1. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS..........................................................................1 1.1 compressed gas................................................................................1 1.1.1 Purpose of The Gases........................................................1 1.1.2 Gas Cylinder Identification..................................................1 1.1.3 Safety Precautions.............................................................3 1.1.4 Charging Rigs ...................................................................3 1.1.5 Cascade Charging..............................................................3 1.1.6 Before Use Checks.............................................................3 1.1.7 Aircraft Compressed Gas Charging ...................................4 1.1.8 Aircraft Gas Charging Valves.............................................4 1.1.9 Typical Gas Charging Precautions.....................................5 1.2 electric shock....................................................................................5 1.3 fire precautions.................................................................................6 1.3.1 Classification of Fires..........................................................6 1.3.2 Fire Extinguishing Agents...................................................6 1.3.3 Fire Extinguisher Identification............................................7 1.3.4 General Precautions...........................................................8 1.3.5 Procedure On discovering a fire in the Work-Place............9 1.3.6 Action to be Taken in the Event of Engine Fires.................9 1.3.7 Action to be Taken in the Event of Brake Fires...................9 1.4 the need for safety............................................................................9 1.5 working around aircraft......................................................................10 2. WORKSHOP PRACTICES........................................................................1 2.1 care & use of tools............................................................................1 2.2 use of materials.................................................................................1 2.3 dimensions........................................................................................2 2.4 ALLOWANCES & Tolerance.............................................................3 2.5 calibration of tools & equipment........................................................3 3. TOOLS......................................................................................................1 3.1 common hand tools...........................................................................1 3.1.1 Marking Out Tools..............................................................13 3.2 common power tools.........................................................................19 3.2.1 Electric Hand Drills.............................................................19 3.2.2 Pneumatic Tools.................................................................19 3.2.3 Care of Air Operated Tools & Safety Precautions...............23 3.3 precision measuring tools.................................................................24 3.3.1 Micrometers........................................................................24 3.3.2 Using Micrometers..............................................................26 3.3.3 Vernier Measuring Instruments...........................................27 LUBRICATION.......................................................................................31 3.3.4 Purpose..............................................................................31 3.3.5 Oil 31 3.3.6 Greases..............................................................................31 3.3.7 Limitation of Oils and Greases............................................31 3.3.8 Lubrication Charts..............................................................32 4. ENGINEERING DRAWING.......................................................................1 4.1 drawing types....................................................................................1 4.1.1 NOTES ON DRAWING.......................................................4 4.2 symbols.............................................................................................4 Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 1

4.2.1 Welding Symbols................................................................5 4.2.2 Surface Finish.....................................................................6 4.2.3 Standard Conventions........................................................7 Abbreviations..............................................................................9 4.3 dimensions........................................................................................9 4.3.1 Leader, Projection & Dimensioning Lines...........................11 4.3.2 Redundant Dimensions......................................................11 4.3.3 Holes & Radii......................................................................12 4.3.4 Angles & Chamfers.............................................................12 4.4 tolerance.........................................................................................13 4.4.1 Limits and Tolerances.........................................................13 4.4.2 Geometric Tolerance..........................................................13 4.4.3 Indicators of Geometric Tolerance......................................14 4.5 projections........................................................................................14 4.5.1 Orthographic Projection......................................................14 4.5.2 Pictorial Projections............................................................16 4.6 title block information........................................................................17 4.6.1 Borders & Frames..............................................................17 4.6.2 Amendment to Drawings....................................................17 4.7 micro-film & micrO-fiche....................................................................18 4.8 computerised presentations..............................................................18 4.9 ata 100 specification.........................................................................19 4.10 aeronautical standards....................................................................25 4.11 wiring diagrams...............................................................................25 4.12 schematic diagrams........................................................................25 5. FITS & CLEARANCES..............................................................................27 5.1 Sizes of Holes...................................................................................27 5.2 Classes of Fit....................................................................................27 5.2.1 Clearance Fit......................................................................27 5.2.2 Interference Fit...................................................................27 5.2.3 Transition Fit.......................................................................28 5.3 common systems of fits & clearances...............................................28 5.3.1 Shaft and Hole Basis..........................................................28 5.3.2 Unilateral and Bi-lateral......................................................29 5.3.3 Limit System.......................................................................29 6. AIRCRAFT WEIGHT & BALANCE...........................................................1 6.1 purpose.............................................................................................1 6.2 jar ops requirements.........................................................................1 6.3 principles of weight and balance.......................................................1 6.4 definitions..........................................................................................2 6.5 weight and centre of gravity schedule...............................................3 6.6 principles of aircraft weight and balance...........................................4 6.7 preparation for weighing....................................................................6 6.8 weighing on aircraft jacks..................................................................6 6.9 standard mean chord (s.m.c.)...........................................................8 6.10 changes in basic weight..................................................................8 6.11 examples of alterations to basic weight...........................................9 6.12 loading of aircraft............................................................................10 6.13 documentation................................................................................12 7. AIRCRAFT HANDLING & STORAGE.......................................................1 Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 2

7.1 taxiing / towing & associated Safety Precautions..............................1 7.1.1 Moving Methods ..............................................................1 7.2 jacking / chocking securing & associated safety precautions............11 7.2.1 Special Considerations.......................................................11 7.2.2 Aircraft Jacks......................................................................11 7.2.3 Jack Maintenance & General Notes...................................14 7.2.4 AIRCRAFT Jacking Precautions.........................................14 7.2.5 Jacking Procedure..............................................................15 7.2.6 Lowering Aircraft.................................................................15 7.2.7 Trestles...............................................................................16 7.2.8 Lifting Tackle......................................................................16 7.3 parking & securing AIRCRAFT..........................................................17 7.3.1 Securing / Picketing / Mooring............................................18 7.3.2 Typical Small Aircraft Procedure.........................................18 7.4 ground de-icing & anti-icing...............................................................20 7.4.1 Ground De-icing of Aircraft.................................................20 7.4.2 De-Icing and Anti-Icing.......................................................20 7.4.3 Methods of De-Icing...........................................................20 7.4.4 Safety Notes.......................................................................22 7.4.5 Anti-icing.............................................................................22 7.4.6 De-icing Paste....................................................................25 7.4.7 Inspection After De-icing Operations .................................25 7.5 storage..............................................................................................26 7.6 refuelling & defuelling........................................................................29 7.6.1 Refuelling Aircraft...............................................................29 7.6.2 Refuelling Safety Precautions ............................................29 7.6.3 Checking Fuel Contents.....................................................30 7.6.4 typical aircraft FUELLING information (bae 146)................30 7.7 ground supplies.................................................................................40 7.7.1 Electrical.............................................................................40 7.7.2 Hydraulic............................................................................41 7.7.3 Pneumatic..........................................................................41 7.7.4 Effects of Environmental Conditions on Aircraft Handling & Operation.....................................................................................41 8. INSPECTION & REPAIR TECHNIQUES...................................................1 8.1 corrosion assessment & reprotection................................................1 8.1.1 Preventative Maintenance..................................................1 8.1.2 Corrosion Removal.............................................................1 8.1.3 Corrosion Of Ferrous Metals..............................................2 8.1.4 Highly Stressed Steel Components....................................2 8.1.5 Prevention Of Corrosion ....................................................2 8.1.6 Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys........................................3 8.1.7 Alclad..................................................................................3 8.1.8 Typical Painted Corrosion Treatment Sequence................3 8.1.9 Permanent Anti-Corrosion Treatments...............................4 8.1.10 acid spillage......................................................................5 8.1.11 Alkali Spillage...................................................................5 8.1.12 Mercury Spillage...............................................................5 8.1.13 Identification of Metals......................................................6 8.2 non destructive testing......................................................................7 8.2.1 introduction.........................................................................7 8.2.2 Basic Methods....................................................................7 8.2.3 optical NDT methods..........................................................7 8.2.4 dye penetrant testing..........................................................8 8.2.5 Penetrant Testing...............................................................9 Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 3

8.2.6 ultra sound testing..............................................................10 8.2.7 eddy current testing............................................................12 8.2.8 magnetic particle testing.....................................................13 8.2.9 radiographic & Misc. testing................................................14 8.2.10 Misc. Techniques..............................................................16 8.3 TYPES OF DEFECT AND visual inspection techniques...................17 8.3.1 Inspection...........................................................................17 8.3.2 What Type of defects..........................................................17 8.4 trouble shooting techniques..............................................................19 8.4.1 Confirmation/identification of the fault.................................19 8.4.2 Fault Finding Techniques...................................................19 8.4.3 On BoarD Maintenance Systems........................................19 8.4.4 Fault Isolation Manual/Trouble Shooting Manual................20 9. ABNORMAL EVENTS...............................................................................1 9.1 Introduction.......................................................................................1 9.2 Types of abnormal occurrence..........................................................1 9.3 Type of damage................................................................................1 9.4 lighting strikes & hirf penetration.......................................................1 9.4.1 Effect of a Lightning strike..................................................2 9.4.2 Inspection...........................................................................2 9.4.3 High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF)................................2 9.4.4 Protection Against HIRF.....................................................2 9.5 Typical Manufacturers Information (Boeing 757)...............................3 9.5.1 General Information............................................................3 9.5.2 Basic Protection..................................................................3 9.5.3 Strike Areas........................................................................3 9.5.4 Signs of Damage................................................................3 9.5.5 ExternalComponents..........................................................4 9.5.6 Electrical Components........................................................5 9.5.7 Examination of External Surface.........................................5 9.5.8 Functional Tests.................................................................6 9.5.9 Examination of Internal Components..................................6 9.5.10 Return The Aircraft to Service...........................................7 10. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES............................................................1 10.1 modification procedures..................................................................1 10.1.1 design modifications.........................................................1 10.2 stores procedures...........................................................................5 10.2.1 Approved Parts.................................................................5 10.2.2 Goods Inward procedure..................................................5 10.2.3 storage conditions............................................................10 10.2.4 batch number....................................................................11 10.2.5 authorised release documents .........................................11 10.2.6 bogus parts.......................................................................12 10.3 Certification/Release Procedures....................................................15 10.3.1 Introduction.......................................................................15 10.3.2 Certificate of Release to Service.......................................15 10.3.3 CRS Statement (What does a signature signify?).............15 10.3.4 What if you are Certifying another person’s work?............16 10.4 maintenance planning.....................................................................17 10.4.1 Technical Records............................................................17 10.4.2 Job Number......................................................................17 10.4.3 WORKSHEETS................................................................18 10.4.4 WORKPACKS..................................................................18 10.4.5 Planning...........................................................................18 Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 4

10.5 Maintenance Inspection..................................................................21 10.5.1 Introduction.......................................................................21 10.5.2 planning the maintenance schedule.................................21 10.5.3 AMENDMENTS TO APPROVED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES..............................................................................22 10.5.4 Condition Monitoring Maintenance...................................27 10.5.5 The Maintenance Steering Group (MSG) Approach ........29 10.5.6 The Maintenance Schedule..............................................1 10.5.7 Information in a typical Schedule......................................2 10.6 interface with aircraft operation ......................................................5 10.6.1 AIRLINE SCHEDULING...................................................5 10.6.2 Maintenance Opportunities ..............................................6 10.6.3 Maintenance - Ideal production requirements...................6 10.7 quality control / quality assurance...................................................8 10.7.1 How is quality checked.....................................................8 10.7.2 External Verification..........................................................8 11. AIRCRAFT CABLES...............................................................................9 11.1 applicable requirements..................................................................9 11.1.1 Airworthiness codes..........................................................9 11.1.2 Design responsibility.........................................................9 11.1.3 Approval of cables............................................................10 11.1.4 Modification & repair.........................................................10 11.2 cable classification..........................................................................11 11.2.1 Airframe cables.................................................................11 11.2.2 Interconnect cables..........................................................11 11.2.3 Equipment wire.................................................................12 11.2.4 Fire resistant cables..........................................................12 11.2.5 Fireproof cables................................................................12 11.2.6 Multi-core, Screened and Jacketed cables.......................12 11.2.7 Data Bus...........................................................................12 11.2.8 Ignition cables...................................................................13 11.2.9 Thermocouple cables.......................................................13 11.2.10 Co-axial cables...............................................................13 11.3 specification & cable type identification...........................................13 11.3.1 British Standards Specifications.......................................13 11.3.2 UK Military Specifications.................................................14 11.3.3 US Military Specifications.................................................14 11.3.4 Constructor’s Specification...............................................14 11.3.5 International (including European) Standards...................14 11.3.6 Cable Manufacturer’s Specifications.................................15 11.4 cable performance..........................................................................15 11.4.1 Application........................................................................15 11.4.2 Temperature.....................................................................15 11.4.3 Cable size.........................................................................16 11.4.4 Voltage rating...................................................................16 11.4.5 Current rating....................................................................16 11.4.6 Flammability & toxicity......................................................17 11.4.7 Wet Arc Tracking..............................................................17 11.4.8 Mechanical properties.......................................................17 11.4.9 Fluid contamination..........................................................17 11.5 cable construction...........................................................................18 11.5.1 Conductors.......................................................................18 11.5.2 Conductor Plating.............................................................18 11.5.3 Dielectric materials / cable types......................................18 11.6 cable failure.....................................................................................20 Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 5

11.6.1 Wet Arc Tracking..............................................................20 11.6.2 Minyvin.............................................................................20 11.6.3 BMS 13-28........................................................................20 11.6.4 Abrasion...........................................................................20 11.6.5 Conductor 'Knuckling through'..........................................20 11.6.6 Red Plague.......................................................................21 11.6.7 Glycol Fires.......................................................................21 11.6.8 Poor Solderability.............................................................21 11.7 caa approved cables.......................................................................21 11.7.1 B.I.C.C..............................................................................22 11.7.2 Rists Wire and Cable Ltd..................................................24 11.7.3 Raychem Limited..............................................................25 11.7.4 Societe Filotex..................................................................27 11.7.5 Kabelwerke Reinshagen Gmbh........................................28 11.7.6 Huber and Suhner AG......................................................28 11.8 caa obsolescent cables...................................................................29 11.8.1 B.I.C.C..............................................................................29 11.8.2 Fothergill and Harvey Limited...........................................29 11.8.3 Rists Wire and Cables Ltd................................................29 11.8.4 Societe Filotex..................................................................29 11.8.5 Fileca................................................................................29 11.9 cable identification..........................................................................30 11.9.1 Manufacturers’ identification marks..................................30 11.9.2 Country of origin identification marks................................30 11.10 identification of installed cables.....................................................31 11.10.1 Basic cable coding system.............................................31 11.10.2 Manufacturers coding.....................................................34 12. CABLE INSTALLATIONS.......................................................................1 12.1 support of cabling............................................................................1 12.2 lacing..............................................................................................1 12.3 protecting cables.............................................................................2 12.3.1 Synthetic rubber sleeves..................................................2 12.3.2 Heat Shrink Sleeving........................................................2 12.3.3 Wrapping..........................................................................3 12.3.4 Rubber beading & grommets............................................3 12.3.5 Conduits...........................................................................3 12.3.6 Cable seals.......................................................................3 13. TERMINATING CABLES........................................................................1 13.1 crimped terminations.......................................................................1 13.1.1 Crimping ring, tag and spade type terminations................1 13.1.2 Erma crimping machine....................................................8 13.1.3 Crimping of connector pins & sockets...............................9 13.1.4 Terminating screened cables............................................10 13.2 soldering.........................................................................................14 13.2.1 Soldering Irons.................................................................14 13.2.2 Solder...............................................................................15 13.2.3 Flux...................................................................................15 13.2.4 Heat Sinks........................................................................16 13.2.5 Anti-Wicking tool...............................................................16 13.2.6 Soldering procedure.........................................................17 13.2.7 Inspection of soldered joints.............................................17 13.2.8 Common soldering faults..................................................18 13.2.9 Desoldering methods........................................................19 13.3 wire-wrapping of electrical connections...........................................21 Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 6

.....................................9 Measuring resistance...............21 13.....................24 14...................4 Terminal Junction Module.....2 connectors............4 Incorrect Wire-Wrapping......................2 light aircraft manuals..............3 Ward Brook terminal blocks....................... INTERCONNECTING CABLES................................4 Parallax error........7 Meter loading....................................................2 Principle of operation.......................1..1....................................................................3 15....................21 13...........1 16..............10 16..1....5 15.1 15...1..............................................13............2 Tools.............1 ATA 100...........1 terminal strips..............5 15...................................5 Meter position.....................25 14...........1....26 14.........................28 15...........3 Carrying out an insulation resistance test.......................9 15..1........3...............1.....3.1 large commercial aircraft...3..2......................1 SBAC terminal blocks..........1....................................1...............7 15..........................1 Types of Wire-Wrap...............3.....26 14.............................1 basic moving coil type......................................................... AIRCRAFT MANUALS....................................................................................4 15.........3 Wire-Wrapping procedure......................7 15...1 Construction...7 17........2.................4 15................1...................................1 16..................................................................... CIRCUIT SYMBOLS..................................................................................................................................3 Damping......................6 Methods of inspection......................2 ratiometer type instruments.......27 14................................................................................1....3..................................................................25 14............................................................................................25 14.............................2.................................23 13.2 Plessey terminal blocks....1 The Bonding tester.................................. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS............................6 Extending the meter range...................................8 Ohm’s per volt.....5 Modification and Repairs...........3 15...........1...1 15...........1 15................6 15.......................................23 13...........................2 15..........................22 13.......................2 The Insulation Resistance tester.....1..............................................................8 Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 7 ........................1 16......................1..............3....................................................

Intentionally Blank Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 8 .

Oxygen Colour . 1.Fire Extinguishers and Safety Equipment Acetylene Colour . the accepted practice was to paint the cylinder in a distinctive colour and also to paint the name of the gas on the cylinder in letters of a contrasting colour. 1. but it is no longer compulsory for the suppliers or users of compressed gases to follow it's requirements. The cylinders are colour coded in accordance with British Standard 381 C. Nitrogen.Oxygen in White Use . In this section we will look at the particular care that should be taken when working with compressed gasses.1 COMPRESSED GAS Compressed gases are in common use in aviation. Virtually every aspect of aircraft maintenance can be potentially hazardous. They are required during normal day to day aircraft maintenance. We shall also consider the safety precautions and procedures relevant to fire in the workplace.1. electricity oils and chemicals. shock absorbers. Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen are all usually present on the flight line.Aircrew & Passenger breathing Carbon Dioxide Colour – Black Lettering . SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Aviation engineers frequently work in potentially dangerous environments. Nitrogen Colour Light Grey with Black neck Lettering . tyres. It is compulsory for this label to be attached to the cylinder during transportation of the cylinder. aircraft hydraulic system accumulators. It is obvious that engineers must be trained to be aware of these potential dangers so that precautions can be taken to minimise them. gas cylinders are normally supplied by The British Oxygen Company (B. Each part of your training will emphasise particular hazards associated with the subject. 1. the normal convention in the UK is as follows. In the UK.Carbon Dioxide in White Use .2GAS CYLINDER IDENTIFICATION It is vital that a gas cylinder must be positively identified to prevent possible disastrous results of charging a system or component with the wrong gas.1PURPOSE OF THE GASES Nitrogen is used for aircraft tyre inflation.Maroon Lettering . If colour coding is used.C. Carbon Dioxide is used in fire extinguishers and for life jacket and other safety equipment inflation bottles. the gas pressure and any special safety requirements. In the past.). The only positive method of identifying the contents of a gas cylinder is to read a label on the neck of the cylinder.Black with White neck Lettering .Nitrogen in BlacK Use – Charging aircraft accumulators. Oxygen is used for aircraft emergency breathing for aircrew and passengers. showing the cylinder contents.O. fuel tank inhibiting and shock strut inflation. Acetylene is used in gas welding equipment.Acetylene in White Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 1 .1.1.

Use .Gas Welding Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 2 .

i. In this process fully charged cylinders in a set. If not used.000 pounds per square inch (p.s. by means of which the supply pressure can be limited to the maximum required by the component or system. the result could be a set of four gas bottles.i. a flexible supply hose. 1.s. can inject into the skin and cause serious. Gas at pressure as low as 100 p. Oxygen safety precautions will be dealt with in more detail in module 11.4CHARGING RIGS Aircraft gas cylinders contain gas at a much lower pressure and so the gas is decanted from the larger “transport” cylinders.i.s. Oxygen is particularly dangerous as it is also capable of causing explosions when in contact with oils or greases.500. gas bottle.1.i. then the 1.. are not used for the initial part of a charge.000 p. ensure the following: • • Is the gas the correct type? .). Make sure the transport cylinders are correctly fitted and secure on the trolley or rig. Page 3 Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC .1.000 p. The current pressure is 500 p. 1. Cascade charging saves gas.000 p.i.1. each with a substantial amount of gas at slightly lower pressure than the maximum system pressure.3SAFETY PRECAUTIONS The storage or “transport” cylinders supplied by BOC are large (approximately 6ft long) and contain gas at a pressure of 4. Extreme care must be taken when working with gas at this pressure.6BEFORE USE CHECKS Before charging with gas. to the system and charge it with that one only.s. Alternatively a fixed charging rig may be used. and pressure gauges showing supply pressure and storage cylinder pressure.000 . even fatal injuries. A charging trolley is often used. gas bottle and so on until the aircraft system is at 2. this being generally a towed trolley with one.s.s. conserving gas for more charges. Partially exhausted cylinders are used initially and higher pressure cylinders to complete the process.i. two or even four high-pressure gas cylinders.1.500 p.i. 1. 1. You might be tempted to connect the bottle with 3.s. a supply shut-off valve. Example: A large capacity system needs to be charged to 2. first charging from the 1.500 and 1. 1.i.000 p.1.s.5CASCADE CHARGING This is a procedure that should be adopted when gas charging to avoid wastage of gas. If the bottles are dropped or damaged they could explode or propel the cylinder at high velocity like a rocket projectile. Some rigs are also fitted with a pressure regulator. Some gasses support combustion and will make fires burn much more fiercely.s.i.Refer to identification markings and/or the label on the neck.6. There are four gas bottles on the charging trolley have pressures of 3.500 p.800.

1. the relationship between temperature and pressure is generally presented in the form of a graph. and in order to ensure that the correct pressure is maintained. there should be no oil or grease around the charging connections or the charging rig. The cap should be removed when the system requires charging. The cap may be attached by a chain.e. gas pressure will also increase.8AIRCRAFT GAS CHARGING VALVES These may be of two types. the required gas pressure may vary according to the aircraft weight. the pressure will drop and may result in an inaccurate reading. This may prove disastrous if the next step was to attempt to dismantle the wheel. On no account should the valve body be unscrewed while the system or component is pressurised. because the sudden release of gas under pressure could have disastrous consequences.• • • Ensure the cylinders contain enough pressure for the charge.7AIRCRAFT COMPRESSED GAS CHARGING Any system or component containing compressed gas must be handled and serviced carefully. Prior to work on any unit from which the gas has been exhausted.1. giving the impression that the tyre is fully deflated when it may be partially inflated. This effect can be minimised by charging slowly. On cooling down. 1. In the case of tyres or shock absorbers on larger aircraft. Make sure the delivery hose is in good condition and clean. The gas pressure in some components varies according to the ambient temperature. lowering the temperature. Oxygen systems are an additional hazard in that the gas supports combustion and that oil and grease are prone to spontaneous combustion in the presence of undiluted oxygen. In both types. thus preventing it from being lost. There is sometimes a temperature graph to show how the pressure varies with temperature. This type of valve is identical to the valves used in car or bicycle wheels.1. A sudden release of gas produces the reverse affect i. Since rapid compression of a gas results in an increased temperature. The other type of valve has a nut which must be unscrewed partially before the gas may be released. Charging Panel Charging Valves A typical aircraft gas charging panel will comprise a charging valve and pressure gauge. One is a needle type valve that opens and closes automatically when pressure is applied or released (Schrader valve). both in the Maintenance Manual and on a placard adjacent to the charging point. since this could result in the valve blowing out. If Oxygen gas is being charged. the charging valve should be completely removed. as ice may form and block the valve. This is particularly important when deflating a tyre. Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 4 . causing damage or injury. a valve cap should always be fitted to prevent entry of dirt and moisture.

Most UK engineers are familiar with pounds per square inch (p. Also make sure of the pressure units. Generally the charging hose should be purged. it should be explosion proof. the shut off valve should be closed and the system pressure allowed to stabilise after cooling down. The supply hose should not be disconnected unless the shut-off valve and the charging valve on the charging rig are closed. Much of the systems and maintenance equipment is electrically powered. • Arcing caused by inadequate insulation. The main dangers associated with use of electricity are: • Electric shock which may be fatal. Page 5 • • Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC . When the required pressure is reached.i. after removing the blanking cap. by allowing gas to escape at low pressure from the hose. is properly earthed. All portable electrical equipment should be PAT (Portable Appliance Test) tested at regular intervals by a trained and qualified PAT test person. • • • • • • • • • 1.9TYPICAL GAS CHARGING PRECAUTIONS Charging a component with compressed gas should be carried out carefully observing the following precautions: • The charging pressure should be checked from the maintenance manual. Personal jewellery. On some rigs provision is also made for relieving pressure from the supply hose before disconnection. and if illumination is required.s. Ensure all test equipment is properly connected. This is vitally important when charging oxygen. snow or dust). The pressure should be re-checked and adjusted as necessary.). The same care should be taken to ensure the system charging point is clean. The aircraft system should be charged slowly. Ensure all electrical and radio equipment. so as to minimise the rise in temperature.2 ELECTRIC SHOCK This is an obvious occupation hazard for both avionic and mechanical aircraft engineers. any contamination should be wiped off with a lint-free cloth.1. The supply connection (charging hose) should be clean. Blanking caps should always be fitted to the charging valve and the supply hose after disconnection.s. This could lead to a fire. dry and free from oil or grease. • Overheating which again could lead to a fire. prior to connection.1. but some gauges are calibrated in other units such as bars (a bar is approximately 15 p. Consideration should also be given to the ambient temperature and that the environmental conditions will not contaminate the system conditions (rain. adequate and properly manned fire-fighting equipment should be positioned. Again this is vital in the case of oxygen charging. Most of the personal dangers can be prevented by following a few simple rules: • Wear the correct clothing.i.). When charging oxygen systems. This ensures there are no foreign bodies or moisture in the hose. especially rings and metal strapped watches should not be worn as they may get caught in machinery or act as a conductor. power tools etc.

so there is a high risk of fire. If using machines that have emergency stop buttons. 1. Aircraft carry large quantities of fuel and other combustible materials. Page 6 Letter Designation A B C D • Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC . Where possible. To extinguish a fire. Extinguishers suited for each classification of fire are marked with the classification letter as shown in the following table: Fire Classes Ordinary combustibles . • Class A . wood Flammable liquids – Fuel.2FIRE EXTINGUISHING AGENTS Fire extinguishing agents should be selected appropriate to the type of fire on which they are effective. can be extinguished with a water spray. cloth.• • • • • Ensure that all interlocks and other safety devices are serviceable and not tampered with or over-ridden. Dry powder agents break down in the presence of heat to produce carbon dioxide that displaces the oxygen.fires are best put out with an extinguisher that excludes the oxygen from the burning fuel. Three things are required before a fire can occur: • • • There must be a Fuel Oxygen must be present (or air. ensure all personnel know their locations. 1. Carbon Dioxide extinguishers displace the oxygen directly. Operate or remove the appropriate circuit protection devices (circuit breakers or fuses). ensure a second person is present in case of an accident.3 FIRE PRECAUTIONS Fire is the product of a chemical reaction in which fuel mixes with oxygen and releases heat and light.fires with such fuels as paper. Do not work on equipment that is switched on. Foam is also used.3. Water should not be used because the burning fuel will float on top of the water. There is also a large amount of electrical equipment on aircraft. wood or cloth (often called solid fuel). Oil Energised electrical equipment Combustible metals – Brake units 1. Class B .paper. which blankets the fire and excludes the oxygen. This cools the fuel to a temperature below that at which it can burn. which contains oxygen) The temperature must be raised high enough for the fuel and oxygen to combine. Always switch off power before replacing components. you must either cool it or exclude the oxygen. Fire is probably the most dangerous of the hazards associated with aircraft maintenance.3.1CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES Fires are classified into four categories.

so be aware of the old codes. 1. the water is ejected through a nozzle so that the temperature of the fire is lowered. Carbon dioxide is very effective when sprayed via a non-metallic horn.• Class C .3.3FIRE EXTINGUISHER IDENTIFICATION The extinguishers should be clearly marked with the appropriate class letter symbol. Class D . Water should definitely not be used as it will conduct electricity. unlikely that everyone will be using the new colour cylinders for a long time. Note the fire extinguishers pictured above use the colour coding. anti-freeze and a carbon dioxide bottle. It is however.fires should never have water sprayed on them as it intensifies the fire and may cause an explosion.1 Water Gas Fire Extinguishers These contain water. Dry powder is the best choice for extinguishing metal fires. The old colours are as follows: • Water Gas • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) • Foam • Dry Powder Blue Red Black Cream Fire extinguishers used in workshops and hangars should now be coloured Red. Dry powder would be effective. but it is not the best choice as it leaves a sticky residue that makes cleanup difficult.fires should be treated carefully because of the risk of contact with high voltages. The best extinguishers are halogenated hydrocarbons or halons. When the carbon dioxide gas is released.3. • 1. Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 7 .3. Many extinguishers in current use are colour coded to indicate the type of extinguisher. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguishers CO2 is an inert gas that is stored in a cylinder under pressure. When it is released it expands and it’s temperature drops. It blankets the fire and excludes oxygen, so the fire is extinguished. It is available in various sizes from small hand held units to larger trolley mounted units. The state of charge is normally determined by weighing the cylinder and comparing it’s weight with the weight stamped on the cylinder neck. This extinguisher is most suitable for use on flight lines for engine starting, fuelling and general use. May be available complete with various length hoses and application nozzles for external use on a/c engines. Dry Powder Extinguishers Dry powder agents such as bicarbonate of soda, ammonium phosphate and potassium bicarbonate are effective against class B, C and D fires. When the agent is heated by the fire, carbon dioxide is released which excludes oxygen from the fire. The dry powder is propelled from the cylinder by a charge of compressed nitrogen. These extinguishers are particularly effective on brake fires, because they do not cool the brakes as would CO2, foam or water gas. Foam Fire Extinguishers Foam extinguishers are particularly effective for liquids such as fuel or oil fires. Two chemicals are stored separately within a cylinder. When these chemicals are mixed, a large volume of foam under pressure is produced. This foam, when directed onto the burning liquid, blankets the fire and starves it of oxygen. Should not be used for electrical fires. Fire Blanket Stored in a RED cylindrical container. Usually asbestos or some other good insulator. As it's name suggests, it may be used to blanket the flames. 1.3.4GENERAL PRECAUTIONS The following general precautions should be observed to minimise the risk of fires and their affect: • • • • • • • Smoke only in designated areas. Observe and obey No Smoking signs on flight lines. Do not carry matches or any other source of combustion. Do not wear studded or steel tipped footwear. All flammable liquids such as paint, dope, hydraulic fluid etc. should be stored in an approved store outside the hangar. Supervisors should ensure that all reasonable fire safety precautions are taken and all fire apparatus is serviceable. Personnel engaged in maintenance should be fully conversant with the use and operation of fire protection equipment. They should also know the action to be taken in the event of a fire i.e. escape routes, fire alarms, position of fire appliances and assembly points. When fuelling a/c electric's should not be switched on or off. Aircraft should always be bonded when being worked on. When fuel tanks are empty there is probably a greater risk of fire than when they are full. Page 8

• • •

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1.3.5PROCEDURE ON DISCOVERING A FIRE IN THE WORK-PLACE • • • Shout "Fire" Loudly. Operate the nearest fire alarm or get someone else to. Attempt to extinguish the fire with the nearest suitable fire appliance. Do not attempt this if your actions will endanger your own life or your chance of escape. Ensure fire brigade is called. Give location of fire i.e. Building and position in building, also type of fire, Fuel or Electrical etc. Close all doors and windows if possible (Reduce fire spreading) Proceed to assembly point.

• • •

1.3.6ACTION TO BE TAKEN IN THE EVENT OF ENGINE FIRES • • Aircraft engines are mostly susceptible to fires on start-up. The following points will minimise the risk of damage due to an engine fire. Always have a fire extinguisher of the correct type available prior to starting the engine. A CO2 extinguisher should be close to hand for each engine start. A safety person should be available, conversant with the operation of the fire appliance and aircraft procedures. In the event of a fire, the fuel supply and ignition should be turned off before attempting to extinguish the flames. If possible see if the fire stops after fuel and ignition is cut. If not, apply extinguisher agent via the fire access panels, do not run engines with cowlings open or removed.

• • •

1.3.7ACTION TO BE TAKEN IN THE EVENT OF BRAKE FIRES Brake Fires occur mainly due to overheating after a heavy landing or excess operation of the brakes. They may also be a result of a hydraulic fluid leak onto a hot brake. A brake unit may not catch fire immediately after an incident. The unit may burst into flames a long time afterward a landing. Care should be taken approaching a wheel or brake unit. Never approach in the direction of the axle, always approach in line with the tyre i.e. from the front or rear of the aircraft. Only attempt to extinguish a brake unit if it is on fire. If it is only overheated it is best left alone to cool. A Dry Powder extinguisher is the most effective as it does not rapidly cool the unit. If a dry powder extinguisher is not available, a CO2 or Foam extinguisher can be used by application of the extinguisher agent onto the GROUND near to the unit. This will allow the agent to warm up before coming into contact with the brake unit.

It is fairly obvious from the previous comments that a maintenance engineer needs to be both knowledgeable concerning the safety requirements and alert when working around aircraft. Various other factors will also have an effect on the level of safety. Human factors such as noise, lighting, fatigue and work pressures are also relevant. Some of these will be discussed in Module 9 Human Factors.

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Many aspects of working on aircraft will be unsafe if the correct safety precautions are not observed. Even walking around aircraft will be dangerous if you are not aware of the dangers. Typical dangers will be as follows: • • • • • • • • • Sharp objects such as probes, wing-tips, propellers, aerials Working around engine intakes and exhausts is particularly dangerous (often fatal) when the engines are running. Working around propellers especially when rotating. Damage to ears from constant exposure to noise. High pressure gases can cause explosions. Working with many tools, especially power tools. Working around electricity in general. Hydraulically operated controls or other systems. Dangers due to risk of fire.

This list could be extended considerably. The safety aspect of working around aircraft should be emphasised at all times. Engineers tend to become overconfident as experience increases. They should be alert at all times to the possible dangers. Anyone who has been in the aviation maintenance business for a reasonable time will be able to recount at least one instance of a serious injury or fatality due to a safety related incident. Ask your lecturer!

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In order to perform his duties competently and speedily, the Licensed Aircraft Maintenance Engineer needs to provide himself with an adequate tool kit, maintain it properly and add to it as he progresses from one aircraft to another in the pursuance of his career. It is obvious, therefore, that knowledge of tools is an essential part of his overall field of learning. In this topic we shall consider some aspects of the provision and safe keeping of both personal tools and some special tools. The provision of special tools is usually undertaken by the organisation for whom the engineer works, but their proper use and safe keeping is very much the responsibility of those who use them. The care of tools, their correct usage and safe keeping is an aspect of the engineers work which must be approached with the same degree of responsibility as all other facets of his work. Worn tools, e.g. spanners with spread jaws, screwdrivers with incorrectly ground blades etc. will damage the equipment on which they are being used, as well as risking injury to the user. To minimise the risk of loose articles being left on aircraft, many engineering organisations now use 'Shadow Boards' for tool storage. A black wooden board carries painted silhouettes of all the tools attached by spring clips to that particular board. At the end of a particular period, a brief glance will show which tools are still in use of have not been returned to their storage. This method has contributed very effectively to a reduction in the number of accidents due to loose tools left in aircraft. Despite some organisations using shadow boards, many only use them for specialist tools therefore in many companies the mechanic / technician will be expected to supply and control his own personal tool kit.

Many different materials are used on aircraft and most of them need to be approved for aircraft use. A few examples of the different materials are: • • • • • • Sheet metal, rivets and fasteners for repairs Adhesives, sealants and jointing componds. Cleaning materials, these may be water based or solvent based. Painting materials – etch primers, thinners, paint and paint removers. Fuels, engine oil and hydraulic fluid. Fluids for a variety of purposes including acids, alkaline fluids.

These and many more will be discussed during the rest of the course. It is most important for you to realise that many of the materials need special care to avoid both damage and injury. The maintenance or repair manuals will always specify the recommended material for a specific task. Sometimes an alternative will be identified, but if not so identified the recommended material must be used. Each of the materials will normally be identified by a part number or identification code. This code number may be a manufacturers code or an internationally standard code. For example many aircraft sheet metal skins are made from an aluminium alloy called durallumin. This may be coded 2017, 2117 or 2024, each being a slightly different specification.

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One of the main tasks an engineer has to perform is to identify if the aircraft conforms to its design specifications. Much of the maintenance work involves carrying out some form of inspection. This will often involve measuring to check if dimensions are correct. An engineer will be required to take measurements in a variety of different circumstances, using a variety of measuring devices. The following list gives some of the situations where a measurement may be made: • • • • • • • Measuring tyre tread depth to ascertain if tread wear is excessive Checking the up and down movement of a control surface – this may involve measurement of an angle or a dimension Measurement of thickness of brake pads Determining the dimensions of damage to aircraft structures Measurement of the overall length of an electrical actuator Measurement of the volume of fuel during a fuel flow check Accurate measurement of the dimensions of a hydraulic cylinder

In each of the previous cases a different method of measurement may be used. In the first example, a tyre depth gauge might be used. In the second the measurement might be carried out with a steel rule or a special tool supplied by the aircraft manufacturer. Accuracy of Dimensions As well as using different types of measuring device, the measurements may need to be carried out to a greater degree of accuracy. In all cases it is true to say the dimension cannot be measured exactly. It is only possible to measure to the accuracy of the measuring device used. As well as this, the measuring device will not be totally accurate.

The scale of the rule shown is in millimetres, with the smallest sub-division representing 5mm. The line A is between 30mm and 35mm. You should not estimate the value of A as 33mm (or 34mm). Its value can only be accurately stated as 30mm. If you need to measure more accurately, you need to use a more accurate measuring device such as a vernier caliper. Another way of giving a false indication of the accuracy of a measurement or dimension is to specify too many decimal places in your measurement. For example, if you measure a dimension of 4inches with a rule calibrated in eight’s of an inch, you might be tempted to state the dimension as 4.125” as this is the decimal value. This implies that you have measured to an accuracy of 0.001” rather than .

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Aircraft components are usually manufactured to closer tolerances than in other engineering applications. 2.5 CALIBRATION OF TOOLS & EQUIPMENT Gauges and precision measuring instruments need to be checked against a Standard Value on a periodic basis to ensure accuracy within a given range. The parts are therefore made to a specified limit so that each may be slightly smaller or larger than the stated “nominal” size. The allowance is considered when we have two mating parts such as a shaft and a hole. Torque Wrench Calibration Gauge Tools and equipment requiring regular calibration checks would include: Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 3 . it is impossible for them to be manufactured to exact dimensions. The shaft is obviously designed to fit into a hole. If for example a part should be 25mm in diameter (nominal size). A cutting tool will wear and so will produce slightly different parts each time. it will not give the required accuracy if care is not taken when it is used. Each will have a high and a low limit. Precision gauges should normally be checked and recalibrated at least every six months.04mm. We often use the term close tolerance in this case. A tolerance is the permitted variation tolerated and is a measure of the accuracy or standard of workmanship. It is more difficult (and more expensive) to produce items with very small tolerances.4 ALLOWANCES & TOLERANCE When components are manufactured. the rollers or die will not produce the same results each time. it may be considered acceptable if it is within the limits 25. The difference between the two limits is the tolerance. It is essential that components are interchangeable so that they may fit together. The best accuracy we can achieve is dictated by the accuracy of our measuring devices.02mm (high limit) and 24. It is not always essential for the device to give the exact value as long as it is known how inaccurate the device is. in this case 0. If a part is rolled or extruded. If a particular measuring device is designed to be accurate to say 0. The allowance is the difference between the high limit of the shaft and the low limit of the hole.2.98mm (low limit). It is also common practice to check it every time it is used to confirm it’s accuracy. Part of the reason for this is much the same as we have already stated. The ability of a machine to produce identical parts also comes into play.001”. A micrometer would. for example be checked for its zero ready every time it is used.

Maintenance Practices B1 by COBC Page 4 . Sometimes a chart will indicate how much the instrument varies from the stated value over the complete measuring range.• • • • • • • • Micrometers – both external and internal Vernier measuring tools Tyre pressure gauges Torque wrenches Cable tensiometers Electrical measuring gauges such as multi-meters Specialised Non-Destructive equipment Avionic Test equipment When calibrated. Where necessary it should be identified how accurate the equipment is over the complete measuring range. it is necessary to keep a record to ensure that it is known when the equipment will need re-calibration.

Most tools are available in a variety of sizes and types. By this we mean how to identify the different types of a tool. At the very least the engineer will need to be able to describe the tools when it comes to buying them.1 COMMON HAND TOOLS A good aircraft engineer will most probably have a very extensive (and expensive) tool kit. Other than a basic knowledge pf the different types of tool and their use. TOOLS 3. For example there are many different types of screwdriver. Initially the toolkit will be small and the engineer will need to be selective about the number of tools bought and their quality. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . The engineer will need to be familiar with many different types of tools. They differ both in the type of screws they are used on and in the size of the screwdriver.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . it is necessary to describe or “classify” tools.3.

8" Phillips. this latter type being used in the restricted spaces frequently found in aircraft maintenance work. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . and the tip drop forged and finally ground to the correct profile. for although they may look alike at the first glance. the angles and shape of the cruciform slot are different. In a good quality tool the blade will be cold rolled to produce great strength and resistance to twist. Changeable-tip (Snap-On) and stubby. In the case of the common screwdriver. It is important to select the correct type of cross point driver for the particular screw in use. these being the type with a cruciform configuration blade (commonly termed 'Cross Point'). 10" common. Variations of the common or 'standard' screwdriver include Phillips. for use on normal slotted screws. Classified by length and type of blade e. Posidrive and Reed & Prince. Further variations of screwdriver include Ratchet.Screwdrivers.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .g. Pump-action. the blade being made of alloy steel with a wooden or plastic handle. the working tip of the blade should be ground flat to prevent slipping in the slot and the tip should bottom in the slot.

since the jaws can easily be twisted or damaged by mishandling. 8" Slide Cutting. 6" Fine Nose.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .g. forged to impart strength to their relatively light and slender form. Care should be taken to use only a pair of pliers capable of coping with the job in hand. Classified by type of jaw and overall length e.Pliers. Specialised pliers include those for wire stripping. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . with the jaws and side cutting section hardened. removal and fitting of circlips and wire locking. etc. Made of steel.

