costs involved will be a helpful exercise. If this is shared among the different ‘departments’ you will be able to decide the final cost to the customer as a group exercise – is the design too expensive, the right price or much cheaper than the competition? Other factors: Once the product is made then it can be handed over to the Marketing and Sales department to begin the process of marketing, advertising and selling. Who is responsible for packaging and branding of the product? Don’t forget about the cost of sales and delivery to customers. Are these costs already included in the final product costs, or do they need to be added?

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Assembly costs: The manufacturing costs relate to the actual production of the lighting mechanism, but this then has to be fitted into the casing and the casing put together to make the final lamp. Decide whether the manufacturing and assembly can be done in the same place/factory, or whether the parts need to be moved to the new business’s or your own premises for assembly. What implications does this have?

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Activity 4 Handout 3 Page 3 of 4

Developing the cycle lamp business
Key points for selling someone else’s product:

Decision time: You need to decide what you intend to sell and why? What product did you choose and what features made it attractive to you? Did you choose it knowing there was going to be a big demand for this product? Or simply because you are a cycle enthusiast with a shop? Sourcing the product: You also need to look at the arrangements with the manufacturer. Are you the exclusive distributor of this product; are you one of many sellers or is it a formal franchise? If you are exclusive then can you sell via other outlets, for example cycle shops, car parts retailers or garages Marketing the product – 1: What are the unique features of this product? Why is it better than other similar products? Is it the design, robustness, innovative technology or price? You can list the features of the product and do some research into the competition’s specification and price Marketing the product – 2: You must decide how you are going to market the product – brochures, catalogues and mail order, flyers, exhibitions, cycle events, the internet, radio and TV adverts are all options Selling the product – 1: Price and costs! How have you priced your product? Does your price include all the related costs of buying in, delivery, marketing, advertising, sales, premises, delivery to the customer, etc Selling the product – 2: Do you have your own retail outlet, for example a cycle shop? Or will the product be sold by other methods, or a combination of methods? Look again at Marketing 2 above and list the ways in which you may wish to sell and the costs that this might incur. For example, if you are selling via a website what does it cost to set up and maintain the site and to provide a secure payment environment? Or if you are targeting cycle events what is the cost of attending the event, travel, hiring a stall, etc

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

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Activity 4 Handout 3 Page 4 of 4

Developing the cycle lamp business
Key points for selling someone else’s product (continued):

Science. KS3 Cycle Curriculum Pack. Version 1. April 2009

Forecasts: Set up a spreadsheet to show the estimated costs and overheads of the business and the margin you expect to make as profit. From this, you can calculate how many products you need to sell to first break even and then to make a profit VAT: Don’t forget this needs to be added to the product costs and final selling price

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