The head is made of medium carbon steel with the working faces hardened and tempered. ensuring that the steel retaining wedge is secured in position. Hence when we classify a hammer we call it a ball pein. When this happens. The head normally has one flat striking face and one of a variety of shapes.Hammers. The flat surface is normally used for normal striking or hitting work such as bending a bar of metal or using a drift. cross pein or straight pein hammer. whilst the eye for attachment of the handle is left soft. a soft hammer is used. the head consisting of a detachable plug of rawhide. The non flat face is called a “pein”. the head should be discarded and a new one fitted. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . When the use of a hammer is necessary on finished surfaces. Lead or copper heads are in use for similar reasons. whilst the peins are used for specialised forming operations.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Classified by weight and type of head. After long service a hammer may tend to become unsafe due to small jagged pieces breaking off the edge of the striking faces. nylon or similar material.

type and cut of teeth. whilst the grade or tooth spacing may be classed as rough. files are classified according to their length. Probably the most frequently used tool in the fitting trade. the tang on which the handle is fitted being reduced in hardness so that it is less brittle than the working part. bastard. These terms describe the number of teeth or 'cuts' to the inch and this will vary with the length of the file. smooth or dead smooth. second-cut. The length does not include the tang. The teeth of the file may be single or double cut. section.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Representative figures for a 12" flat file will be: Bastard Second Cut Smooth Dead Smooth 21 cuts / inch 26 cuts / inch 40 cuts / inch 72 cuts / inch Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .Files. Files are made of forged high carbon steel.

tapering in both width and thickness at the end. Used in the formation of filed radii. Half Round. N. Parallel in width throughout it's length. Curved face is not a full half circle in section. This is used for filing in corners where one side is left untouched. Used for work on awkward corners. Parallel for most of it's length. Double cut on both faces.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Double cut on flat face. • • Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .B. the other edge is left un-cut and is known as the 'Safe Edge'.Commonly used files include: • • Flat. May be single or doubled cut on all faces. single cut on curved face. single cut on both edges. Hand. single cut on one edge. Double cut on both faces. but tapers in thickness at the end. Triangle or Three Square.

Precautions using Files • • • Never use a file without a handle. The file should be frequently cleaned by using a file card consisting of short wire bristles on a fabric backing. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Copper). since due to it's brittle nature it may break with jagged pieces flying off (into eyes!). the teeth end to clog.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Never use a file as a lever. When filing soft metal (Aluminium.

or for moving the centre of a drilled hole which has started to run off-centre. resulting in hands coming sharply into contact with the work. round nose and diamond-point. tubular etc. General fitting work. Usually the blade teeth only will be hardened.14". The most common types are flat. Breakage is usually due to either insufficient tightening of the blade. but the blade may be hardened throughout. frequently 10" and the blade will be made from carbon or alloy steel. say 30º. common types can be flat and half round. while for cutting softer materials like aluminium a fairly sharp angle is needed. testing the fit with marking fluid with the shaft in position. For cutting an oil groove in a bearing. The blade is tensioned by either tightening a wing nut or the handle itself. a scraper can be a most useful addition to the aircraft engineers tool box. a larger angle for tough and hard materials.e. cross-cut.g. For these reasons they are made from high carbon steels or alloy steels heat treated to induce the properties that give them a satisfactory working life. 18 T. key-ways on shafts and to divide up flat surfaces into strips prior to cutting with flat chisel. adjustable.g.. Number of teeth vary. teeth forward. Half Round. Lengths vary from approximately 8" . Note: The blade is designed to cut only on the forward stroke. then repeating the operation on the top half. The engineers chisel is called a 'Cold Chisel' because they are specially hardened and tempered for cutting cold metals. Hacksaws may also be fitted with a round blade for cutting in all directions (useful for cutting out damaged structure in sheet metal). engineers blue) and bearing in mind that the surface to be worked on must be very nearly true initially. For cutting grooves.I.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . i. is suitable for cutting solid brass or copper. removal of rivet heads during repairs. excessive downward pressure or excessive twisting of the blade on the forward stroke. Hacksaws.I. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Classified by frame size and type (fixed. Used in conjunction with marking fluid (e. For instance. e.70º for steels. Firstly it must be harder than the metal it is cutting. Used for final surfacing work to correct slight warping and distortion and for blending out damage due to corrosion etc.P. Typical uses for various shapes of chisels are: • • • • Flat. and yet it must be tough and not brittle if it is to withstand repeated hammer blows.Chisels.). only a slightly downward pressure is required. Cross cut. with the blade installed correctly. the high spot of a bearing can be removed and the correct fit of the shaft can be obtained by scraping first the lower half. These can be locally produced by grinding a flat file with a slightly curved cutting edge and finished to a high degree of sharpness with an oil stone. Classified by length and section of working blade. The angle of the cutting edge varies with the properties of the metal to be cut. (teeth per inch) being satisfactory for general cutting use.P.P.I would be preferable for cutting thin sheet or tubing and 14 T. Scrapers. Diamond Point. chipping away large areas prior to filing. For cutting a hole in a plate. while 30 T. say 65 . Special care is necessary when cutting thin sheet or tube. Consider the requirements of a chisel. The main cause of accidents to operators using hacksaws is blade breakage. forming sharp corners.

Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .

4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .

Socket Spanners. possible in an awkward position. open jaw) type of spanner is the most common. universal drive joints. or Metric size. permitting a nut to be turned when only 30º of movement is possible. crows foot attachments and converter adapters enabling one to use handles with small square drives to connect to sockets with large drives or vice-versa. Cheap tools of inferior material have very limited life and may damage the component on which it is being used. Allen keys are classified by their dimension across their hexagon flats. 50 would be 1/2" across the flats. The square drive. Generally made from Vanadium Steel. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Page 11-69 Issue 1 . These are available in a wide range of shapes and sizes and are intended for tightening or slackening a nut on a screw thread. Allen keys are also made in straight lengths to fit into socket bits. Properly maintained and used. usually 1/4". and in some cases the ring spanner may be deeply off-set to allow the head to be fitted to a nut in a shallow countersink. a hammer blow imparted to the end of the spanner to move a stubborn nut will also reduce the working life of the spanner. long lasting jaws combined with an extremely tough.F.Spanners. These combine the best features of both open spanners and ring spanners as they have one head of each type. This makes for greater versatility where movement is restricted. In practice. i. A wide variety of handles are available. • • • Allen Keys. Certain screws or bolts have a hexagonal recess in their heads. Spanners intended for Unified threads have their size marked on the jaw expressed as a figure correct to two decimal places. usually by a square driving shaft. so that for a relatively small handle movement a useful turning moment is attained at the nut simply by turning the spanner even when working space is limited. They are made of hardened and tempered steel.e. Note: Care should be taken not to over torque a socket when using a handle with a large square drive with a socket with a small square drive. but the decimal point is omitted e.g. the traditional double ended (i. The size of the spanner is clearly marked at or near the jaw and will be expressed as a B.4 April 2000 . ratchet. Combination Spanners. both being the same size. number or a Whitworth. flexible rods. and the practical engineer can never have too many of them. spanners will last for many years. most comprehensive set he can afford. The heads may be off-set to the handle and to each other. The basic tool is of hexagonal cross section (to suit the recess) and is cranked through 90º to form an 'L' shape. extending the length with a tube) will certainly result in damage to both thread and spanner. This should ensure that the socket lifts off the nut when the operator wishes to reposition the socket on the nut. resilient handle. and prevents the socket becoming detached. Refinements to the basic socket and handle include extension rods to fit between the socket and handle. Socket sets are available in all current size ranges and the practical engineer will be well advised to equip himself with the best quality. Similarly. A. tough enough to withstand fracture and abrasion / wear. or 3/8" or 1/2" square incorporates a spring loaded ball which engages in a groove in the socket. most modern ring spanners have a 12 point configuration to the head and are referred to as bi-hexagonal. 30º or 60º to the shank. posidrive bit adapters. These would be used in preference to open jaw spanners since they apply the load equally to all faces of the hexagon. The jaws are usually set at 15º. such as 'T' handle. • Ring Spanners.e. with a light smear of oil to protect their surface finish. heat treated to provide hard.g.A. screwdriver grip and speed-handle (rather like a car wheel brace). These are produced in two parts. placed over the nut or bolt head and the handle which is attached to the socket. An 'Allen Key' is used to tighten or slacken the screws. 25 would represent 1/4" etc. the socket. Their length is related to the size of the nut for which they are designed and any misuse (e.

The spanner usually has a curved articulated arm with a hook on the end. This hook is intended to engage into one of the notches on the nut. Peg spanners are similar except that a peg (or two) engages on a hole in the edge or face of the nut. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Torque Spanners. pipe connections etc. where the nut has a series of notches around it's periphery. Peg Spanners etc.Special Spanners. 'C' spanners are used on round nuts.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Included in this category are 'C' spanners.

Dividers are classified by the length of the legs. Fitters Squares.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . but it removes good metal from the sheet metal as well as the burr. Rules should be kept free from rust and never subjected to rough usage or careless handling. hardened and tempered and are classified by the length of the blade. the points should be protected by sticking them into a cork. Fitters Squares are used for setting out lines at right angles to an edge or surface. They are usually graduated in Imperial and Metric systems of measurement and classified by length. Scribers are used for marking guidance lines on the surface of work. This may not only damage the rule. with a spring steel spring. Dividers Fitters Square Dividers. The points should be kept keen and of equal length. Some of the tools used are as follows: Rules. by stoning on the outside. The end of the rule in particular should be carefully treated since it generally forms the basis of one end of the measurement being taken.3. must be kept keen and fine.1MARKING OUT TOOLS In the absence of special jigs or fixtures which locate the work and provide some means of guiding the cutting tool. Scriber points like those of dividers. suitably hardened and tempered and are classified by length. most work necessitating removal of metal involves the scribing of guidance lines to indicate the positions of finished surfaces or the centre lines of holes.1. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . When the dividers are not in use. and for checking right angular work for truth. Squares are made of high carbon steel. The square is made to very fine limits and this initial accuracy must be preserved by careful handling and keeping it in the box provided when not in use. unless done very carefully will change the temper of the points and render them soft. and they should be fully protected when not in use. Their legs are made of high carbon steel. Engineering workshop rules are used for general measuring and are made from high carbon steel suitably hardened and tempered. Grinding. they are made of high carbon steel. One common malpractice if the use of steel rules to de-burr sheet metal. hardened and tempered. Dividers are used to set out distances and to scribe arcs and circles. Scribers.

This can be done by checking the square for truth against a master square or against a V . This is used in conjunction with the blade to locate the centre of a round bar or the centre line of a tube. • • Calipers. using the outside edge of the blade as a guide. and a central groove along it's entire length accommodates a clamping screw fitted to each of the heads. An alternate test (see diagram to the right) is to place the stock against a flat surface. The test should be repeated using the inside edge of the blade. A spirit level is often incorporated. The blade is graduated in inch and metric scales. Protractor Head. The details of the three heads are as follows: • Square Head. This accuracy must be checked from time to time. Combination Set. This head is provided with two working faces. while the heads are of close-grained cast iron. The square is then turned over and the outside of the blade checked against the line. Used in conjunction with the blade for checking or setting up any angle up to 180º. thus enabling the tool to be used both as a square and as a mitre. A combination set (see diagram below) is virtually three tools in one. hardened and tempered.The blade and stock have their opposing edges ground truly parallel with the limbs set at exactly 90º to each other. A spirit level is incorporated into the head and a scriber is provided.block. the blade is made from high carbon steel. The types of calipers are as follows: Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Centre Head. one at 90º and the other at 45º to the blade.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . thus enabling a head to be secured at any desired position along the blade. consisting of a blade or rule and three 'heads'.

or casehardened mild steel. the plate is smeared with engineers blue and the surface to be tested rubbed on the plate. All surfaces are accurately machines and the Vee angle is exactly 90º. Scribing blocks are classified by the height of the pillar. To test a flat surface for accuracy. To set the calipers. When calipers are used for comparison purposes. Vee blocks are classified by the maximum diameter of the work which can be held. hardened and tempered and the pillar angle. the working surface should be protected with oil and the protective cover replaced. These are used in conjunction with a rule or other measuring instrument for measuring distances between or over surfaces. It may be used for scribing lines parallel to an edge or for scribing arcs on cylindrical bars to aid in finding the centre. A fine adjustment is provided for the pillar and dowels in the base can be pushed down so that lines can be scribed parallel to the edge of the surface table or plate. • Marking Off (Surface) Table.• Inside & Outside. or for comparing dimensions. are supplied in identical pairs. The clearance slot at the base of the Vee allows objects to be set firmly. flat surface and square edges. such as the working surface of a marking off table or a surface plate. Made from close grained cast iron. The working surface is accurately machined to give a true. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . The accurately machines base is made of cast iron. each unit of a pair being stamped with the same identification number. Surface plates are usually portable and used on a work-bench. set nearly to size by hand and then tap one leg (not at the point) to make the final adjustment. Used to support work for marking out and to form a base for measurements. Inside calipers are used for measuring inside dimensions and outside for external dimensions. strongly ribbed for rigidity.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Odd Leg Calipers. After use. A scribing block is used to mark out lines parallel to a true surface. The amount of marking transferred will indicate its flatness. These tools are often referred to as 'jenny calipers'. This tool is really half caliper and half dividers. scriber height and angle are all adjustable. the results obtained largely depend on the sense of feel of the user. They are made of cast iron or case hardened mild steel. No work other than marking or measurement should be carried out on the table. Scribing Blocks (see diagram below). It is much smaller than the table and the finish is at least equal to that found on a good table. the scriber is of high carbon steel. Surface Plate This may be used in place of the marking out table for relatively small work. Vee Blocks These are used on a marking table or surface plate to support round work.

the point being hardened and tempered. A sharp point should be maintained by careful grinding and should have an angle of 90º for general work or 60º for light work. These rules are usually graduated and are classified by their length.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . and are used for marking lines parallel to the axis on the surface of tubes and round bars. The blades are secured in a protective metal scabbard by a fulcrum pin and all blades not in actual use should be withdrawn into the scabbard to prevent accidental distortion.5 to 15 or 25 thousandths of an inch. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . they consist of a series of thin flexible steel blades in graduated thickness varying in most cases from 1.Key-Seat Rules These are sometimes termed 'box squares'. Key Seat Rule Use of Feeler Gauges Feeler Gauges 'Feelers' are used to measure small clearances or gaps. The depth being determined by the spring setting. Automatic centre punches are available which are spring loaded and simply require pushing down to give an indentation. Centre punches are made of high carbon steel. Feeler gauges are classified by the length of the blades. Centre Punches A centre punch is used to make a small indentation for locating the cutting edge of a drill at the start of a drilling operation. When not in use. the blades should be lightly smeared with oil to prevent rusting. such as marking out.

Some of the skills required in measuring out prior to fabrication of parts are described below. Height marking can also be carried out using a vernier height gauge. The scriber is firmly clamped in the scribing block at a height and angle which brings the point in a suitable scribing position. Finding Centre of Rough Bar Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Squaring up End of Round Bar or Tube. the work will then stand firmly on the surface table (or plate).Use of a Centre Punch Examples of Marking-Out Work There will be many instances where it is necessary to fabricate aircraft parts. Parallel lines can then be scribed across it's face using a scribing block. the sheet can be placed against a V-block. The diagram below shows a simple method of marking-off for squaring the end of a bar. The bar or tube is supported in a pair of V-blocks which set it up parallel to the table and a third V-block laid on its side prevents axial movement. Marking-off Rectangular Work (Blocks or sheet metal) File one face of the metal true (check with steel rule or straight-edge) and square one edge to the true face.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . The cutting line is then marked by rotating the bar against the scriber point. If marking sheet metal.

• • • • An accuracy of 0. Bright steel surfaces should be coated with copper sulphate or engineers blue. The position may be estimated by eye and centre may contain graphite). The centre of the bar is then in the centre of the small figure. prior to marking out.Open out the legs of 'Odd Leg' calipers until they are set at rather less than the radius of the bar. Scribe four short arcs on the end of the bar shown in the diagram (see diagram to the right). it must be clamped rigidly and scribing should be done firmly so that there is no necessity to retrace lines.Summary • Only boundary lines and cutting lines should be scribed on Light Alloy sheet. Marking-Out . Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Scribed lines on this type of material may give rise to cracks. When the scriber is used in a scribing block. Any lines other than cutting lines should be marked with a soft graphite pencil (all traces should be removed afterwards) or a wax crayon (not black . The points of scribers and dividers must be kept clean to produce very fine scribing lines. Thick lines lead to inaccuracies. Always trail the point when using the scriber so that it does not dig in to the material. thus reducing the tendency of the point to whip.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Scribing lines must be clear and distinct. The scriber point should be set as close as possible to the pillar.010" is often accepted for marking out although more accuracy may be obtained using a vernier height gauge. it may be advantageous to apply chalk or white wash to the surface.

1ELECTRIC HAND DRILLS (See diagram below). 5. kerosene is suitable for most metals.2.3. Angled and off-set drills are provisioned for drilling holes in restricted positions. blind rivetting tools. The most common tools used are pneumatic (windy) drills. A variety of power tools are used during aircraft maintenance. The power for the pneumatic tools is supplied via a compressor that supplies air at around 80 p. rivetting hammers for solid rivets. 1.i. mainly by the airframe and engine engineers. 2. The engineer will normally connect the power tools to the coupling via a plastic or rubber flexible hose. stop the machine before attempting to clear it away. Always check the condition of the lead and plug.2.2PNEUMATIC TOOLS These are used mainly in structural repair work. 4. These may be dangerous to use unless they are kept in good condition and handled carefully. accept drills up to 8mm diameter. rivet croppers and millers. The air supply is normally supplied via metal pipelines to a quick release coupling.2 COMMON POWER TOOLS Sometimes hand tools are not practical for reasons of speed and accuracy. 6. 3. Do not use the drill if it is damaged in any way.s. Do not force feed or the drill may break. pneumatic shears. Cutting tools used in an aircraft environment are generally pneumatically operated. Electrically driven cutting tools would be dangerous as they produce sparks which may ignite fuel vapours. These are available in either straight or pistol grip form.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . They will. pneumatic sanders. Many different types of pneumatic power tools are used. 3. Electric Drill 3. depending on size. Make sure the job is firmly secured in a vice or on the drill platform. Use a lubricant to keep the point of the drill cool. Drill Stand Air Operated (Windy) Drills (see diagrams below). Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Always wear goggles to protect your eyes. The compressor normally incorporates a water trap so that the air is as dry as possible. If swarf builds up at the drill point. These drills require a separate collet for each size of drill.

Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .

4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . These are designed for easy forming of various types of blind rivets. Pneumatic Shears This tool is designed to cut sheet material up to 14 SWG in mild steel or 12 SWG in light alloy. Pneumatic Riveting Hammers. It may also be used for cutting plywood and plastic.8mm and 2mm respectively. so only a selection is shown below. A typical rate is 1.Rotary Saw. Cutting is achieved by the action of a reciprocating shear blade against a stationary anvil blade. Many types are available to suit a variety of solid rivet sizes. The tool illustrated can cut steel and alloy of thickness 0. Pneumatic Blind Riveters. Used primarily for cutting sheets of metal both on and off aircraft. An adjustable air regulating screw varies the maximum rate and power of the gun. The piston delivers blows to the rivet via the interchangeable snap. They all operate on a similar principle as shown in the diagram below. The air pressure supply controlled by the throttle button or lever. but many incorporate a hydraulic intensifier. Many types exist. Stellite tipped blades are available for cutting stainless steel or titanium alloy. Sometimes the riveter is air operated. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . causes the piston to oscillate rapidly backwards and forwards in the barrel.500 blows per minute. There is usually a special riveter for each type of rivet.

The air operated cropping tool is used to cut off the protruding mandrel stems of Avdel rivets after they have been set. to give a clean finish. The tool incorporates two cutting jaws which sever the rivet mandrel when the control button is pressed.Mandrel Cropping Tool. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . The cut mandrel will still need to be milled down with the milling tool.

This air operated tool is used mainly for milling down protruding Avdel rivet mandrels. carry out the oiling procedure again. 2. Before storage. Wear goggles. Note. The broaching action of most expansion riveting tools is dependent of the grip of their serrated jaws. Ensure that both male and female parts of the air supply couplings are clean before connections are made. especially when testing it's action. 3. It usually has telescopic legs and a micrometer adjustment to that the depth of cut can be accurately set. Drain the compressor oil and water traps at least daily and more often if the tools are in prolonged use. 4.3CARE OF AIR OPERATED TOOLS & SAFETY PRECAUTIONS When used. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . operating the tool slowly to distribute the oil.2. ear defenders and protective clothing as the circumstances demand. Safety. These effects can be reduced as follows: 1. 3. Before using a tool.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Always operate riveting hammers against a resistance. Their great enemies are lack of lubrication and the entry of moisture and foreign particles introduced via the air supply. These tools should be perfectly safe during normal use but they all can be dangerous if handled incorrectly or carelessly. Before connecting a power tool to it's supply. Do not leave an unused tool connected to the power supply. hair and clothing clear of the moving parts of tools. Most accidents occur due to inexperienced operators fooling around with power tools. introduce about six drops of the specified lubricant into the air supply opening. air operated tools have a long and trouble free life. If the jaws start to slip. maintained and stored correctly. you should be aware of it's potential dangers and plan how to avoid them. Other precautions include: • • • • Keep your hands. stop riveting and clean out the jaw assembly. Warning notices often give some indication of potential dangers and they should be obeyed.Rivet Miller.

The sleeve is sub-divided into 25 equal divisions and so rotation of the sleeve by one division will move the spindle 0. an accuracy of 0.006” Total Reading Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .01mm. the spindle and barrel threads have a pitch of 0.001” or 0.025” or 25 thousandths of an inch. it will be necessary to use equipment capable of measuring to a greater degree of accuracy than a steel rule. In the Imperial micrometer shown.3. 0.01 mm (one hundredth of a millimeter) or greater will be specified. therefore one complete turn of the spindle and sleeve will advance the spindle by 0. In many instances.01mm.025” Thimble divisions (coinciding with axis line) 6 = 0.1MICROMETERS Micrometers are used for measuring both internal and external dimension to a normal accuracy of 0. The diagram below shows an example of a micrometer reading made up of: Number of main divisions on the barrel 2 = 0.3 PRECISION MEASURING TOOLS In order to achieve the accuracy required in many aircraft engineering applications.231” Page 11-69 .001” or 0ne thousandth of an inch.5mm and the sleeve is divided into 50 equal divisions. Precision measuring instruments are used to achieve this objective. 3.025” (40 threads per inch).3.025” each 1 = 0. A metric micrometer uses the same principle except that the thread pitch is 0. Movement of one sleeve division is therefore equal to 0.025/25 = 0. It is necessary for all engineers to be familiar with their use and be able to measure with them to the required degree of accuracy.5/50 = 0. The maintenance manual will specify the dimensions to be measured.4 April 2000 = 0.200” Number of smaller divisions of 0.001” (one thousandth of an inch).

2 Thimble divisions (coinciding with axis line) .... it is used for measuring internal dimensions with the same accuracy.025"" each .. The thimble is graduated into 25 divisions as before and 25 half divisions.4699” Other gauges of the micrometer type are in use as precision measuring instruments.1. but as the name suggests.. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .2 Internal Micrometer This instrument has a similar scale to the external micrometer...1. The line on the vernier scale that coincides with a line on the sleeve gives the final accuracy. Some are described as follows: 3... In the example shown above: Number of main divisions on the barrel ..... This type of imperial micrometer has an accuracy of 0..3.0005” 0.3..0001” or one ten thousandth of an inch....0190” 0.. A vernier scale is then engraved on the barrel.3. The micrometer may be used for a range of measurements by fitting fixed length extension pieces.0500” 0..4000” 0..0004” 0.. 4 Number of smaller divisions of 0.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .1 Vernier micrometers The degree of accuracy of a micrometer can be further improved by adding a vernier scale as shown above right.. Further half division on the thimble Coinciding Vernier line Four Total reading 4 2 19 1 4 = = = = = = 0.

1” instrument by closing it right up and checking the 0 on the thimble is in line with the axis.3.4 Three Point Internal micrometer This is used to give more accuracy to internal measurement of bores.3 Depth Micrometer This is used to measure the depth relative to the base plate which is ground and square to the spindle axis.3. The scale will be zero when the end of the spindle is flush with the base. but 12”.1. The standard size is 0-1”. 2-3” and so on are available to measure larger external sizes.3. both of the instrument and the component you are measuring. As explained previously.1. Compensation for wear of the thread is often available by having a tapered thread on the barrel screw thread that can be adjusted for tightness. Accuracy depends on cleanliness. Micrometers may be fitted with a ratchet so that a uniform result may be obtained.3. The three symmetrically positioned anvils of this micrometer ensures an accurate reading. and so external micrometers are available in a variety of sizes.2USING MICROMETERS The main scale of an imperial micrometer is one inch long. the zero reading should be checked. Adjustment of the zero setting may be achieved by moving the barrel within the frame with a “C” spanner. 3.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . or by adjusting the anvil. accurate extension pieces are available for the internal micrometers. Before using an external micrometer. This is done with the O . The standard internal micrometer might not be square and therefore not be at the bore's widest part. 3. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . A machined distance piece is inserted in the larger sizes to check for their zero.

the distance from 0 to 1 is 10 mm. This should be locked at the approximate measurement and final adjustment made with the fine adjustment screw. Some calipers have "Targets" or small indentations. similar to that of a steel rule.3. the jaw locking screw should be used to ensure an accurate reading is obtained.5mm). they should be checked for zero. one of which is integral with the main scale. One of the most common being the Vernier Caliper shown below. The movable jaw is also connected to a clamping device (termed the fine adjustment clipper).3VERNIER MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Many measuring instruments use the vernier principle. There are two jaws.5/25 = 0. After setting.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .1 Reading the Metric Vernier Scale On the top metric scale. some calipers have "nibs".3. from which dividers may be accurately set. The lower sliding scale has 25 divisions and gives us an accuracy of 0.02 mm.3. For measurement of internal dimensions. Each mm is further divided into two (0. The width of both of the nibs is usually marked on one of the nibs and this dimension should be added to the reading obtained. This is divided into 10 parts (1 mm). The instrument consists of a beam on which is marked a main scale. by closing them up and checking the zero line on the main scale coincides with the zero on the vernier scale. The other jaw slides along the main scale and has the vernier scale mounted on it. Before using the calipers. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . 3.3.

Each division has a length of ¼ of 1/10” = 1/40 = 0.02 mm Total Reading = 30. Upper scale reading coinciding with the 0 on the sliding scale is The 14 mark on the sliding scale exactly coincides with a mark on the upper scale. This represents 11 x 0. 1” is divided into 10 parts and each part is further divided into four parts.50 0.Refer to the diagram below and follow the steps to determine the reading of the metric vernier caliper.075 Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .001” Total Reading = 0.086” April 2000 Page 11-69 .001” In the example shown an upper scale reading coinciding with the 0 on the sliding scale is The 11 mark on the sliding scale exactly coincides with a mark on the upper scale. On the lower sliding scale there are 25 divisions and this gives us our accuracy of 0.025”. This represents 14 x 0.025/25 = 0.78 mm 3.28 30.2 Reading the Imperial Vernier Scale On the top scale.011 3.

Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Angular movement of the straight-edge rotates a disc on which is mounted a circular protractor scale graduated in degrees.3.3. 3. Vernier Protractor This is used to take angular measurements and consists of a solid base or stock.3 Vernier Height Gauge This instrument is used in conjunction with a surface table or surface plate.3. It will provide a method of accurate measurement from the surface table to the moving jaw. the gauge should be pre-loaded more than one dial revolution and then the outside dial rotated to set the instrument to zero.3.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . It may also be used to scribe or mark metal cut lines when used with a vee block or other square work. This scale is read in conjunction with a vernier scale which gives an overall accuracy of 5 minutes or 5’.3.4 Dial Gauges (Dial Test Indicator) This measuring instrument may be used to gauge the depth of dents or surface damage relative to the normal surface. with an adjustable straight edge attachment which can be set at an angle relative to the base. If checking values about a mean. The gauge is usually clamped rigidly in a stand and a zero reading obtained with reference to a neutral point. It would be typically used to ascertain depth of corrosion on air aircraft skin panel. It may also be used to check for deviation of a crankshaft etc.

Lever Type In this type. This type of instrument has a limited range compared with the plunger type. The small pointer counts the number of complete revolutions made by the main pointer. a lever and scroll is used to magnify the displacement of the stylus. However it is more compact and the scale and pointer are more easily read. and the magnitude of it's displacement is indicated by the pointer and scale.There are two types of DTI instruments in common use: Plunger type An example of this type is shown. A gear train is used to magnify the displacement of the plunger.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .

4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . and varied lubrication tasks. but there are many specialised forms of oils or greases.g. A wide range of lubricants is needed to satisfy the requirements of modern aircraft. A lubricant applied between the two surfaces will provide more than one function.3.6GREASES These normally consist of a petroleum base oil thickened with gelling agents and modified by filling agents. to a wheel bearing on which a high melting point grease is used. It must be carried out regularly. 3. Rape seed (Duckhams) Synthetic Oil May be mineral or vegetable based. ranging from a simple access panel hinge requiring lubrication with light oil. Grease may be used instead of oil for the following reasons: • • • Less prone to leaking out of the component.3. universal joints and screw threads. The following points should be considered concerning choice of oils or greases. particularly when they are heavily loaded. Typical applications for grease would be wheel bearings. 3. in order to reduce friction between moving parts and to minimise the risk of component failure.LUBRICATION The lubrication of an aircraft and its component parts.7LIMITATION OF OILS AND GREASES No one oil or grease will be suitable for all purposes.3. Engine and flying control joints. the friction between them will generated heat.4PURPOSE When two parts are moving in relation to each other. Typical gelling agents are Sodium or lithium which are used in high temperature greases. it would have properties to suit the loading and operating temperature. They generally give better protection. help dissipate the heat built up due to the friction form an anti-corrosive barrier There are many. Longer lasting. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . but does not fit into specifications for the other types. Aluminium gives a grease adhesive properties and Calcium give water resistance.5OIL There are three main types of oil : • • • Mineral Oil is refined from crude oil Vegetable Oil is manufactured from vegetable based products e. It may be completely unsuitable for lubrication of a flap screw jack or as a wheel bearing lubricant. and to prescribed schedules.3. is one of the most important aspects of aircraft servicing. 3. An oil may be used to lubricate the moving parts of an internal combustion engine and due to the specific requirements for this use. The lubricant will normally be oil or grease. It will: • • • separate the two surfaces and thus reduce the friction. 3.

or during maintenance. It is essential that the correct lubricant and the correct method of application is used for every lubrication task.3. Aeroshell 80 for example is thinner than Aeroshell 100. Mobil etc. a high number. Oil Additives These are substances which are added in small quantities to improve the properties of the oil. Parts lubricated this way have special nipples which permit pressurised grease to pass directly to the bearing surfaces. the type of lubricant required and the method of application. Extreme Pressure (E. to avoid dirt being collected by the grease and thereby introduced into the bearing surface. Alternatives are sometimes given in handbooks published by the major oil suppliers such as Shell. Anti-Corrosive Reduces the corrosive effects of acids in oil. The oil may contain one or more additives such as: • • • Detergents They enable the oil to hold sludge in suspension and give a cleaner system.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .g.) Used in heavily loaded gear trains e. Hand Lubrication may be carried out by smearing oil or grease directly onto the bearing surfaces by hand. Methods of Application There are a number of different methods of lubricating aircraft components.Viscosity This is the term used to determine the thickness of the oil or it’s resistance to flow. It is important that the excess grease is cleaned off. A thin oil will have a low number and a thick oil. helicopter gearboxes. Some parts have oil-ways machined into them. Alternative lubricant specification code numbers are often given. and no further lubrication should be required.P. Lubrication may be carried out before assembly of a component. The diagrams on the following pages illustrate the use of charts in aircraft Maintenance Manuals. When cold. • • • 3. whilst others rely on application of oil directly to the moving parts.8LUBRICATION CHARTS These are often used in the Maintenance Manual to indicate aircraft parts requiring lubrication. A thick or high viscosity oil may protect heavily loaded parts when it is warm and circulating. As can be seen in the following diagrams. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Temperature Effect An increase in temperature will reduce the viscosity of an oil. The basic methods used are: • Oil Can Lubricating oil is commonly applied by the use of an oil can. Grease Guns Greasing is normally carried out with a hand operated grease gun which injects grease into bearings and joints under pressure. symbols used on the chart may indicate the frequency lubrication is required. The correct amount of grease is normally shown by new grease coming out of the bearing. the oil may not flow and oil starvation may cause premature failure. Pre-packing Many bearings and similar parts are lubricated with grease and sealed during manufacture. The lubricant packed into the bearing is sufficient for it’s working life.

4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .

4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .

to which the drawing refers. Drawing Pencils & pens Drawings are made using pencils or specialised pens. approved drawings and associated documents must be produced by a Design Organisation approved by the CAA in accordance with Section A of BCAR. Most approved design organisations now work in accordance with BS308:1984 which standardises the abbreviations. numerals and sketching. The drawing can therefore be said to contain information which the drawing office and stress engineers wish to impart in other that the work done on the aircraft shall be carried out correctly and without possibility of misrepresentation.3mm (thin lines). A good engineering drawing should therefore convey its message clearly. B grades soft. The approved Inspection Organisation or the Certifying Engineer should ensure that the drawings are approved and that the parts are correct to these drawings and associated documents. the H grade is used for thick line work. Section A further describes that all calculations on which the airworthiness of the aircraft depends. where necessary. in a series of drawings. 4. In this respect it should be appreciated that these notes are intended as a guide to the interpretation of drawings and not to their production. The production of engineering drawings is a highly specialised task with many conventions that must be clearly understood if the drawings are to be interpreted correctly. and these notes have been written in conformity with that standard. even more frequently.4. Limits and fits. Specialist pens are available in thickness of 0. centre lines. materials specification. To ensure correctness and suitability of design. ENGINEERING DRAWING The incorporation of a repair scheme or modification on an aircraft usually demands that the engineer responsible should work to requirements laid down in engineering drawing. symbols and conventions used in engineering drawing. H grades of lead are hard. Authority for the Drawing Civil aircraft manufactured in the UK are constructed of parts and components manufactured in compliance with approved drawings. thus the design drawing itself is subject to a system of inspection as are the parts produced to its requirements. Any deviation from the drawings and their associated documents must be covered by a suitable concession procedure as given in CAP 562. hidden detail etc. The 2H grade pencil is generally used for thin line work. must be quoted for each item. The HB grade is used for lettering.1 DRAWING TYPES Drawings may be divided into 5 main categories: • • • • • Detail Sub-assembly Main assembly Installation General arrangement Page 11-69 Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . simply and without ambiguity. surface finish etc. or. dimensions.7mm (thick lines) and 0. must be independently checked. Dimensions must be easy to read and the scale used must be clearly indicated. visible outlines etc.4 April 2000 .

the complete set of drawings and any associated documents (referred in the drawings) present a complete record of information required to manufacture and assembly every part of an aircraft. Where a component consists of a number of items fitted together. It will not contain dimensions or other details of the individual items. This type of drawing shows all the information necessary for the item to be manufactured. but also any instructions to be followed during assembly and dimensional checks afterwards. The assembly drawing will refer to the individual parts by part number or drawing number. Assembly Drawing. It will contain information such as material specification. These instructions may include special treatments required. it may often be impractical to draw all the items on one sheet of paper. Some standard items are used in this GA and these are again referred to by part numbers only. • Detail Drawing.Each set of drawings generally contains a schedule of parts involved. General Arrangement. Several sheets may have to be used to show all the items concerned and three main types of drawings will be found on those sheets. Thus. surface finish and all dimensional information required. shows a complete component and can be said to show a number of assemblies fitted together. Such drawings also form part of the complete inspection record. This type of drawing. This type of drawing shows one item or detail only. frequently referred to as a GA. It will contain instructions necessary to assemble the items. There may also be cross-references to other drawings or documents necessary in the manufacture process.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . This type of drawing shows two or more items or details fitted together to form an assembly. The following diagram (' GA Assembly of Lever and Bracket') is a drawing which shows not only the assemblies and their relationship to each other. heat treatment. • • Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .

Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .

it must be quoted on the appropriate drawing. Part Number. The assembly drawing must also carry a cross reference to the GA of the complete component. be checked. A schedule of the details which comprise the assembly must be provided. is used as a part number for the item concerned.4.2 SYMBOLS The advantages of using symbols are: • • • • The use of symbols and boxes eliminates lengthy descriptive notes. Symbols are international. It is again common practice to number each detail consecutively in the schedule. The Approval of a Drawing. Information of the GA. This is shown in the previous diagram "Assembly of Bracket and Bush" and "Assembly of Lever and Spindle". it is necessary to ensure that all drawings are connected by a system of cross-referencing. As a complete component often requires several detail and assembly drawings for its production. just like the GA. and also a title. In some cases the drawing number of a detail. If the part number is different from the drawing number. The regulations prescribe that all design work carried out on an aircraft must be produced by an approved design organisation. Brief and precise. As a detail in a single item which cannot be further subdivided. and for all the assemblies which comprise the GA. and to repeat the numbers on the GA "double balloons" which are connected by "leader lines" to the assemblies concerned. Page 11-69 Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . It is common practice to number the assemblies consecutively on the schedule. Information of the Detail Drawing. therefore. usually the Chief Draughtsman. 4. assembly or GA. a schedule is not necessary on a detail drawing. Each assembly drawing. can be obtained by direct reference to the drawings. It is therefore vital to ensure that all drawings are checked for approval before they are used to carry out work on an aircraft.1NOTES ON DRAWING Relationship Between Drawings. and to repeat the numbers on the assembly drawing in single balloons which are connect to the details concerned by leader lines. either on the GA itself or on a separate sheet which must be identified by cross reference with the GA.1. Double and single balloons are used in the previous diagram "General Assembly of Lever and Bracket". title and a cross reference to the assembly drawing on which the detail appears. This ensures that the drawings for all the details which comprise an assembly. must have its own individual drawing number and also a title. Information on the Assembly Drawing. either on the assembly drawing itself or on a cross-referenced separate sheet. One type of Geometric Tolerance can control another. Each GA must have its own individual drawing number for identification purposes.4 April 2000 . This approval is stipulated on all drawings used in this section. stresses calculated and final approval given by a responsible person. Detail parts have their reference numbers in "single balloons". A schedule of the assemblies that make up the GA must be provided. During the design stage of a modification or repair scheme the work will. The information of the drawing will include its own individual drawing number.

1WELDING SYMBOLS These are used on a drawing to mark and identify the position and type of a weld. A welding symbol which indicates the types and position of the weld. The following notes highlight the methods used to represent the difference types of welding joint.2. Definitions and Interpretations. The weld symbol indicates the type of weld and it is importance to note whether it is placed above or below the reference line. If the weld symbol is suspended from the reference line. If the weld symbol is placed on top of the reference line the weld is made on the other side. The features of a welding sign are: • • • An arrow which normally points to the position of the weld. If the weld symbol is on both sides of the reference line then the welds are made on both sides of the joint. the weld is made on the arrow side of the joint. The side opposite the arrow side is termed the 'outer side'. The Welding Sign. A reference line.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . All welding terms and symbols are contained in BS499. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . above or below which is placed. • • • • • • The side to which the arrow points is termed the 'arrow side'.4.

2. Structural parts made from high tensile steel and high strength alloys. Although a surface may appear smooth.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . The method which has been adopted internationally as the standard means of grading surface texture is known as the arithmetical mean deviation and is termed the Ra parameter.4. Surface texture is defined as those irregularities. RA represents the average roughness of the surface over a given sampling length. which tends to form a pattern on the surface.2SURFACE FINISH A controlled surface texture is necessary on many aircraft components not only on mating surfaces. when magnified it can be seen to form a series of peaks and valleys. require the smoothest possible finish to improve resistance to fatigue failure and corrosion. The RA value may be determined by electrical probes or by graphical assessment. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . with regular or irregular spacing. Ra (µ m) = where Vm = vertical magnification of scale The surface texture required is expressed in µ m (micro metres) using one of the following symbols (this is not a comprehensive list and is only provided as an example). but also on exterior surfaces.

3STANDARD CONVENTIONS The following are a selection of the various types of lines in current use: Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .4.2.

The diagram below illustrates some of the most common features encountered on aircraft drawings.Conventional Representation of Common Features.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . the drawings themselves are often much easier to read because they are not cluttered by tedious detail. One way of reducing the time to produce and interpret drawings is to use conventional symbols for details which occur frequently. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . When users of drawings understand the meanings of these symbols.

3 DIMENSIONS Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . PATT NO. Drawing External Figure Hexagon Hexagon head Hydraulic Insulated or insulation Internal Left hand Long Material Maximum Minimum Abbreviation or symbol A/F ASSY CRS L or CL CHAM CH HD CSK CSK HD C'BORE CYL DIA Ø DRG EXT FIG HEX HEX HD HYD INSUL INT LH LG MATL MAX MIN Term Number Pattern number Pitch circle diameter Pneumatic Radius (in a note) Radius (preceding a dimension) Required Right hand Round head Screwed Sheet Sketch Specification Spherical diameter (preceding a dimension) Spherical radius (preceding a dimension) Spotface Square (in a note) Square (preceding a dimension)....... on diameter or width STD U'CUT VOL WT Abbreviation or symbol NO..4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Standard Undercut Volume Weight Taper.ABBREVIATIONS In addition to symbols. abbreviations are frequently used in Engineering Drawings. PCD PNEU RAD R REQD RH RD HD SCR SH SK SPEC SPHERE Ø SPHERE R S'FACE SQ 4. a few of the most common and their meanings are as follows: Term Across flats Assembly Centres Centre line Chamfered Cheese head Countersunk Countersunk head Counterbore Cylinder or cylindrical Diameter (in a note) Diameter (preceding a dimension).

one of the methods shown in the diagram below should be used. There are instances. Where the alternative method is used. and the dimension lines drawn between them. where the alternative method has definite advantages. To do this.Each dimension required for the complete manufacture of an engineering part is given on the drawing. the thin dimension lines are placed outside the actual outline of the object. and to avoid confusion. where space is restricted. e. a large dot should be placed centrally on the datum line. thin lines are projected from the particular points and surfaces. Where possible. Small arrowheads at the ends of each dimension line touch each of the projected lines to show precisely where the dimension applies. The normal method should be used wherever practicable. line or point. In both methods it adds clarity to the drawing if the dimensions are placed near the appropriate arrowhead.g. appears once only.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Where a number of dimensions are to be given from a common datum surface. however. Each is a direct measurement and not one that has to be worked out by the addition or subtraction of others. Chain dimensioning should only be used where the possible accumulation of tolerances does not endanger the functional requirements of the part (see diagram below) Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .

3. A gap is always left between the component and projection line.4.4 April 2000 . in which case they should be given as 'auxiliary' dimensions.3.50mm 0. if the surface is subject matter the termination is an arrow head. the overall distance should generally be given as an auxiliary dimension (see both diagrams below). They are terminated in a dot if whole part is subject to be described such as part number.2REDUNDANT DIMENSIONS Where an overall dimension is shown (as in the diagram below) one of the intermediate distances is redundant and should not be dimensioned.1LEADER. (If the leader line ends on dimension line termination is without arrow dot). Three Hundred millimetres Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Dimension lines are used to give the length of feature indicated. Arrow heads are normally shown inside the limits of the dimension.) as in the diagrams below. smallest are shown nearest to the outline. Auxiliary dimensions do not govern acceptance of the product. They are never broken even if item is 'foreshortened'. Auxiliary dimensions should not be toleranced but should be included in parentheses (…. 4. Where all the intermediate dimensions are shown. The figures used to denote each dimension will normally appear.5mm 12 300mm Page 11-69 • Twelve Thousand. beside the appropriate dimension or leader line. Projection lines are drawn as an extension from the part to enable identification of distance to be dimensioned. Some examples of how dimensions should be shown are given below: • • Sixty-one and a half millimetres Half a millimetre 61. in millimetres or inches. PROJECTION & DIMENSIONING LINES Leader lines are used to point to parts requiring identification. All figures are positioned so that they can be read from the bottom on the right-hand side of the drawing. Exception may be made where redundant dimensions would provide useful information. but where space dictates may be shown outside.

minutes and seconds. is always preceded by the diameter symbol 0. Consequently.3.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . 4. Small arcs.3. The diagram below shows how these angular dimensions and the usual 45º chamfers are indicated. a dimension indicating the diameter of a hole of a cylinder bore. such as those formed by rounded edges and fillet radii. are dimensioned by leader lines. the actual size of the radius being preceded by the letter 'R' as shown in the diagram below. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . as: 22º30'.3HOLES & RADII Complete circles are always dimensioned by their diameter. The precise position of a hole is located by two centre lines.5 4. and a dimension indicating the distance between holes is always measured from the hole centre.• • Five and Three Quarter inches Two feet. 0º15'30".75" 2'-0½" or 2'-0. half an inch - 5¾" or 5. angular dimensions on engineering drawings are shown as degrees.4ANGLES & CHAMFERS Although the radian is the preferred SI unit. for example. They appear.

When an overall general tolerance is applied to the majority of dimensions. the limiting dimension being shown either as two dimensions or as a single dimension plus or minus a tolerance (see diagram below). although ideally the required size is 25mm in practice. To eliminate the need for descriptive notes geometric tolerances are indicated on drawings by symbols. attitude and location. provided that its actual size falls between the extremes shown. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .all contained in compartments of a rectangular frame as shown in the diagram below in the next section. tolerances and datums . parts can be made at a tremendous rate and at the same time be guaranteed to be fully interchangeable. No engineering component can be made. in practice.4. there are circumstances when this is not sufficiently precise to control form. This is done by adopting a system of limits which.e. or position. each dimension may be individually toleranced. size) however.4 TOLERANCE 4. Examples of how a basic linear dimension of 25mm might appear as shown below: The examples show that.4. defines how much bigger or smaller than the basic size an item can be and yet still be considered acceptable. The upper dimension is the maximum permitted size of the 'High Limit' and the lower dimension if the maximum of the 'Low Limit'.0·01 4. By using high quality machine tools and a certain flexibility in dimensions.1LIMITS AND TOLERANCES It is the aim of modern engineering production methods to make parts swiftly and to an acceptable degree of accuracy. On engineering drawings. exactly to size. or needs to be made.2GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE We have already covered dimensional tolerance (i. 25·05 24·95 25 + 0·05 + 0·01 25 0 0 25 .4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . a general note to this effect is used.4. Geometric tolerance is defined as the maximum permissible overall variation of form. the item is acceptable. The difference between these high and low limits of size is called the 'tolerance'.

3INDICATORS OF GEOMETRIC TOLERANCE The diagram below illustrates the symbol for straightness in the left hand box. The First Angle Projection is a true engineering drawing in that the item in the drawing may be shown in several different views. The diagram below also illustrates the symbol for squareness.4.4. In the first angle projection. the tolerance and the datum to which true position relates. 4.5. It is a characteristic of the First Angle Projection that each view shows what would be seen by looking on the far side of an adjacent view.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . three views are considered to be sufficient. as shown in the diagram below. the object always comes between the eye of the observer and the projection plane or view. each view augmenting the information contained in the other. while simple items may be shown in two views or one in some cases. The other box gives the maximum permissible variation. but complex items may require additional views to clarify the situation.1ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION • First Angle Projection. Normally.5 PROJECTIONS 4.

The planes are imagined to be transparent and the projected views of the object are viewed through the planes as shown in the diagram below.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . In a Third Angle Projection an object is positioned in the space of the third angle quadrant. The First Angle Projection is the traditional method of representation in this country. but it is being replaced gradually by the Third Angle Projection. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . The symbol shows a from view and left view of the circular taper in first-angle projection. Both projections are commonly encountered and the drawing must clearly indicate which projection is used.The symbol used on drawings to indicate first angle projection is derived from views of a circular taper as shown the diagram below. • Third Angle Projection. It is a characteristic of the Third Angle Projection that each view shows what would be seen by looking on the near side of an adjacent view. this latter system being preferred by draughtsmen. In this projection the layout of the drawing is usually rather different from that of the First Angle Projection. The symbol used to indicate third angle projection on drawings is derived as for the first angle projection but the views are positioned differently as shown in the diagram below. between two principle planes.

• Auxiliary Views. The item to be drawn is shown placed on the flat surface and is reproduced without perspective. This method is quite acceptable for simple parts and is often used to give an engineer an idea of what an item looks like. as with the bracket in the diagram below. They are usually views taken at right angles onto a surface which is inclined in the main drawing and show the true shape of the surface. In this case the bracket is drawn in pictorial fashion in a method called Isometric Projection. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . These views have a similar purpose to sectioning in that they clarify the information given in the main drawing. which is tilted so that its sides OA and OC form an angle of 30º with the horizontal. It uses as its basis. and this is one of the reasons for the limited suitability of the projection for production purposes.2PICTORIAL PROJECTIONS • Isometric Projection. 4.5. Dimensions are difficult to show on an Isometric Projection unless the item is an extremely simple one. Like other similar projections.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . a flat surface represented in the diagram above by the outline OABC. A simple item such as a plain shear pin could quite easily be drawn on a single sheet of drawing paper. this projection is not normally suitable for production purposes.

So named because it was used by cabinet makers to draw furniture where the front face is generally more important than the sides. The frame should be symmetrical with the edges of the sheet. In a Cabinet projection the frontal plane is shown in true size and the receding faces at half scale. Cavalier and Cabinet projection. • Cabinet Projection. and no attempt must be made to vary the requirements of a drawing without first obtaining the necessary authority.• Oblique Drawings. Whatever the reason.g. should be left for the border. this tends to be more popular of the oblique drawings. therefore it is advisable (where possible) to orient an object so that circular features appear in the frontal plane. A minimum width of … for A3 sheet and … for A4 sheet.1BORDERS & FRAMES It is recommended that all sheets should include a frame to enclose the drawing area together with the title block and other standard information. Lines forming the frames should be continuous and a minimum thickness of 0.2AMENDMENT TO DRAWINGS An alteration of a drawing may be necessary due to any one of a number of reasons. the disadvantage with this method is that the rear projections give the impression of distortion. Note that in both circles on the receding surfaces appear as ellipses.6. In a Cavalier projection the front and rear projections are shown in true size. a change in specification of material. but the angle of 45º is generally used.6 TITLE BLOCK INFORMATION 4. alterations to a drawing must be authorised by a qualified person in an approved design organisation only.5mm. 4. Oblique projection is probably the simplest method of producing a pictorial drawing since surfaces directly in front of the observer will be similar in appearance to the front view in an orthographic presentation. 4. a variation in a dimension etc. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . There are two specific forms of oblique drawing.6. e.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . The projection which gives depth to the drawing are parallel to each other and may be at any angle. • Cavalier Projection.

They are significantly better than micro-films because they are easier to copy and more reliable. Generally speaking however. When an amendment is necessary. The technology is available for the Design Authority or Manufacturer to link directly to the Operator or maintenance base via the internet. it is carried out and then recorded by the drawing office in a list on the drawing itself. The nature of the alteration is shown together with the date. particularly the cassette versions are very expensive and often un-reliable especially when old.7 MICRO-FILM & MICRO-FICHE Micro-fiche drawings are miniature drawings on film. It is most important to ensure that the drawing in use bears the correct issue number and date.'s have been digitised and reproduced on CD Roms.Once the alteration to a drawing has been approved. A typical alteration is shown in the diagram below.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . reduced in size and placed on a reel of film or an A5 sheet film.8 COMPUTERISED PRESENTATIONS Since the mid 1990's many aircraft have manuals and I. They are also easier to amend. a new set of cassettes are sent by the manufacturer.P. 4. you should refer to the design authority that issued the drawing. The miniature film is viewed with an optical viewer (reader) and most can reproduce a copy of the required pages on A4 sheet. They can be viewed and printed using a standard Personal Computer (P. This system has been used extensively throughout the 1980’s and 1990’s and is still one of the main methods of viewing Maintenance Manuals and Illustrated Parts Catalogues (IPC’s). Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . the part number is changed.C. 4. In this respect it should be noted that a modification or repair may call for work to be carried out to a drawing with an issue number prior to the latest one. each page of the manual is photographed. the drawing in use should normally be to the latest issue number. In order to produce the films. The complete maintenance manual for a modern large aircraft can be produced on two or three micro-fiche cassettes. If a drawing amendment affects interchangeability of the item. If you are not sure if the drawing is the correct issue and date.C). Each alteration is numbered or lettered consecutively. These readers. the number or letter being known as the Issue Number of the drawing.

The Specification calls for one other medium for information Service Bulletins. The ATA 100 system was developed by the Air Transport Association of America and most modern manuals will conform to this specification. "This specification establishes a standard for the presentation of technical data.) issued the specifications for Manufacturers Technical Data June 1.4.generally included in the Maintenance Manual. explaining their purpose and giving the method of incorporation. 1956. ATA specification 100 calls for the following manuals Maintenance Manual Wiring Diagram Manual Illustrated Parts Catalogue Overhaul Manual Structural Repair Manual Tool and Equipment Lists Weight and Balance Manual Additional Manuals which may be published: Crew Manual Maintenance Schedule . a standard identification system has been developed. tests. a uniform method of arranging material in all publications has been developed". which require not only the use of manuals supplied by the aircraft manufacturers but the extensive use of vendor manuals for descriptive. and overhaul should be provided in a separate manual called the "Maintenance Schedule". Some Bulletins provide a quick path for any urgent `once only' inspection that may have been highlighted by a fault discovered on another aircraft of the same type.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . each aircraft manufacturer used a different system of manuals.T. except accessory overhaul data which is covered in vendor overhaul manuals. The Air Transport Association of America (A. Before this system existed. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . the manufacturer's recommended time limits for inspections. others provide quick information on modifications. or component manufacturer required for their respective products". servicing and maintenance data on accessory equipment. According to the specification. One of the main aims of the specification is to ensure that all the information needed by an operator is included in one or other of the manuals provided by the aircraft manufacturer.A. "In order to standardise the treatment of subject matter and to simplify the user's problem in locating instructions. This is in contrast with some other specifications. by an aircraft accessory.9 ATA 100 SPECIFICATION In order to make it easier for engineers to use maintenance publications. These Bulletins provide two quite different types of information.

and Some sub-systems may be sufficiently complex to require further sub-division. Chapter 32. Should it be necessary to issue a Service Bulletin referring to the landing gear. Air conditioning is Chapter 21. and then allocates these systems chapter numbers. Wiring Diagram Manual. there being no natural order or precedence or importance. `Side stay assembly' and `Fairings'. the Landing Gear. Illustrated Parts Catalogue and in the Structural Repair Manual. Fuselage structure data. electrical power. Electrical Power. `Main gear' could be broken down into `Main leg'. covered in Chapter 53. such as air conditioning. is found under Chapter 53 in the Maintenance Manual. Chapter 24. Thus. and landing gear etc. A feature of the Specification is that where applicable the various Chapter Numbers are the same in all the manuals.The ATA 100 Specification `breaks' an aircraft down into its major systems. 32-10-21 and 32-10-31 respectively. Overhaul Manual and in the Illustrated Parts Catalogue. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . the bulletin would carry the prefix `32'. Thus. For example information on Landing gear is found in Chapter 32 in the Maintenance Manual. these being allocated reference numbers such as 32-10-11. Most systems are too complex to be covered in one go.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . The various systems chapters are arranged alphabetically.

100 .ATA. Drag Devices & Variable Aerodynamic Fairings 70 Gust Lock & Dampener 80 Lift Augmenting 28 Fuel 00 General 10 Storage 20 Distribution / Drain Valves 30 Dump 40 Indicating 29 Hydraulic Power 00 General 10 Main 20 Auxiliary 30 Indicating Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Sub Title 21 Air Conditioning 00 General 10 Compression 20 Distribution 30 Pressurisation Control 40 Heating 50 Cooling 60 Temperature Control 70 Moisture / Air Contaminate Control 22 Auto Flight 00 General 10 Autopilot 20 Speed-Attitude Correction 30 Auto Throttle 40 System Monitor 23 Communications 00 General 10 High Frequency (HF) 20 VHF/UHF 30 Passenger Address & Entertainment 40 Interphone 50 Audio Integrating 60 Static Discharge 70 Audio & Video Monitoring 24 Electrical Power 00 General 10 Generator Drive 20 AC Generation 30 DC Generation 40 External Power 50 Electrical Load Distribution Sys. Spec.Systems Sys. Sub Title 25 Equipment / Furnishings 00 General 10 Flight Compartment 20 Passenger Compartment 30 Buffet / Galley 40 Lavatories 50 Cargo Compartments / AG Spray Apparatus 60 Emergency 70 Accessory Compartments 26 Fire Protection 00 General 10 Detection 20 Extinguishing 30 Explosion Suppression 27 Flight Controls 00 General 10 Aileron and Tab 20 Rudder / Ruddervator & Tab 30 Elevator & Tab 40 Horizontal Stabilisers / Stabilator 50 Flaps 60 Spoiler.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .

Sys. Level Switch 40 Wheels & Brakes 50 Steering 60 Position. Sub Title 35 Oxygen 00 General 10 Crew 20 Passenger 30 Portable 36 Pneumatic 00 General 10 Distribution 20 Indicating 37 Vacuum / Pressure 00 General 10 Distribution 20 Indicating 38 Water / Waste 00 General 10 Portable 20 Wash 30 Waste Disposal 40 Air Supply 39 Electrical / Electronic Panels & Multipurpose Components 00 General 10 Instrument & Control Panels 20 Electrical & Electronic Equipment Racks 30 Electrical & Electronic Junction Boxes 40 Multipurpose Electronic Components 50 Integrated Circuits 60 Printed Circuit Card Assemblies 49 Airborne Auxiliary Power 00 General 10 Power Plant 20 Engine 30 Engine Fuel & Control 40 Ignition / Starting 50 Air 60 Engine Controls 70 Indicating 80 Exhaust 90 O1 51 Structures 00 General Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . Sub Title 30 Ice & Rain Protection 00 General 10 Airfoil 20 Air Intake 30 Pilot & Static 40 Windows & Windshields 50 Antennas & Radomes 60 Propellers / Rotors 70 Water Lines 80 Detection 31 Indicating / Recording Systems 00 General 10 Unassigned 20 Unassigned 30 Recorders 40 Central Computers 50 Central Warning System 32 Landing Gear 00 General 10 Main gear 20 Nose Gear / Tail Gear 30 Extension & Retraction. Warning & Ground Safety Switch 70 Supplementary Gear / Skis / Floats 33 Lights 00 General 10 Flight Compartment & Annunciator Panels 20 Passenger Compartments 30 Cargo & Service Compartments 40 Exterior Lighting 50 Emergency Lighting 34 Navigation 00 General 10 Flight Environment Data 20 Attitude & Direction 30 Landing & Taxing Aids 40 Independent Position Determining 50 Dependent Position Determining 60 Position Computing Sys.

4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .Sys. Sub Title 61 Propellers 00 General 10 Propeller Assembly 20 Controlling 30 Braking 40 Indicating 65 Rotors 00 General 10 Main Rotor 20 Anti-torque Rotor Assembly 30 Accessory Driving 40 Controlling 50 Braking 60 Indicating 71 Powerplant 00 General 10 Cowling 20 Mounts 30 Fire seals & Shrouds 40 Attach Fittings 50 Electrical Harness 60 Engine Air Intakes 70 Engine Drains 72 (T) Turbine / Turboprop 00 General 10 Reduction Gear & Shaft section 20 Air Intake Section 30 Compressor Section 40 Combustion Section 50 Turbine Section 60 Accessory Drives 70 By-pass Section 72 (R) Engine Reciprocating 00 General 10 Front section 20 Power Section 30 Cylinder Section 40 Supercharger Section 50 Lubrication 73 Engine Fuel & Control 00 General 10 Distribution 20 Controlling / Governing 30 Indicating Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Sub Title 52 Doors 00 General 10 Passenger / Crew 20 Emergency Exit 30 Cargo 40 Service 50 Fixed Interior 60 Entrance Stairs 70 Door Warning 80 Landing Gear 53 Fuselage 00 General 10 Main frame 20 Auxiliary Structure 30 Pates / Skin 40 Attach Fittings 50 Aerodynamic Fairings 54 Nacelles / Pylons 00 General 10 Main Frame 20 Auxiliary Structure 30 Pates / Skin 40 Attach Fittings 50 Fillets / Fairings 55 Stabilisers 00 General 10 Horizontal Stabilisers / Stabilator 20 Elevator / Elevon 30 Vertical Stabiliser 40 Rudder / Ruddervator 50 Attach Fittings 56 Windows 00 General 10 Flight Compartment 20 Cabin 30 Door 40 Inspection & Observation 57 Wings 00 General 10 Main Frame 20 Auxiliary Structure 30 Plates / Skin 40 Attach Fittings 50 Flight Surfaces Sys.

) 00 General 10 Power Recovery 20 Turbo-Supercharger 82 Water Injection 00 General 10 Storage 20 Distribution 30 Dumping & Pumping 40 Indicating 83 Remote Gear Boxes (Eng.) 00 General 10 Drive Shaft Section 20 Gearbox Section Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .Sys. Sub Title 74 Ignition 00 General 10 Electrical Power Supply 20 Distribution 30 Switching 75 Bleed Air 00 General 10 Engine Anti-Icing 20 Accessory Cooling 30 Compressor Control 40 Indicating 76 Engine Controls 00 General 10 Power Control 20 Emergency Shutdown 77 Engine Indicating 00 General 10 Power 20 Temperature 30 Analyser 78 Engine Exhaust 00 General 10 Collector / Nozzle 20 Noise Suppressor 30 Thrust Reverser 40 Supplementary Air Sys. Dr. Sub Title 79 Engine Oil 00 General 10 Storage (Dry Sump) 20 Distribution 30 Indicating 80 Starting 00 General 10 Cranking 81 Turbines (Reciprocating Eng.

To ensure correctness and suitability of design. Any deviation from the drawings and their associated documents must be covered by a suitable concession procedure as given in CAP 562.11 WIRING DIAGRAMS 4. and these notes have been written in conformity with that standard.10 AERONAUTICAL STANDARDS Civil aircraft manufactured in the UK are constructed of parts and components manufactured in compliance with approved drawings. approved drawings and associated documents must be produced by a Design Organisation approved by the CAA in accordance with Section A8 of British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCAR’s). thus the design drawing itself is subject to a system of inspection as are the parts produced to its requirements.4. must be independently checked. symbols and conventions used in engineering drawing. Most approved design organisations now work in accordance with BS308:1984 which standardises the abbreviations.12 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . Section A8 further describes that all calculations on which the airworthiness of the aircraft depends. 4.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . The approved Inspection Organisation or the engineer should ensure that the drawings are approved and that the parts are correct to these drawings and associated documents.

4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .Intentionally Blank Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .

2mm.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 . for example between 24. If the shaft has to drive a gear wheel and the wheel is held onto the shaft by friction. If we now consider examples of a shaft in a hole. If this were the case we might find it difficult to fit the rivet or bolt in the hole.02mm larger than the largest hole size. by design variations of looseness or tightness of the shaft in the hole. If we use a nominal size of 25mm and ensure that the hole is made between 25. what size of hole do we need for these fasteners.2. If exactly the same size. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 . the same will apply.98mm.2.04mm. This will mean that the shaft will always be at least 0. The obvious answer is 3. This is called an “interference fit” or “driving fit”.1CLEARANCE FIT The first example where the shaft is required to rotate in the hole is classed as a “clearance fit”. the shaft must always be slightly larger than the hole (and the shaft will be hammered into the hole) 5.06mm.96 and 24.02mm and a maximum clearance of 0. The nominal diameter of a rivet may be 3. the joint will be more rigid. FITS & CLEARANCES 5. 5. Aircraft fasteners such as rivets or bolts come in a variety of sizes and types. For example: • • If the shaft must rotate in the hole the shaft must always be smaller than the hole.00mm. In this section we will look at sizes of holes required in aircraft parts. It is also sometimes called a “running fit”.2 CLASSES OF FIT In both of the previous examples given we can identify the type or class of fit.5. We may also require.2mm or 50mm.2INTERFERENCE FIT In the second example we want the shaft to drive the wheel and so the shaft must not rotate in the wheel.2mm for the rivet and 50mm for the wing attachment bolt. There is also the possibility that the rivet or bolt diameter may not be exactly 3. the shaft must always be made slightly larger. An aircraft wing attachment bolt may be 50mm in diameter. 5.02mm.00 and 25. In this case we again use a nominal size of 25mm and ensure that the hole is made between 24. If the rivet or bolt is slightly smaller than the hole the joint made may be slack or loose.1 SIZES OF HOLES It has already been stated in part 2 of these notes that it is impossible to manufacture aircraft parts to exact dimensions. The question is.98 and 25. This will give a minimum “clearance” of 0. The size of the hole may also be smaller or larger than specified. for example between 25.02 and 25. the shaft must always be made slightly smaller.

As already mentioned it is necessary to classify the various types of fit. Other common classifications are as follows: a) Running Fit . Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .5. It is therefore easier to adjust the shaft to the hole rather than the hole to the shaft. Used for wheels and hubs on shafts from which they are never likely to be removed. Gives a semi-permanent fit such as necessary for a keyed pulley on a shaft. d) Force Fit – Required great pressure to assemble and gives a permanent fit.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .3TRANSITION FIT In many cases it is not important that the shaft is a clearance fit or an interference fit.98 and 25. A solid rivet may sometimes fit easily into a hole and sometimes it has to be driven in. while shafts are turned using an easily adjustable tool such as a lathe.3 COMMON SYSTEMS OF FITS & CLEARANCES When we have designed a system so that one component chosen at random will assemble correctly with any mating component and give the required clearance as necessary we call it an interchangeable system. All modern limit systems favour the hole basis because most holes are produced with a fixed size drill or reamer. sometimes the shaft is the biggest and sometimes the hole. transition and interference. We have already identified clearance.a smooth easy fit for the purpose of a moving bearing b) Push Fit – Can be assembled with light hand pressure (locating pins and dowels) c) Driving or Press Fit – Can be assembled with a hammer or with medium pressure.1SHAFT AND HOLE BASIS The variation in shaft and hole size that gives the required fit is called the allowance and this may be obtained by either: a) Keeping the hole constant and varying the shaft diameter to give the appropriate fit or b) Keeping the shaft constant and varying the hole diameter Keeping the hole constant is called the hole basis and keeping the shaft constant is called the shaft basis.02mm and the hole size is given the same tolerance.2. 5. 5. This type of fit is called a “transition fit”. The shaft and hole sizes may vary so that sometimes the shaft is slightly smaller than the hole and sometimes slightly larger.3. limit system or system of limits and fits. If the shaft size is between 24. These may be further subdivided by adding fits such as “slack running” and “close running” or “light driving” and “heavy driving”.

5. Maintenance Practices (CE) by COBC Issue 1 .00 +/. A copy of the BS 4500A data sheet shows a selection of the ISO Hole based fits over a range of hole sizes from 0 – 250 mm. H7 for a hole and f7 for a hole. different nominal sizes of hole and shaft and also different qualities of product. and the shafts by small letters abcde … ect. The limit system commonly used in the UK is set out in British Standard (BS) 4500. a better control of fit is possible.5.4 April 2000 Page 11-69 .00 + 0.3.0. To specify any particular hole or shaft the rule is to write the letter followed by the numeral e. but not give a satisfactory fit.00. but the cost will increase. The k to z range lie above the nominal and give varying forms of interference fit. If the limits are too close. The general trend for the shafts is that the range a to g have both limits less than the nominal size and tend to give clearance fits.2UNILATERAL AND BI-LATERAL The difference between high and low limits given in dimensions is called the “tolerance”. A fit involving these two elements would be written H7 – f7 or H7/f7. 25.3LIMIT SYSTEM An effective limit system must allow for different classes of fit.02 the tolerance is called “bilateral”. 1. The 18 accuracy grades are covered by numerals 0. ect. The j shafts have their limits disposed above and below the nominal and tend to give a fit between a clearance and interference (transition fit).3. In the system the 27 possible holes are designated by capital letters ABCDE … ect. This was introduced in 1969 and allows for 27 types of fit and 18 grades of tolerance. 3. Sometimes the tolerance is only allowed on one side of the nominal diameter e. 2. Wider limits will cheapen the cost.0. If the tolerance is allowed on both sides of the nominal e.g. The h shafts have their nominal size as their upper limit and tend to give a close running fit when associated with H holes.g.02 .g. This is called a “unilateral” tolerance. 25.


it would result in a nose heavy condition which could be potentially dangerous on take-off and landing. cargo and equipment will alter the position of the Centre of Gravity (C of G) of the aircraft. .6. 6. As the entire weight of the aircraft may be considered to be concentrated at the C of G. AIRCRAFT WEIGHT & BALANCE 6.A moment is the product of a force and the distance (moment arm) at which the force acts. An operator must establish the mass and the centre of gravity of any aeroplane by actual weighing prior to initial entry into service and thereafter at intervals of 4 years if individual aeroplane masses are used and 9 years if fleet masses are used. the total moment of the aircraft about the datum is the aircraft weight times the horizontal distance between the C of G and the datum. aeroplanes must be re-weighed if the effect of modifications on the mass and balance is not accurately known. Furthermore. ceiling. If the C of G is too far aft. manoeuvrability. fuel. Incorrect loading will affect the aircraft rate of climb. the aircraft should be safe to fly. The accumulated effects of modifications and repairs on the mass and balance must be accounted for and properly documented. the tail-heavy condition will increase the tendency of the aircraft to stall and make landing more difficult. Stability of the aircraft will also be affected with the C of G outside the normal operational limits. Provided the C of G lies within specified limits. mass and centre of gravity of the aeroplane complies with the limitations specified in the Flight Manual or Operations Manual if more restrictive. The sum of all moments about any point can be shown to be equal to the moment of the resultant force about that datum point. If the C of G is too far forward. The position of loads such as passengers.1 PURPOSE The main purposes of aircraft weight and balance are to maintain safety and to achieve efficiency in flight. In aircraft weight and balance terms we are concerned with the force produced by the masses on the aircraft acting at a distance from a specific datum point on the aircraft. 6. speed and fuel consumption.2 JAR OPS REQUIREMENTS An aircraft operator shall ensure that the loading.3 PRINCIPLES OF WEIGHT AND BALANCE Principle of Moments .

(-) forward of the datum • Weight added (+). are all listed in the aircraft specifications. Dry Operating Mass .This is the total mass of the aeroplane ready for a specific type of operation excluding all usable fuel and traffic load.The maximum permissible total aeroplane mass upon landing under normal circumstances. seats. Maximum Structural Landing Mass . coolant and hydraulic fluid). the force is the weight (in pounds) and the distance is the arm (in inches).inches.6. Maximum Structural Take Off Mass .The datum is an imaginary vertical plane from which horizontal measurements are taken. propellers.(minus) sign.For normal operation of the aircraft the Centre of Gravity should be between the Forward and Aft limits as specified by the manufacturer. weight removed (-) • Centre of Gravity (C of G) This is the point about which all of the weight of the aircraft or object is concentrated. The terms 'Basic Weight' and ‘Variable Weight’ has previously been used. This mass includes crew and crew baggage. • Basic Equipment . Traffic Load . There is no fixed rule for the location of the datum. If the C of G is outside these limits. • • Note:It is important to consider whether a value is +ve or -ve when moments are calculated and the following conventions are used: • Distances horizontal (+) aft of the datum. fuel tanks.This term is used to include the un-consumable fluids (e. including any non-revenue load.g. Note: This is a new term as specified in JAR OPS. The manufacturer will normally specify the nose of the aircraft. the aircraft performance will be affected and the aircraft may be unsafe.This includes the total mass of passengers. and equipment that is common to all roles for which the operator intends to use the aircraft.800 lbs. The arm's distance is usually measured in inches and may be preceded by a + (plus) or . • • • • • .The maximum permissible total aeroplane mass at the start of the take-off run. catering and removable passenger service equipment and potable water and lavatory chemicals. The locations of baggage compartments. Centre of Gravity Balance Limits. baggage and cargo. Moment . A weight of 40 lbs 120 inches aft of the datum will have a moment of 40 x 120 = 4. a moment is the product of a force multiplied by the distance about which the force acts. An aircraft could be suspended from this point and it would not adopt a nose down or tail down attitude. . In the case of weight and balance. To recap.This should have been covered in Module 2 (Science). Arm .4 DEFINITIONS The following definitions are in common use: • Datum . etc. The plus sign indicates that the distance is aft of the datum and the minus sign indicates distances forward of the datum. engines. and both of these combined would be the same as ‘Dry Operating Mass’.This is the horizontal distance from an item or piece of equipment to the datum. but it could be at the front main bulkhead or even forward of the aircraft nose.

The figure may be revised annually by sample weighing. as weighed would be acceptable for others of the same standard) by agreement with the CAA.Basic Weight. oil and other fluids. In making decisions on weighing. The initial fleet mean weight is based on the mean weights of all the aircraft of the same type in the fleet. a check weighing must be carried out at intervals not exceeding 5 years and at times laid down by the CAA. after this. para 6.Loading Information (Disposable Load).5 WEIGHT AND CENTRE OF GRAVITY SCHEDULE This document is used extensively in the UK and details the Basic Weight and C of G position of the aircraft. The following is an extract from BCAR's relating to weight schedules. with MTWA exceeding 5700 kg (12500 lb) must be re-weighed within two years of the date of manufacture. An alternative to the periodic check weighing is for the operator to establish a fleet mean weight (i. A Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule must provide the following. either a Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule shall be provided or alternatively a Load and Distribution Schedule which complies with BCAR Section A.e. a copy of the Weight and C of G Schedule must be included in the Flight Manual. A copy of the Schedule is retained by the operator and a further copy sent to the CAA Airworthiness Division which shall include any related list of Basic Equipment. If the aircraft has not been re-weighed. a representative aircraft. repair or replacement. A record of the calculations should be retained for future reference. • • A Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule shall be provided for each aircraft where the MTWA Maximum Total Weight Authorised) exceeds 2730 kg. For new aircraft which exceed 2730 kg. including fuel. it's flying performance. . Certain types of aircraft may be weighed on a sampling basis (i. but do not exceed 5700 kg. or major modification.6. • • Operators must also revise the Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule when it is known that the weight and C of G has changed in excess of a maximum figure agreed by the CAA. and if applicable a statement shall be included indicating that the Schedule supersedes all earlier issues. the information contained in Parts B and C of the Schedule may be given as part of the Weight and Balance Report. Aircraft. A similar arrangement is often used in larger aircraft. The date of issue must be on the Schedule and signed by an authorised representative of the CAA. Each Schedule must be identified by the aircraft registration marks or the constructors serial number. and the probable effect on the weight after a major overhaul. Part B . Chapter A5-1. It is also necessary to refer to the date or reference number (or both) of the Weight and Balance Report. Basic Weight) and fleet mean Centre of Gravity position. the CAA considers the history of the aircraft. Aircraft below MTWA 5700 kg must be re-weighed as required by the CAA. the Schedule must be displayed or retained in a stowage in the aircraft. The schedule is normally divided into Part A . If a Flight Manual is not a requirement. the revised Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule must state that it has been calculated on the basis of the last Weight and Balance Report and the known weight and C of G changes. or other acceptable information on which the Schedule is based. For aircraft not exceeding 2730 kg MTWA.e. Aircraft must be weighed to determine the Basic Weight and the C of G position when all the manufacturing processes have been completed.1.Variable Load and Part C . and the weight and lever arms of the various items of load. For aircraft of MTWA not exceeding 5700 Kg.

nationality and registration marks of the aircraft. 4. but retained with the aircraft records. where applicable. Information on the lever arms appropriate to items of Disposable Load. (Total moment).N. Basic Weight plus the Variable Load) not accountable to structural changes brought about by modifications/repairs. oil and other consumable fluids or substances in various tanks (including agricultural materials). These lever arms may be shown by means of diagrams or graphs as appropriate. A diagram and a description of the datum points used for weighing and loading. The Weight and Balance Report must include the following items: • • • • • Reference number and Date. constructors number. Operators must retain all known weight and C. .e. MWTA exceeding 5700 kg. In circumstances where there is a significant difference between the Basic Weight of the aircraft and the operating weight (i. 2. i. Before issue of a Certificate of Airworthiness for a prototype. • • 6. a Weight and Balance Report must be prepared by a CAA Approved Organisation.e. Divide the Total moment by the Total weight. prototype (modified) or series aircraft. and an explanation of the relationship of these points to fuselage frame numbering systems and. changes that occur after the aircraft has been weighed. by multiplying the weight by the arm (distance from the reference datum). Designation. Calculate the moment of each load. the previous records must not be destroyed. Records are retained by the aircraft manufacturer. the CAA may require the actual weights of the Variable Load items be ascertained.O.When an aircraft is weighed. This will include the lever arms for fuel. the equipment and other items of load. such as fluid in the tanks must be recorded. This Report is intended to record the essential data to enable a particular aircraft to be correctly loaded. This recorded load should not differ significantly from the Basic Equipment List associated with the Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule.G. including the Basic Equipment List of this is separate from Part A of the Schedule. overhauler or operator. Add ALL of the moments.6 PRINCIPLES OF AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE The position of the C of G of any system may be found using the following process: 1. also lever arms of passengers in seats appropriate to the various seating layouts and mean lever arms of the various baggage holds or compartments. Calculate the total weight by adding the weight of each load (plus the weight of the beam). Details of any significant effect on the a/c C of G of any change in configuration. A copy of the Weighing Record. A copy of the Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule. must be available to the CAA. All records of weighing. The report applies to the aircraft in the condition in which it is delivered from the constructor to the operator. and to include sufficient information for the operator to produce loading instructions in accordance with the provisions of the A. 3. such as retraction of the landing gear. to the Standard Mean Chord (SMC) or Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC). including calculations involved. and when the aircraft is weighed again.

In the example shown. The Basic Weight or 'Dry Operating Mass' of the aircraft corresponds to the weight of the beam.64 inches to the right of the datum. are defined in the aircraft flight manual or other document associated with the Certificate of Airworthiness. is 80" from the datum.100 Arm (Inches) 10 80 50 Moment (Mass X Arm) 2. position of an aircraft is calculated in much the same way as the previous example.000 25. is 10" from the datum and another mass of 400 lbs. The mass of the beam is 500lbs and the length of the beam is 100". adjusted and certified by a competent authority at periods not exceeding one year and the zero indication checked before any weighing commences.This consists of a separate weighing platform for each wheel or bogey. crew. All weighing equipment should be checked. passengers and cargo correspond to the beam loads. A mass of 200 lbs. . Calculation of Aircraft Weight and Centre of Gravity The weight and C.100 = 53. the reference datum is at the left of the beam.G.64 So the position of the centre of Gravity is 53.000 59.G. The weighing equipment may consist of one of the following: • Weighbridge Scales . The capacity of the equipment must be compatible with the load so that accurate measurements may be obtained. hydrostatic weighing units or electrical/electronic weighing equipment based on the strain gauge principle.000/1. the weight and moment of these items should be determined so that the aircraft weight and position of the C.G. can be determined prior to flight to see if they are within the approved limits. Item Mass 1 Mass 2 Beam Total Mass (Lbs) 200 400 500 1. such as fuel. The variable and disposable loads or 'Traffic Loads'.000 32. the weight at each reaction point being indicated directly on the balance arm or on a dial indicator. Large aircraft may be weighed in a hangar using portable weighbridge scales or on a weighbridge set permanently into the floor. The operational limits for the fore and aft positions of the C.000 lbs. Before each flight. Weighing Equipment may consist of weighbridge scales. and is usually found out by weighing the aircraft. such as the Owners Manual. To find the position of the Centre of Gravity. inches Centre of Gravity position = Total Moment/Total Mass = 59.

being forward of the main wheel centres.w. • • • 6. The units are placed between the lifting jacks and the aircraft jacking points and the weight at each position recorded on a gauge. • Readings should be made at each weighing point and to ensure representative readings are obtained. The aircraft should be placed into 'Rigging Position' so that consistent results are obtained. If not.• Hydrostatic Weighing Units .Equipment of this type incorporates three or more weighing cells using metallic resistance elements or strain gauges. or they are used in portable weighbridge platforms placed beneath the aircraft wheels. a spring balance may be anchored to the ground and attached to the tail wheel. the Maintenance Manual procedures and suitable jacking adaptors fitted at the jacking points. Several readings should be taken at each reaction point to obtain a reliable average reading.a. If weighing in the open is unavoidable. • 6. when the aircraft is not affected by frost or dew. • The aircraft should be raised evenly until the aircraft is clear of the ground and then the aircraft should be levelled. • Weighing units of sufficient capacity should be fitted to the jacks and the jacks positioned at each jacking point. Some light aircraft with tail wheels. • Zero indication of each weighing unit should be verified. These strain gauges are either incorporated into cells between the aircraft and the jacks.G. Weighing should be carried out in a closed hangar. It is important that the jacks used with these units are vertical and the units correctly positioned. Electrical or Electronic Weighing Equipment . The reaction thus obtained will be a negative reaction and its value deducted from the aircraft weight and treated as a minus quantity when calculating C. it may be possible to use a jack at the nose.8 WEIGHING ON AIRCRAFT JACKS • Jacking should be carried out i. The gauge may be calibrated directly into weight units or a conversion may be required to obtain the correct units. or sent to an instrumentation unit which adds all of the platform values and digitally displays the aircraft load. it should be carried out on firm. and it is recommended that the aircraft be positioned several hours before weighing so that an even temperature can be assumed and the aircraft is free from moisture. level ground with minimal wind.G.7 PREPARATION FOR WEIGHING • The aircraft should be in the condition described in the Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule with fuel and engine oil partially or completely drained in accordance with the manufacturers requirements and equipment positioned as required. have a negative load on the tail when in rigging position as a result of the C. The output may be measured with a galvanometer. In such cases. whose resistance varies with change in length due to elastic strain. a second reading obtained. position. The weight of the rope and spring balance must also be added to the spring balance reading. . otherwise side loads may be imposed on the units and inaccurate readings obtained.The operation of these units is based on the principle that fluid pressure in a cylinder in which a piston is working depends on the area of the piston and the load applied to it.

the previous aircraft details are shown. can be found by using the following formula: Where A = distance between front and rear reactions B = Weight at nose wheel C = Basic weight (sum of reactions) Thus = = = 7.• When electrical weighing cells are being used.82 in So the C. I n the following example.G.G. they should be switched on 30 minutes before weighing to enable the circuits to stabilise. but with a Reference datum between the nose wheel and the main wheels. Relative to Reference Datum In this case we use the formula C. It is not always advisable to use the main wheel axis as a reference datum. is obviously forward of the main undercarriage. we can use the position of the main undercarriage as a reference datum and the C. is 7. = Total Moment (TM) Total Weight (TW) Total Weight (TW) Forward of Reference -ve Remember AFT of Reference +ve .G. If the aircraft configuration is as shown in the C.G.82 in forward of the main wheel centre-line.

it's position is sometimes specified as a percentage of the S.C. In the case of modifications.G. may be calculated as follows: x 100 Where A = distance of the C.G. datum B = distance of the S. where the total weight and moment for additional parts is not quoted in the appropriate modification leaflet.M.18 in × × × Arm (in) (+) 100 = (+) 100 = (-) 50 = Moment (ib in) (+) 199 500 (+) 200 500 (-) 11 000 (+) 389 000 = 92.Weight (lb) Left main wheel Right main wheel Nose wheel Totals 1995 2005 220 4220 TM = 389 000 lb in TW = 4220 lb So C. the additional parts must be accurately weighed and their moments calculated relative to the reference datum.C. from the Ref.e.M.M.C.) Since the position of the C.) 6. datum C = length of the S. = (+) 92.M.6 % Percentage (S.10 CHANGES IN BASIC WEIGHT When an item of basic equipment is added. 6.C. removed or re-positioned in an aircraft. leading edge from Ref. calculations must be made to determine the effect on both basic weight and C.M. of the wing.9 STANDARD MEAN CHORD (S.G. measured AFT from the leading edge.C. The percentage S.18 AFT of Reference Datum.18 in i. is an aerodynamic consideration.C.M. × 100 = × 100 = × 100 = 16. the weight and moment of the equipment added or removed must be considered as follows: . 92. In order to find the new Basic Weight and moment of the aircraft.G.

856 : 14. = TM = 368. + 25" aft of the Reference Datum.G.e. Reference datum.e. the weight must be added to the original Basic Weight.85 Moment (ib in) + + + 370 000 840 220 2 040 368 580 Example 1: New Basic Weight & Moment 14.800 lb. .G. If the arm is positive the moment must be deducted from the original moment and vice versa.11 EXAMPLES OF ALTERATIONS TO BASIC WEIGHT The following examples are for an aeroplane whose: • • • • • • Basic Weight is 14. the weight must be deducted from the original weight. if the arm of the new equipment is +ve i.e. A Radar System is installed in the aircraft comprising: A radar transmitter weight 28 lb at fuselage station 130 A radar controller weight 4 lb at fuselage station 45 A scanner weight 24 lb at fuselage station 15 Weight (lb) Original Aircraft Transmitter Controller Scanner 14. 100" aft of fuselage station zero.G. 24.G. forward of the C.G is at station 125 i.G.81" The revised Weight and Centre of Gravity Schedule will state: Centre of Gravity : Janitrol Heating unit of weight 145 lb. C. then the moment must be added to the original moment.81" aft of the Reference Datum = 24. If the arm is -ve i. aft of the C. • • 6. The C. Datum. When equipment has been removed. C.• When equipment has been added. can be calculated as follows: C.580 TW Basic Weight Example 2: 14. then the moment must be subtracted.G.e.55 . position is calculated by dividing the new total moment by the new Basic Weight. Reference Datum is at Fuselage Station 100 i. is removed from fuselage station 65 and re-fitted at station 170.856 lb.856 With the New Basic Weight and Moment. The new C.800 28 4 24 Arm (in) + 25 + 30 .

G.G.145 + 145 Arm (in) + 25 . it may also be necessary to distribute fuel and cargo in a transverse direction.800 . Large Passenger and Cargo Aircraft. the loading is based on assumed weights for persons and baggage.03” 6. otherwise the actual weights must be used. calculation.35 + 70 Moment (ib in) + + + + 370 000 5 075 10 150 385 225 New Basic Weight & Moment 14. complicated. If the a/c exceeds 5700 kg MTWA or has a seating capacity of 12 or more persons. To ensure this. position calculated. With these aircraft the moment of items such as fuel.G. In addition to longitudinal C.G.12 LOADING OF AIRCRAFT The Commander of an a/c registered in the United Kingdom must satisfy himself that the load carried is of such a weight and is distributed and secured so that it may be safely carried on the intended flight. Most airlines will employ a specialist section dealing with loading calculations. A typical load sheet is reproduced below: . position will be: TM = 385 225 TW 14 800 = 26.Weight (lb) Original Aircraft Item removed Item replaced 14. the C.800 With the Basic Weight unchanged. producing a load sheet for each flight. passengers and cargo are considerable and calculation of C. the Variable and Disposable Loads must be added to the Basic Weight of the a/c and the Total Weight and C.

.) Operating Weight Disposable Load Passengers 1st class (35) Tourist (83) Cargo No 1 hold No 2 hold No 3 hold No 4 hold Zero Fuel Weight Fuel Nos 2 and 4 tanks Nos 1 and 3 Reserve tanks Take Off Weight 100 000 165 165 165 165 100 450 600 250 300 30 200 102 590 5 775 13 695 500 450 500 400 123910 10000 10000 5000 148910 100 100 120 300 110 170 280 130 410 120 400 211 160 270 100 200 280 350 215 150 200 240 210 16.2 33.00 140.3 30.50 19. C of G position and % SMC in the Load Sheet.00 21 596.Weight (lb) Arm (in) 210 Moment (lb in/100) 21000.50 16.50 11.00 CG (SMC) 29. The SMC length is 120" and the leading edge is 175" aft of the datum.60 924.00 1200.55 1500.00 90.50 168.50 49.00 2000.55 29.00 31338.00 3.50 123.00 3697.00 76.0 Typical Load Sheet Calculate the Weights.00 32.60 80.65 50.00 140.2 Basic Weight Variable Load Pilot Navigator Engineer Steward Crew Baggage Passenger Seats 50 1st 100 Tourist Drinking Water Life-raft Emergency Transmitter Service Equipment (food etc.00 26638.




The brakes should be serviceable and electrical power should be available if required. Consideration should also be given to foreign objects along the route.) Moving aircraft is a team effort and members of the moving team should be fully conversant with their assigned tasks.1 TAXIING / TOWING & ASSOCIATED SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Aircraft need to be moved on the ground. for a variety of reasons. All towing limitations should be observed. • The aircraft should be in a fit condition to move.O. It is important that the aircraft is moved correctly. Clearance from Air Traffic Control may be required for the move. passenger steps. for lights and indications in dark or poor light. with the correct equipment so aircraft damage does not occur. using a towing arm or bridle and steering arm.1. that may be picked up by tyres and cause damage (F. AIRCRAFT HANDLING & STORAGE 7. All equipment required for servicing should be available and serviceable.7. The equipment and method of move should be correct. • By tractor. The route of the proposed move should be free from obstructions such as servicing platforms.1MOVING METHODS Normal moving methods of moving aircraft on the ground are: • By hand by pushing and steering arm. . between flights. Many cases of damage to aircraft occur because of inadequate preparation for aircraft moves and poor knowledge of the correct procedures. The maintenance manual will list the correct equipment to use. These should be stated in the maintenance manual under "ground handling". vehicles and any other servicing equipment. They should be adequately briefed as to their individual responsibilities by the person in charge (I/C) the move. • Taxiing. This applies equally to re-positioning a light aircraft in the hangar or moving a 747 around Heathrow. or within hangars for maintenance • Re-positioning a/c for ground running or storm protection. as required. Examples of limitations include Minimum turning radii and disconnection of nosewheel steering system on certain a/c.D. There should be adequate space available for the a/c with consideration given to clearances for jacking. • Emergency removal of aircraft from taxy-way. Preparation for the reception of the aircraft should be made in advance of it's arrival. including: • Moving aircraft into. • • • • • 7. access for cranes etc.






On this type of aircraft the rudder controls should not be locked during towing. It is generally better to push the aircraft backwards. If the aircraft is fitted with a tail skid. It is usual to tow the aircraft forwards in a straight line after executing a turn.4 Precautions to Observe when Towing Aircraft • • Towing speed should be kept to a safe level at all times (walking pace is a safe limit) A steering limit is often imposed so that the radius of turns is kept within specified limits. This will minimise tyre scrubbing and reduce the twisting loads on the undercarriage. since the leading edges are stronger than the trailing edges. Care should be exercised during the move to avoid damage to the structure.1.1. which may be marked on the undercarriage leg. 7. It is also permitted to push at the undercarriage struts and wing support struts. 7. If towing points are not available. This enables the aircraft steering limits to be exceeded. so obstructions may be avoided. connected to the rudder pedals. ensuring the propeller is positioned horizontally and does not strike the ground.3 Towing Aircraft This is the normal method used on large aircraft. A separate tractor should be connected to each main undercarriage and steering carried out using the steering arm. but may sometimes be overcome by disconnection of a pin joining the torque links Personnel (suitably briefed) should be positioned at the wing tips and tail when manoeuvring in confined spaces. particularly on aircraft constructed from wood and fabric. The Maintenance Manual will normally specify details of the towing arm and any limitations on towing. A person familiar with the a/c brake system should be seated in the cockpit to apply the brakes in an emergency. to relieve stresses built up in the turn. On aircraft fitted with a nose-wheel. Area's to avoid include flying controls. The brakes should not normally be applied unless the aircraft is stationary. taking care not to foul on adjacent pipes or structure.1. • . care should be taken not to exceed the towing limit. a steering arm is fitted to guide the aircraft and the moving force applied to strong parts of the aircraft.7. On many aircraft with nose-wheel steering. On aircraft with steerable nose wheels.1.1. 7. This would cause an unnecessary strain on the nose undercarriage if normal towing procedures are used.2 Moving using a Bridle and Steering Arm This method is sometimes used when the aircraft is to be moved over uneven or soft ground. The steering limit is often shown by marks painted on the fixed part of the nose leg. it is customary to lift the tail clear of the ground. ropes may be passed round the legs as near to the top as possible. The aircraft is normally towed backwards using a tractor attached to the bridle. The aircraft is normally towed with a suitable tractor or tug and the correct towing arm. One person shall be supervising the aircraft movement (not the tractor driver) and should be positioned so that all members of the team may be observed.1.1 Moving by Hand with Steering Arm This method is generally used for moving small aircraft small distances.1. It is normal to tow the aircraft backwards as this reduces the stress on the weaker nose undercarriage.1. it is normal practice to disconnect the aircraft steering before towing. propellers and wing and tailplane trailing edges. In this method a special bridle is attached to specific points on each main undercarriage and a steering arm is attached to the nose undercarriage.

1. Sometimes it would be required to confirm a problem with the landing gear or to test that a wheel vibration problem.• • Particular care should be given when towing swept wing aircraft to 'wing tip growth'. To do this effectively. The main contact an engineer has concerning taxiing is to give signals to the pilot. If there are no sound tyres on the axle.1. Brake pressure should be carefully monitored during the move. In an emergency it may be necessary to move an aircraft from the runway while it has one or more deflated tyres. Marshalling signals are also used during ground running of engines and when towing aircraft. Large multi-engine aircraft will usually be towed with special purpose tug and a suitable towing arm fitted with a shear pin. • Appreciate the aircraft size and understand swept wing growth (If applicable). After any tyre failure. • • 7. Provided there is one sound tyre on the axle the aircraft may be towed to the maintenance area. This is the tendency of the swept wing to 'grow' in a turn. the marshaller must: • Understand the aircraft's manoeuvring limitations (Refer to Maintenance Manuals).5 Taxiing Aircraft If an aircraft is to be taxied rather than towing or pushing a qualified pilot will normally be used. The aim of marshalling is to assist in safe manoeuvring of the aircraft on the ground. • Give clear and correct signals. We call this marshalling'. the brake system should be checked and brake accumulator charged if necessary. the associated wheel and other wheels on the same axle should be inspected. the aircraft should only be moved the shortest distance to clear the active runway and serviceable wheels fitted before towing. designed to shear if a pre-determined towing load is exceeded. . The pilot remains in charge of the aircraft. Before commencing the towing operation. • Never take risks. It is unusual for aircraft to need taxiing. assisting him/her to taxy or park the aircraft safely. but sharp turns must be avoided and towing speed kept to a minimum. Marshalling is a technique used to pass information in the form of signals to the pilot.

speed of movement indicating rate of turn.Arms a little apart held out in front at shoulder height and repeatedly moved upwards and backwards (beckoning) Turn Left (Pilot's Left) . always carry a spare wand.6 General Marshalling Points • • Marshalling signals may be given with hands or marshalling bats by day or marshalling wands. Urgent stop would be indicated by repeated crossing and uncrossing.Point left arm downwards. Right arm moved repeatedly upwards and backwards etc. Identification may also be assisted if the marshaller wears distinctive coloured garments. Left arm moved repeatedly upwards and backwards. • • • • 7. Once the attention of the pilot is gained. STOP . Some of the important signals all aircraft engineers need to know are as follows: • Start Engines . If the area has obstructions.1. palm downward. the other should be switched off and the pilot should stop until the unserviceable wand is replaced and marshalling recommences.1. Turn Right . • • • • • • .Left hand overhead with appropriate number of fingers extended to indicate engine to be started. The hand is moved sideways with the arm remaining bent. Then fist closed again with palms towards aircraft. Marshall's should position themselves forward of the aircraft and in line with the port wing-tip. wing tip safety personnel should indicate clearance by use of standard signals. It is safer for the marshaller to be positioned well forward of the aircraft and allow the aircraft to taxi on to him/her. Typically. When marshalling at night with wands. within the pilot's vision.Arms crossed above the head with palms facing forward. Brakes On .Point right arm downwards. arms above head with palms forward and fingers raised.1. by night. Move Forward . Circular motion of right hand at head level.Either arm and hand level with shoulder.7. Marshall's should identify themselves to the pilot by raising their hands and waving them in a circular motion.By day. A marshaller walking backwards would be unaware of what is going on behind. the marshaller should direct the pilot with a series of clear standard signals. hand moving across throat. If one wand fails.1. a marshaller may wear a yellow or 'Day-glow' waistcoat or white overalls. Stop Engines (Cut engines) .7 Marshalling Signals There are marshalling signals for many situations and types of aircraft.


7. The most common types are the pillar. Pillar Hydraulic Jack . Aircraft Jacking Points Care needs to be taken when jacking. retraction tests. to enable the whole aircraft to be lifted. if exceeded. To avoid exceeding this limit it may be necessary to fit hydraulic or electric load cells. Micro-switches fitted to the undercarriage legs and operated by the extension of the shock absorbers (weight-on switches). the jacking pads are built into the structure. the C of G of some aircraft may be well behind or in front of the main jacking points.25 tons or more. There are several sizes of jack with capacities from 4 . Any special requirements should be listed in the Maintenance Manual. some jacks are provided with a mechanical locking collar which when wound down will prevent the jack from lowering. weighing of the aircraft and aircraft rigging tests. These may include component changes. while in some. . at strong points. which when operated. are used to operate various electrical circuits. to bring the centre of gravity within safe limits as specified in the Maintenance Manual. bipod and quadruped hydraulic jacks.2 JACKING / CHOCKING SECURING & ASSOCIATED SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Aircraft may need to be jacked for a variety of purposes.1SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS Because of the position of the jacking points. and. to avoid damage to aircraft or equipment. Some aircraft require a Jacking pad to be fitted to each jacking point. It is essential that any stressed panels which have been removed are re-fitted.2.The jack consists of a cylinder assembly. it should be supported on blocks or trestles after it has been jacked to the required height. A release valve is fitted which. by tripping circuit breakers or removing fuses as necessary. This operation may not be desirable so circuits should be isolated. Because of possible hydraulic failure. Where a load must remain raised for a long period. the Maintenance Manual should be consulted so the correct equipment and procedures may be used. forces fluid from the container into the cylinder and raises the ram. when opened causes the fluid in the cylinder to return to the container and the ram to descend. Special jacking adapters and beams may be available to lift individual axles. It may be necessary to add ballast forward or rear of the jacking points or to check the fuel load of the aircraft. This should always be open when the jack is operated. 7.7. Each jacking point may have a load limit which. trolley. Failure to do this may result in distortion or failure of the structure. could result in structural damage. An air/filler valve which vents the return side to atmosphere may also be provided.2. jacking points are provided in the wings and fuselage. fluid container and a hydraulic pump.2AIRCRAFT JACKS Aircraft jacks are intended for raising and lowering loads and should not be used for supporting the loads for long periods. usually at the nose and main undercarriages to enable individual wheels to be changed. In all cases. tripod. Aircraft should always be as structurally complete as possible before jacking.

2.Standard Pillar or Bottle Jack 7. . Bipod and Quadruped Jacks These jacks are used to raise an aircraft for various servicing operations. Each jack should be used with the correct adapter head.1 Tripod. Because of the problems involved in raising an aircraft and to avoid injury to personnel or damage to the aircraft. care should be taken to use the correct type of jack as stated in the maintenance manual. Their method of operation and hydraulic mechanism is similar to the pillar jack. They consist of a hydraulic unit supported by a number of legs in the configurations shown.2.

movement of the jack. . The quadruped jack is used more commonly as it possesses the advantages of both types of jack. jacks can be dismantled for transportation. Uses of other jacks on aircraft are shown in the diagram below. a pillar jack may be used. Two legs are fixed and two adjustable. two fixed legs provide the support and a third trailing leg follows the lift and steadies the load during the lift. The bipod arrangement overcomes the limitations of the tripod jack for an 'arc' lift. This jack may be used as a bipod jack by removing adjustable leg. Transportation wheels are often permanently attached to large jacks or as detachable units on other jacks. The resulting side thrust may cause any one of the following: Serious damage to the ram due to the bending load • Distortion of the Jack legs • Damage to the aircraft due to jack head slipping out of the jacking pad • Shearing of the jacking pad fastener • The serviceable tyre may be dragged sideways To change a single wheel. These facilitate easy movement of the jacks that would otherwise need to be dragged around the hanger. or an adjustable stable jack with the extra leg added. On this type of jack.The tripod jack comprises a hydraulic unit with three equally spaced legs. two tripod jacks may be used to raise the complete aircraft or a bipod jack may be used. Alternatively. such as raising one side of the aircraft for a wheel change. All four legs may be locked solid by slight adjustment of both adjustable legs. The maximum angle of arc should not be more than 6 degrees. The jack is designed for a vertical lift only and not for a lift involving lateral.

There should also be a maximum wind speed stated for jacking outside. The aircraft to be jacked should be chocked fore and aft and the brakes off. Lubricate moving parts regularly and exercise the jack if not used frequently.7.4AIRCRAFT JACKING PRECAUTIONS As a safety precaution. stress could be introduced to the landing gear or aircraft structure as the aircraft is raised. Jack replenishment is usually through the air valve up to the level of the bottom of the air valve. All jacks should be stored in the fully retracted position. the jacking surface is level and strong enough to support the weight and any special instructions stated in the Maintenance Manual observed. Larger aircraft may be jacked outside provided they are headed into wind. 7. Keep jacks clean and free from corrosion. If the brakes were left on. .2. Over filling is indicated by leakage of oil when the jack is fully extended.2. Low oil level is indicated by inability to lift to maximum height. small aircraft should normally be jacked inside a hanger.3JACK MAINTENANCE & GENERAL NOTES • • • • The jacks should always be positioned correctly and the load raised and lowered gradually.

2. Alternatively a trolley jack or stirrup jack may be used. fuel state and centre of gravity are within the specified limits. 9. should be moved clear of the aircraft to prevent inadvertent damage. Position the jacks at each jacking point and check the jacks are adjusted correctly i. but account should be taken of any additional precautions specified in the manual. work stands etc. and it may be specified that a tail support is located when raising a nose undercarriage. 8.e.2. Place supports under the wings and fuselage as indicated in the Maintenance manual. . chock the main wheels fore and aft and release the brakes.6LOWERING AIRCRAFT Before lowering the aircraft to the ground. 5. Safety Note . The jacks should be lowered together by opening their release valves. and. and kept within 2" of the jack body. equipment. A pillar (bottle) jack and an adapter are often used for raising a single undercarriage for changing a single wheel. The remaining wheels should be chocked to prevent aircraft movement. 4. the jacking pads and adapters should be removed and the chocks placed in position. Fit load cells if needed. jack body vertical and weight evenly distributed about the legs when the adapters are located centrally in the jacking pads and the weight of the aircraft is just being taken by the jacks.7. Fit jacking pads to the jacking points and adapters to the jacks as required. release valve closed. the locking collar should be tightened down. the locking collars should be wound down keeping them close to the body of the jack. The wheels should be rotated by hand to ensure the brakes are off. Any fuses or circuit breakers should be re-set in their correct position. 10. 3. Remove the chocks and slowly raise the aircraft as evenly as possible. Ensure that there is adequate clearance above every part of the aircraft and that there is clearance for lifting cranes or other equipment that may be required. 7. the locking collars (if used) unscrewed whilst the jacks are lowered. Head the aircraft into wind if it is in the open. When the aircraft is raised to the correct height. Check that the aircraft weight. 2. Connect earth cable to the earth point on the aircraft. 1. Install the undercarriage ground locks 6.5JACKING PROCEDURE The following procedure will generally ensure satisfactory jacking of most aircraft. Whilst jacking. On larger aircraft a levelling station will also need to be manned and all members of the team may need to be in radio or telephone communication with the co-ordinator. It is common for the aircraft shock absorbers to stick and suddenly collapse resulting in damage to equipment or serious injury to parts that might be between the aircraft and jack. One person should co-ordinate the operation and one person should man each jacking point. 7. The jacks should be fully lowered after the aircraft is resting on it's wheels and the release valves closed. After the aircraft is lowered and the jacks removed. The jack should be raised only enough to lift the unserviceable wheel clear of the ground.On no account should the top of the jacks be handled until the jack is clear of the aircraft.

they should be laid out on the floor to ensure shackles are correctly fitted and the fittings are not twisted. not for attempting to raise parts of the aircraft. By using different lengths of angle iron.This trestle is made up from lengths of angle iron. Before use. This list will usually include special slings to be used on the aircraft and any other special equipment or tools required. of the correct type and. The use of the correct equipment for lifting aircraft parts will minimise the risk of damage to the aircraft and personnel.8LIFTING TACKLE Wire rope. care should be taken that the rope does not kink under load. These holes are normally sealed when not in use with removable plugs. The S.) is not exceeded.W. Various types are available including plain wooden trestles that are purpose built and not adjustable. The two jacking heads. Before multiple leg wire rope slings are used. Slinging . Padding is normally attached to the former to prevent damage to the aircraft finish. the tackle should be inspected to ensure that it is serviceable. The wooden beam across the jacking heads may be replaced by a wooden former. cut to the curvature of the component it supports. It will normally be shown in the Maintenance Manual where they should be positioned. Lines are often painted on the aircraft to show where the trestle beam is positioned. may be stated on a brass tally attached to the lifting sling. some slings are used in conjunction with strong straps that pass under the component to be lifted. chain or fibre rope may be used for lifting purposes. some aircraft have special slinging points with threaded holes in the airframe which are used to fit the eye or forkend bolts of the sling. they should only be used for supporting a load. The splices and their attachments should also be inspected for serviceability.) and may also be used to support the complete aircraft. In use. fuselages etc. Tail Trestle . As an alternative to screw in fittings. Knotting of ropes to shorten them is prohibited. fuselages or other large items may be fitted with spreader bars or struts.2. the wire rope should be inspected for wear. Slings may be of the three-point type as used for lifting-main planes.Slings may be required for lifting various parts of an aircraft during maintenance. Damage may be caused to the aircraft if attempts are made to to do any more than support the structure. . broken wires etc. Sometimes a complete aircraft may need to be lifted for transportation or to clear a runway quickly. Before use. Trestles should only be used at designated strong parts of the structure. Adjustment in height may be made by rotating the windlass type nut. the opposite main plane must be supported with trestles.7. A list of special equipment is usually in the front of the maintenance manual. Wire Rope is used in cranes. To attach a sling. This brass tally should never be removed from the sling. repair. which are hand operated screw jacks. enable the beam to be adjusted to suit the angle of the component.L. Note: Although the trestles have 'jacking heads'. and has two jacking heads. other types. As in the universal trestle. the beam may be replaced by a shaped former to suit the contours of the aircraft. trestles of various sizes can be produced. bolts and nuts. hoists. used for lifting engines. Universal Trestle . gantries and various slings.7TRESTLES These are provided to support to aircraft structures (main planes. dismantling and assembly. when used. Before removing a main plane.W.L. that the Safe Working Load (S. corrosion. 7.2.This trestle is not suitable for heavy loads and must only be used for supporting a load vertically.

especially when it is being hand towed. The slings when not in use. These slings use natural fibres such as sisal or hemp or nylon fibres. Lifting tackle must be inspected for serviceability before use and only slings fitted with inspection tallies should be used. flaws. Do not tow the hoist at greater than walking pace. all loaded components such as pulley blocks. Wire rope slings are normally treated against corrosion by immersion in oil and the surplus oil wiped off. Natural fibre or nylon rope slings usually have a specific life and must be destroyed by cutting into short lengths at the end of their life or when found defective. pulled splices. other than by hand. They must be inspected for frayed strands. cracks and flaws. This latter defect is the name given to the grooves produced in the ends of links when the links wear against each other. distortion. 7. Avoid using a hoist or crane on soft ground. should be hung on pegs in a sheltered position free from dampness. 7. spreader bars. Except under exceptional circumstances. but in a strong wind light aircraft should be headed into the wind. excessive wear and deterioration. excessive wear and 'socketing'.2. Light aircraft without wheel brakes should be headed into wind and their wheels checked front and rear. lock the control surfaces and chock the wheels. but this treatment must not be applied to slings used for oxygen cylinders: they must always be free from oil or grease. In addition to before-use checks on the rope.8. Do not leave a suspended load un-attended. the length of time it will be out of service and the prevailing or forecast weather conditions. Do not allow the load to swing. The operations recommended in the relevant Maintenance Manual depend on the type of aircraft. it must be destroyed. pins.1 Precautions When Using Lifting Tackle • • • • • • • • The safe working load must not be exceeded. . any reduction in diameter in excess of a given figure (usually 10%) will render the chain unserviceable. Do not walk or work under a suspended load. when a load is suspended from the lifting hook. Do not tow the hoist. Immediately before use. Moving parts must be lubricated periodically. the rope should be opened up by slightly untwisting the strands to ensure they are not damaged or mildewed internally: a damaged or mildewed rope sling should not be used. hooks etc. shackles. are to be inspected for excessive wear. they must be inspected for cracks.Chains are used in cranes. and various types of sling. Do not use a crane or hoist if the lifting rope shows sign of fraying. The following points should be considered when parking the aircraft: • Between flights it is usually sufficient to apply the parking brakes. Before use. Fibre rope slings may be used for lifting lighter components such as propellers.3 PARKING & SECURING AIRCRAFT When an aircraft is out of service and in the open it should be secured against inadvertent movement and protected against adverse weather conditions. slings should not be made up locally.

sufficient slack must be left to allow for shrinkage in damp conditions. Caution Do not set the parking brakes in cold weather when accumulated moisture may freeze the brakes or when the brakes are overheated. particular in the case of high winds.3. The aircraft may be fitted with picketing rings or attachment points at the wings and tail or adjacent to the undercarriage legs. However. then additional precautions should be taken to guard against the effects of adverse weather. When this type of control lock is not fitted. These aircraft are equipped with a spring-loaded steering system that affords protection against normal wind gusts. are removed. if extremely high winds are anticipated. Pull each end of the rope at a 45 degree angle and secure to a tie-down point either side of tail. Secure the middle of a rope to the tail tie-down ring. The undercarriage ground locks should be fitted. if so. If control lock is not available. Blanks and covers should not be left in position when the aircraft is prepared for service. it would be recommended that the aircraft be parked in a hangar. If they must be left outside smaller aircraft may need to be tied down. Additional picketing from the undercarriage legs may be recommended in strong winds and. After completion. care should be taken not to damage any pipelines or equipment attached to the legs or wheels.• Flying controls on many aircraft are locked by movement of a lever in the cockpit/cabin. Cable or nylon rope of adequate strength should be used where possible. cables or chains to ground anchors.1SECURING / PICKETING / MOORING In certain weather conditions.3. which is connected to locking pins at convenient positions in the control runs or at the control surfaces. insects and moisture. birds. engine and cooling air intakes should be blanked to prevent ingress of dirt. additional external locks may be installed. Secure a tie down rope (no chains or cables) to the exposed portion of the engine mount and secure opposite end to a ground anchor. to make them more visible. All fittings such as pitot head and incidence indicators should be covered. proceed to moor the aircraft as follows: • Tie ropes. Secure a control lock on pilot control column. If an aircraft is to be parked overnight or for longer periods in the open. When severe weather is anticipated it is recommended that covers for cockpit. A more positive method is to use external control surface locks that prevent control surface movement and thus prevent strain on the control system. • • . cables. 7. but if a natural fibre rope is used (sisal or hemp). head the aircraft into the wind if possible. Secure the opposite ends of the ropes. All external locks should have suitable streamers attached. Secure control surfaces with the internal control lock and set brakes. canopy and wheel are fitted if available. • 7.2TYPICAL SMALL AIRCRAFT PROCEDURE When mooring the aircraft in the open. If outside the aircraft should always be parked nose into wind and secured from the picketing points to suitable ground anchor points (heavy concrete blocks or specialised screw pickets). Servicing instructions should include a pre-flight check to ensure that all covers etc. all openings such as static vents. or chains to the wing tie-down fittings located at the upper end of each wing strut. tie the pilot control back with a front seat belt. locking attachments may have to be fitted to the control column and rudder pedals.

3. and applying the tip covers to each blade.2. the rotor blades should be tethered whenever possible. If high winds are expected. The aircraft should be headed into wind and the parking brakes applied. Each blade may then be lashed to it's respective picketing point. Rotor head and blade covers should also be fitted if the-helicopter is parked over night. . Cables or chains should be attached from the aircraft picketing points to prepared anchorage's. since even light gusting winds can cause damage to the blades if free to flap. locking the collective pitch lever in fine pitch.3. The maximum wind-speed will normally be stated in the Maintenance Manual (including gusting winds).2 Helicopters In addition to the above requirements. they should be parked in a hangar and/or the rotor blades should be folded.1 Large Aircraft These may only require picketing in very strong wind conditions.2. pulling them against the stops. On many helicopters the blades are tethered by aligning one blade along the tail cone.7. In some cases the picketing cables are special components and include a tension meter that is used to apply a pre-load to the cable. 7. The collective pitch lever should normally be locked in the fully fine position and the rotor brake applied.

affecting systems such as the landing gear retraction • Ingestion of ice into the engine Ground de-icing must not only remove ice deposits before take-off but must prevent them from reforming until the aircraft's own ice protection system becomes effective.3METHODS OF DE-ICING Ground de-icing may be accomplished by mechanical methods (brush or rubber squeegee) or by using Freezing Point Depressant (FPD) compounds. snow. frost etc. snow or frost already accumulated on the aircraft.4.These fluids have a high glycol content but have a low viscosity.2DE-ICING AND ANTI-ICING It is important to point out at this point the difference between the two terms. Type 2 (thickened) .These fluids have a minimum glycol content of approximately 50% and.4. If icing conditions are anticipated. Deicing involves removal of ice. The formation of ice on aircraft structures will have many adverse effects. if allowed to remain: • Decrease aerofoil lift • Increase aerofoil drag • Increase weight • Decrease engine thrust • Freezing of moisture in control hinges • Freezing of micro-switches. 7. Removal of snow and ice prior to take-off and a knowledge of methods of ground de-icing is essential. due to a thickening agent. These will be described in the systems module. 7. forward facing surfaces and under-surfaces. in addition. This may not occur until the aircraft is established on the climb-out. Anti-icing is concerned with prevention of it’s formation. There are two main types of FPD compounds: • Type 1 (unthickened) . provides protection against re-freezing and/or build up of further accretion when exposed to freezing precipitation. The de-icing performance is good and. Complete protection against ground icing can only be provided by keeping the aircraft in a heated hangar until required for flight but this is often impossible and usually impracticable. ice may accumulate on landing gear. After taxing through snow or slush.7. the two methods often used in conjunction with one another. are able to remain on the aircraft surfaces for longer periods. There have been many aircraft accidents and incidents attributed to poor ground de-icing procedures.4. They provide good de-icing performance but only limited protection against re-freezing.1GROUND DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFT Ice formation on an aircraft on the ground may result from a number of causes: • • • Direct precipitation from rain. • . Condensation freezing on external surfaces of integral tanks following prolonged flight at high altitude.4 GROUND DE-ICING & ANTI-ICING 7. They will. an attempt should be made to protect the aircraft.

vortex generators etc. may cause dilution or complete washing out of oils and greases from control bearings etc. pitot probes.4. provided it is applied within two hours of flight. Note 1 . Melted frost should be dried up and not allowed to accumulate in hinges.7.De-icing fluids. a de-icing fluid such as Kilfrost ABC (Aircraft Barrier Compound). control hinges and control surface gaps. one application is usually sufficient.3. becomes less effective and may freeze again quite quickly. Light dry snow should be blown off using a cold air blower.De-icing may adversely affect glazed panels or paint finish.3 Cold FLuid Spray This is the simplest method of applying de-icing fluid but suffers from the following disadvantages: • In very severe conditions one application of cold fluid may not be sufficient to remove all deposits. in severe conditions. This process is not lengthy and. 7. Note 2 .4. Deicing spray nozzles should not be directed at lubrication points or sealed bearings.3. Hot air is not recommended as it may melt the snow which may accumulate and freeze requiring further treatment. Hot air blowers may be used to remove frost. particularly those with an alcohol base. allowing water to enter which may subsequently freeze. The snow should also be cleared from vents. This may be dangerous if diluted fluid is allowed to run into control surface and landing gear mechanisms.1 Treatment of Frost Deposits Frost deposits are best removed by the use of a frost remover or.4. where it may refreeze. Note 2 .No attempt must be made to remove ice by the use of force to break the bond. • . 7. intakes. microswitches etc. Brushing. Moderate to heavy ice deposits or residual snow should be cleared with de-icing fluid applied by spraying. stall warning vanes. These fluids usually contain either ethylene glycol and isopropyl alcohol b) diethylene glycol (or propylene glycol) and isopropyl alcohol.3. followed by a second or third application may be necessary As the ice and snow melts the de-icing fluid becomes diluted. For this reason only fluids recommended by the manufacturer should be used and any instructions for their use should be strictly observed. Note 1 .2 Removal of Ice and Snow Deposits Deep wet snow should be removed with a brush or squeegee taking care not to damage aerials. which may be covered in snow. jamming controls.De-icing should proceed symmetrically to prevent excess weight on one side of the aircraft.

Consult the appropriate Maintenance Manual for manufacturers recommended maximum impingement pressure. known as the 'hold over' time. 1.4. . 7. It is then transferred to an insulated tank on a mobile unit which may then be driven to the site of operations. The fluid is normally sprayed on to the aircraft at a temperature of 70ºC and at a pressure of 100 psi by use of spray lances.5 Hot Water De-icing This method must not be used below -7°C and may need to be performed in two steps. drains. Stations using Kilfrost will normally provide a mix of 5-/50 or 60/40. The heat transfers to the skin of the aircraft.5ANTI-ICING When used for anti-icing the FPD fluid should be sprayed on to the aircraft cold and undiluted either before the onset of icing or after hot de-icing has been carried out. and large areas of ice may be flushed away by turning the nozzle sideways. given time. The film of fluid left on the skin has only been slightly diluted beyond its original dilution and is effective in preventing further ice formation. If necessary a light coating of de-icing fluid is then sprayed on immediately (within 3 minutes) to prevent re-freezing.4. 7.4. will melt any fresh precipitation. Notes: • • • Under extreme cold conditions it may be necessary to heat the fluid (60ºC max) to give it sprayability.3. is given in the table on the following page.4SAFETY NOTES • • • High pressure sprays may cause damage to pitot-static probes and other sensing devices Covers and bungs should be fitted during de-icing operations to prevent ingress of fluid into air intakes.4. The nozzle of the lance is held close to the aircraft skin to prevent heat losses. The FPD fluid is mixed with water in proportions to suit prevailing weather conditions and heated in a static unit to a temperature of 7OºC. Snow and ice is normally removed initially with a jet of hot water not exceeding 95°C. No significant increase in holdover time is achieved by strengthening the mix of type I (AEA) fluids.7. 2. It may be difficult to get stronger mixes at short notice unless the temperature conditions at the stations involved are below limits for that mix. 7. The time for which the fluid remains effective. vents and ram air intakes High pressure sprays may cause erosion of the aircraft skin.3. The fluid film will prevent ice and snow from sticking to the aircraft skin and.4 Hot Fluid Spray This method has been adopted specifically to reduce turn round time. breaking the ice bond.

Guide to Holdover Times Weather Conditions Ambient Temp °C Frost Freezing fog Steady Snow Freezing Rain Rain on cold soaked wing Anti-Icing 100% Cold (See Note 1) 8 hrs * * * 0 to –7 * * * * -8 to -10 * * * -11 to -14 * * * -15 to -25 * * * * 3 hrs 1 hr 20 min 8 hr 1½ hr 45 min 20 min 8 hr 1½ hr 45 min 8 hr 1½ hr 45 min 8 hr 1½ hr 45 min 75/25 (hot) 5 hrs 2 hrs 45 min 10 min 5 hr 1 hr 30 min 10 min 5 hr 1 hr 30 min 5 hr 1 hr 30 min Type II (AEA) fluids De-Icing 60/40 (hot) 4 hrs 1¾ hr 35 min 7 min 4 hr 50 min 20 min 5 min 4 hr 50 min 20 min 50/50 (hot) 3 hr 1½ hr 30 min 5 min 3 hr 45 min 15 min 3 min Type I Fluids (See note 2) Above 0 * 45 min 30 min 15 min 5 min 30 mins 15 mins 15 mins 3 mins 30 mins 15 mins 15 mins 30 mins 15 mins 15 mins 30 mins 15 mins 15 min .


3. 7. They should be freed by the application of hot air to the ice (not the tyre) and the aircraft moves to a dry area. . 5. 6. Check that tyres are not frozen to the ground. Landing gear mechanisms.4. The paste should be re-applied before each flight in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. tail and propeller leading edges and provides a chemically active surface on which ice may form but not produce a bond. All protrusions and vents for signs of damage. Freedom of rotation of gas turbine engines by hand. 10. Where this is not possible the pilot's controls should be used bearing in mind that power operated controls exert large forces and could cause damage if any part of the control surface is frozen. Note: Paste does not constitute an approved method of de-icing otherwise unprotected aircraft for intended flights into known or forecast icing conditions. 11. Up-locks and micro-switches for correct operation. doors. Log. Tyre pressures and shock absorber pressure and extension. The paste is spread evenly by hand over wing. Engine air intakes for ice and snow deposits. bays and wheel brakes for snow and ice deposits. 8. the use of a de-icing paste may be specified. Control surfaces for full and free movement by hand.6DE-ICING PASTE One some aircraft not equipped with aerofoil or propeller de-icing systems. External surfaces for signs of residual snow or ice particularly in the vicinity of control surface gaps and hinges. Shock absorber struts and hydraulic jacks for leaks caused by contraction of seals and metal parts. Any ice which forms is blown away by the airstream. 9. Restriction may indicate icing in the compressor region and the engine should be blown through with hot air immediately before starting until the rotating parts are free.4.7. 2. 7. Entry in Tech. 4.7INSPECTION AFTER DE-ICING OPERATIONS The following inspection should be carried out on completion of a de-icing operation: 1.

If no repeat interval is given. grease • Specialised water displacing fluids (WD 40) & corrosion preventative compounds • Aircraft covers and blanks • Plastic sheeting and adhesive tape Generally there would be an initial procedure.5 STORAGE The previous section dealt with parking of aircraft for various lengths of time in adverse weather conditions.7. If an aircraft is de-activated for an extended time it will need to be protected against corrosion. It is not intended for the information given to be complete. just to give the reader an idea of some of the activities performed. A list of equipment and materials is normally given. The following notes are based on the storage procedures applicable to BA 146 aircraft that have been de-activated for periods in excess of 30 days up to a maximum of 2 years. this being repeated a specified intervals as shown in the table below. This will normally include: • Hydraulic fluid and lubricating oils. . deterioration and environmental conditions during storage. the item is only done initially.

The aircraft may be manoeuvred in the hangar with deflated shock absorbers Flight Controls Fully extend flaps Open and tag flap valves and airbrake circuit breakers Fully extend lift spoilers and install safety sleeves to all spoiler jacks Depressurise hydraulic system Lubricate the flight controls Protect flap carriages. Remove crew masks for storage Repeat Intervals (days) 7 30 60 7 15 7 30 180 . blank off pipelines and cylinder outlet connection Check cylinder pressure is above 50 p. deflate the shock absorbers. upper surfaces of flap tracks with grease Protect all control cables accessible with oil Check for corrosion and where found repair affected areas Power Plants Carry out special long term storage procedure for engines Note: Renewal of engine long term storage is preceded by engine run Oxygen System Check test date of oxygen cylinders Disconnect distribution lines from oxygen cylinders.s.ITEM Landing Gear Clean and dry main and landing gear bays Check landing gear for hydraulic leakage Lubricate main & nose landing gear Clean/Check Shock struts for leaks Wipe sliding tube with hydraulic fluid Clean Gear & Uplock Mechanisms. Protect with grease Clean and apply thin coat of hydraulic fluid to actuator and piston rods Spray micro-switches and proximity switches with water dispersion fluid Check tyre pressures and mark position of tyres with date Rotate wheels one quarter of a term and mark tyre with date Should aircraft be stored in a hangar.i.

service and store all galley portable equipment Remove. small animals and birds. . exhaust. APU oil cooler. APU intake. drain water from fuel tanks Air Conditioning System Install blanks in the ECS ram air inlet. blanks and preservative compounds will need to be removed. It is also necessary to prevent access of insects. Various blanks and covers will minimise contamination of the aircraft. front and rear discharge valves Hydraulic System Check system for leaks Replenish system Coat all unpainted hydraulic pipe-work with preservative ompound Aircraft Exterior Wash aircraft Coat all unpainted metal surfaces with preservative compound Aircraft Interior Remove passenger seats and carpets for bay storage Remove. check and store windshield wiper arms complete with blades Remove rain repellent canisters Electrical/Electronic System Remove and service batteries Remove for bay service. Another set of procedures will be followed. All of the systems will need to be restored to their original condition prior to aircraft use. additional parking procedures will be necessary to prevent ingress of moisture. similar to the ones detailed above. After the storage period all of the covers. all rack mounted electronic equipment Apply power to and function installed electronic equipment Repeat Intervals (days) 7 7 If the aircraft is to be stored outside.ITEM Water Waste Drain potable water system Purge potable water system with dry air or nitrogen Fuel System Refuel aircraft with fuel treated with an approved biocidal agent After 24 hours.

position of the refuelling point(s) and refuelling method is known. • 7. The fuel supply should be regularly checked for water contamination and a sample of fuel drained off after refuelling so that a water check may be carried out. This may lead to potential differences at adjacent metal parts of the structure and result in a spark that could cause a fire or explosion.In this method fuel may be pumped into the aircraft via a pressure refuelling coupling at very high rates.6. There is a danger area around an aircraft being fuelled which extends a specified distance from the fuelling point. Pay particular attention to the following points: • Whenever possible aircraft should be fuelled in the open.000 gallons per minute.7. The aircraft may also be de-fuelled via the same coupling by applying suction to the hose. The maintenance manual should be consulted so the position and capacities of the fuel tanks is known and also the type of fuel. and the refuel rate may be in the order of 1. Use of a turbine fuel in a piston aircraft will certainly cause an engine failure.s. possibly at a crucial flight stage.s. The refuelling pressure may be up to 50 p. particularly with an unfamiliar aircraft. No sources of ignition or sparks should be within this danger area and no electrical power should be switched on or off during the operation. the filler points are generally on the top of the tank and the tank is open when fuelling is carried out. care should be taken. Carbon dioxide or foam extinguishers are recommended. The correct type and grade of fuel should always be stated in the maintenance manual and marked adjacent to the filler point(s).6 REFUELLING & DEFUELLING 7. There are two general refuelling methods: • Gravity or over-wing . To minimise this risk: i. • Bonding of the fuel system is vital during fuelling operations as static electricity may be generated as fuel flows through the refuelling hose. Pressure Refuelling . but if any increased fire risk is anticipated. thereby minimising the formation of condensation in the fuel tanks. particularly in dusty climates. It is vital that the correct type and grade of fuel be used for the fuelling operation. and not in a hangar. The aircraft should be earthed. It will sometimes be necessary to filter the fuel during over-wing refuelling. a similar type of refuelling hose being used. .2REFUELLING SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Particular care must be taken when fuelling aircraft so that the operation may be carried out as safely as possible. This will minimise the fire risk due to high concentrations of inflammable vapours. Fire appliances should be readily available when all fuelling operations are taking place. fire-fighting vehicles should be standing by.i. The use of the term fuelling can include both refuelling or de-fuelling.i. Maximum de-fuel pressure is normally in the region of -11 p. Care should also be exercised to avoid contamination of the fuel system with water or other sources of contamination. As the name suggests.1REFUELLING AIRCRAFT When re-fuelling aircraft.6. to ascertain that the correct procedures are observed. • • • Note: Piston aircraft fuel tanks are best kept full.This is essentially the same method as used to refuel your car.

4. In the event of refuel cut-off failure the system is vented to atmosphere via a NACA duct located in each wing tip. or manually by use of the tank refuelling valve override switches. automatically by using the load pre-select. 0.6. which may be calibrated in gallons (Imperial or US). 7. an off load valve for defuelling and transfer between tanks.ii.G.3CHECKING FUEL CONTENTS This is normally carried out using the aircraft fuel gauges. Magnetic fuel level indicators enable direct tank fuel level reading. iii.6.3 Defuelling Selection of the off load valve to the open position connect. pounds or kilograms. Note: Points i .4.sticks or drop sticks which are fitted in the bottom of some aircraft tanks.4. will allow fuel to be transferred from the centre tank to the wing tanks. and use of the fuel feed pumps.G.6. The refuelling tanker should be earthed. For example. but they may sometimes be duplicated at a fuelling panel adjacent to the pressure refuel coupling. The refuel hose nozzle should be bonded to the refuel point. one in each wing and one in the fuselage centre section. Overwing gravity refuelling points are provided for each tank.4. or no fuel gauge is fitted. Fuel is then off loaded by selection of the appropriate common feed and cross-feed valves. the contents may be ascertained on the ground by using dip sticks fitted into the top of the tanks or by drip. 7. of the fuel so that the necessary weight calculation may be carried out. the main fuel feed line to the refuel gallery. and a refuel control panel. A refuel/defuel station situated in the underside of the right wing leading edge. The crew may ask for a fuel quantity in pounds or kilograms and the fuel bowser will be delivering fuel in gallons. A squat switch inhibits the use of AUTO TRANSFER on the ground.4 Fuel transfer Selection of the offload valve to the open position enables fuel to be transferred between tanks by use of the appropriate common feed. of 0.78 will weigh 78 lbf. The aircraft fuel gauges will normally be positioned in the flight deck.G.iii should all be done before fuelling operations commence. 7. If a double check is required. The specific gravity (S.G. and operation of the fuel feed pumps. it is essential that the engineer is aware of the S. Selection of the TRANSFER switch to either AUTO or OPEN. refuel and crossfeed valves.6.8 will have a weight of 80 lbf.4TYPICAL AIRCRAFT FUELLING INFORMATION (BAE 146) 7.) of fuel will vary with temperature and so the weight of a certain quantity of fuel will also vary. to be taken from the wing tanks only. 7. Measurement of Fuel by weight. 7.2 Refuelling Pressure refuelling is governed from the control panel. consists of a standard fuel coupling. When fuelling aircraft. ten gallons of fuel with an S. and ten gallons of fuel S.1 General Fuel is contained in three integral fuel tanks.6. . The centre tank is offloaded by selecting fuel transfer to the wings with the relevant wing fuel pumps selected ON.6. It is crucial for balance purposes that the weight of fuel is known and so modern gauges may be calibrated in units of weight rather than in gallons.

R.Eng.Approved specifications Approved fuels The fuels shall meet these specifications or any direct equivalent.R.23-M81 CAN2-3.2494 D.Eng.D.2498 Additives ASTM D1655 Jet A1 CAN 2-3.4.D.5 Fuels and additives .2482 D.Eng.6.D. KEROSENE FUELS British D.7.R.23-M81 Kerosene Type American Canadian IATA .

4.i.Eng.R. (-0.i. When gravity filled. They may be used singly or in combination.s. ANTl-CORROSION ANTI-ICING AND BlOClDAL BlOClDAL ANTI-STATIC D.D. Wing Left Centre Wing Right Total 1015 550 1015 2580 US gal. 3647 kg..76 bar). (3·45 bar).The following additives are suitable for the system.8 SG/0.6 Usable fuel capacities Imp. .D.6. refer to 07-00-00. (1027 US gal. The above mass values of capacity are derived from the volumetric capacity assuming a Specific Gravity of 0.4. at the approved concentrations. 1219 661 1219 3099 litres 4614 2500 4614 11728 Lb 8120 4400 8120 20640 kg 3683 1996 3683 9362 NOTE: 1. These quantities refer to an aircraft fuelled to override cut-off. Gal.R.s. For other values of SG correct the above mass values as follows where SG refers to the actual value for the fuel loaded into the aircraft: Actual mass = SG x mass at 0. 8040 lb. Maximum refuel rate is shown in the following table: Imp.7 Limitations Maximum refuel pressure : Maximum defuel suction 50 p.) but the centre tank quantity remains the same.8.8 7. There are no tank imbalance limitations during normal refuel or defuel operations.3 DUPONT STADIS 450 7.2461 and APL2461 D.Eng.2451 and MlL-T-27686 BIOBOR JF SHELL ASA.Gal/min Individual Wing Centre tank Both Wings All tanks 120 60 225 275 US gal/min 144 72 270 330 Litres/min 545 273 1023 1250 Lb/min 960 480 1800 2200 Kg/min 435 218 816 998 Do not refuel the centre tank unless the required load exceeds the capacity of the wing tanks. 11 p. 2. the quantity in each wing tank reduces to 1005 Imp gal.6. For refuel/defuel limitations with the aircraft on jacks. 4569 litres.

2. only the left inner feed pump should be left running for APU operation. 3. 4.6. Select MASTER switch ON. Drain all water from tanks. Turn LOAD PRESELECT counter-clockwise to zero and check that all three VALVE position indicators go to SHUT.7. 3. Open refuel control panel door. 2. NOTE: If the tank contents are at or below unusable fuel-level (the level at which the gauges and pre-select are set at zero) then the valves will not shut. Servicing electrical power Water drain tool . NOTE: If necessary. 4. MAKE CERTAIN THAT AIRCRAFT AND TANKER ARE CONNECTED TO AN APPROVED GROUND AND THAT THE TANKER IS BONDED TO THE AIRCRAFT. NO SMOKING OR NAKED FLAME WITHIN 30 FEET (9. BEFORE PRESSURE REFUELLING OR DEFUELLING.4. CAUTION : 1.4. 7. Make certain aircraft battery is connected.8 Refuellinq/defuelling WARNING: 1.9 Equipment and materials HC130H0028-000 Referenced Procedure 12-10-24 7. USE ONLY APPROVED FUELS. Set switches to SHUT and check that VALVE indicators go to SHUT. 7.6. 4. 3.10 Prepare to refuel 1.4. MAKE CERTA N THAT ADEQUATE FIRE FIGHTING FACILITIES ARE AVAILABLE.11 Pre-refuel system test 1.14 METRES). 2. Set all refuel valve switches to OVERRIDE and check that all three VALVE position indicators go to OPEN.6. IN THE EVENT OF FUEL SPILLAGE OR FIRE. 5. AND OPERATE THE APU CUT-OFF SITUATED AT THE REFUEL CONTROL PANEL. COMPLY WITH LOCAL SAFETY REGULATIONS. ENSURE LANDING GEAR GROUND LOCKING PINS AND CHOCKS ARE IN POSITION. Investigate any contamination of the drained sample (OTHER THAN WATER). refuelling VALVE position indicators show cross-hatch. Turn LOAD PRESELECT clockwise to maximum. Make certain cross-feed valve is SHUT and all feed pumps are switched OFF. SHUT DOWN REFUEL FACILITY AND ELECTRICAL POWER. using water drain tool. At the refuel control panel check off load valve is shut (lever horizontal). 3.4. ENSURE THAT BLANKS HAVE BEEN REMOVED FROM NACA DUCTS ANO THE VENT PIPES IN THE SURGE TANKS. Set LEFT. CENTRE and RIGHT tank refuel switches to PRE-SELECT and check that all three VALVE position indicators go to OPEN. 4. BEFORE CONNECTING TANKER HOSE TO AIRCRAFT. and that with MASTER switch OFF. 2. 6. Check that VALVE position indicators go to SHUT.6. and fuel quantity indicators show correct existing fuel state. STOP REFULLLING.

Start refuelling.12 Pressure refuel 1.7.4. 3. 2. Set all three refuel valve switches to PRE-SELECT and adjust LOAD PRESELECT to required load. Flow will stop automatically at pre-selected load. Bond refuelling tanker to aircraft bonding point in right-hand main landing gear bay. 4. Position tanker hose coupling. Check that VALVE position indicators show OPEN for all tanks due to receive fuel. 7. .6. the CENTRE indicator will show SHUT. NOTE: If load selected does not require fuel in the centre tank. and bond hose to aircraft. Remove cap from aircraft refuel coupling and connect refuelling hose.

4. set valve switches to PRE-SELECT and adjust LOAD PRE-SELECT to its maximum. continue refuelling until high level tank switches operate and fuel flow stops. 11. the refuel valve can be operated manually by a lever behind the actuator. 9.6. At flight deck centre instrument panel. continue refuelling to pre-select cut-off. check valve indicators show OPEN. select MASTER switch OFF. Set valve switches to override. 5. 4. Bond refuelling hose nozzle to aircraft. Insert nozzle and refuel to required level. wings must be filled first and then remainder in centre tank. Before using this method a signal must be arranged so that the valve can be shut on instruction from an operator monitoring tank contents.6. Check that tank FULL indicators come on. 10. accessible after removing panel 621AB or 621BB. Check correct load by use of tank contents indicators on refuel panel. 1. At flight deck centre instrument panel. 7. Disconnect tanker bonding. . 3.8. check fuel quantity indicators are reading correct load. 7. 11. Remove nozzle and install tank cap with arrow (FWD) pointing forward. Bond refuelling tanker to aircraft bonding point in right-hand main landing gear bay. Disconnect nozzle bonding. 2.4. For absolute maximum fuel load. At fuel control panel. Drain all water from tanks using water drain tool. CAUTION : INVESTIGATE ANY CONTlMlNATION OF THE DRAINED SAMPLE (OTHER THAN WATER). Check all VALVE indicators show SHUT.13 Unserviceability of refuel valve actuator In the event of an actuator failure. 12. The associated tank refuel VALVE indicator must be serviceable during this manual operation. Install blanking cap to aircraft coupling. Open refuel panel and select MASTER switch ON.14 Overwing refuel NOTE : • • Limitations specified in para. are applicable for over wing refuelling. Check fuel contents. Set refuel switches to SHUT and MASTER switch to OFF. For loads other than full. 9. 12. and that fuel quantity indicators show required load. 13. Remove fuel tank cap by raising handle and turning counter-clockwise To OPEN.4. 8. Lock filler cap by pushing handle down to lie flush in its recess. Rotate handle clockwise to register with CLOSE. 7. Disconnect refuel hose banding and uncouple hose from aircraft. 6. Close and secure refuel panel door. Close and secure control panel door. 10. check fuel quantity indicators show correct fuel load. Disconnect bonding from tanker.

para. When tanks are defuelled to required level. shut down tanker and select offload valve closed by pushing up lever to horizontal. 3. 20. 2. To read MLI.15 Defuel (offload) NOTE : Refer to limitations. and uncouple hose.7. 4. Fuel will now off load to tanker.4. check fuel tank indicators show correct load. Energise aircraft busbars (Ref. Four manually operated magnetic probes mounted two in each wing tank enable direct fuel level readings to be taken. 2.16 Tank contents check using magnetic indicators Magnetic fuel level indicators (MLI) are an approximate measure of fuel content in wing tanks and are intended for use if capacitance contents system is suspect. 15. . use a screwdriver to press probe in and rotate through 90 degrees. 4.12-10-24). Open refuel control panel door. Fit blanking cap to aircraft fuel coupling. Read aircraft indicator grid reference and determine actual aircraft attitude. Position tanker hose coupling and bond to aircraft. C. Remove cap from refuel coupling.12-10-24). Bond defuel tanker to aircraft bonding point in right-hand main landing gear bay. and centre tank TRANSFER to SHUT. Disconnect tanker hose bonding. switch on inner fuel pumps (or standby pumps) and wait for warnings to go off. select tank TRANSFER switch OPEN. De-energize aircraft busbars (Ref. The tables are related to aircraft attitude as read from attitude indicator situated in roof of right-hand main landing gear bay. 17. Check feed tanks are full .4. Procedure 1. Obtain fuel sample and check specific gravity. select pumps to OFF. 1. 3. If low level warnings are on. At flight deck centre instrument panel. 19. Select relevant fuel feed pumps to ON.4. X-FEED and COMMON FEED to SHUT. Select COMMON FEED and X-FEED valves OPEN. 5.6. Select off load valve to open by pulling lever down to vertical position. NOTE : A baulk prevents the fuel control panel access door closing when the off load valve is selected open. connect tanker hose. At flight deck overhead panel (FUEL section) A.6. Fuel will transfer to the wing tanks as they are offloaded. TO defuel centre tank. 5. 18.12-10-24). Energize aircraft busbars (Ref. The probes are graduated and readings taken are related to calibration tables to calculate tank fuel contents. 6. Disconnect tanker bonding from aircraft. 16. Apply tanker suction.fuel low level warnings off. 7. 14. B. At overhead panel. Close and secure refuel control panel door.

Take reading using underside of wing skin as reading level.g.8. 10. On ALL aircraft switch off appropriate fuel pumps and de-energize aircraft busbars (12-10-24). .) of 0. Withdraw probe slowly until it locks on float.6. 546-549 The tank contents figures in the tables are for one wing only. resting on finger or thumb. On other aircraft convert MLI reading to Ibs using calibration table applicable to indicated aircraft attitude and specific MLI used.4. The tables are calibrated for a fueI specific gravity (s. Jerk down to break magnetic link.17 Calibration tables On aircraft 502-503. 11.537. On certain aircraft it is necessary to convert MLI reading to kgs using calibration table applicable to indicated aircraft attitude and specific MLI used. 9. 8.8 and multiply by the actual specific gravity of the fuel. To correct the fuel quantity for different specific gravities. Push probe up gently. until it jumps up and locks to magnet. divide the indicated quantity by 0. 7. Push probe up and use a screwdriver to push fully in and secure by rotating through 90 degrees.540-542.505-535.6. 7.

When using the tables it is permissible to interpolate for intermediate MLI readings and aircraft attitudes.g. Providing this is done accurately and the fuel s.50 kgs of the actual fuel contents of the wing. correction is applied. 540-542.505-535. On aircraft 502-503. 546-549 . then the fuel quantity figure obtained will be within +/. 537.


and a power unit provided with full controls and instrumentation. dry and undamaged. The unit may also be equipped with a master switch so that the power can be switched to the aircraft. • • 7. thus minimising the load on the aircraft internal batteries. there is usually provision for connection of both AC and DC power. Mains Supply through Transformers or Rectifiers. Engine Driven Generators.These are often used in hangars.7. Unit) . and socket are clean.7.7 GROUND SUPPLIES 7. Check that the external power plug. where the hangar mains are connected to transformer units to supply AC. Check that both the external supply and the battery master switch are off and connect the external supply.7. which consists of a gas turbine engine driving an AC generator which may be used as a source of emergency power. Each unit would be equipped with a control panel so that the power can be switched through to the aircraft. The batteries are connected in parallel or series/parallel so that they may supply the required voltage to the aircraft. 3. or a source of ground power. . 7. or to mobile rectifier units to supply DC power.1.000 amps intermittent or • 112 V 300 amps continuous or 1.Some aircraft are equipped with an internal auxiliary power unit. The following practices would be typical for a small aircraft with a DC supply: 1. ensuring the plug is fully home in the socket.These may be diesel. Many small aircraft have direct current (DC) electrical systems and although alternating current may be provided for the operation of certain equipment.5 V 800 amps continuous or 2. The external power socket is usually for the connection of a DC power supply.2 Connection of DC Electric Ground Power It is essential that personnel who are required to use ground power units are trained and fully familiar with their operation and associated safety precautions.000 amps for 30 sec. it is not usual for the aircraft to have provision for the connection of AC power. . petrol or electric motors coupled to a brushless revolving field generator.1 Methods of Supplying Electrical Power • Trolley Accumulators . It consists of a trolley in which are installed a set of batteries (usually 12Volt) and a lead to connect to the DC socket on the aircraft. . Check the voltage and polarity of the ground supply. Auxiliary Power Units (Aux.(Trolley Acc. and possibly a meter and indicating light to show when power is ON. 2.7. Typical power outputs may be: • Alternating Current 75 kVA 200V 400Hz 3 Phase AC power • Direct Current 28.1.) This is the most commonly used type of unit for small aircraft.1ELECTRICAL Ground electrical supplies are often necessary for engine starting or to permit operation of aircraft equipment on the ground when the engine driven generator is not running. On larger aircraft.

ensuring that it is fully mated and secure. dry and undamaged. switch the battery master switch on again. switch off the battery master switch. Switch on the external supply and the battery master switch and carry out the servicing operations for which the external power was required.e. To disconnect the external supply. switch off the supply at the power source and remove the power plug from the aircraft socket.7. 7. 5.7.1. and is switched off.4.2HYDRAULIC 7. switch off the external supply.7. Connect the external plug/socket.3PNEUMATIC 7. Aircraft electrical systems vary considerably and the checks necessary before and after connection of electrical power will vary between aircraft. disconnect the power plug. frequency and phase rotation. 3. frequency and phase rotation as the aircraft system). Check that the external plug and socket are clean. and perform the operations specified in the relevant Maintenance Manual to engage the external supply with the aircraft system. 2. The following procedure is applicable in most cases: 1. 4. after engine starting). To disconnect the electrical supply.4EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON AIRCRAFT HANDLING & OPERATION . and if the aircraft electrical system is to be used (e. 7. 5.7. it has the same voltage. Check the voltage and frequency of the external supply on the aircraft electrical system instruments.g. The external power set is capable of supplying DC power at various voltages and AC power at a specific voltage. and switch on the external power supply.3 Connection of Ground Power to Large Aircraft Most large aircraft are fitted with multi-pin sockets by which external DC and AC power may be supplied to the aircraft. Check that the external supply is compatible with the aircraft system (i.

dirt or preservatives. Heavy duty removal of thick or dried compounds may need solvent emulsion type cleaners. acid repellent aprons and goggles should be worn by personnel carrying out paint removal operations. INSPECTION & REPAIR TECHNIQUES 8. The use of preventative maintenance has also been emphasised more than it was previously. certain materials may be damaged. This improvement includes the use of new materials and improved surface treatments and protective finishes. operators are expecting them to last much longer than perhaps even the manufacturer anticipated. fabric and acrylics should be protected. Apply temporary or permanent coatings or paint finishes. If corrosive attack has not progressed beyond the point requiring structural repair. Care should also be taken to ensure that the correct specification paint remover is used. If the wrong remover is used.8. General purpose. . Rubber gloves.1. Neutralise the remaining residue 4. the vapour from the solvent will cause damage. water removable stripper is recommended for most paint stripping. Restore protective surface films 6. Remove as much of the corrosion products as possible 3.1. This will aid in determining the extent of corrosive spread. Dry cleaning solvent (trichloethane Genclean) may be used for oil. it is essential that the complete suspect area be cleaned of all grease. Cleaning and Paint Removal. As a result the manufacturers have taken more care in the design of the aircraft to improve the corrosion resistance of aircraft. Adequate ventilation should be provided and synthetic rubber surfaces such as tyres.2CORROSION REMOVAL General the corrosion removal treatment includes the following main steps: 1. (often after the cleaning) Regular and detailed inspection for corrosion and failure of protective treatments. grease or soft compounds. Check if damage is within limits 5.1PREVENTATIVE MAINTENANCE Due to the high cost of modern aircraft. Cleaning and removal of protective coat on the corroded area 2. The selection of cleaning materials will depend on the type of matter to be removed. Prompt treatment of corrosion and touch up of damaged paint Keeping drain holes clear Draining of fuel cell sumps Daily wipe down of most critical areas Sealing of aircraft during foul weather and ventilation on sunny days Use of protective covers and blanks 8. Preventative maintenance should include the following measures: • • • • • • • • • Adequate and regular cleaning of the aircraft Periodic lubrication. Redux Bonded structures are particularly susceptible to damage.1 CORROSION ASSESSMENT & REPROTECTION 8. If the remover is solvent based. Remover may also soften pressurisation sealant and plastic materials such as perspex.

Many engine parts are highly polished. Allow stripper to remain on surface long enough for paint to wrinkle. but otherwise only protected by clear varnish.3CORROSION OF FERROUS METALS Atmospheric oxidation of iron or steel surfaces causes ferrous oxide rust to be deposited. Certain metals have a high natural resistance to corrosion. 8. but they are not particularly effective on installed components. or steam cleaning equipment. Non. power buffers. Re-apply the stripper to areas that have not been stripped.The following is a general paint stripping procedure: 1. Some phosphoric acid solutions may be used to neutralise oxidation and convert active rust to phosphates.1. Natural passivity is sufficient protection for pure aluminium and stainless steel. Surface Finish. Residual rust usually remains in pits and crevices. In certain conditions metals and alloys commence to corrode and the initial products of corrosion form protective films which limit further attack. Care should be taken not to overheat parts during removal.1. Ensure brush is only used for paint stripping. Protective finishes should be applied immediately. 8. Corrosion resistance can often be greatly increased by careful attention to surface finish. Passivity. but it will indicate a need for maintenance and possible corrosive attack on more critical areas. but passivity can to be produced artificially for aluminium alloys (Anodising). Brush area with stripper to a depth of 1/32 to 1/16 inch. Abrasive papers.metallic scrapers may be used. to several hours. 8. nuts or any un-protected hardware. Remove the loosened paint and residual stripper by washing and scrubbing surface with water and a broom or brush.5PREVENTION OF CORROSION Protection against corrosion can be given in a number of ways. 2. Some metals such as Stainless Steel and pure aluminium owe their properties to a thin film of oxides which protects against further attack. Water spray may assist. 4. 3. • • .1. This may take 10 min. but rust promotes additional attack by attracting moisture and must be removed.4HIGHLY STRESSED STEEL COMPONENTS Corrosion on these components may be dangerous and should be removed carefully with mild abrasive papers or fine buffing compounds. Some of the principles involved are briefly summarised below: • Choice of Metals. Rust shows on bolt heads. The most practical means of controlling the corrosion of steel is the complete removal of corrosion products by mechanical means. It's presence is not immediately dangerous. Some metal oxides protect the underlying base metal. wire brushes and steel wool are all acceptable methods of removing rust on lightly stressed areas. Noble metals such as Gold. Silver and Platinum have a low affinity to oxygen and therefore will not tend to oxidise readily.

Other methods of mechanical protection include metallic coatings applied by dipping. Zinc alloys). To take advantage of this.8TYPICAL PAINTED CORROSION TREATMENT SEQUENCE 1. The Phosphating process and Jenolite may be recommended for steel and the chromate process for magnesium alloys. oxygen and corrosive chemicals from the surface of the metal. Stress corrosion cracking under sustained stress. which are applied on top of priming coats. This principle may be deliberately be applied to protect constructional materials. 8. spraying or electro-deposition. Three forms of attack are particularly serious. The alclad surfaces offer good protection and can be maintained in a polished condition.1. The metal which is anodic to the other will be attacked by corrosion. Paint strip the area to be treated. but Alochrom or Alodyne is often used for aluminium alloys. At the same time they corrode at a much slower rate than steel and will give protection for a very long time.1. 2. This must not be confused with the more serious forms of corrosion. Intergranular attack characteristic of certain improperly heat treated. paints and enamels. High strength Al. To be effective the coats should be watertight. • • • Penetrating pit type corrosion through walls of tubing. Treatment involves replacement of the component or mechanical / chemical removal of as much of the corrosion products as possible and the inhibition of residual materials by chemical means. These methods are often used as first aid treatment of corroded aircraft parts. Aluminium alloys form a smooth surface oxidation which provides a hard shell which may form a barrier to corrosive elements. When two metals of different electric potential are in close contact.• Chemical Inhibition. . Considerable attack can take place before serious loss of strength occurs. pitting or roughness. Even in its early stages aluminium corrosion is evident as general etching. but is speeded up in the presence of dissolved salts. since the products are white and voluminous. Care should be taken not to remove too much of the aluminium layer by mechanical methods as the core may be exposed. This method is the basis of most organic coatings such as varnishes. 8. Corrosion can be prevented by excluding water. Sacrificial Protection. • • 8. depending on the materials to be protected. One of the most widely used methods of protection is to treat the metal with chemicals which inhibit corrosion and so artificially introduce a form of passivity. General surface attack penetrates slowly. For this reason steel components. a thin sheet of pure aluminium is laminated to both sides of the aluminium alloy. Remove oil and surface dirt with the appropriate solvent. particularly fasteners are usually cadmium plated. Mechanical Protection. Various methods are used.1.7ALCLAD Pure aluminium has more corrosion resistance than the stronger aluminium alloys. For example. both Cadmium and Aluminium are anodic to steel and will corrode in preference to the steel. This should be followed by restoration of permanent surface coatings.6ALUMINIUM AND ALUMINIUM ALLOYS Corrosion attack on aluminium surfaces give obvious indication. Alloys (7000 series Al. This can develop into serious exfoliation corrosion forming layers of flaking metal. the elements of a voltaic cell may be established.

A wire of aluminium is fed through the spray gun. Apply protective treatment. The chromating of Magnesium Alloys to produce a brown to black surface film of chromates which form a protective layer. Examples are Cadmium plating or zinc on steel. Walterising. Among those widely used on aircraft are: • The Anodising of Aluminium Alloys by an electrolytic process which thickens the natural oxide film on the aluminium. inert and may be coloured. The coating is anodic to the base metal and so if base metal is exposed. They give better adhesion for paint and most resist corrosive attack better than the metal to which they are applied. Falls into two categories: • Coatings less noble than the basic metal. as distinct from coatings that may be renewed as a routine servicing operation. 8. Cladding. There are numerous proprietary processes. • • Other surface conversion coatings are produced for special purposes. Coatings more noble e. . These nobler metals do not corrode easily in air or water and are resistant to acid attack. melted by the flame and thrown against the surface being metallised by the compressed air. Chromic acid is recommended for Magnesium Alloys. notably the phosphating of steel. it will corrode locally by electrolytic action. Remove the products of corrosion using scrapers (taking care not to remove metal) or abrasive paper (wet and dry) or wire wool. but only aluminium and zinc are used on aircraft. These are produced by chemical action.g. Electro-Plating. The treatment changes the immediate surface layer into a film of metal oxide which has better corrosion resistance than the metal.1. 4.g. Many chemical cleaners exist. Parkerising.3. 5. Passivation of zinc and cadmium by immersion in a chromate solution. • Sprayed Metal Coatings. Commonly called sacrificial protection. Restore surface finish. Hot rolling of pure aluminium onto duralumin produces Alclad that has good corrosion resistance and the high strength of the alloy. each known by it's trade name e. the material will corrode easily. Deoxidine 202 is a phosphoric acid cleaner used on Aluminium Alloys. If the basic metal is exposed. Neutralise any residual with the appropriate chemical cleaner and then wash off with water. Most metal coatings can be applied by spraying. The film is hard.004" which prevents oxidation of the underlying metal.9PERMANENT ANTI-CORROSION TREATMENTS These are intended to remain intact throughout the life of the component. It should not be used on Magnesium Alloys. This may be Alochrom 1200 or Alodine for Aluminium Alloys or Chromic Acid treatment for Magnesium Alloys. Aluminium sprayed on steel is frequently used for high temperature areas. exposing the core. Surface Conversion Coatings (Artificial Passivation). nickel or chromium on steel. The attack may result in pitting corrosion of the base metal or the corrosion may spread beneath the coating. If the cladding becomes damaged. Most aircraft skin is made from Alclad. the coating will corrode in preference to the base metal. A supply of oxygen and acetylene is piped to a spray gun and ignited as in a welding torch. 6. The process (Aluminizing) produces a film about 0.

Flood area with clean water avoiding electrical gear. Heavy duty vacuum cleaner with collector trap F. any parts found contaminated should be removed and replaced. If mercury corrosion is found or suspected. 5. .1. whiskery growth or fuzzy deposits. The area should be further checked using radiography to establish that all globules have been removed and to check extent of corrosion damage. Remove spillage carefully by one of the following methods: D. Battery compartments should be painted with anticorrosive paint. Removal of the alkali spillage is as follows: 1. Removal of Mercury Spillage. 7. Signs of mercury attack on aluminium alloys are greyish powder.1. Adhesive tape pressed onto globules will pick them up G. 4. If possible. 21. Foam collector pads 22. Dry area completely and examine the area for signs of damaged paint or plated finish and signs of corrosion especially where the paint may have been damaged. Wash the area using this mixture and rinse with cold water. Mop up as much of the spilled acid using wet rags. Try to remove evidence of corrosion 23. 6.w. 8. manufacturers instructions. The metal in that area should be removed and the area repaired i.10 ACID SPILLAGE Acid spilled in aircraft can cause severe corrosion. The correct procedure to be taken in the event of a spillage is as follows: 1. 24.12 MERCURY SPILLAGE Sources of mercury spillage are instruments. 2. Do not move aircraft after finding spillage. surfaces in the area should be treated with anti-acid paint. Aircraft batteries give off acidic fumes and battery bays should be well ventilated. Swab area with the following mixture which will neutralise the alkali and passivate bare metal: 5% by weight chromic acid in water. Ensure that toxic vapour precautions are observed at all times during the following operation: 1. Acids will corrode most metals used in aircraft and will destroy wood and most fabrics. To check if acid has been cleaned up.a. test the area using universal indicating paper (or litmus paper). try not to spread the acid. If okay. Mercury can rapidly attack bare light alloys causing inter-granular penetration and embrittlement which can start cracks and accelerate crack propagation.11 ALKALI SPILLAGE This is most likely to occur from main aircraft Nickel-Iron batteries containing Potassium Hydroxide. This may prevent spread. 3. 8. Examine area for corrosion using a magnifier. flood the area with large quantities of clean water 3. 4. dry area and check for corrosion and damaged paint etc. switches and test equipment. Check area for neutralisation with universal indicating paper or litmus paper. Mop up as much as possible with a wet rag.1. 5. assume intergranular penetration has occurred and the structural strength is impaired. Restore damage as appropriate. If flooding is not practical. Capillary brush method E. neutralise the area with the following: 10% by weight Bicarbonate of Soda with water. 2.8.

Light grey in colour. it may often be identified by it's reaction or lack of reaction to various chemicals. Attacked by Hydrochloric acid Sulphuric acid and Alkalis.13 IDENTIFICATION OF METALS If the nature of a metal is unknown i. Light in colour. 20% Caustic Soda solution forms a clear solution with aluminium and a grey or black precipitate with Aluminium Alloy. Attacked by saturated Sulphuric acid solution. • Aluminium and Alloys. Characteristic 'Steely' appearance in most cases. Most steels are magnetic.1. • • Magnesium Alloys. light in weight.8.e. Colour usually coppery or reddish. which when boiled produces a white precipitate. except Cast Iron which is black or grey. except austenitic steels and some stainless steels. Light in weight. Not affected by Nitric acid. Bronzes (Aluminium & Phosphor). Acetic acid or Ammonia. Stainless Steel will not be attacked in this test . Attacked by Nitric acid to form a solution. A dark brown solution if the particles are cast iron Note. • Heating ferrous particles in near boiling nitric acid until chemical action ceases produces: • • A yellow or light brown solution if the particles are carbon steel. you don't know what material it is. Ferrous Metals.

Magnetic flaw detection. . boroscope or fibrescopes. These notes explain the basic principles of the most common methods used.5 x – 10 x magnifying glass. Some rely on mirrors or lenses. Basic principles. It is a quick and economical method of detecting various defects. You must know this in detail. basic principles. 8. Ultra-sonic flaw detection. magnifying equipment and optical probes such as endoscope.2. Types of defect/materials.2. types of materials / defects. particularly the reasons why you might get poor results from this method and the different types of penetrant. when. See CAP 562. How many of you have done a dye penetrant test? Read CAP 562 concerning the use of dye penetrant for testing for leaks (including the test for pressurised vessels).2BASIC METHODS Refer to CAP 562 Section 4. This method has been superseded by the penetrant method. It is essential that the student is aware of the following: • • • The basic Non Destructive Testing (NDT) methods available and principles of each method Dye Penetrant method in detail. Visual methods. but the CAA may still ask if you are aware of it. Radiological examination. particularly in confined spaces.3OPTICAL NDT METHODS Visual inspection is the oldest of the non-destructive methods of testing. • • • • • • 8. • Oil and chalk method. particularly the Bristol Modified method. some on fibre optic devices that can be connected to a still or video camera to give a photographic or a video image. i. Basic principles. Eddy current. The regulations concerning who can carry out NDT testing.8. essential to de-magnetise after testing. Basic principles. This is the simplest of all methods and will usually rely on good illumination on a clean surface. how and safety aspects. The most straightforward of these is a good torch used in conjunction with the "Mark 1 Eyeball". Read this. as it contains all the information required by the CAA.e. especially cracks.2. before they can progress to failure. Obvious aids would be a mirror on a flexible stem and a 2. Difference between current flow method and induction method. It is surprising how easy it is to spot a small defect if you look properly. Penetrant dye method.1INTRODUCTION The early detection of defects before they become critical is vital in aircraft engineering.2 NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING 8. Many other visual / optical devices are in common use to aid detection of defects. what types of defects / materials and who would normally carry out these tests. Non Destructive Testing (NDT) or Non Destructive Examination (NDE) is a valuable tool for detection of potential failure areas. Optical Aids.

The main problems with this method are that the stained areas do not contrast very well with the chalk. fuel leaks etc.4DYE PENETRANT TESTING 8.1 Oil & Chalk Processes This is an old method similar in action to dye penetrant methods. Essentially the component to be tested is cleaned by immersion in an acid pickle bath or in paint remover. The object is illuminated by light transmitted through another bunch of fibre optic strands. Fibrescope. The surplus oil is then removed and the component coated with French Chalk (very fine chalk powder) that draws out the oil from the defects.• Borescopes. These range in length and diameter and design so that they may be used to view internal structures in a variety of applications such as inside turbine and piston engines. loose article checks. • Borescopes and fibrescopes are most often used to inspect the inside of gas turbine engines. The image may be viewed through an eyepiece. The image is viewed through a bunch of fibre optic strands. They also have adjustable focus of the eye piece to minimise eye strain for the viewer. The cleaning solution is then cleaned off. but can be used for many inspections such as. internal structures of the wing etc. 8. The component is then covered with the oil solution either by immersion in hot oil or coated by cold oil. prisms and mirrors view forwards.2. rearwards or at any angle to the instrument. These devices are similar to the borescope. but rely on fibre optic cable rather than a rigid tube and lenses/mirrors..4. . These devices may be extremely thin and may be flexible so that they can be guided through the aircraft structure. This is a precision optical instrument with a built in light source.2. They may. depending on the process. by the use of lenses. or on a TV screen via a video camera.

spraying or dipping. Penetrants are available in many different forms.5 minutes and then drain. coat parts with French Chalk and then remove surplus chalk with air pressure at 25 . Paint should be removed using an approved remover. taking care not to apply remover to area's which might be damaged (Redux bonding on Concord rudder). The most popular are termed colour contrast for viewing in natural light or fluorescent dyes for viewing in ultra violet light. Examine for defects. the fault will have to be rectified. Mention should also be made of the post-emulsifier types of penetrant. Surface Preparation. The stained area indicates a defect. Penetrant testing may be used to detect surface defects in any non-porous materials.30 psi. plastics & ceramics. An emulsifier is a blending of wetting agents which allows excess penetrant to be removed with water.4. Some penetrants contain an emulsifier and with others. After immersion. . This developer draws out the penetrant dye and is subsequently stained. Some penetrants are also available in a thixotropic (gel. Transfer to clean hot water for 3 . Take care not to damage the material surface with scrapers as this might appear as a defect.2 Bristol Modified Oil & Chalk Method This is the most advanced oil & chalk method and as such is the only one you are likely to be asked about. paint & surface treatments. including metals. the emulsifier is applied as a separate stage. They may be applied by brushing. Basic Process. The surface of the material to be tested must be completely clean and free from dirt. the surface should be washed with water or cleaned with an approved solvent and then dried. The basic principle of penetrant flaw detection is that a liquid dye is applied to the surface of the material and it migrates into the crack.8. When dry.80ºC) containing Teepol 5%. The solvent is usually Trichloroethane based. The dye penetrant process can be broken down into: • • • • • • Surface preparation and pre-cleaning Application of the penetrant Removal of excess penetrant Application of the developer Inspection and recording defects Cleaning and restoration of surface finish Obviously if a defect is found. Transfer to hot degreasing tank (70ºC . but becomes liquid on application) form. Excess penetrant is then removed from the surface and a developer applied. • • • • • • Parts to be examined should be cleaned and then immersed in a solution of 50% paraffin and 50% spindle oil at 70ºC for a soaking period (one hour). 8.2. It may also be used to detect porosity in materials that should not be porous.5PENETRANT TESTING Important points are as follows: Type of Defect / Materials. allow the parts to stand to allow surplus oil to drain. After paint removal. Most penetrant 'Field Kit's' use an oil based penetrant which uses a solvent for cleaning instead of water.2. indicated by a line of chalk. Cresylic acid 5% and water 90% for 3 to 5 minutes.

without giving too thick a layer (this might completely blanket the penetrant). The aim is to produce an even coverage of the component.6ULTRA SOUND TESTING This method may be used to detect sub-surface defects in all solid materials. Restore Surface Finish. Inspection for defects should be carried out using good illumination. 8. painting and possibly restoration of anti-corrosive treatment. The developer consists of either a dry powder. extra time should be allowed because the material (and the defect) will contract and the penetrant will not be drawn into the defect. Application of the Developer. or a powder suspended in a liquid. grease or inhibiting fluid between inspections. Ultra Sonic methods can also be used to measure the thickness of materials when it is only possible to get access to one side of the component. At very low temperatures. Inspection and Recording Defects. In the past.2. because it might not be obvious where the defect is when the component is cleaned. Defects will show up as shown in the diagram below. It is important that the exact position of the defect is recorded. thus washing the penetrant out of the defect. The penetrant should be applied to the clean surface. it may be permitted to apply a coating of protective oil.30 minutes being normally recommended. The recommended method with solvent bases spray removers is to remove the excess penetrant with a clean cloth and then apply the remover to a clean cloth and wipe the surface with the cloth. electrostatic spray gun or using a dust cabinet. This time will usually depend on the temperature and the size of the suspected defect. The object of the exercise is to remove all of the surface penetrant without removing any of the penetrant that is in the defect. Porosity may show up as a large dotted area. The normal time is one half the penetrant contact time. If the component is to be checked regularly. . Repeat until clean.Application of Penetrant. The penetrant should be left on the surface for the recommended contact time and kept wet. Time should be allowed so that the penetrant can be drawn out of the defect. puffer. brush or by dipping. operators have been known to spray penetrant removers directly onto the surface. A time of 5 . The powder acts as a blotter. This is another area where incorrect procedures will cause poor results. using a spray. and ultra-violet (black) light for fluorescent penetrant (these being mainly used in dark area's and for fine cracks). drawing the penetrant out of the defect. The developer is applied either by aerosol spray. This will be normal white light for penetrant dyes. The rate of staining being an indication of the width and depth of the crack. Removal of Excess Penetrant. the component should be cleaned and the surface finish restored. If there are no defects. however. This may involve etch priming.

e. Ultra-sonic waves will be transmitted through any liquids or solids. This describes sound at a pitch too high to be detected by the human ear. The frequencies used in ultra-sonic testing are normally within the range 500 KHz to 10 MHz. i.Ultra Sound. the time taken for the waves to travel can be shown on a cathode ray tube as shown in the diagram. a device which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy and vice versa. particularly those with air gaps will cause almost complete reflection of the waves. Any discontinuity or interfaces present. The waves may be reflected back from surfaces (or defects). The sound waves used in ultra sonic testing are produced and detect by means of a transducer. . This vibration causes ultra-sonic waves to be transmitted through the material to which the piezo-electric transmitter is applied. A piezo-electric crystal is made to vibrate when stimulated by electrical energy from a pulse generator. the reflected waves are received by another piezo-electric crystal converting the sound waves into a signal. displayed on a screen. Because the waves travel at a constant speed. The speed of sound through a particular material varies and so a different frequency is used depending on the material.

In order to calibrate the equipment. petroleum jelly or a medium viscosity oil. The basic principle is that a probe.2. Eddy current probes are often used to check for defects inside holes (see diagram below) and specially shaped probes may be used to check items such as wheel flanges and bead areas. Small battery portable sets may be used in inaccessible parts of aircraft. Reference Pieces. standard reference pieces. This couplant liquid may be glycerine. i. These pieces should contain defects of known size or shape so that the change in coil impedance is known. If the depth of the component is uniform. silicon grease. A typical reference piece would contain three cuts at different depths. This contact is improved by the use of a liquid (couplant) applied between the probe and the material.e. consisting of a small coil supplied with AC current is held in contact with (or close proximity to) the component. eddy current testing is usually of the comparative type. . are necessary. manufactured from a material similar to that being tested. Since the sound waves will be reflected at air interfaces a good acoustic contact is required between the transmitting probe and the component. In aircraft work. a defect will easily show up by variations in the position of the reflected pulse. 8.The previous diagram shows that the system may utilise a separate transmitter and receiver or have a combined transceiver. The alternating magnetic field itself produces an alternating magnetic field which opposes and modifies the original field. checking against a known defect.7EDDY CURRENT TESTING This method of examination may be used on electrically conductive materials and has the advantage that very little preparation of the surface is required and the component may not need to be removed.

repeat test • Checking Heat Damaged Skin. electric current is passed through the component and a strong magnetic field is set up at 90 degrees to the current direction. noting any needle deflections greater than that from reference probe. the maximum distortion being obtained when the defect is between 45 and 135 degrees to the magnetic field. The distortion is highlighted by means of a magnetic powder applied to the surface. a magnetic field will be set up in or around the component. The current may be AC or DC. Checking Fastener Holes for Cracks Clean loose paint. Ream out marked holes i. The following applications are typical applications: • 1. Check other holes and re-check reference piece frequently. By this means a line may be drawn around the affected area. obvious signs of heat damage such as melted or charred metal will become apparent. Eddy current tests will show the extent of the area in which the material is below strength. The conductivity of aluminium alloy skin will increase with exposure to elevated temperatures up to approximately 500ºC and the material will be below strength. A conductivity meter and a surface probe should be used for this test. usually in the form of a magnetic ink sprayed on while the component is magnetised.1 Typical Applications of Eddy Current In aircraft maintenance work eddy current testing may be used for crack detection. • 8. The conductivity around the affected area should then be checked. Defects in line with the current will be shown up best by this method. There are various types of magnetising apparatus. 26. This method may be used to detect surface and near surface defects in magnetic materials such as iron or steel. The meter should be zeroed on material of similar thickness to the affected area. noting any deflections and marking the skin accordingly. Equipment is available which is specifically designed for thickness measurement. Insert probe in test specimen and rotate. burrs. Calibrate instrument in accordance with manufacturers instructions Insert probe in a hole in the reference piece and adjust for maximum deflection from a selected notch or crack 25. . 3. In either case. since corrosion reduces the thickness of the metal.a. or by placing it in the field of a permanent magnet or electro-magnet.8. either by passing a current through it.2. having a meter calibrated in thickness units. Defects will locally distort this field. a different reading will be obtained from corroded material.8MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING Magnetic Flaw Detection. 2. • Current Flow Method. The equipment can be set up by noting the reading obtained from sound material of 90% thickness and then checking over the test specimen. but they largely fall into two categories. Above this temperature. The technique makes use of the distortion of magnetic fields by discontinuities at or near the surface of a magnetised component. If a reading on normal thickness material can be taken.w. In this.2. from inside and around holes being checked.7. conductivity testing or corrosion testing. The specimen is usually clamped between two contacts and the current may be as high as 700 amps. A component is magnetised. but AC current is best for defects close to the surface and DC for deep defects. manufacturers instructions. Detection of Corrosion.

These methods use a coil which induces a magnetic field into the specimen being tested. 8. This is done by passing the component through a de-magnetising coil supplied with alternating current.2 Principles of Radiography X-rays and Gamma rays are radiations which have the ability to penetrate materials which cannot be penetrated to visible light.• Induction Methods. Two main sources of radiation are commonly used i. TESTING 8. The aircraft should be roped off with radiation warning signs clearly shown. Good lighting is also required for the examination of possible defects. This method is therefore best for detecting transverse defects i. Due to the hazards of radiation.2. defects at right angles to the main axis of the component. it will be necessary to isolate the aircraft and keep personnel at a safe distance. then both methods may need to be used.e.9.9.2. The direction of the induced field is such that it passes through the specimen.e.1 Radiological examination Radiological examination of aircraft structures is recommended if the suspected structural area may be hidden or not easily accessible. Good lighting is required in order to examine the defects and the component must be de-magnetised after testing. X-rays and Gamma Rays.9RADIOGRAPHIC & MISC.2. . If the direction of defects is not known. These radiations are absorbed in varying degrees as they pass through the material and the degree of absorption can be shown on a fluorescent screen or on a film. 8.

The interpretation may be simplified if radiographs of a sound structure are available for comparison. the thicker the specimen. When making X-ray exposures. This is because X-rays give sharper images with better contrast than gamma ray sources. the usual technique is to put the X-ray or gamma ray source on one side of the area to be tested and the film on the other side. Some of the other indications found on radiographs are described as follows: . an image is formed (radiograph). Gamma radiation cannot be switched off. 8.9. When the film is developed and fixed. rivetting faults and poor assembly techniques. Without this knowledge it would be easy for the engineer to overlook faults such as distorted or missing parts. Even the presence of leaded fuel in a tank will mask defects. Gamma rays and light and when exposed.5 Aircraft Radiology The majority of radiographs of aircraft structures are taken with a portable X-ray set. One major advantage of gamma radiation techniques is that the radioactive source is very small and it can be placed inside objects such as engine parts. Iridium 192 and Yttererbium 169. X-rays are produced. the lighter the image. Aircraft radiological inspections should only be carried out by personnel from organisations approved under BCAR A8. • 8. the darkness of which depends on the quantity of radiation passing through the specimen. Gamma radiation sources used in NDT include Cobalt 60.9.3 Safety Aspects The misuse of radiographic equipment could result in the release of physically harmful radiation and so operators must be properly trained and aware of the safety regulations. On striking the target. The emulsion is sensitive to X-rays. 8. 8. Gamma radiation results from disintegration of radioactive materials which occur naturally. Hard X-rays are capable of penetration 500 mm thick steel.9. a change takes place.4 X-ray Film The films used in radiography are very similar to those used in photography except that the emulsion is on both sides of the transparent base film. using guide tubes or handling rods attached to the containers and the film placed on the outside. Defects such as a crack or porosity will show up as a darker area on the radiograph. Gamma radiation can exist over similar wavelengths as XRays with similar properties. Radiographic inspection is often carried out during manufacture to check for manufacturing faults such as loose articles. it can only be shielded. the number following the element name is the atomic mass.2. The wavelength of X-rays varies from 10 mm ('soft' X-rays) to 10-4 mm ('hard' X-rays). Usually. Correct interpretation of results is also very important as incorrect conclusions could result in the clearance of unsound structures or the scrapping of safe structures. Operators will be subject to frequent medical checks and wear a sensitive film badge to detect the radiation dosage.6 Interpretation of Results The accurate interpretation of defects indicated on the radiograph requires a great deal of skill and a good knowledge of the aircraft structure.• X-rays are electronically produced by in an X-ray tube which accelerates electrons towards a metal target. the radiation source is on the outside (or upper surface) and the film is placed inside (or on the bottom surface). One important safety aspect is that X-rays are generated electrically and hence can be switched off.

In the passive mode the aircraft is inspected shortly after landing and temperature 'cold' spots will indicate de-lamination or osmosis.10 MISC. Metallurgical defects in castings and welds produce patterns recognisable by an experienced viewer. TECHNIQUES Fluoroscopy. The active mode consists of microwave radiation being targeted at suspect components with the area being inspected by the camera in the same way as the passive mode. For safety reasons a video camera is focused on the screen and the image viewed at a safe distance. A common example is the low energy x-ray of luggage being inspected at airport departure security 'check-in'. The standard sheet film is replaced by a fluorosided screen. An example of 'fluoroscopy' is where oscillation in a turbine shaft of gas turbine engine being 'run' can be observed. found to be cracks in tank sealant. Inter-granular corrosion may not be detected until it has reached an advanced state and affects the metal surface. A heat sensitive camera is used to inspect areas of aircraft in particular composites. Cracks in welds are difficult to detect as the angle at which the radiograph is taken is important. but the edge of jointing compounds used during the wet assembly of riveted joints often gives a false indication. Porosity will reduce the amount of material through which the rays must pass and a darker image will result. but the presence of paint and jointing compound will make it difficult to detect. Stress cracks often run along a line of rivets. • • 8. This enables moving images to be captured. Thermography. . where there is a change in thickness is more readily detected. Corrosion. A corrosion pit. This will show up as a fuzzy image. Cracks. Radiographs may show indications of cracks.2. It is sometimes possible to open up tension cracks before inspection by applying a tension load by jacking.• Castings and Welds.

what you look for will depend largely on the material of the item you are inspecting. plastic. The location of the item to be inspected. The purpose of the inspection. instrument and radio installations. in a variety of different circumstances. When carrying out this inspection the ultimate aim is to ensure that the aircraft or part being inspected is in a safe condition or that it complies with the original design specification. A major aircraft inspection on a large aircraft. It may be metallic. What does it mean though? The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines “Inspect” as “Look closely into or examine officially”. If you are told to go out and inspect a tyre for wear. Inspect for: • Cleanliness and external evidence of damage • Leaks and discharge • Overheating • Fluid ingress • Obstruction of drainage or vent holes or overflow pipe orifices . carried out a specified time period.e. however. rubber or any other type of material.3 TYPES OF DEFECT AND VISUAL INSPECTION TECHNIQUES The term “Inspection” is used extensively in all walks of life. Typical examples as suggested by “Boeing” are: 1. The normal convention is that inspections are external unless otherwise stated. It may be to establish whether the item is suffering from a known fault. By this I mean that he/she is looking for something different or obvious indication that the item is abnormal.1INSPECTION To aircraft engineers. bodies or casings of units in systems and in electrical. Metal Parts: As applicable to all metal parts. The type of inspection carried out will depend on a variety of factors. The term “in-situ” is usually applied in this case. metal pipes. • • • 8. inspection can mean a variety of things. The depth of inspection is often at the discretion of the person carrying out the inspection.3. the material it is made from. tubes. Is the inspection internal or external. In most cases the maintenance schedule will specify that an item is always inspected without removal from the aircraft. rods and levers. • • • The nature of the item being inspected i. How closely do we examine a component? Do we use magnifying aids or specialised techniques such as Non-Destructive Examination? The time available for the inspection.8. In most cases the inspector is looking for indications of abnormality in the item being inspected. is normally planned to take many days. It may be fitted to an aircraft or removed from an aircraft. These are special inspections detailed by the manufacturer. As suggested earlier. One of the main tasks carried out will be Scheduled Maintenance Inspections (SMI’s). 8.3. ducting.2WHAT TYPE OF DEFECTS The manufacturer should specify what to inspect for. The degree or depth of the inspection. An Inspector is defined as “One who inspects or an official employed to supervise a service”. you should be able to check it in a few minutes. This is often dictated by circumstances.

Inspect also for freedom from: • Distortion. Chafing • Pulled or missing fasteners. connections. chafing. twisting. solenoids and contactors.g. correct connections and locking 28. chafing. Alternators. Scores. scoring and worn brushes. Rubber. seals. crazing. evidence of bowing • Scores. Generators and Actuators. cuts. kinking • Evidence of wear. locking and bonding 27. fasteners. Inspect for: • Cleanliness • Cracks. distortion. flexible mountings. Inspect for: • Correct alignment – no fouling • Free movement. Control System Components. adequate spring tension after removal of protective covers • Overheating and fluid ingress • Cleanliness. windows. bolts or screws • Evidence of cracks or wear • Separation of adhesive bonding • Failures of welds or spot welds • Deterioration of protective treatment and Corrosion • Security of attachments. burning and pitting of contacts • Evidence of overheating and security of contacts after removal of protective covers .• Correct seating of panels and fairings and serviceability of fasteners. obvious damage • Evidence of overheating • Corrosion and security of attachments and connections • Cleanliness. Glass Fibre and Plastic Parts e. Relays. deterioration of protective treatment and corrosion • Electrical bonding correctly positioned. contraction – sufficient free length • Deterioration. Dents. end connections and locking secure 29. Fabric. ducting. crushing. kinking. coverings. un-damged and secure • Attachments. Electric Motors. loose rivets. insulation of electrical cables. loss of flexibility • Overheating • Fluid soakage • Security of attachment. rivets. Inspect for: • Cleanliness. fraying. flattening • Cracks.

but the introduction of airborne digital computers made it possible to use a central computer for monitoring and display of system performance. An engineer cannot ensure that the fault will not re-appear in service.4.4.8. Manufacturers have also developed sophisticated Trouble Shooting or Fault Isolation Manuals that take the guesswork out of the system. 8. with the intention of meeting the integrity and certification requirements of autoland. In many cases. Questions should be asked such as: • • • Was the system working perfectly before you noticed the fault? Did the system work in manual if it is an automatic system? What altitude were you at and what speed? 8. or by replacing the component most available or easiest to replace.3ON BOARD MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS On board maintenance systems are the latest development in aircraft avionics. This is called “shotgun” maintenance in the USA. If you are lucky. an engineer with many years experience may have come across an identical fault.1CONFIRMATION/IDENTIFICATION OF THE FAULT One of the most common mistakes made in the troubleshooting process is failure to correctly identify the fault.. Autopilot systems were the driving force behind development of a better maintenance system to embrace all of the autopilot functions and its components. Some aircraft have on-board maintenance computers that identify faults and store them ready for downloading on the ground. this implied self-test and reporting to establish that the system was functioning correctly. eliminating the fault and returning the aircraft to service. . which entered service in the early 1980's. It is also wise to try to get as much information as possible from the pilot or person who discovered the fault. The very high safety level specified for autoland could only be attained using redundancy in a system. and then the next easiest etc. the aircraft is equipped with system that do the hard work for you. but he/she should make an attempt to permanently fix the fault. The fault will often be reported incorrectly. They began with simple press to test buttons and failure flags fitted to individual items in the cockpit. and the flight management computer (FMC) of the 737 300 series aircraft. 8.2FAULT FINDING TECHNIQUES Fault finding is probably the most difficult skill for an engineer to learn. Time can be saved by carrying out a functional test to confirm the exact fault. Fault finding is also carried out by pure guesswork. A dedicated maintenance control and display unit (MCDP) was fitted to Boeing 757 and 767 aircraft. The similar function on Boeing 737 aircraft was automated using the control and display unit (CDU) of the performance data computer (PDC) for the 737 200 series. The main aim is to return the aircraft to an airworthy condition with a high probability of the fault NOT re-occurring. These required human action and recorded no data. In the early analogue electronic autoland systems this remained part of the components. He or she must normally be very familiar with the basic theory and have a detailed knowledge of a particular aircraft system.4 TROUBLE SHOOTING TECHNIQUES Troubleshooting is the process of identifying the cause of a fault.4.

hydraulic. electrical. 8. A flowchart is then used to diagnose the fault and to repair the failure. In addition. dispatch critical maintenance data are displayed in the form of status messages as part of the caution and warning function.4. with data displays for engines. as it is popularly known. APU.4FAULT ISOLATION MANUAL/TROUBLE SHOOTING MANUAL These are provided by the manufacturers to help identify. . isolate and remove failures found in flight and on the ground. and environmental control systems.The Boeing 757 and 767 also introduced the engine indicating and crew alerting system (EICAS) – this forms part of the "glass cockpit". This is a maintenance significant system. In the case of the Boeing Fault Isolation Manual (FIM) the manual is used in conjunction with the Fault Reporting Manual (FRM) that gives an eight-digit fault code.


. If the design limits are exceeded.9. All separate parts of the aircraft are electrically bonded together to provide a low resistance path to conduct the lightning away from areas where damage may hazard the aircraft. If no damage being found in the first stage then the second stage may not be necessary. 9. ABNORMAL EVENTS 9. The following items are a selection from a typical aircraft: • • • • • • • • • Heavy or overweight landing Burst Tyre Flight through severe turbulence Flap or slat over-speed Flight through volcanic ash Tail strike Mercury spillage Dragged engine or engine seizure High energy stop 9. the lightning may strike the aircraft. The manufacturer will normally have anticipated the nature of some of these occurrences and detailed special checks for these “Abnormal Occurrences”. Sometimes extreme circumstances occur which cause stresses outside the normal design limits. The list may vary depending on the aircraft. usually between highly charged cloud formations. These will include the normal manoeuvres the aircraft is expected to make. This will result in very high voltages and currents passing through the structure. the second stage inspection is carried out. It is more important to understand that in many cases the damage may be remote from the source of the occurrence. In many cases the inspection would be carried out in two stages.3 TYPE OF DAMAGE It is not intended for us to describe the type of damage applicable to every type of occurrence. If it is known or suspected that the aircraft has been subjected to excessive loads. If an aircraft is flying in the vicinity of the discharge or it is on the ground. then an inspection should be carried out to ascertain the nature of any damage that may have occurred. 9. damage may occur to the aircraft.1 INTRODUCTION Most modern aircraft are designed to withstand the normal flight and landing loads expected during flight. If damage is found.2 TYPES OF ABNORMAL OCCURRENCE The aircraft maintenance manual will normally list the types of abnormal occurrence needing special inspection. Lightning being the discharge of electricity in the atmosphere. The designer will build in a safety factor to compensate for loads slightly larger than normal. This is likely to be a more detailed examination. or between a charged cloud and the ground.4 LIGHTING STRIKES & HIRF PENETRATION Both lightning strikes and High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) are discussed in Module 5.

4. instruments. If the landing gear was extended. shielding and separation of critical components. The damage will be in the form of local pitting and burning. break up or seizure due to welding of the bearings. A bonding resistance check should also be carried out. Damaged bonding straps on control surfaces may lead to tracking across control surface bearings. consequently protection is best achieved by regular checks of: • • • • Bonding of the aircraft Correct crimping Screens correctly terminated and earthed All bonding terminals correctly torque loaded . 9. trailing edges and antenna. The damage will usually be in the form of small circular holes. Examine for signs of discharge.4. some damage may have occurred to the lower parts of the gear. Increased use of digital equipment has increased the problem. radar. Bonding strips and static wicks may also disintegrate due to the high charges. This is normally achieved by bonding. This check may need to be repeated for a specified number of running hours after the occurrence.4.4. Bonding straps and static discharge wicks should be checked for damage. This can be checked by carrying out a functional check of the controls. Static discharge damage at the wing tips.9.2INSPECTION The maintenance schedule or maintenance manual should specify the inspections applicable to the aircraft. this in turn may cause burning. After the structural examination it will be necessary to do functional checks of the radio.3HIGH INTENSITY RADIATED FIELDS (HIRF) Module 5 discusses electromagnetic phenomena. This type of damage may result in resistance to movement of the controls. Examine fuselage skin. • 9. in particular the problem of electromagnetic interference. It is difficult to know when the aircraft has been subjected to HIRF. electrical circuits and flying controls. nose cone and tail cone and on the leading edge of the wings and tailplane. usually in clusters and accompanied by burning or discoloration. compasses. The areas specified in paragraph 9.1EFFECT OF A LIGHTNING STRIKE Lightning strikes are likely to have two main effects on the aircraft: • Strike damage where the discharge enters the aircraft. HIRF may be transmitted by military aircraft in close proximity to commercial aircraft. particularly rivets for burning or pitting.4. Additional checks may include: • Examine engine cowlings and engines for evidence of burning or pitting. HIRF may be generated by airborne transmitters such as high-powered radar or radio.4PROTECTION AGAINST HIRF The manufacturer will normally protect the aircraft against HIRF.1 should be examined for signs of strike or discharge damage. tracking of the engine bearings may have occurred. This may be from an internal or external source. These will normally be on the extremities of the aircraft. the wing tips. • • • 9. As in control bearings. Manufacturers may recommend checking the oil filters and chip detectors for signs of contamination.

This procedure has these three tasks: • • • Examine the External Surfaces for Lightning Strike Examine the internal Components for Lightning Strike Inspection and Operational Check of the Radio and Navigation Systems 9.5 TYPICAL MANUFACTURERS INFORMATION (BOEING 757) 9. However.9. but you should be able to identify specific checks that highlight the previous notes. you must fully examine all of the aircraft to find the areas of the lightning strike entrance and exit points When you look at the areas of entrance and exit.5.5. but there is enough information to give you a general idea. but also can occur in zones 2 and 3. Not all of the details have been supplied. Most of the external parts of the aircraft are metal structure with sufficient thickness to be resistant to a lightning strike. solid laminate or honeycomb damage shows as discoloured paint it also shows as burned.4SIGNS OF DAMAGE In metal structures. You can usually find signs of a lightning strike in Zone 1. wingbody fairing. The metal skin does not prevent all electromagnetic energy from going into the electrical wiring. Damage you can not see can also be there. . it does keep the energy to a satisfactory level. Large current flowing from the lightning strike in the aircraft structure can cause this magnetisation. or de-laminated skin plies. It is included to give you an idea of a typical aircraft inspection procedure. If lightning strikes the aircraft. however. 9. These holes can be grouped in one location or divided around a large area.5.1GENERAL INFORMATION This procedure is an extract from the Boeing 757 Maintenance Manual. and along the wing trailing edge in Zone 2. punctured.2BASIC PROTECTION The aircraft has all the necessary and known lightning strike protection measures. The thickness of the metal surface is sufficient to protect the internal spaces from a lightning strike. lightning strikes can occur to any part of the aircraft. The metal skin also gives protection from the entrance of electromagnetic energy into the electrical wires of the aircraft. including the fuselage. Signs of arcing and burning can also occur around the attachments to the supporting structure Aircraft components made of ferromagnetic material may become strongly magnetised when subjected to large currents. examine this structure carefully to find all of the damage that has occurred 9. Burned or discoloured skin also shows lightning strike damage In composite (non-metallic) structures. wing skin trailing edge panels. burn marks or small circular holes. strike damage usually shows as pits. vertical stabiliser. horizontal stabiliser. This metal assembly is its basic protection.5. This damage can extend around the area you can see. antennas. You will not be examined in detail on this procedure.3STRIKE AREAS Lightning strike entrance and exit points are usually found in Zone 1 (See following diagram).

Nose Radome B. Elevators . Nacelles C. Frequently a lightning strike can enter the nose radome and go out of the aircraft at one of the horizontal stabiliser trailing edges. Wing Tips D.5EXTERNALCOMPONENTS A lightning strike usually attaches to the aircraft in Zone 1 and goes out a different Zone 1 area. Horizontal Stabiliser Tips E.9. The external components most likely to be hit are listed below: A.5.

E. burned or discoloured skin and rivets. and pinholes in the composite honeycomb sandwich structure.000 Amps from a lightning strike will cause damage to the discharge wick or make it fully unserviceable 9.Vertical Fin Tips G. Examine the external surfaces of the composite components for discoloured paint.5.5. This static charge can become large enough to bleed off the aircraft on its own. punctured. B. it can pick up a static charge from the air (or dust/water particles in the air). These static discharge wicks are for bleeding off static charge only. Power Feeders D. found on the external surfaces of the aircraft prevent lightning strikes. it will usually result in noise on the VHF or HF radios. Landing Gear J. Water Waste Drain Masts K. Pilot Probes F. As the aircraft flies through the air.6ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS Lightning strikes can cause problems to the electrical power systems and the external light wiring The electrical system is designed to be resistant to lightning strikes. Examine the external surfaces carefully to find the entrance and exit points of lightning strike. This is incorrect and may cause you to think that me static discharge wicks. The approximate 200. burned. they have no lightning protection function. Ends of the Leading Edge Flaps H. D. The dischargers have the capacity to carry only a few micro-Amps of current from the collected static energy. Generators C. The static discharge wicks help to bleed the static charge off in a way that prevents radio noise The static discharge wicks are frequently hit by lightning. 9. Do the examinations that follow: A. Trailing Edge Flap Track Fairings I. F. punctures. . or de-laminated skin plies. But. Examine the metallic structure for holes or pits. Examine the internal and external surfaces of the nose radome for burns. a lightning strike is referred to as a static discharge. Static Discharge Wicks NOTE: lf inaccuracies in the standby compass are reported after a lightning strike then a check swing will be necessary. You need to use instrumental NDI methods or tap tests to find composite structure damage you cannot see.7EXAMINATION OF EXTERNAL SURFACE Examine the Zone 1 surface areas for signs of lightning strike damage. If the charge does not bleed off the aircraft on its own. C. Make sure to look in the areas where one surface stops and another surface starts. Fuel valves B. Frequently. Electrical Distribution Systems E. Some personnel think static dischargers are for lightning protection. a strike of unusually high intensity can possibly damage the electrical system components below: A.

K. Examine the flight control surfaces for signs of strike damage. examine the surface hinges. E. Do an operational test of the leading edge flap/slats if there are signs of lightning strike damage to the trailing edge flap/slats. examine the surface hinges. F. For a tap test. Also ensure bonding straps are correctly attached. 9. bearings. and bonding jumpers for signs of damage. you will hear a sound that is different to the sound of a solid bonded area.5. examine the WXR antenna and wave-guide for damage. bearings. G. Do an operational test of the elevator if there are signs of lightning strike damage to the elevator or horizontal stabiliser. examine the surface hinges. D. If the leading edge flaps/slats show signs of a lightning strike. Examine the lightning diverter strips and repair or replace them if damaged. use a solid metal disc and tap the area adjacent to the damaged area lightly. bearings and bonding jumpers for signs of damage. hinges. Do an operational test of the ailerons if there are signs of lightning strike damage to the ailerons. bearings. examine the surface hinges. Do an operational test of the trailing edge flaps if there are signs of lightning strike damage to the trailing edge flaps. . and bonding jumpers for signs of damage. If there is radome damage. Do a check of the stand-bye compass system if the flight crew reported a very large compass deviation. B. 9. B. H. examine the surface hinges. disengage the main gear door locks and manually move the doors to ensure they move smoothly. do a full examination of the system. C. L. and bonding jumpers for signs of damage.Note: Damage. If there is de-lamination. Make sure the fuel quantity system is accurate. If the above control examinations show signs of damage: Do an operational test of the rudder if there are signs of lightning strike damage to the rudder or vertical stabiliser. such as de-lamination can extend to the areas around the damage area you can see. G. This can be achieved by a BITE test. and bonding jumpers for signs of damage. Visually examine the door linkage. bearings and bonding jumpers for strike damage. If there are signs of strike damage to the landing gear doors.8FUNCTIONAL TESTS Functional tests will need to be carried out as follows: A. If the trailing edge flaps show signs of a lightning strike.5. punctures and chipped paint. H. De-lamination can be detected by instrumental NDI methods or by a tap test. I. Ensure the proximity switch indication unit gives the correct indication.9EXAMINATION OF INTERNAL COMPONENTS If a lightning strike has caused a system malfunction. rotary lights and landing lights operate. Ensure the navigation lamps. bearings. If the ailerons show signs of a lightning strike. If the speed brakes show signs of a lightning strike. Do an operational test of the speed brakes if there are signs of lightning strike damage to the speed brake system. If the control surfaces show signs of damage. Examine the nose radome for pin holes. A. J.

Do an operational test of the pitot system if there are signs of damage to the probes. Weather radar system vii. Radio altimeter system vi. or if the flight crew reported a problem.C. VHF communications system iii. Do an operational check of any of the following systems that did not operate following the strike. Do a test of the static system if there are signs of damage near the static ports. examine and do a test of the coaxial cables and connectors. or if there was any damage found near the system antenna. 9. ILS navigation system iv. DME system x.5. D. Marker beacon system v. components replaced as necessary and tests completed if necessary. ATC system ix. the aircraft may be returned to service. Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) system If one or more of the previous systems have problems with their operational checks. Examine the air data sensors for signs of strike damage. i.10 RETURN THE AIRCRAFT TO SERVICE After all areas have been inspected and lightning damage has been repaired. VOR system viii. HF communications system ii. .

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If non-mandatory or recommended. The CAA according to their effect on airworthiness will classify any modification as minor or major. the regulatory authority must approve a modification.1 DESIGN MODIFICATIONS As stated earlier. those particulars of the modification should be provided to the CAA at an early stage of the investigation.the total fee to be paid will depend on the amount of investigation required and will eventually signify its approval of a major modification by forwarding to the applicant a copy of the Airworthiness Approval Note. An application for a Minor Modification is made to the CAA on Form AD261. Organisations approved for the purpose may design and carry out a minor modification without full CAA modification approval. The Responsible Authority may decide an improvement is necessary and will request a manufacturer to produce a modification to make the improvement.1 MODIFICATION PROCEDURES An aircraft manufacturer will initially design and build the aircraft to a specification as agreed by the regulatory body (JAA. it will always be declared mandatory. If any changes should be made to the flight manual or any other airworthiness publication. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES 10.1. to enable the classification to be carried out. raise a modification to suit their requirements. It will then be permitted to fly. must be completed by the applicant. If the modification affects the safety of the aircraft. Generally the manufacturer will need to get the modification approved by the Responsible Authority. The operator will. The CAA will then carry out the necessary investigation . For larger aircraft a separate Modification Record Book (CAP 395) must be kept complete with full details of all modifications and inspections carried out. Manufacturers' modifications will be classified either as mandatory or nonmandatory. therefore. We will now look at the procedure by which a modification is approved. the aircraft is obviously different from the specification. This change will be deemed to be a modification that will therefore require the approval of the design authority. • • 10. generally to improve reliability. accessibility or possibly to meet an operational need. It is necessary. . CAA Form AD282 (see following page) obtainable from the CAA. For light aircraft this record is kept in the aircraft Logbook. Modifications will be required for various reasons: • A change of some sort is required. which must be entered on all documentation dealing with the modification and especially in the logbooks. All UK Registered Aircraft over 2730kg require a separate record of all modifications (including Airworthiness Directives) to be kept. If mandatory. If any change is made to the design of the aircraft or its components. The CAA will approve the minor modification by returning a copy of the completed Form AD261 (see following page) to the applicant. obtain initial confirmation that the modification is minor. however. Major Modifications. the modification will be deemed major. The AAN will have a reference number. the aircraft operator must incorporate the modification. therefore.10. provided it is maintained in accordance with the approved maintenance schedule. CAA or FAA as applicable). which is considered to be an improvement to the aircraft or component. The Civil Modification Record shall be made available to the CAA for examination. The aircraft will then gain its type certificate from the regulatory body. They must. A manufacturer brings out a modification. its embodiment will be at the discretion of the operator.



If the Flight Manual or Certificate of Airworthiness requires amendment. If the work is signed for on a separate record.g. Depending on the nature of the modification. .The “embodiment” of a modification must be carried out by an approved organisation or an appropriately licensed aircraft maintenance engineer and the relevant entries made in the appropriate log book(s). e. quoting references and a CRS signed. a worksheet. sometimes. Maintenance Manuals and. The entry should refer to the modification/ inspection number. an entry may be made in the logbook quoting the reference of the separate record and where it is held. Manuals may also require amendment e.g. it may be necessary to weigh and/or test fly the aircraft. it should be forwarded to the local area office of the CAA for checking. Flight Manual. the C of A particulars may be amended.

This should contain only those materials and parts intended for aeronautical purposes that conform to all requirements i. the organisation designing the aircraft has to certify to the CAA that it is satisfied that no uncontrolled item installed in the aircraft will constitute a danger to the aircraft).g. or scrap may also be held in the Quarantine Store. This is where parts will initially be sent by the supply organisation. they are approved and serviceable. . they have to be produced by Approved Organisations and certified as Approved parts or components.N. Bonded Store . but they must be separate from each other. consideration should be given to returning the package unopened. which would not adversely affect the airworthiness and the safe operation of an aircraft (if they failed). parts will have been ordered from an Approved supplier on a Purchase Order. There should be some form of Goods Inward Inspection carried out by the stores to ensure the parts are satisfactory. prevent any possibility of them being mixed up with serviceable items with the risk that they could be put into use. as a single component in a box. a crushed corner. Aircraft parts and components. Should the package show signs of damage e. The Goods Inwards/Receipt Section will be part of the Quarantine Store. In this section we will look at the way that aircraft parts are stored prior to their use on aircraft.e. which must exist in an organisation. In a JAR 145 approved company there will be a Goods Inward or Goods Receipt Section. Few operating companies will have the facilities to prove the serviceability of such items.This is where all newly received parts must be placed until it is confirmed that the parts are approved items and undamaged. it should be noted and efforts made to keep the evidence. The components ordered will normally be delivered to the Goods Inward Stores by a company such as Federal Express or T. 10. or as part of a bulk delivery.e. that is. The following describes a typical Goods Inwards Procedure: On receipt of a package in the Goods Receipt Section.2 STORES PROCEDURES 10. Unserviceable items awaiting disposal or to be sent out for overhaul/repair. It may be as well at this stage to state the two types of Store area. Some parts.2.1 APPROVED PARTS Most of the aircraft parts that an engineer uses will be Controlled Items.2 GOODS INWARD PROCEDURE Let us consider the procedures to be followed from the receipt of the components at the operating company. it should be examined for damage. This will have an individual reference number. following receipt from the supplier. are not required to be approved and are classified as Uncontrolled Items.10. An example would be cabin service equipment.2.T. These need not be separate buildings. Nevertheless. will have to be stored under acceptable conditions until they are installed in an aircraft. the aim being to quarantine them i. This must be separate from the main storage area. If the package is known to contain delicate parts such as an aircraft instrument. Quarantine Store . Parts / components that have been sent out for overhaul or repair will also have some form of document raised by the Overhaul/repair Company. It should be appreciated that in most cases.

for this item will therefore be 0998/28/3.the components cannot be used without the correct certification. If the package contains more than one item. that if an overhaul was ordered. check it has been done and the necessary certification is as required. the package and items MUST be held in quarantine until it arrives . each item will be itemised on the certificate and this is addressed to the GR or Batch No. can follow a pattern determined by the date and the order in which consignments are received. The Goods Received Number or Batch Number. name of supplier. The Stores data may be directly linked with other parts of the maintenance organisation. More commonly. He will then list all the necessary details on to the sheet itemising each as written on the Approved Certificate.3 on the Approved Certificate . it should be opened and the items removed and inspected for damage. GRN's may be given consecutive numbers when printed. so No-3 on the GRN will be No. If this is TSO. Also check the items received conforms to the Purchase Order. Additionally. An example of such a numbering system would be to start the number with the month and the year. The correct part number has been supplied. TSN. description. .g. With the package there should be a packing or delivery note and some type of Authorised Release Document. an overhaul has been carried out and not just a repair. date of receipt. The advantages of such a system will be seen in a minute. the supplier. (if applicable).the GR No. a number is allocated sequentially by the Goods Inwards Inspector. generally in triplicate. For the moment let us assume this is the method we are going to use and therefore the Goods Inwards Inspector recording receipt of a package will start a new Goods Received Note putting the number 0998/28 on the top.Assuming the packaging is sound. followed by the consignment number for that month e. This 'Booking In' procedure may take any form provided it satisfies the CAA requirements. Check the items to the packing note and the certificate ensuring that all is in order. If a specific test or calibration was requested. the 3rd item on the Approved Certificate of our package in September 1998 would end up with the number 0998/28/3. overhauled. For the benefit of this exercise we shall assume an Approved Certificate is used.g. • • • Amongst the details recorded on the GRN will be the Approved Certificate Number. repaired. Serial No. A record is kept of the sequence in which items are received. The Authorised Release Document is the proof of conformation of design for the item and may be a JAA Approved Certificate (JAA Form 1) or FAA Form 8130 or some other form of certification. e. The cleared consignment should now be 'Booked into' the Stores. • Should the Authorised Release Document be missing. the Approved Certificate number. The Goods Inwards Inspector will sign the GRN. status of component . description. the Purchase Order number will be recorded on the GRN. any shelf life limitations and the signature of the authorised person responsible for receipt of the goods. the 28th package received in September 1998 would be numbered 0998/28. and therefore a number of items on the Approved Certificate. Part No. such as Purchasing and Technical Records. Another commonly used method is a computerised database of stores items. One method used in the Goods Received Note system (GRN) GRN's are printed in pads. date. and any other relevant details shown on the Approved Certificate. the component history can be traced in the event that the item fails in service.

GRN 0998/28 GRN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Date Approved Cert. Status TSN/ TSO Purchase Order Sign. Supplier Description Part No Serial No. No. .

Example of a typical Goods Received Note .

Other copies of the GRN are sent to: • Technical Records so that they are informed of the receipt of the part and can raise a component card. Also the status . each card being filed in Part Number order. number if GR or Batch number system not used). or 3 months ahead of that point to enable its use to be planned before expiring. or up-date the component card of any item received back from overhaul/repair and place the card in the Stores file indicating its location. • The GR number is written on top of the Approved Certificate and filed away in GR number order. serviceable part. If each Approved Certificate has a GR or Batch number. The Bonded Storekeeper enters the item into the Stores Record System. Other details will be recorded such as description. it will always be easy to refer to the Approved Certificate should it be necessary. Larger organisations will use a computerised database system with the same type of information recorded.e. This may have separate pages headed by month and year for the foreseeable future. Provided the item is identified with the GR or Batch number from this point on. quantity in overhauled/repaired. it can be filed in that number order. i. The Stores label will be filled in with Description. minimum stock levels and re-order quantities. location stored or Bin number. The GR number based on the month and year 0998 is a permanent record of when the item was received at the company. GR or Batch No. . in the Bonded Store. Part and/or Serial Number as applicable. it having been confirmed as an approved. An indexed card system is a common method. when installed in an aircraft. date order and forms the Goods Received Record. Shelf Life if applicable and any other details the company may require such as Aircraft Type. The item can now be passed into the Bonded Store. Approved Certificates come in a variety of sizes and with an even greater variety of reference numbers depending on the suppliers. There may also be a Shelf Life Book. Each item is entered on to the page when its shelf life expires. so that trying to file them in a suitable order so that quick retrieval is possible is very difficult indeed.The advantages of this GRN system should be considered. • • The top copy of the GRN is filed in number. if applicable. (Approved Cert. • The next action of the Goods Inwards Inspector is to raise a stores label that will be attached to the item or its packaging. • The Accounts Department to inform them of receipt so that they can check it against the invoice demanding payment and clear the payment (the Purchase Order number is the link here).

The Storekeeper will then up-date the record cards or database. This information may be used in the absence of any specific manufacturer's recommendations. this will be shown on the Stores Record Cards and the Storekeeper will initiate a requisition so that a Purchase Order will be raised on a supplier for the required amount. 10.A.P Leaflet 1-8 gives information on acceptable conditions for the storage of aeronautical supplies. Some of the specific procedures are shown below: • • • • Lead Acid and Ni-Cad Batteries must not be mixed and care taken that fumes from batteries cannot damage other parts.A. First Out or FIFO). and GR or Batch number. including the GR or Batch Number which will enable the history of the item to be checked back to the Approved Certificate if necessary. If management has decided that replacement items must be ordered when the stock reaches a certain point. . and the ability to monitor and control temperature and humidity to prevent condensation is mentioned. Engineers should be aware of the specific storage requirements for any equipment or materials that they are likely to be responsible for. a copy of this voucher is sent to Technical Records for inclusion in the Work pack. In particular. serial number. Normally the first item received into the store will be issued (First in. The item will be issued on a Materials Issue Voucher or similar sheet generally headed by the Job Number and listing the description Part Number.When an item is drawn from the Store for installation on an aircraft. The indexed card or database system may be checked to find out how many are in stock and where stored.3 STORAGE CONDITIONS C.I. showing the item has been issued to the Job Number and deleting the item from his shelf-life book if applicable. the need for ventilation. Different items will require different storage procedures.2. Tyres should be stored vertically supported at two points. The engineer installing the item on the aircraft will have all the information needed for the logbook entry on the Stores Label. the part will be identified using the Part Number. this may be automatic. The decision must be made if a part-life item is acceptable or if an item with a full overhaul life remaining is required. stored uncoiled in well ventilated conditions. When the job is completed. Instruments must be kept at constant temperature and silica gel crystals used to ensure no moisture is present. With a database system. This procedure may be varied if a component is held with only part life remaining either a repaired item or a serviceable item which has been removed from an aircraft and returned into the stores system. Rubber hoses and hose assemblies should be blanked. if applicable.

....JAR 145 One of the checks which has to be made as part of the Goods Receipt procedure is to check the Authorised Release Document and to record it’s number (or GR No.../Batch No. 10.17 . process or test aeronautical parts... except as otherwise agreed by the CAA.... Each certificate shall be numbered serially at the time of bulk printing. bar metal..e..4 BATCH NUMBER The term Batch Number is often used as an alternative for Goods Received Number.. The Authorised Release Document is a certification document conforming the requirements of BCAR sub-section A8.... unless otherwise stated above.... The need for an Authorised Release Document in the context of aircraft maintenance is based on the principle of guaranteeing the reliability of aircraft.. ... This would enable a supplier to trace all materials produced in a particular Batch should any defect be found in a sample....2. overhaul... To this end....... This Batch Number is given by the manufacturer of the materials and enables them to be traced back to the Batch that was produced at a specific time. (or alternative) must be recorded into the Logbook for record purposes.. tested and inspected in accordance with the terms of the contract/order applicable thereto and conform fully to the standards/specifications quoted hereon and the requirements of the Civil Aviation Authority" SIGNED...when fitted to an aircraft the Authorised Release Document No. repair.... on the Stores Label.. because many companies use this terminology... all metal in that Batch would need to be checked and possibly quarantined. A JAA Form 1 or Approved Certificate it a type of Authorised Release Document and it shall be issued to the consignee for all Approved parts released under authority of CAA Approval. if e...... in accordance with strict requirements (BCAR's and JAR'S) by Approved Organisations..... the heat treatment of a sheet metal should be suspect. however..10. the whole of the above mentioned parts have been manufactured/overhauled/ repaired/modified*.. DATE ...... overhauled..... must be manufactured.. aircraft and aeronautical parts...2. JAR 21 and JAR 145. using materials supplied from specific sources and through specific processes. ). The AME should be aware.. Copies of this format are shown as overleaf..5 AUTHORISED RELEASE DOCUMENTS REF : Airworthiness Notice No. It is provided by an organisation that holds CAA Approval to supply.. for and on behalf of.. that the term may be used in another context particularly when items such as sheet metal... repaired and maintained to the highest possible standards i... *Delete where applicable A Joint Airworthiness Requirements letter dated September 1988 stated that it is intended to proceed with voluntary implementation of the Single Format Release Document from 1 June 1989...g.. This is to ensure that from that time onwards. it is possible to link the component/part back to its Authorised Release Document . The wording of the certification shall be as follows: "Certified that.... rivets or similar supplies are received. Also shown on the page following is a copy of an FAA approved Form 8130-3....

There are pitfalls which must be guarded against e. Approved Certificates approved and issued in accordance with the provisions of A8-1 shall be provided for each transaction and shall be endorsed as follows: "This Certificate covers the transfer of airframe. rests with the user. The document will be a JAA Form 1. or in France by DGAC as Licensed Workshops do not suffice as evidence of manufacturing origin. When received from a manufacturing source located in Canada and appropriately approved by Transport Canada. repair or similar activities.11 or from sources accepted in writing by the CAA.2. . Austria Austro – Control Belgium Administration De L’Aeronautique (AA) Finland National Board of Aviation (NBA) France Direction Generale de L’Aviation Civile (DGAC) Germany Luftfahrt Bundesamt (LBA) Netherlands Rijksluchtvaartdienst (RLD) Norway Civil Aviation Administration (CAA d) Sweden Luftfartsverket (LFV) Switzerland Federal Office for Civil Aviation (FOCA)] When received from a company approved by the CAA to BCAR A8-4 Material Manufacturer.g.6 BOGUS PARTS The responsibility for the ensuring that parts are serviceable and conform to the Design Organisation standard. highlighting the need to verify sources of supply. Where the organisation has the Supplementary Rating 'Airline Spares Transfer' added to its Schedule of Approval. engine or accessory spares relevant to the types of aircraft operated under the Air Operators Certificate which have been obtained from a source acceptable to the CAA" The only spares eligible for transfer are those detailed in the main aircraft/engine constructor's Spare Parts Catalogue and they must have been obtained from CAA approved sources as described in Airworthiness Notice No. When received by a manufacturing source located in the USA and approved by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). • • • Note: Certifications in respect of overhaul. There are certain documents that the CAA will accept as evidence of origin: • • When received from a manufacturing source approved to JAR-21. The approval document will be an FAA Form 8130-4 for new engines/propellers and FAA Form 8130-3 for other new components.10. The person or organisation incorporating the aeronautical part into the a/c meets their responsibilities by ensuring all parts received come from an Approved source and are accompanied with an Authorised Release Document. headed 'The Problem of Bogus Parts' gives examples of how bogus parts may come into the system. such as those issued by organisations approved by the CAA in Group BI. Airworthiness Notice No. When received from a manufacturing source approved by the CAA to BCAR A8-1 or A8-2 or approved by the NAA of one of the following countries. 16. AWN 19. 39 and 97 also deal with the procurement of aircraft parts). A8-6 Test House. It also states in Airworthiness Notice No. A8-5 Process Company. The Authorised Release Document will be a JAA Form 1. by FAA as Repair Stations. A8-7 Material Distributor or A8-16 Fastener Distributor. 19 that a Mandatory Occurrence Report must be made if a part is suspected as being bogus. the Authorised Release Document will be a TCA Form 24-0078. AWN No. 17 deals with the Acceptance of Aeronautical Parts in detail.



The signature releasing the aircraft forms a certificate called a CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE To SERVICE (CRS).10. replacement. The certificate may be for work on a Jumbo Jet with 400 plus passengers. so that a number of signatures may be required. This stamp is used every time a CRS is issued. If aircraft are to be maintained efficiently and safely. There are certain exceptions which will be dealt with later. You will only be authorised if the company you are working for considers you to be competent. When asked why she wrote it down. or an overhaul of a brake unit.2 CERTIFICATE OF RELEASE TO SERVICE You are all doing this course so that eventually you will be the person signing a document to release the aircraft to fly. it hasn’t been done. but generally speaking. This is equally true for the Aircraft Engineer. In each case the certificate is signed and authorised by an appropriate person. one of the characters. Only approved engineers are allowed to issue Certificates of Release to Service.1 INTRODUCTION `A job is not finished until the paperwork is completed'. Many aircraft engineers consider that doing the work is the most important aspect of their job. mandatory inspection or scheduled maintenance inspection to an aircraft or any part of the aircraft or such of its equipment as is necessary for the airworthiness of the aircraft. If the work is on an avionic system or component. 10. what it means is that an appropriately authorised person must certify that any work carried out on an aircraft or aircraft part has been done correctly. it didn’t happen”.3 CERTIFICATION/RELEASE PROCEDURES 10. 10.3. In the case of the JAA Form one the wording is in blocks 14 and 15. a famous eye surgeon wrote everything down in a notebook as a memory aid. In reality the Captain of the aircraft you have just worked may be relying on a signature on a document to prove that the work has been done. repair. The two forms of authorisation for components on the previous pages each contain a form of CRS. . If it isn’t signed for. All aircraft engineers are allowed to sign for work they have completed.3. It releases the work to service. They must do so in order that the work is “seen to be completed”. modification. the wording is in blocks 14 and 19. A Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) is required following any overhaul. an appropriately authorised engineer will have to sign for the work. this is an inescapable fact. In each case.3. the authorised engineer will be B2 approved. In the UK. The will normally have a personal authorisation stamp issued by the organisation. She then daily transferred her notes to her computer. In a book I was recently reading. In the case of the FAA 8130. each one will sign for the work done.3 CRS STATEMENT (WHAT DOES A SIGNATURE SIGNIFY?) The wording on the certificate will vary dependent on what it is being used for. “If it isn’t in my notebook. If it is used for maintenance work in a JAR 145 approved organisations the wording will be: “Certifies that the work specified except as otherwise specified was carried out in accordance with JAR 145 and in respect to the work the aircraft/aircraft component is considered ready for release to service”. she said. It is important at this point to emphasise that the CRS is the important certification for the work. Obviously we cannot allow anyone to be the signatory. If more than one engineer has been involved in the work.

This states clearly that the signatory i. The problem is that the CRS statement highlighted on the previous page simply says that the work has been carried out in accordance with JAR 145. drawings. .3. Airworthiness Notice 3 is quite clear in this case. For complex tasks this may require progressive or “stage” inspections to be carried out as the work proceeds. 10. CAA mandatory modifications/inspections and company procedures.4 WHAT IF YOU ARE CERTIFYING ANOTHER PERSON’S WORK? Most engineers (If they are competent) will be happy to certify their own work. The certifying engineer must have inspected a sufficiently representative sample of the work and the associated documentation. and be satisfied with the competence of the persons who have performed the work. and a working environment appropriates to the work being carried out.e. specifications. recommended tooling and test equipment which is currently calibrated where applicable. a certifying engineer will be certifying the work of other engineers. however.There have been many incidents in recent years of aircraft accidents or near accidents caused because work has not been carried out correctly. The certifying engineer assumes responsibility. the person who signs a CRS must be satisfied that the work has been carried out correctly having due regard to the use of: • • • up to date instructions including manuals. Most of the time. A more positive statement is given in Airworthiness Notices Number 3.

The Engineers' time sheets will show the hours expended against each job number so that labour costs can be calculated. The reason for doing this is that all work related to a specific job can be identified by the Job Number and all the activities can then be coordinated under that number on completion of the job. which requires rectification. 10. a mandatory modification/inspection (Airworthiness Directive) or a recommended Service Bulletin may have to be carried out. Each part of the inspection must be identified and when completed. check it is correct and complete and then to up-date the logbooks and records again. (If a company is too small to have a separate section to carry out this has to be done!) Obviously all engineers involved in the maintenance of aircraft must be aware of the different requirements that come under the heading of paperwork and must ensure that they fulfil their role in completing the job. the responsibility for meeting the task rests with the Chief Engineer . more of which in a minute. Components/parts sent into workshops for overhaul/repair or out to other companies for the same purpose.2 JOB NUMBER Aircraft maintenance may consist of a single task taking a single person a few minutes. It could also be a complex aircraft inspection involving hundreds of engineers and taking more than a month. A time or Life expired component may need replacing. The numbers being allocated by the hangar management successively to each job as it arises. either short or long term. Issuing the necessary instructions and documentation to the `shop floor' when maintenance activities are to be carried out and eventually to collect in the documentation. Then the Stores Issue Vouchers on which will be recorded all items issued to that job i.1 TECHNICAL RECORDS Most organisations will have a Technical Records Section or Department. Records can be divided into two main functions: • Keeping aircraft log-books and records up to date and processing the information to ensure that all necessary maintenance activities are monitored and carried out when due. • 10. will carry the Job Number so that the costs incurred will be charged to the job.4 MAINTENANCE PLANNING The main task of the aircraft maintenance engineer is to produce serviceable aircraft to support a flying programme. or it may come in to be put into storage.4. It is common practice to allocate a Job Number to all jobs carried out on aircraft.e. An aircraft will come into the hangar for maintenance work for a number of reasons. The task of Tech. • • . It may be due a Scheduled Maintenance Inspection (SMI). but the principle will be the same). signed for by the engineer completing the task. What sort of things will need to be identified with the Job Number? • • The first will be the WORKSHEETS.10. it may have a defect. which compiles and co-ordinates the paperwork connected with the maintenance of aircraft.4. that aircraft (Different organisations may use different methods and paperwork for issuing stores.

plus any other documents required.e.The use of a Job Number is. will sign to this effect. A logbook Entry will have to be made on completion of the work. It is common practice to use worksheets for the following reasons. 10. Service Bulletins. because generally the costs have to be recovered from a customer.4. to ensure that costs are apportioned correctly to each job. steps must be taken to ensure that manuals are readily available to him. which will refer. If the costs are not estimated correctly. Inspections. . He is not constantly handling schedules and inevitably making a mess of them.3 WORKSHEETS It is essential that records be kept of all maintenance work carried out on aircraft. the engineer and supervisor or Licensed Engineer if required. When the work is completed. amongst other things. Many engineers feel that such concerns are not for them.e. or any other work required will be entered on continuation worksheets also. the engineer may find at the end of the month. 10. It is treated as part of the aircraft logbook. Information such as pressures. or if the aircraft comes in with a defect.5 PLANNING Prior to carrying out an inspection. or at least used to determine the cost effectiveness of particular operations. Mandatory Modifications. (That is not to say that the engineer will not need to refer to manuals and. where necessary. a blank sheet with columns for defects.4 WORKPACKS When completed. Defects and rectification can be entered and signed for directly into the logbooks. rectification work and signatures. but the logbooks would rapidly be filled and difficult to check.) The benefits of the worksheets will be self-evident.4. This is a short sighted view. The engineer has the detailed requirements at his fingertips. In this case the worksheets will list all the inspections and checks to be carried out as part of the SMI. the worksheets should contain all relevant information to enable the engineer to do the Job correctly without having to constantly refer to maintenance manuals. Consider a Scheduled Maintenance Inspection (SMI). This will be made into a work pack that will also contain a list of the documents contained in the pack. types of greases to be used. can usefully be given on the worksheets provided they are always up to date. that there is no cash left to pay wages! 10. the defect is entered onto a Continuation or Rectification Worksheet. in fact. The Maintenance Control Department will audit the documents to ensure the pack is complete. This will normally be a file containing all of the paperwork for that particular job. so that he knows what he has to do eliminating the risk of missing anything. wear limits. the name and address of the company. i. the Planning Department will provide a document pack containing all of the task cards associated with the inspection.4. Typical uses of a worksheet are shown overleaf. A reference note will state where the Work Pack it is held i. He is able to sign as he completes each item so that records are up to date. the worksheets are then filed in the WORK PACK. As defects are found during the inspection. Ideally. The package will then be sent to the technical work area concerned. to the Work Pack by a Job Number. All of the Work Packs will be kept together as part of an Aircraft File and held in Technical Records. Often they are copies of the maintenance schedule pages with extra columns in which the engineers will sign when they have completed the job.

The worksheet page shown is page 1 of 8 pages.This worksheet shows a typical page from a ramp check worksheet for a British Airways Boeing 747. . The following worksheet is from Virgin Atlantic and shows a completed Flight Management System task and the associated CRS.


The aircraft operator has also to produce a maintenance scheduled based on the manufacturers schedule. The CAA may require some changes to be made and will finally signify its approval by issuing an Approval Document to the Applicant. When a UK operator has completed his Maintenance Schedule. Service check .Done at intervals of 800 .This is done at intervals from 125 to 500 hours and will normally be done overnight • • • 10. It is a mandatory requirement that all aircraft registered in the United Kingdom must be maintained in accordance with an approved maintenance schedule and any associated maintenance programme necessary to support the schedule. the highest being the longest interval of time and the most extensive work. The manufacturer will recommend the intervals for an inspection.5.2 PLANNING THE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE Each maintenance schedule should take into account: the aircraft environment. Any other variations to the standard form are also attached as endorsements.000 flying hours or five years of average use. cargo or mixed.This is carried out at approximately 15.e. This approval document will normally be in the front of the Schedule. The operators schedule must be approved by the CAA.5 MAINTENANCE INSPECTION 10. This document is called a Maintenance Schedule. the aircraft Constructor/Manufacturer is required to provide manuals necessary for the maintenance. also type of operation i. It should be noted that there is never a definitive series of inspections for any aircraft. who must certify it and what Certification is required. overhaul and repair of aircraft. en route facilities provided by the operator at each base. frequency of landing. It should be noted that Manufacturers' recommendations must be taken into account when compiling a maintenance schedule for approval by the CAA.1 INTRODUCTION The aircraft need to be regularly maintained in order to keep them airworthy.This is carried out at intervals of 4-5000 hours and the aircraft will be out of service for about 9 days. It is obvious that an operator of a particular aircraft type may not be in a position to use a Maintenance Schedule used by another operator. it is submitted to the CAA it for approval. The aircraft painted surface will be stripped to allow for thorough surface inspection and the aircraft will be repainted Intermediate Check .10. The time taken for this inspection will be approximately 25 to 30 days.3000 hours and will take from 1 to 2 days or six months of average use Ramp Check . These will not always be suitable for the operator of the aircraft. . The following will give an indication for a typical aircraft: • Major Check . Endorsements to the Approval Document will spell out what extensions to inspections may be granted and by whom. The complete maintenance schedule is broken down into a series of levels. The manufacturers schedule does not take into consideration the way the operator will use the aircraft. passenger. Before aircraft are issued with a Type Certificate for a new aircraft. The manufacturer should also specify the recommended periodic inspections and lives of components. whether the aircraft is on short or long haul operations. It will usually involve a thorough strip-down with removal and overhaul of major components. The approval document will specify when all inspections must be carried out.5.

Consequently there are some references which are not relevant to large modern aircraft schedules. There are two types of permissible amendments CLASS A Those which are raised by the CAA as a result of information from constructors or operators of a similar type of aircraft. Amendments required by the CAA shall be incorporated in the Approved Maintenance Schedule.3 AMENDMENTS TO APPROVED MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES. . The data in an Approved Maintenance Schedule shall be amended by the operator to reflect the embodiment of mandatory and non-mandatory modifications and inspections. the incorporation of constructors' and manufacturers' requirements (bulletins etc) and the effects of maintenance experience. Note: This document is for a small aircraft and was issued prior to JAR 145 and JAR 66.5. The reasons and supporting evidence for Class B amendments must be submitted to the CAA for approval before incorporation in the Maintenance Schedule. Those which are raised by the operator as a result of his maintenance experience.10. CLASS B The following FOUR pages give an example of a Maintenance Schedule Approval Document for a typical Twin-Engine aircraft. Amendments shall not normally be incorporated without the written agreement of the CAA.

Nothing contained in. Service Bulletins and other technical service information. with particular reference to Airworthiness Notice No.7 Any references to this Schedule in statutory log books and in technical records shall include both the Operator's Schedule reference and Issue Number and the CAA Approval Reference.6 The implementation of the requirements of this Schedule shall be controlled by such documents and records as will enable personnel authorised to make certifications under the Air Navigation Order to ascertain to their satisfaction that the requirements have been complied with. compliance shall also be established with all the appropriate mandatory requirements issued by the CAA and by the recognised Airworthiness Authority of the country of origin of the aircraft.2 It is the responsibility of the Operator to ensure that recommendations issued by the Aircraft or Equipment Manufacturers in Maintenance Manuals. Where appropriate the Operator must initiate Maintenance Schedule amendment action with the CAA. this Schedule absolves persons employed in implementing the requirements. Retirement life limitations prescribed by the manufacturer shall also be observed. compliance shall. maintained in an airworthy condition. as appropriate. 1. 1. CAA Area Office shall be obtained before any maintenance check is sub-divided. CHAPTER A8-13 CAA Approval Reference: MS/ Aircraft Applicability: Operator(s): For the purpose of: Operator's Schedule Reference: 1 CONDITIONS-GENERAL PIPER PA31/78 PIPER PA31-350 FOSTER YEOMEN LIMITED PUBLIC TRANSPORT FLYING SA/NAVAJO/1 Issue 2 Date: OCTOBER 1984 1. from ensuring that the aircraft is. and relevant information issued by the CAA are evaluated. No change to the Conditions or the Endorsements shall be made other than by the CAA. 1. 2 CONDITIONS-CERTIFICATION . 36. Civil Aircraft Inspection Procedures and with CAA Airworthiness Notices. 1. 1. The prior permission of the Surveyor-in-Charge. normally through the medium of CAA Airworthiness Notices or CAA Additional Directives.5 The requirements of this Schedule shall be completed within the periods specified in the Schedule and in any appropriate Endorsements to this Maintenance Schedule Approval Document.3 In addition to the performance of the maintenance actions prescribed in the Schedule. be shown with: British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (BCAR).Civil Aviation Authority Airworthiness Division MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE APPROVAL-AIRCRAFT EXCEEDING 2730 KG MTWA NOT MAINTAINED TO BRITISH CIVIL AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SECTION A.1 The Maintenance Schedule identified above (herinafter referred to as `this Schedule') is approved by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) on the basis that it prescribes the minimum maintenance to be performed on the aircraft to which this schedule relates. Recommended Maintenance Schedules. at all times. A copy of this Schedule together with a copy of the Approval Document shall be made available to personnel at the locations where the requirements of the Schedule are being implemented. unless otherwise directed by the CAA. or omitted from.4 Amendments/alterations to this Schedule shall be approved by the CAA. 1. In implementing the requirements of the Schedule.

2 This Approval Document includes 3 Endorsements.3. 2. modification. 2. The Certificate need not be issued coincident with a Scheduled Maintenance Inspection. mandatory inspection shall be an engineer licensed/approved in the trade category appropriate to the task accomplished. AT DALTON for the Civil Aviation Authority Date: 10 JULY 1985 .1 Non-compliance with any of the Conditions of this Approval Document or it's Endorsements shall invalidate the Authority's Approval of this Maintenance Schedule.1 The signatory of the CMR shall be an engineer Type Licensed in at least two categories (excluding `X' Compasses) appropriate to the aircraft type. modification.3. 2. issue the CRS required by paragraph 2.1 A Certificate of Maintenance Review.2. no CRS is required. 2. mandatory inspection or Scheduled Maintenance Inspection has been carried out. 2. Chapter A8-3. except that where such Scheduled Maintenance Inspections recur at periods not exceeding 45 flying hours or 28 days elapsed time.1.2. repair.3.3. such engineers must sign using the Approval Reference of the Approved Organisation. replacement.2 A Certificate of Release to Service. 2. replacement. A signatory in Category `X' Compasses is required whenever a Scheduled Maintenance Inspection specifies a Check Compass Swing.2 The signatories for the CRS following Scheduled Maintenance Inspections shall be engineers appropriately licensed in Categories: A (Airframe) C (Engine) R (Radio) providing that where the Scheduled Maintenance Inspection has not involved tasks in a particular Category.1. 2. repair.2 A Certificate of Maintenance Review (CMR) must be issued for a period not exceeding 4 calendar months.1 Work carried out on aircraft maintained to this Maintenance Schedule requires the following certifications.1. 2.1 The signatory for the CRS following overhaul.3 A Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) must be issued whenever an overhaul. 3 APPROVAL 3.3 Where appropriate licensed engineers employed by organisations approved under BCAR Section A. certification in that category is not required. 3. The Certificate may be reissued at any time prior to the expiry of the last Certificate.

the more restricted limit shall be applied. Variations shall be permitted only when the periods prescribed by this Schedule (or documents in support of this Schedule) cannot be complied with. The decision to vary any of the prescribed periods shall be taken only by the Chief Inspector/Quality Manager or person of equivalent status on behalf of the Operator or his Contracted Maintenance Organisation.85 AD 271A 311084 .7. may vary the periods prescribed by this Schedule provided that such variations are within the limits of sub-paras (a) to (e) of this endorsement. b Those periods included in the maintenance schedule which have been classified as mandatory by the CAA (see CAA Airworthiness Notice No. CAA Approval 10. or by his contracted Maintenance Organisation. 2 The variations permitted above do not apply to : a Those components for which an ultimate (scrap) or retirement life has been prescribed (eg primary structure of components with limited fatigue lives and high energy rotating parts for which containment is not provided). 1 CAA Approval Reference: MS/PIPER PA31/78 Subject The Operator or his contracted Maintenance Organisation. Notes: 1 For certain piston engine overhaul periods the conditions of CAA Airworthiness Notice No. whichever is the lesser ii More than 1 year but not exceeding 3 years 2 months iii More than 3 years 3 months c Items Controlled by Landings/Cycles Period Involved Maximum Variation of the prescribed period i 500 landings/cycles or less 10% or 25 landings cycles. 35 may override the stated conditions. e Items Already Subject to CAA Trial Extension Programme For an item already subject to an agreed CAA trial extension programme the trial period may be varied by a maximum of 50 flying hours only. 36). Details concerning all items of this nature are included in the constructors documents or manuals. whichever is the lesser ii More than 500 landings/cycles 50 landings cycles d Items Controlled by More than One Limit For items controlled by more than one limit eg items controlled by flying hours and calendar time or flying hours and landings/cycles. due to circumstances which could not reasonably have been foreseen by the Operator. Particulars of every variation so made shall be entered in the appropriate log book(s). provided that such variation is not specifically excluded by the agreed trial extension programme. a Items Controlled by Flying Hours Period Involved Maximum Variation of the prescribed period i 5000 flying hours or less 10% ii More than 5000 flying hours 500 flying hours b Items Controlled by Calendar Time Period Involved Maximum Variation of the prescribed Period i 1 Year or less 10% or 1 month.ENDORSEMENTS No.

10.2.3. replacement. mandatory inspection or Scheduled Maintenance Inspection (SMI) has been carried out.85 AD 271A 260880 . modification. Such engineers shall possess an appropriate type rated licence. 2 CAA Approval Reference: MS/PIPER PA31/78 Subject Para 2. NOTE: An SMI is any inspection other than mandatory .ENDORSEMENTS (Continued) No.7.85 3 Notwithstanding Para 2. CAA Approval 10. scheduled to recur at periods exceeding 2 calendar days and made for the purpose of ascertaining whether the aircraft remains airworthy.2 engineers licensed in categories A – Airframes or C – Engines as appropriate for the task being certified. of this Form AD 271/2 is hereby cancelled and replaced by the following statement : 2. repair. of this Form AD 271/2 the signatories for the CRS following SMI which recur at periods not exceeding 500 flying hours or N/A days elapsed days may use as an alternative to para 2. A Certificate of Release to Service (CRS) must be issued whenever an overhaul.

" A further point to note is that failure of condition monitoring items does not have a direct adverse effect on operating safety. The key factor in its use being the introduction of aircraft embodying failure tolerant designs. landings or flying hours.10. The older methods were based on Hard Time or On Condition. Aircraft for which the initial scheduled maintenance programme has been specified by a Maintenance Review Board and to which maintenance steering group (MSG) logic analysis has been applied. McDonnell Douglas DC10. only one system is functioning at a time. In active redundancy.4 CONDITION MONITORING MAINTENANCE Early maintenance schedules involved fixed component lives and routine strip-down policies. Examples include the Boeing 747. It is NOT a preventative process. To use a statisticalreliability element of a programme effectively. For aircraft not covered by these criteria. but may not be prescribed as the primary maintenance process. it is necessary to select the standbye system. and relies upon analysis of operating-experience information to indicate the need for appropriate action. The inspection or test may reveal that the item may need further servicing or replacement. As a programme. The main purpose of on condition maintenance is that the item is removed before it fails in service. or replacement. In stand-bye redundancy.5. conditioning monitoring maintenance allows failures are allowed to occur. . On Condition is also a preventative process in which an item is inspected or tested at specified periods. a fleet minimum of five aircraft would normally be necessary. If one item fails. Lockheed L1011. Hard Time.e. Maximum use can be made of the condition monitoring process which includes statistical reliability element action when it is applied to aircraft meeting the following criteria: • • 1. Modern multi-engine. if failure occurs. according to schedule instructions. the task is shared amongst the remaining items. but a complete process which cannot be separated from the complete maintenance programme. This means that some operators of the above wide-body aircraft would not be able to use such a programme. 2. Condition Monitoring Maintenance is the formalised application of the THREE maintenance processes i. These have given way to new techniques because they are no longer cost effective or appropriate to the new design philosophy of modern aircraft. full or partial overhaul. The maintenance actions normally include servicing. the statistical reliability element may be applied for the purpose of monitoring system or component performance. all the redundant items are operating simultaneously and share the task. Condition Monitoring has evolved as "A Primary maintenance process in which data on the whole population of the items in service is analysed to indicate whether some allocation of technical resources is required. The periods may be based on calendar time. These safeguards are provided either by active redundancy or stand-bye redundancy in the design of the aircraft or system. so that the item may continue in service for a further time period. transport category aircraft which include safeguards against the complete loss of function of a system. On Condition and Condition Monitoring to specific items as specified in the schedule. There are now three internationally recognised PRIMARY MAINTENANCE PROCESSES • Hard Time is a preventative process in which deterioration of a component is restricted by maintenance actions carried out at periods relating to time in service. Condition monitoring is not a separate activity.

engine un-scheduled shutdowns. mostly at specific times. hangar and workshop investigations.10.5. engine unscheduled shut-downs. 2. Condition monitoring uses data on failures as items of "condition" information which are evaluated to establish if it is necessary to modify the hard time or on condition elements. The maintenance activity may be periodic overhaul. inflight defect reports. These result from on-condition requirements. These result from hard time requirements.1 Types of Maintenance Activity The three types of maintenance activity used are: 1. cleaning. There is no hierarchy of the three. A condition monitoring programme has two basic functions 1. The assessment is made by examination of rates of occurrence of events such as in-flight defects. 10. a summary of aircraft fleet reliability. Computer based systems may be an advantage. they are applied to the various items according to the need and feasibility. summarising and display.5. Knowledge of probability is usually implied when discussing statistical techniques. . Other sources are reports from on-condition tasks. authorised operations with known defects.3 Data Collection It is normal for the quality manager to head a reliability committee to implement the Statistical Reliability programme. in most cases. but sometimes on an opportunity basis. Periodic examinations. but they are not essential. Data for component performance could be unscheduled removal rates or workshop reports. delays. air turnbacks. Sources of data would be delay reports. Maintenance applied at specific times regardless of condition at the time. A practical statistical reliability element does not need to be complicated or costly to establish or operate. which are reported. lubrication or some other recognised action. this is not essential. To provide significant and timely technical information by which improvement may be achieved through changes to the maintenance programme or to the practices for implementing it.4. inoperative equipment levels compatible with the minimum equipment list (MEL). 10. 2. line.5. Methods of data collection should depend on its needs. reflecting the effectiveness of the maintenance being done. incidents. Failure rates are analysed to establish the need for corrective actions. or other such measures. calibration.2 Statistical Reliability Element The assessment of defect/removal/failure rate trend at which items fail or the probability of survival to a given life are. rework. flight delays and cancellations attributed to mechanical failures. use of redundancy capability. to determine not only the extent of deterioration but also that the deterioration is within specified limits. where all that is required is elementary data collection. flight incidents. change of parts. Some operators may be reluctant to adopt such a practice because they believe that computer systems are necessary. such as when an item is removed for access. To provide. by means of a statistical reliability element. used to measure the suitability of the primary maintenance process applied to items. air turnbacks. Again.4. 3. Suggested data for monitoring aircraft systems are pilot reports. service bulletins and other operators experience. airborne integrated data system recordings. Maintenance of a particular item could well involve a combination of all three primary maintenance activities.4.

It is not essential to use this type of calculation.3 MSG-3 The Maintenance Steering Group (MSG) lays down a set of rules to be followed in deciding a maintenance policy for an aircraft and its systems. Data such as pilot reports per 1.5. In the original MSG-1 & MSG-2 there was considerable scope for interpretation of the rules.5. which led to different results.10.5. 10.3 times the mean level. One of the objectives of MSG-3 was to tighten up the definitions used by airline staff and manufacturers so as to leave little room for ambiguity. This program was aimed at exploiting the increase in propulsion system reliability when civil aircraft started to change from piston engines to turbine engines. 10. such as defining the alert level to be 1. The alert level is intended to be an indicator showing a deterioration of performance which must be investigated and acted upon.5.1 History of MSG The history of this committee and it's documents can be traced back to 1960 when the Federal Aviation Administration instigated a reliability program. a simple factor above the mean may be adequate.5.5 THE MAINTENANCE STEERING GROUP (MSG) APPROACH The principle behind the construction of modern aircraft maintenance schedules is the document produced by the "Air Transport Association" (ATA) Maintenance Steering Group . The association of European Airlines developed EMSG in 1972. This was introduced in 1980 and is the current version. One example uses an alert level of three standard deviations above the mean. At the time there was widespread use of "Hard Time" component lives.2 The MSG Approach MSG-1 was produced in 1968 and used to develop the Boeing 747 maintenance schedule.000 component hours can be statistically analysed by standard process qualitycontrol methods. unscheduled removal rates per 1.5. These rules are based on these rules are based on: a b c d the importance of the component or system the nature of the anticipated failures which may occur the visibility of the faults the possible corrective actions It isn't possible to make a set of rules which specify every requirement in advance because some decisions in the process involve engineering judgement by experienced staff.4. .4 Statistical Reliability Measurement Alert levels should be established for items controlled by the programme.5. as an improvement to MSG-2. leading to an ineffective and expensive method of ensuring aircraft safety.3 Task Force (MSG-3) in 1980. MSG-2 followed in 1970 and was used for the Lockheed L1011 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10 maintenance programmes. It was used for the Airbus A300 and Concorde maintenance schedules. 10. 10. depending on the experience fed in. Finally a joint team collaborated to produce MSG-3 for the Boeing 757 & 767 maintenance programs.000 flying hours.5.

Boeing 747 – 400 • 1980 Airline / Manufacturer maintenance program development document MSG . Airbus A310.Aircraft Maintenance Program Development Boeing 747 • 1960-61 • 1968 FAA / Industry reliability program Handbook maintenance evaluation and program development MSG – 1 Lockheed L-1011 & Douglas DC-10 • 1970 Airline / Manufacturer maintenance planning document MSG – 2 Airbus A300 & British Aerospace/Aerospatiale Concorde • 1972 European Maintenance System Guide EMSG Boeing 757/767.3 . Fokker 100 Boeing 737-300.

Maintenance Program Development Procedure Application – Working Bodies and Documents • Maintenance Design Data • Airline experience • Certification and Operational Requirement KEY MSC: Maintenance Steering Committee MWG: Maintenance Working Group MPP: Maintenance Program Proposal MRB: Maintenance Review Board MPD: Maintenance Planning Document AMP: Airlines Maintenance Program AMS: Airlines Maintenance Schedule MWG1 MWG2 MWG3 MSC MPP MRB MRB DOC MWG4 MWG5 MWG6 MPD AIRLINE AMP or AMS .

It is also very likely that specialised access and ground equipment will be required. The levels of importance for maintenance decisions are (1) technical factors (2) operational factors (3) economic factors. labour and facilities.10. systems. flight control/hydraulics and zonal inspections.5. and regulatory bodies (CAA. since this interacts with the certification and delivery of the new aircraft.5. 10. electrical/avionics. who are supervised by a steering committee. These include production of other supporting documents related to the schedule. The MRB Report also covers operation of the aircraft and some economic considerations in maintenance decisions. the plans to implement it begin. This is a legal document enforced by the regulatory authority.5. These include a procedures guide which describes the frequency and nature of aircraft inspection to be used. Once the maintenance schedule is finalised.5. This is produced by the manufacturer and forms the basic document with which the operators then work. then hangar space will have to be allocated or built.4 Implementation The initial work of implementing the MSG process is divided into several groups such as structures. 10. If the aircraft is a significant addition to the existing fleet. . Arrangements for supply of consumables and spares have to be made.5. such as maintenance and training manuals. manufacturers. powerplants. Model work cards for every task may be stored in a computer database. Many of these items may have lead times measured in years. To this may be added tasks generated by: The manufacturers maintenance planning document (MPD) The operators engineering department Any extra certification and maintenance requirements from the airworthiness authority (CAA. The end result should be the Approved Maintenance Schedule (AMS) or Airline Maintenance Program (AMP).6 THE MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE The MRB report is the starting point for the operator to prepare its own maintenance schedule. Once it is available the operators write their own schedule from the MRB Report. This committee defines "specifics" to direct the groups. Discussions about the make up of work packs take place with production engineering staff. Training and recruitment programmes have to be made based on estimates of skills needed and workload expected. Representatives of the operators (launch customers). The working groups are also given a specific time schedule.5 MRB Report The final report is termed the Maintenance Review Board (MRB) Report. FAA) The MPD may contain tasks additional to the MRB report which are recommended but not mandatory. These may include work on non-airworthiness items such as passenger cabin appearance. FAA) comprise the working groups. the AMS or AMP provides the operators staff with planning information for necessary materials. Once produced. The regulatory organisations must first approve the MRB Report and this is normally done in stages.

Is in a condition which requires a report or recording. Panel. Special Detailed Inspection – An inspection of a specific location or detail using a Non Destructive Inspection technique to detect a specific type of damage or discrepancy. Will remain serviceable until the next scheduled inspection of that detail. Transit or Ramp Check – A routine inspection or Check carried out during a turnaround or over-night. system or area.2. 1.1. surface position.1. The inspection is performed in the prevailing environment using a hand torch as required. 2. Types of Inspection 2.7 INFORMATION IN A TYPICAL SCHEDULE Many engineers only consider the maintenance schedule contains details of the actual work required for each inspection. As part of each “Inspection” the certifying Engineer shall make a judgement on whether the detail. 1.10. 1. system detail. 2. system and powerplant installations and components.3.2. may use hand lenses and may require NDT validation as required to perform an adequate inspection. normally accomplished from the ground. component. walking as close as necessary to detect obvious damage. component or location to detect damage or discrepancies.4. A particular viewing location may be specified. A certifying engineer may require the aircraft to be placed under cover and additional lighting or access be provided if thought necessary to perform an adequate inspection of a suspect condition. if not. The examples given are from a typical large aircraft maintenance schedule (BA 747 – 400) 3 Inspection Levels The inspection levels defined are specified to ensure that defects which could impair airworthiness or cause an unacceptable economic penalty if not corrected prior to the next scheduled inspection. Walk-round Inspection – A visual inspection from the ground. A certifying engineer may require the removal of equipment or soundproofing. The word “Inspect” is used to describe a task which requires a judgement. leaks and other discrepancies. free from any observed defects likely to affect airworthiness.3.3. The following information is also necessary when carrying out maintenance work. component. 1. The word “Check” is used to describe a task to ensure that the item conforms to a prescribed standard. 2. Surveillance Inspection – A visual inspection in good light of a specific area to detect damage or discrepancies in structure. normally in the airport terminal area. are detected. A certifying engineer may require additional lighting or access equipment to be provided and will use inspection aids such as mirrors as required to perform an adequate inspection. system or area inspected: Is.5. 1. 2. General Visual Inspection .1. cleaning and access requirements will be specified. at the time of inspection. component and lining removal. Inspection Standards 2. Detailed Inspection – A thorough visual inspection in good light of a highly defined structural detail.3. . leaks and other discrepancies. Scheduled Inspection – This is any inspection specified in the Approved Maintenance Schedule (AMS) for an aircraft.A visual inspection to detect obvious damage.5.2.

discrepancies and general condition but requiring amplification of the task.3.4. Component Removal 3. discharges or overheating Correct seating and sealing of assemblies. fairings and panels Serviceability and security of fasteners. Whenever a defect is found.1.3. The area. Zonal Inspection – A routine inspection of a specified AMS zone (internal/external) to detect damage.2.1. locking devices and electrical bonding Legibility of notices Aerodynamic Cleanliness: Fit of doors. 4. 3.2. the area of inspection shall be extended as required to ensure that the full extent of the defect is identified. incorrect maintenance or unauthorised access Spillages and accumulations of fluid or ice Obstructions of drainage or vent holes or overflow orifices Evidence of fuel. 2. Broken seals and or foreign bodies indicating failure. Metal Structure . connections. Access and component removal requirements for a Corrosion Protection Program (CPP) Inspection and subject to rules detailed in the relevant section of the AMS. cause excessive wear etc. The following conditions will be observed and evaluated.1. 3. nothing shall prevent a Certifying Engineer from requiring additional access to carry out a detail inspection to determine the full extent of a defect or to investigate an indication of a potential defect. However.3.2. 4. retain corrosive fluids. General ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ External evidence of damage Dirt or debris likely to contaminate or inhibit the proper functioning of a system. 4. system or detail to be inspected or checked is defined in the AMS.1. system.2.3. The limits of the area to be inspected are defined by zone number and the access provided by the specified removal of access panels and components defined by the AMS. anchor nuts and receptacles. Conditions to be observed and appropriate action taken 4. Highlight |Inspection – A routine Inspection of an area.3. as appropriate.. on all inspections/checks and corrected as necessary.4. or on the associated work documents. discrepancies and general condition as specified in the AMS item.4. Extension of Inspection Area 3.1. access panels and fairings.1.1. 4. The inspection requirements of non-scheduled inspections/checks will always be fully defined.1.1. 4. All other Inspections/Checks 3. component or detail specified in the AMS to detect damage. 4. air or system leaks. An AMS item may contain supplementary information to further define a particular inspection requirement. component. Removal of components is not required for inspection unless so specified.2. Zonal Inspection 3.4.1. Access for and Extent of Inspection 4.

loss of flexibility and adequate free length Contamination by fluids and corrosion inhibiting compounds. Seat framing.4.5. ∗ ∗ . cracking and wear around fasteners and degradation due to electrical discharge ∗ Fluid contamination 4.1. scoring. bolts. resin crazing. wear and flattening. Cuts. oil-canning.. cleanliness. rods and levers and avionic and instrument racking and panels. failure of welds and spot welds Obstruction of drain paths Corrosion and deterioration of protective treatment ∗ Condition of corrosion inhibiting compounds 4.6. ducting. kinking. positioning and condition of electrical bonding Cables: Evidence of fraying.1.. discoloration.1. radomes and ducting ∗ Cracking. friction. Rubber.3. chafing. cable insulation and coverings ∗ Adequate clearance in static/dynamic conditions to prevent chafing contact. connections and locking devices Condition of fasteners and fastener holes if parts are detached Security. fairing. fouling. Cockpit: Overheating 4. Alignment. dents. crazing and de-lamination. cracking. bowing Security of attachments. Control System Components ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Range of movement. ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ Evidence of chafing and wear Distortion. screws and fasteners Condition of fasteners and fastener holes if parts are detached Separation of structural bonding. seals. Reinforced plastic structural parts. de-lamination. control surfaces. kinking.1. tubes. galley and toilet structures. General: Transparency. Note: for avionic cables/wires see MM ATA 20 for amplification of the requirement. fabric and plastic pipes.General metal parts including pipes. twisting. over full range of movement 4. scoring and cracking Pulled or missing rivets. crushing.

In the Northern hemisphere this means that there are large differences in aircraft use in the summer and winter months. The competitive market in which most operators work. Airlines also need to fit in with long haul flights so that the overall travel time is reduced.6.Aircraft may be away for several days. There may be daily. Aircraft are obviously needed during these peak periods and maintenance workers may need to be compensated for working during these periods. forces them into trying to meet these peaks as reasonably as possible by making serviceable aircraft available at the peak times. 6. work start times is an important consideration and airlines will try to schedule for this. Aircraft maintenance has to be fitted into the spare time not required for commercial activities. These short term cycles have a strong effect on short haul operations and make it difficult for operators to achieve a high aircraft use.Most short haul flying is done in the day time and many countries restrict night flying due to noise problems.e. This means that most aircraft will be available for maintenance at night.Air transport is largely a leisure-oriented industry today. There are also shorter peaks in demand at times such as Bank holidays.10. with allowances made for factors such as crew duty legislation. Travel demand follows seasonal variations.Bank holidays generate high peaks lasting a few days. Air traffic controllers often decide to have a pay dispute over a bank holiday. but there is usually increased time for maintenance between flights. airport capacity. weekly and annual demands resulting in peaks at popular times. It is easier to remember the timings of regular flights if they occur at hourly intervals. resulting in loss of maintenance revenue.Demand for air transport varies with time. ii Long Haul . 4. 2. Short haul operations also puts pressure on maintainers to reduce ground time which limits fault finding during the day.Commercial timing i. 3.There is usually a peak at the beginning of the weekend as leisure travellers are outnumbering business travellers. are: 1. . The work schedule is determined largely by commercial requirements. Hub and spoke networks with main maintenance bases and out-stations are typical of short haul operations. as with many other goods. Some of the factors. Summer is normally the busiest time of the year and operators will try to minimise routine maintenance in the summer. Operators will therefore want to arrange their maintenance so that heavy maintenance work is carried out in the winter months. This is frequent enough to become part of a maintenance plan. Some days are less busy than others. This itself may cause problems due to the maintenance base not being fully utilised. Business travel has a morning peak and travellers like to return home in the evening.6 INTERFACE WITH AIRCRAFT OPERATION 10. On a shorter time-scale there are fluctuations in demand for aircraft at morning or afternoon peak times favoured by businessmen. which must be taken into consideration. These periods also make the operator vulnerable to problems such as industrial disputes or bad weather during these periods. Public Holidays . In the UK the lowest demand is on Tuesdays. Route Effects i Short Haul .1 AIRLINE SCHEDULING The main task of an airline engineer is to produce serviceable aircraft to support the flying program of the airline. 5. competition from other operators and other modes of transport. Demand Patterns . Days of the Week . Seasonal Effects . Timing .

10. Short Haul Operations Overnight maintenance enables most short-term routine scheduled work and some unscheduled work to be carried out.IDEAL PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS A different set of objectives from the commercial one previously discussed emerges if aircraft maintenance is examined from the engineers standpoint. 4. so there is a long mid-week period for maintenance. may not have the same peak patterns as others. This work is not always done at the home base. Many short haul routes are used for business and commuter travel so there is less demand for weekend use. workers can be continuously engaged and shift pattern may be set up to maximise maintenance. 10. It is desirable to schedule heavy maintenance activity outside these times.6. Weekend availability for must be the highest. they will require manpower to facilitate alterations to seating. The quieter midweek period could be used for some maintenance. such as Concorde or ultra-long range types (London to Australia). Configuration or Role .6. Some flights also use different passenger and cargo configurations. Luxury markets tend to have a weak demand in the summer. 3. aircraft may operate different routes to maximise their utilisation.2 MAINTENANCE OPPORTUNITIES Maintenance opportunities will vary with the nature of the operations and the market. structures and avionic workshops are normally set up to support the aircraft work. such as wheel bays. For business-class travel and luxury travel.7. Various workshops. Long Haul Operations The summer period may last several months. 2. These shift patterns may be set up for a long period with less need for revision and industrial agreements. Aircraft with unusual routes or performance. They are usually newer aircraft and hence have high depreciation values. Economic Short Haul Aircraft By this we mean aircraft which yield the most profit. often both on the same deck. Obviously if changes are frequent. often years ahead. This represents a considerable investment which must be fully utilised. There may be longer intervals during long haul aircraft turnrounds. . hydraulic. There is usually time in the winter for major checks and other long tasks. 8.Aircraft only earn money when they are flying so there is much pressure for them to spend as little time on the ground as possible. • Scheduled work is predictable and regular and therefore work may be planned in advance. For this reason. This means that they are best used at peak operation times such as the summer and maintenance would therefore be done in the winter. Winter maintenance is again desirable for this type of aircraft. so routine work which takes longer than overnight can be done then. Some facilities such as painting need specialised equipment and bays. The best occasions for maintenance are: 1.Airlines vary seating plans and loading plans to suit the market. Turnround . If demand for parts is well known in advance then parts needed for routine maintenance can be ordered and delivered in good time. so maintenance can be done then. If there are always aircraft undergoing maintenance. Sudden peak demands for parts should be avoided. Most tour charter firms and other low fare promotions utilise high density seating.3 MAINTENANCE . furnishings and galleys etc. Larger Short Haul These operations are normally flown as busy inclusive tour charters which peak in the summer. low density seating will be used.

Unscheduled Work This work arises due to the complicated nature of aircraft with many possibilities for behaviour outside their design specification. The solution is to make some provision based on experience and data from other operations. Allowable Deficiency Use Modern aircraft have considerable redundancy built in, in the form of standby components and duplicate/triplicate units/systems. By agreement with the airworthiness authorities (CAA) operators may class some minor defects as allowable deficiencies and defer the defects to a later date.

It is essential and mandatory that aircraft maintenance organisation carry out regular checks to ensure that everything is being done correctly. Organisations that carry out any maintenance work on commercial transport aircraft, or even parts to be fitted to these aircraft must be JAR 145 approved. This approval will be dealt with in full in module 10 (Legislation). The most important factors concerning the quality control concerning maintenance are: • • • The quality assurance must be independent from the work. It must be carried out by persons not involved with the tasks being checked. It must be carried out regularly. Each element should be checked at least once a year. There should normally be an external audit as well as internal audits. External meaning someone from a different organisation.

10.7.1 HOW IS QUALITY CHECKED In most large organisations there will be a quality department. It is their responsibility to ensure everything within the organisation is done correctly. In the case of aircraft maintenance, this means that the aircraft are maintained correctly in accordance with the maintenance schedule and any other mandatory requirements. It also means that the organisation must remain in compliance with their JAR 145 approval and any other approvals they hold. They may be a training organisation or hold approvals to do aircraft type courses. The organisation will have produced various documents specifying how they comply with the various requirements. These documents are called “Company Expositions” or “Company Procedure Manuals”. In the Company Procedures Manual it will specify for example the procedure for booking a component into stores. It will also detail the individual responsibilities of the stores staff. It will specify all of the documentation (forms etc.) used by the stores. There will be a separate section for each of the main departments of the organisation. The quality department and more specifically the head of the quality department is responsible for both the production of the procedure manuals and for checking that they are complied with. 10.7.2 EXTERNAL VERIFICATION An external verifier will check at regular intervals that the company is performing correctly. As well as these checks the JAA or their representatives will also carry out checks. If the organisation fails any of the inspections, they may lose their approval. This could mean the company is closed down. In most cases the failures may be minor and correctable. In this case they would be allowed to continue, but a close watch maintained to check for further problems.

The following information has been obtained from CAAIP 11-5 Aircraft Electrical Cables and as such is intended purely as a guide. The leaflet itself provides guidance material on the approval and acceptance of aircraft cables and is based upon CAA information Leaflet AD/IL/0140/1-25 Aircraft Electrical Cables. The recent advances made in performance of dielectric materials has led to the development of aircraft cables which differ significantly from those in service in older aircraft types. Experience gained to date on the operation of existing aircraft cables and on the recent developments, has shown that there are a number of areas where it is considered general guidance material would be beneficial.

11.1.1 AIRWORTHINESS CODES The applicable airworthiness code will depend on the type of aircraft in which the cable is to be installed. This may be BCAR Section D, BCAR Section K, BCAR Section G or JAR 25 (see 3.1(d)). The following list is provided for guidance purposes only: • • • • BCAR Section D6-13 paragraph 7.1 - Cables and Associated Fittings and Equipment BCAR Section K6-13 paragraph 7.1 - Cables and Associated Fittings and Equipment BCAR Section G6-14 paragraph 7.1 - Cables and Associated Fittings and Equipment JAR 25 25.1309 25.1353 25.1355 25.1359 Equipment, Systems and Installation Electrical Equipment and Installation Distribution System Electrical System Fire and Smoke Protection

NOTE: See also JAR NPA 25DF-191 (Miscellaneous Electrical Requirements). 11.1.2 DESIGN RESPONSIBILITY For the purpose of the control of design, electrical cables are considered to be an item of ‘equipment’ and therefore the requirements of BCAR Section A, Chapter A4-8 or Section B, Chapter B4-6 apply. In general, all cables used for interconnection within the airframe and power plant are classed as ‘Controlled Items’ and chapter 11.1.3 considers this in specific terms. NOTE: • The same paragraph numbers will apply for BCAR 23 and BCAR 29 where applicable.

See also Airworthiness Notice No. 12 Appendix No. 32. Electrical Cable Failure and Appendix No. 42, Maintenance and re-installation of piped and cables looms.

11.1.3 APPROVAL OF CABLES BCAR Section A, Chapter A4-8 and Section b, Chapter B4-8 (CAP 553/CAP 554) procedures Cable manufacturers seeking approval of their products need to hold appropriate Terms of Approval under an organisational approval to BCAR Section A, Chapter A8-1. Controlled items such as aircraft cables may be certified under ‘Component’ or ‘Accessory’ Approval procedure. Where a product is widely used, the Accessory Approval Procedure will generally be applicable. In this case, the CAA will assess the design in relation to the specification and to the requirements of the CAA, which will align wherever possible to ‘Standards’ which have been agreed Nationally or Internationally. A user who has, or has access to, a design organisation holding appropriate Terms of Approval may elect to employ cables which they may certify under the ’Components Procedure’. A Declaration of Design and Performance (DDP) will be required and this should be related to a design specification controlled either by the cable manufacturer or the installing Design Authority. A National or International ‘Standard’ may also be employed, but this will usually need to be supplemented by a Detailed Specification where the ‘Standard’ related to performance rather than construction. BCAR Section A, Chapter A4-8 and Section B4-8 (see note) does not include a procedure for granting Appliance Registration to equipment which is designed and produced under the control of an overseas Airworthiness Authority (Chapter B4-8 paragraph 5.4). Such registrations have been granted in respect of cables and are the equivalent of Accessory Approval. The CAA does not normally grant Approvals against Standard or Specifications over which it has no control or influence, or where such an approval could be in conflict with the interests of another Authority. Accessory Approval does not automatically authorise the installation of a product, each application having to be approved as noted in paragraph 3.4 below: NOTE: The CAA has revised the current Requirements of BCAR Section A (CAP 460) at Issue 29 by dividing the Certification and Approval Procedures into two Sections, namely: • • Section A (CAP 553): Airworthiness Procedures where the CAA has Primary Responsibility for Type Approval of the product. Section B (CAP 554): Airworthiness Procedures where the CAA Does Not have Primary Responsibility for Type Approval of the product.

These three documents will remain concurrent until 30 June 1990 at which time BCAR Section A (CAP 460) at Issue 29 will be withdrawn. 11.1.4 MODIFICATION & REPAIR Cables used as replacements, or used for medication of an aircraft, should be of a type approved by the constructor for that particular aircraft type unless an alternative is selected by an approved Design Authority. This selection should recognise the various factors detailed in this Leaflet. This is most readily achieved by obtaining a Declaration of Design and Performance (DDP) from the manufacturer if that manufacturer is suitably CAA approved. The user should also take steps to ensure that the quality of cable is satisfactory and the preferred method of achieving this is by obtaining a CAA Approved Certificate from the manufacturer. This release should define a cable by reference to its specification. For aircraft constructed overseas, the manufacturing sources approved by the aircraft constructor as satisfactory for his requirements for quality should be used.

Verification of product quality from the Airworthiness Authority of the country of origin should be available and should be used where possible. (Airworthiness Notice No’s 11 and 39 should be observed as appropriate). It is important to recognise that the certification requirements for electrical installations and the design standards achieved by aircraft constructors have advanced with time, especially in relation to fire hazards. Consequently, it is not correct to assume that every cable type in use has a current approval for use on all aircraft. For example, cables with PVC insulation such as Nyvin, MIL-W-5086 (all types), or BMS 13-13, should not be used on aircraft certified with new technology cables employing insulation which is less likely to emit noxious fumes. Users who do not hold an appropriate design approval but who nevertheless seek approval for work under an AAN, will normally be expected to employ cable selected by a Design Authority or employ a cable which has CAA Accessory Approval, (or an Appliance Registration from some overseas sources). A list of cable types which currently hold Accessory Approval are included at the end of this section, this list is constantly being updated and should not be used without reference to the Systems and Equipment Design Department, Safety Regulation Group, Gatwick. All manufacturers of Accessory Approved cable have good technical literature and provide service support to their customers. It is stressed that CAA Approval for a cable does not absolve the user from his responsibility to make a correct assessment of the product against the intended duty. It is important to be aware that generalised claims by stockists and others that a cable type is "approved" or "qualified" is likely to be of little value unless substantiated by the procedures prescribed in this Information Leaflet. Thus the "Approval" of a cable design by, say, an overseas military agency has no significance to a UK civil user.

Listed below are the broad classifications used for aircraft cables. Regrettably, there is little International Standardisation of terminology and it should be noted that the term ‘wire’ is used in the USA whereas most other countries talk of ‘cable’. Other significant differences in terminology are stated where appropriate. 11.2.1 AIRFRAME CABLES Cables designated as "Airframe", are intended to be sufficiently robust to satisfy the requirements of ‘Open’ airframe wiring and the general wiring of Power plants. However, in recent years there has been a strong trend towards very thin insulation which is harder and stiffer than insulation such as PVC. Such ‘stiff’ cables are perfectly satisfactory if the installation is designed to accept them, but they may very well be quite unsuitable for an older airframe design requiring, say, flexing over hinges. It follows that even if all the major declared characteristics such as overall diameter and temperature rating are acceptable, the apparently equivalent cables may still not be interchangeable. There are two basic methods of applying cable insulation, namely wrapping and extruding. These methods in themselves can produce different "handling" characteristics. In the USA the term "Medium Weight-Interconnect" may be used for Airframe Cables. 11.2.2 INTERCONNECT CABLES "Interconnect" is a term adopted by the BSI to designate cables which may be used in protected areas of wiring such as the interconnection of equipment within racks. Such cable would normally be installed within an assembly which would then be positioned into an aircraft. It would not, therefore, be subject to "pulling through" and other such stressful exercises.

Interconnect cables employ thinner insulation than airframe types, which saves weight and space and increases flexibility, the latter being most important where looms (bundles) are required to turn through small radii into electrical connectors. However, all the constraints given in chapter 11.2.1 for airframe cable also apply here. The term "Hook-up" is commonly used in the USA to designate cables of this type and the designation "Light Weight-Interconnect" may also be applied. 11.2.3 EQUIPMENT WIRE This cable, invariably known as "wire", is intended to be used within equipment and, therefore, is very flexible and suitable for soldering. It is not designed for use as interconnect wiring, but design organisations do, on occasion, select a particular type for use in protected areas of an airframe. There is a considerable range of such cables which vary in basic construction and performance and they should always be closely defined. In general, the types in aircraft use are produced by CAA Approved Organisations who provide "CAA Release" to British Standard G210 or an equivalent specification. Some manufacturers have sought "Accessory Approval" for BS G210 cable and this has been granted, but it is not a CAA requirement that any form of design approval be applied to this cable when it is used for its intended purpose, (which is within equipment enclosures where the equipment itself is subject to control). If follows that it can be manufactured and released by a Supplier, approved to BCAR Section A, chapter A8-2. The term "Module Wire" is sometimes used for this class of cable in the USA. 11.2.4 FIRE RESISTANT CABLES This type of cable is required to retain a defined level of electrical insulation in the presence of fire for five minutes, as defined in BCAR Section D, Chapter D1-2 paragraph 1.17.2 and JAR 1. "Fire Resistant" should not be confused with ‘high temperature’ and fire resistant types should only be employed where this property is required because other characteristics, such as fluid resistance, will usually be poorer than could be expected from a non fire resistant high temperature cable. 11.2.5 FIREPROOF CABLES These cables are required to operate for fifteen minutes in a designated fire as defined in BCAR Section D, Chapter D6 paragraph 6.5.1 and JAR 1 and are for use in designated fire zones. BCAR Section D, Chapter D6-13 paragraph 6.6.2 and JAR 25.1359 define a fire zone. As for Fire Resistant types, they should only be used where necessary. 11.2.6 MULTI-CORE, SCREENED AND JACKETED CABLES Airframe and Interconnect Cables may be supplied in a multi-core form or generally up to four cores, the cores being twisted together. The multi-core may be jacketed (sometimes known as a sheath) or it may be screened and jacketed. The screening is usually a braid which gives 85% surface coverage, but screening to a higher standard may be used and on replacement of such cables, the standard must not be degraded. The cores are coloured for identification as defined in BS G230. 11.2.7 DATA BUS Data Bus cables are designed to specific requirements which will not, as a general principle, allow for replacement by any other type other than that specified by the Design Authority for the installation. (This requirement will also apply to the terminations of such cables).

usually of fine braid. but an additional Manufacturer’s Detailed Specification. impedance. tinned. This may be on a ‘commercial in confidence’ basis. since co-axial cables do not radiate. capacitance per unit length and attenuation per unit length.11. Thirdly. the internationally accepted standard materials are Chromel and Alumel. The remaining conductors are in the form of tubes. 11. The innermost conductor may be solid or stranded copper wire. The materials used are limited and depend on the temperatures being measured. and mechanical and electrical damage.10 CO-AXIAL CABLES Co-axial cables contain two or more separate conductors. 11. BS G221 for Minyvin. Outer coverings or jackets serve to weatherproof the cables and protect them from fluids. and may be plain.8 IGNITION CABLES These cables are used for the transmission of high tension voltages in both piston engine and turbine engine ignition systems. silver plated or even gold plated. e.2.2. Newer standard are based upon general requirements given in BS G230. 11. The majority of cables used on British built aircraft now in service will have been produced to such ‘G’ specifications. Co-axial cables have several advantages over standard cables. These cables will be examined in more detail under ignition systems.9 THERMOCOUPLE CABLES These cables are used in high temperature measuring systems employing the thermocouple principle (see chapter Error: Reference source not found).2. 11. An electrostatic field does not extend beyond the outer conductor and the magnetic fields due to current flow in the inner and outer conductors cancel each other out. The CAA grants Accessory Approval to cables which comply with these standards. which defines the precise construction.1 BRITISH STANDARDS SPECIFICATIONS Aircraft cable specifications are issued in the Aerospace G series of British Standards are referenced in the BSI Year Book. Firstly.3. Secondly. will also be required by the CAA.3 SPECIFICATION & CABLE TYPE IDENTIFICATION Because of the large number of specifications which exist for aircraft cables. it is impractical to list these in this Leaflet. they are shielded against electrostatic and magnetic fields. and are of the single core stranded type suitably insulated and screened by metal braided sheathing to prevent interference. A series of ‘Detailed Standards’ numbered sequentially from G232 has now been published and these define cable design requirements and physical characteristics. then likewise they will not pick up any energy or be influenced by magnetic fields. for jet engine exhaust gas temperature measurement. The following information has been complied to assist in the recognition of the original specifications. co-axial cables have specific values of. . The insulation is usually teflon or polyethylene.g. Significant differences can occur between cables complying with the same basic form of requirements and even with the BSI ‘G’ series of standards. For piston engine exhaust temperature and cylinder head temperature measurement other combinations such as Iron / Constantan and Copper / Constantan are used. there are problems in attempting to offer guidance on interchangeability between products.

BS G230 includes a listing of Manufacturer’s Identification Marks and also a Letter Code for year of manufacture. This information is reproduced at the end of this section. 11.3.2 UK MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS Cables produced for the MOD will include aircraft types which are identified as EL.XXXX or D.E.F.XX-XX Pt XX. Military aircraft produced by a European consortium may have their own cable specifications and a typical example is the Panavia project which has produced PAN specifications. These military specifications are mentioned for information and it should be noted that the CAA does not normally validate such specifications. 11.3.3 US MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS The designation of US Military Specifications for cable is usually MIL-W-XXXX. Each MIL specification has a number of ‘slash sheets’ and the requirements of such individual sheets can encompass a large range of cables. It is absolutely essential to known the full designation of any MIL Specification cable and to replace like with like. As stated previously, CAA Accessory Approval cannot be granted against MIL Specifications and users should be made aware that the use of such cables may be difficult to justify for other than direct replacement purposes and where the original selection has an approval. 11.3.4 CONSTRUCTOR’S SPECIFICATION Aircraft constructors may publish specifications and some of the most frequently seen of these are:a) b) c) d) Boeing - BMS XXXX Douglas - BXS XXX Airbus Industrie - AR XXXX or ASNE XXXX BAC (Concorde) - BAS XXXX

It has to be emphasised that these cables are approved in relation to the aircraft on which they are installed by the constructor, i.e. a cable which is ‘approved’ for use by on constructor may not necessarily be acceptable to another. 11.3.5 INTERNATIONAL (INCLUDING EUROPEAN) STANDARDS The official body for the standardisation of aircraft equipment, including cable, is the ISO (International Standards Organisation). The BSI contributes to the work of the ISO but it has to be said that few, if any, ISO cable standards are employed by industry. Within Europe, the Society of British Aerospace Companies (SBAC) works in association with other manufacturers in the organisation known as AECMA ( Association Europeanne Des Constructeurs De Materiel Aerospatiale). AECMA seeks to promote their own standards and they publish European ‘Normes’ as EN specifications. These have not yet been widely adopted, at least within the UK, but preliminary specifications may be published and these are known as prEN Standards. ISO and EN Standards may be recognised for installation approval purposes except that is not usually within the boundaries of the CAA to grant product approval against a specification not controlled by BSI or a recognised (Approved) organisation.

11.3.6 CABLE MANUFACTURER’S SPECIFICATIONS The CAA will accept specifications from Approved Organisations and will grant, where appropriate, approval against such specifications. The organisation controlling the specification has to be a Primary Company (BCAR Section A, Chapter A8-1) or a suitably supervised overseas organisation (see BCAR Section B, Chapter B4-8 paragraph 5.4).

The definition of cable performance has increased in complexity and precision with the reduction of insulation thickness and weight. Some of the cables now used for airframe wiring have no more than 0.006 inch (0.15mm) of insulation thickness and thus there is little margin for error in manufacture or in an aircraft installation. The operating temperature dictates to a large extent the materials and constructions used, but installation requirements need to be satisfied by defining properties such as resistance to insulation ‘cut-through’ and abrasion. It follows that cables need to be selected with care and the factors detailed below should be considered in relation to any intended duty. 11.4.1 APPLICATION Obviously, a primary consideration in cable selection is to determine the class of cable required within the classification given. It should be noted that under one generic name there may be a range of insulation thicknesses which will be appropriate for Airframe or for Interconnect cable and thus correct identification, by part number, is particularly important. 11.4.2 TEMPERATURE The temperature rating of a cable must be defined to permit comparison with the worst case requirements of the application. If follows that the location of a cable, relative to hot air ducts and local hot spots such as power transformers and some filament lighting, must be known. Cables have a specific maximum continuous operating temperature, and for many types, this may be achieved by any combination of ambient temperature plus temperature rise due to I2R losses. However, it should be noted, that in general, it is undesirable to contribute more than a 40°C rise by electrical heating and that operating temperature and installed life are directly related. The temperature rating of an airframe cable is determined by its construction, and will be classified at one of the following temperatures:105°C (obsolescent cable types), 135°C, 150°C, 210°C and 260°C. Clearly this temperature rating has to be known when evaluating any design application.

11.4.3 CABLE SIZE Cable is usually identified by a size number which approximates to the AWG (American Wire Gauge) size of the conductor. However, some cables employ a number which refers to the square millimetres of a conductor cross section, which is a system used extensively for commercial cables. The size of cable is the primary determinate of the electrical protection level set by the circuit breaker or fuse, and should never be reduced below the level established by proper coordination data. Manufacturers publish rating data for single cable in free air, and for bundles of three cables in free air. By study of the short term and continuous ratings for a given cable type and size, the correct protection can be determined (CAA Airworthiness Notice No.12 Appendix No.32 should be observed). Current rating data usually relates to a temperature rise of 40°C above ambient as stated above and due allowance must be made for such electrical heating. Manufacturers data will normally include conductor resistance in ohms per kM at 20°C and a temperature correction may be necessary if accurate voltage drop calculations are necessary. It should be noted that cable ‘size’ relates only to the conductor and thus the overall diameter and surface finish for a given size may vary significantly between cable types. Such differences in overall diameter may have an effect on cable sealing in connectors and pressure bungs, and also the selection of preinsulated terminal ends where a dielectric crimp is provided. 11.4.4 VOLTAGE RATING All cables have a rated voltage and some, such as equipment wires, may be specified by voltage. Particular reference should be made to the specified voltage of any cable where higher than normal potentials may be used, examples being discharge lamp circuits and windscreen heating. 11.4.5 CURRENT RATING American Wire gauge sizes simply indicate the physical size of the cable and have only limited bearing on the current carrying characteristics of the cable. The current limits or ratings depend on a number of factors such as: • Numbers of cables in a loom. • Ambient temperature. • Duration current is flowing Such current ratings need to be obtained from tables either produced by the manufacturer or included in the maintenance manuals. The current limits in tables are based on a conductor temperature increase of 40°C under the conditions specified in the table. As such it is not possible to use the limits in such tables if the ambient temperature to which the cable will be subjected is less than 40°C below the maximum permitted conductor temperature. For example: The maximum service temperature for Fepsil is 190°C. The maximum permitted continuous current in a single strand of awg 20 Fepsil is 19 Amps (this will raise the temperature of the cable by 40°C, in an an ambient temperature above 150°C). So the cable cannot be operated with a 19 amp continuous current in an ambient temperature above 150°C. If the maximum design ambient temperature (150°C for Fepsil) is continuously exceeded then the current ratings in the table will have to be multiplied by K where:

K = Where T is the maximum service temperature of the cable and t is the higher ambient temperature. For example: If it was intended to use Fepsil in an ambient temperature of 170°C, the current values in the table would have to be multiplied by: K = = = 0⋅ 707

11.4.6 FLAMMABILITY & TOXICITY All cables are required to have a defined level of resistance to burning when exposed to standard flame tests. In addition to the requirements for flammability, there exists within BCAR’s JAR’s and FAR’s, general requirements relating to the hazards of smoke and toxicity. In recent years, greater emphasis has been placed upon these characteristics and whilst they are not yet defined in many civil cable specifications, it is generally true that new cable types have been more thoroughly investigated, albeit on an empirical or subjective basis. 11.4.7 WET ARC TRACKING A requirement has now been formulated to assess the ‘resistance to failure’ of cables when subjected to a combination of insulation damage and fluid contamination. The propensity of some insulating materials to ‘track’ has long been studied in high voltage systems but it has now been found necessary, following a failure as detailed later in this section. BS G230 now includes a test to determine resistance to Wet Arc Tracking (Test No.42), and Airworthiness Notice No.12, Appendix No.32 will be used to keep industry advised for the CAA position on this subject. Tracking can also occur under dry conditions and this is being studied. This failure mode reinforces the need for good cable installation and maintenance practise. 11.4.8 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES The assessment of cables insulation’s includes the ability to withstand the pressure of a sharp edge (cut-through), and for the ability to withstand scraping with a defined blade. It is these tests which figure significantly in assessing airframe cable and which are the controlled methods of replacing assessment by scraping with the thumb nail. As noted earlier, differing constructions result in mark changed in handling properties especially with regard to stiffness and ‘springiness’. Installation of looms of thin wall hard dielectric cable has to have regard to the reluctance of such looms to be ‘set’ in position, especially if the supporting structure is flimsy. It must not, however, be assumed that this apparent strength is translated into the ability to withstand physical abuse. 11.4.9 FLUID CONTAMINATION Cables are required to display a defined level of resistance to the effects of commonly used aircraft fluids but this is not to say that cables can withstand continuous contamination, which should be avoided. A related hazard is that presented by sealing compounds because these may contain agents which are aggressive to cable insulation. If follows that where a new cable type is introduced, the compatibility with such compounds should be checked. Equally, the use of a new fluid on an aircraft, e.g. new types of hydraulic fluid, should be considered in relation to the ability of cables to withstand contamination. Contamination of cables by toilet or galley waste has to be rigorously prevented or corrected as detailed in Airworthiness Notice No.12 Appendix No.32

11.5.1 CONDUCTORS For equipment interconnection and airframe cables, the conductors are normally of the stranded type and are usually made from plated copper. However, size 24 and smaller sizes of conductor will be of copper alloy having a higher tensile strength. Fire resistant cables may also be of copper alloy or copper conductors throughout all applicable sizes. The total conductor consists of plated strands which are circular in section and which are laid up into one of a number of strands forms. Aluminium conductors are also available for cables of size 8 and large but such cables have not been without problems. Any modification which involves conversion from copper to aluminium should be classed as ‘major’ and thoroughly investigated, especially in regard to termination techniques. Obviously, ‘aluminium cables’ will need to be significantly larger in cross section than copper for a given electrical load, because of the higher electrical resistance of aluminium. 11.5.2 CONDUCTOR PLATING Plating is employed on copper, copper alloy and aluminium conductors to improve resistance to correction and to assist termination techniques. Very often it is the plating which will determine the temperature rating of a given cable and the figures given below are those widely recognised within the UK. a) b) c) d) Tin plated copper maximum continuous temperature Silver plated copper maximum continuous temperature Nickel plated copper maximum continuous temperature Nickel Clad plated copper maximum continuous temperature 135°C 200°C 260°C 260°C

Nickel clad copper is used instead of nickel plate on fire resistant cable to provide a thicker nickel element. The temperature figures quoted above may have to be varied downwards because of limitations imposed by the cable insulation. Higher figures, notably 150°C for tin plating, are sometimes quoted in the USA but performance at such temperature, especially in regard to stable crimp resistance and solderability is the subject of debate, if not dispute. It should be noted that the plating used on crimped terminal ends must be compatible with the conductor plating of the cable, and information should be sought from termination manufacturers. 11.5.3 DIELECTRIC MATERIALS / CABLE TYPES It is not practicable to review in these notes, the performance of all of the many types of cable construction available except in general terms Extensive studies have been made, especially in the USA, in an attempt to determine an optimum cable type. The conclusion drawn is that there is not an overall best cable and that all the materials studied have advantages and disadvantages. This is little help to a user who is seeking to resolve the conflicting guidance and advice offered by organisations which have a keen commercial interest in the decisions of an intending purchaser. This information Leaflet is intended to alert people to the difficulty of making a sound judgement in what has traditionally been considered to be a simple subject.

Insulation material is applied to conductors by one of two basic methods, extrusion and wrapping. In general terms, extrudable materials are ‘heat meltable’ and are not employed for higher temperature applications. It follows that towards the upper limit of their operating temperature, their mechanical strength when measured by abrasion or cut through, can be significantly less than that measured at room temperature. Airframe categories of cable usually have a double extrusion which are not always of the same material. A double extrusion is also claimed to impart ‘crack stopping’ qualities. Radiation cross linking of processed material is employed on high performance cables and this eliminates melting, increases strength and allows for thinner wall thickness. Cables employing such construction perform well on the British Standard test for wet arc tracking. The most commonly used wrapped insulation material is Kapton (see Note), which is the registered trade name to an aromatic polyimide produced by Dupont. Many cable manufacturers world-wide use Kapton, either singly or in combination with other materials to give a so-called hybrid construction. Single or double tapes are spirally wound over the conductor to a defined overlap to give the required tape thickness' at any one point. Kapton is naturally copper coloured and it is usual to apply a top coat to provide a coloured surface which will accept print and also give added protection to the cable. It follows that it is totally incorrect to talk of Kapton cables without further definition. Some constructions, notably cables made in the USA to MILW81381/11, have been the subject of adverse comment and it is possible that the use of this particular type will be discontinued in some environments. This would not reflect general rejection of cables containing Kapton because most constructions provide good overall performance including excellent mechanical strength, especially the newer higher hybrid types. Note: Kapton is a Dupont trademark. The process of wrapping insulation provides good control of insulation wall thickness and there are now cable types which employ only 4 layers of ‘Kapton’, giving a total wall thickness of approximately 0·006 inches (·15 mm) and these are being employed throughout the aircraft of some recently certified aircraft types. The CAA has not granted an Accessory Approval as ‘Airframe’ types to such cables, these having been accepted on a ‘Component’ basis. The special case of PVC insulated cables such as Minyvin (BS G221) was reviewed earlier in the notes and all PVC cables are now classed as ‘Obsolescent - unsuitable for new designs’.

The following types of failure and quality faults are amongst those seen in recent years. This is not the total list of cable problems but it does, perhaps, indicate the importance of specifying electrical cable of an appropriate type and quality. It is the design intent that the present generation of CAA Approved cables should last an aircraft life, but this will only be achieved if installations are designed and maintained with care and cable selection is made such that operating conditions, especially maximum temperature, seldom if ever, approach the specified limiting parameters. 11.6.1 WET ARC TRACKING Airworthiness Notice No.12 Appendix No.32 has drawn the attention of Industry to the problem of wet arc tracking of damaged cables subjected to fluid contamination. Observation of this Appendix and the actions of cable manufacturers should resolve the problem, but the greatest need is to ensure that hot stamp printing is properly controlled. ‘Interconnect’ and ‘Equipment Wires’ should not be hot stamp printed. 11.6.2 MINYVIN Some batches of Minyvin have in the past shown a tendency to shed the outer nylon sheath because of splitting along a flow line inadvertently introduced during manufacture. In dry areas of aircraft, replacement of such cable is not a matter of urgency but if moisture, especially hydraulic fluid, is present then cable must be replaced. In areas which are exposed and prone to fluid contamination, such as undercarriage bays, modifications to introduce a more suitable cable have been raised on some aircraft types. 11.6.3 BMS 13-28 Larger sizes of this mineral-filled PTFE cable, especially those used on Boeing 707, 727 and 737 aircraft, tend to experience complete insulation failure due to longitudinal splitting of the total dielectric. Replacement by BMS13-53 or EFGLAS to BS G222 under modification action is desirable. 11.6.4 ABRASION Some types of cable have shown a tendency to ‘wear through’ the insulation at a point where cable rubs on the structure. Areas of high vibration induce this failure mechanism and it may be supposed that the stiffer construction of some cables tends to produce a greater contact force and transmit vibration where previously it was damped. Careful cable loom tying and clipping is necessary to alleviate this problem (see Airworthiness Notice No.12 Appendix No.42). 11.6.5 CONDUCTOR 'KNUCKLING THROUGH' Some earlier cable constructions tended to exhibit knuckling of conductors which could be severe enough to penetrate the insulation. This was induced by applying excessive pull through forces and care should be taken not to put cables under tension. FEPSIL to BS G202, which is now ‘obsolescent’, requires particular care in manufacture and installation to avoid this defect.

11.6.6 RED PLAGUE Cables with silver plated conductors can exhibit the aptly named ‘Red Plague’ if the plating has been damaged and then exposed to moisture. Consequently, silver plated conductors are generally unsuitable for use in unpressurised areas. 11.6.7 GLYCOL FIRES It is known that should de-icing fluid contaminate silver plated conductors, an electrical fire can result. Accordingly, silver plated conductors should not be employed in areas where de-icing fluid can be present. 11.6.8 POOR SOLDERABILITY It should be recognised that the quality of free tin on plated conductors rapidly reduce with time. The replacement of soldered connections during aircraft maintenance will probably require that conductors are ‘tinned’ as part of the process. The loss of free tin starts as soon as the cable is manufactured and thus prolonged storage should be avoided.

On the following pages is a list of Accessory Approved cables at the date of issue of this information book. Information is supplied on the cable types where available. In all cases, the cables are approved for use in aircraft subject to limitations as specified in the appropriate Declaration of Design and Performance (DDP). For further information contact should be sought with the manufacturers.

11.7.1 B.I.C.C. • Cable to Specification BS2G233 Approval Reference E14012


The cables are single and multi-core airframe and interconnect, multi-core sheathed airframe and interconnect and single and multi-core screened and sheathed types. Conductors and braids are tin plated, the insulation and sheath being ETFE extruded and irradiated. Temperature range: Size: 65° to + 35°C Single core airframe 26 to 10 AWG Single core interconnect 26 to 18 AWG Sheathed and screened and sheathed airframe 1-4 cores, 26 to 16 AWG Sheathed and screened and sheathed interconnect 1-4 cores, 26 to 16 AWG • Cable to Specification EMC 63 Approval Reference E13458 Description :

The cables are single core or multi-core metsheath, having conductors of tinned annealed copper or silver plated copper alloy insulated with extruded ETFE. Temperature range: Size: 65°C to +120°C (tinned conductors) 65°C to +150°C (silver plated conductors) Silver plated high strength copper alloy conductor size 26 and 24 AWG only. Tinned copper conductor size 22 to 12 AWG (Medium wall). NOTE: Thin wall cable also available, intended for internal wiring of equipment. Silver plated high strength copper alloy conductor - size 24 AWG only and tinned copper conductor sizes 22 to 12 AWG (Thick wall). • Cable Specification ECM 65 (ACT 260) Approval Reference E13528 Description

The cables are single and multi-core airframe and interconnect, multi-core sheathed airframe and interconnect and single and multi-core screened and sheathed types. Conductors and braids are nickel plated, the insulation and sheath being a composite of polyamide and PTFE. Temperature range: Size: 65°C to +260°C Single core airframe 24 to 12 AWG Single core interconnect 24 to 18 AWG Sheathed and screened and sheathed airframe 1-4 cores, 24 to 16 AWG Sheathed and screened and sheathed airframe 1-4 cores, 24 to 18 AWG

Cable to Specification ECM66 (ACT 150) Approval Reference E13663


The cables are single and multi-core airframe and interconnect, multi-core sheathed airframe and interconnect and single and multi-core screened and sheathed types. Conductors and braids are silver plated, the insulation and sheath being a composite of polyamide and PTFE. Temperature range: Size: 65°C to +150°C Single core airframe 24 to 12 AWG Single core interconnect 24 to 18 AWG Sheathed and screened and sheathed airframe 1-4 cores, 24 to 16 AWG Sheathed and screened and sheathed interconnect 1-4 cores, 24 to 18 AWG • Cable to Specification ECM 45 Approval Reference E12560 Description:

Two core compensating cable comprising nickel chromium nickel aluminium conductors, insulated with layers of FEP coated Kapton tape and PTFE tape, sheathed with layers of Kapton tape and PTFE tape. Temperature range: • Description : 55°C to +260°C Approval Reference E12020 Cable to Specification ECM 47 Thermocouple extension cable-twin sheathed flat design having conductor nickel chromium and nickel aluminium insulated with Kapton/glass fibre braid/coloured PTFE tape all sintered. The sheath over the flat twin is of Kapton tape and coloured PTFE tape (sintered). Temperature range: • Description: 55°C to +150°C Approval Reference E12859 Cable to Specification ECM 60

The cables are single core, having conductors of nickel coated copper. The insulation is a composite of silicone rubber, quartz and PTFE. Temperature range: • Description: 40°C to +260°C Approval Reference E12357 Cable to Specification ECM 52

The cables are single core, having conductors of nickel coated copper. The insulation is a composite of silicone rubber, quartz and PTFE. Temperature range: • Description : 40°C to +260°C Approval Reference E12079 Cable to Specification ECM 44 (KP260)

The cables are single core, screened and sheathed and multi-core screened and sheathed having nickel plated copper alloy (size 24 only) or nickel plated copper alloy (size 24 only) or nickel plated copper conductors and braids insulated and sheathed where appropriate with a combination of PTFE and Kapton/FEP taps are sintered. Temperature range: Sizes: 65°C to +260°C Single core 24 to 12 AWG

Temperature range: • Description: 65°C to +150°C Approval Reference E13844 Type 7000 and 7000T Single core cables. Twisted single cables (two. sizes 22-10 inclusive with nickel plated copper conductors. three and four) also available sizes 26-16. Single core cables. Single core cable sizes 24 and 26 with silver plated copper alloy conductors. • Type 6000 and 6000T Single core cables sizes 22-10 inclusive with silver plated copper conductors. All cables insulated with FEP/Kapton/FEP tape and PTFE tape overall. three and four) also available. Twisted single cables (two. Temperature range: Size: • Description: 65°C to + 135°C 22-12 AWG Approval Reference E12577 Polyimide 2000 (code 1148) Silver plated copper alloy and silver plated copper conductors with Kapton Insulation. Temperature range: 65°C to +260°C .2 RISTS WIRE AND CABLE LTD. • Polyimide 3000SS (code 1143 and 1144) Approval Reference E12518 Description: Single core screened and sheathed Kapton insulated cables with silver plated copper alloy and silver plated copper conductors. All cables are insulated with FEP/Kapton/FEP tape and PTFE tape overall. Temperature range: • Description 65°C to +150°C Approval Reference E12576 Polyimide 1500 (code 1147) Single core Kapton insulated cable with a top coat of FEP lacquer having electro tinned copper conductors.11. size 26 and 24 with nickel plated copper alloy conductors. sizes 26-16.7.

three and four conductors and "metsheath" versions.11.3 RAYCHEM LIMITED • Raychem Type 44 Approval Reference E11623 Description: Silver plated high strength copper alloy conductors or tin plated copper conductors. The constructions are types 1 and 2 in single. two. The following part numbers are identified with respective limitations:44A0811-XX-Colour 44A0812-XX-Colour 44A0814-XX-Colour 44A0211-XX-Colour 44A0212-XX-Colour 44A0212-XX-Colour 44A0111-XX-Colour 44A0112-XX-Colour 44A0114-XX-Colour 44A1211-XX-Colour 44A1212-XX-Colour 44A1214-XX-Colour 44A1111-XX-Colour 44A1112-XX-Colour 44A1114-XX-Colour Note: XX denote AWG size Temperature range: • Raychem Type 55 75°C to +140°C Screened and sheathed equipment wire Screened and sheathed Airframe cable Thin wall equipment wire constructions Light Airframe/Interconnect construction Airframe Constructions Silver plated high strength copper alloy or tin plated copper or silver plated copper conductors. The insulation is made up of an extruded radiation cross linked fluoropolymer.7. The insulation is made up of radiation cross linked polyolefin polymer with a protective sheath of polyvinylidene fluoride. A cross reference sheet between this specification and Raychem’s type 55 wire part numbering system is given on the next page: .

Type Type 1 single-XX (size)-colour Type 1 twisted pair-XX-Colours Type 1 twisted triple-XX-Colours Type 1 twisted quad-XX-Colours Type 2 single-XX (size)-colour Type 2 twisted pair-XX-colours Type 2 twisted triple-XX-colours Type 2 twisted quad-XX-colours Type 2 single + screened + sheathed-XX-colours Type 2 twisted pair + screen + sheath-XX-colours Type 2 twisted triple + screen + sheath-XX-colours Part Number 55A8022-24*to 10-X(colour) 55A8622-24*to 10X/X (colours) 55A8623-24*to 10-X/X/X 55A8813-24*to 10-X/X/X/X 55A8776-24*to 16-X(colour) 55A8777-24*to 20X/X 55A8778-24*to 20-X/X/X 55A8814-24*to 16-X/X/X/X 55A8744-24*to 16-X-X (sheath colour) 55A8745-24*to 16-X/X-X 55A8746-24*to 16-X/X/X-X * Size 24 has silver plated high strength copper alloy conductors. All other conductors under the part numbers shown have tin coated copper conductors. Temperature range: 75°C to +150°C .

glass fibre tape and glass fibre braid coated with PTFE insulation. tin plated construction. 260°C. Size: 0000 .BSG222 Description: Description: Nickel plated copper + PTFE tapes. RG214U. 260°C) .10 AWG: Approval Reference AR648 12 -22 AWG: Approval Reference AR649 . 600V to spec FX0502 Approval Reference AR321 Approval Reference AR283 Aluminium alloy conductor cable to spec SP545 for Airframe use Efglas type (600V. RG316U and RG142U Approval Reference AR454 Approval Reference AR452 Lightweight cable type KTTP Description: Description: • Sealed lapped tape.11. EF2219 and KZ0607 (Equipment wire) KPF 260 type. PTFE insulated 200°C cable type Approval Reference AR413 Description: • • • KZ0405.4 Societe Filotex • • Coaxial cables: RG58CU.7.

11.7. R198 and R199 Approval Reference E13202 Description: PTFE insulated wires • Types R195 and R196 Approval Reference E13201 Description: PTFE insulated wires • Type No.fluoride of thickness individually defined for each type. The conductors are insulated with extruded radiation cross linked polyolefin and sheathed with extruded radiation cross linked modified polyvinylidene .7. R201 and R202 Approval Reference E13203 Description: PTFE insulated wires • Types R197. Temperature range: 75°C to +120°C .6 Huber and Suhner AG • Huber and Suhner AG (80144 series) Approval Reference E14011 Description: The cables are available in types 01 (interconnect) and 02 (airframe) and consists of silver plated high strength copper alloy stranded conductors. R151YU Description: Approval Reference E12806 Aluminium conductor. insulated FEP-coated polyimide film and braid 11.5 Kabelwerke Reinshagen Gmbh • Types R200.

8 CAA OBSOLESCENT CABLES The following is a list of obsolescent cables. AMO4 and AMO6 Types FAMH02. FAMH04 and FAMH06 AR230 AR412 .C.e.11.C • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Minyvin (DDP H/TECH/P197) Nyvin (DDP H/TECH/P108) Minyvin.4 Societe Filotex • PAN 6423 and 6425 (KTCL) AR194 11. Triminyvin and Minyvinmetsheath (DDP H/TECH/P114) Minyvin and Minyvinmetsheath (DDP H/TECH/P110) Duminyvinmetsheath and Triminyvinmetsheath (DDP H/TECH/P109) Metric Minyvin cables (DDP H/TECH/P119 and P120) Nyvin (DDP H/TECH/P103) Tersilsheath (DDP WGC/L/W/666) Uninyvinlarge (DDP H/TECH/P104) Minyvin (DDP H/TECH/P100) Flexyvin (DDP H/TECH/P101) Cables to spec ECM55 (AKB) Cables to spec ECM17 Cables to spec ECM49 KPSN (KP135) E11566 E6379 E6411 E6418 E4273 E4289 E12304 E13284 E12279 E8691 E8238 E7998 E7996 E9178 11.3 Rists Wire and Cables Ltd • • Flexvin (DDP No.8.15) E6641 E8308 11. cables only acceptable for maintenance purposes on aircraft originally wired with such cable types and unsuitable for new designs. 11.8. i.13) inyvin (DDP No.1 B.5 Fileca • • Types AMO2.8.I.2 Fothergill and Harvey Limited • Cable to spec 'FHK 254’ E12374 11.8.8. Duminyvin.

Standard Telephones and Cables Ltd. Tygadure Division.11. Fothergill and Harvey Ltd. British Insulated Callenders Cables Ltd. Davu Wires and Cables Ltd. Ripaults Ltd. Use of the committee reference ACE 6 will assist BSI in dealing with the correspondence connected with this list. London Electric Wire Co. and Smith’s Ltd. Reliance Cords and Cables Ltd. W1A 2BS. Connollys (Blackley) Ltd. London. Ltd. 11. New applications for marks should be made to the British Standards Institution. Pirelli General Cable Works Ltd. Stirlin Cable Co. Vactite Wire Co.2 COUNTRY OF ORIGIN IDENTIFICATION MARKS United Kingdon Switzerland France GBX CHX F . Ltd. Crompton Parkinson Telephone Cables Ltd. Permanoid Ltd. Delta Enfield Cables Ltd Huber and Suhner The Concordia Electric Wire and Cable Co Ltd. Brand Rex Ltd.9 CABLE IDENTIFICATION These marks are purely for identification purposes.9. 2 Park Street. Rist’s Ltd.9. AA AB BB CC DD EE FF AG HH KK LL NN PP QQ RR SS TT UU VV WW XX YY ZZ GG 11. Duratube and Wire Ltd.1 MANUFACTURERS’ IDENTIFICATION MARKS AEI Cables Ltd WL Gore and Associates (UK) Ltd. Raychem Ltd.

1 (1) 1 E BASIC CABLE CODING SYSTEM (2) F (3) 6 (4) B (5) 22 NMS (6) V Suffix Data Cable Size Cable Segment Letter Cable Number Cct. used where components have identical circuits. Where printing is not practical the code is printed on non-metallic sleeves and positioned along the cable length. Such a code is usually either of the aircraft manufacturer’s own specification or one devised by the Air Transport Association of America under Specification 100 (ATA 100) which has been accepted as a standard. The identification code is normally printed at specified intervals along the length of the cable. The ATA 100 Specification basic coding of a six position combination of letters and numbers. Function Letter Unit Number Position 1 Position 2 - Unit number. and any additional information necessary to relate it to a circuit diagram or routing chart.10 IDENTIFICATION OF INSTALLED CABLES Aircraft cables are normally marked with a combination of letters and numbers to provide the necessary information to identify the cable. . the circuit to which it belongs. 11.11.10. Circuit function letter and circuit designation letter which indicates circuit function and the associated system. the cable size. Designation Letter Cct. which are printed on the outer covering of the cable.

Generally. N V Earth Single Phase ac AL Alumel CH Chromel CU Copper CN Constantan EC Nickel/Copper Position 4 - Position 5 Position 6 - A/B/C Three Phase ac NOTE: Full details of the cable coding system will be found in the Maintenance Manual or Wiring Diagram Manual for the relevant aircraft. which identifies the segment of cable between two terminals or connections.. Suffix data. Shown below is an example of ATA 100 Specification coding.A B C D E F G H I J K L M Not Used Not Used Control Surfaces Instruments other than Flight. a different number is given to each cable. For example.. and differentiates between segments of the circuit when the same cable number is used throughout. used to indicate the type of cable and to identify its connection function. in the example code NMS V indicates nyvinmetsheath ungrounded cable in a single-phase system. Engine & Control Engine Instruments Flight Instruments Landing Gear AC Systems Pressurisation & Anti-icing Not Used Engine Starting & CSD Control Engine & APU Controls Lighting Miscellaneous N O P Q R S T U V Not Used Not Used DC Power Supplies & Control Fuel Radio Radar Special Electronics Not Used DC Power & DC Control of AC generator systems W Warning X Y Z AC Power Supplies Not Used Not Used Position 3 - Cable number. Beginning with the number one. etc. Cable segment letter. A different letter is used for each of the cable segments having a common terminal or connection. are not classified as common terminals. Segments are lettered in alphabetical sequence. Cable size. relays. contacts of switches. . excluding the letter I and O. allocated to differentiate between cables which do not have a common terminal in the same circuit.


although the rest of the code remained unchanged.11.10. .2 MANUFACTURERS CODING Aircraft electrical cables are normally marked with an identification code as shown in the following examples: • Period 1963 to Mid 1970’s: Nyvin 22 B B Year of Manufacture Code Letter Manufacturer’s Code Letter Cable Size Cable Type Name • Period Mid 1970’s to 31st December 1978: Minyvin G XX X 22 Cable Size Year of Manufacture Code Letter Manufacturer’s Code Letter Country of Origin Cable Type Name • With effect from 1st January 1979 the country of origin code for Great Britain was changed from G to Gbx.

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Cables must be fitted and clamped so that no tension will be applied in any circumstances of flight. however. Make a lock stitch and finish normally. Cables should not be attached to. To prevent contamination or saturation of the cables in the event of leakage. In areas where avoidance is not possible other steps need to be taken. Where it is necessary for cable to flex in normal use. and a sufficient number of cable clamps must be provided for each run of cable to ensure that the unsupported lengths will not vibrate unduly. pipelines containing flammable fluids or gases. Cables should normally be supported independently of. excessive heat and all aircraft fluids. mechanical strain. the cord used is generally thin waxed linen or flax tape. parallel to the wires in the cable loom. a minimum radius of 3 times the outside diameter of the cable . . the amount and disposition of slack must be strictly controlled so that the cable is not stressed in the extended position. leading to fracture of the conductors or failure of the insulation or covering. The whipping can be continued for any distance required to provide protection against chafing. Whipped start. and with maximum practicable separation from all fluid and gas carrying pipelines. See diagram. maintenance or adjustment. Starting. Hold one end of the cord on the cable and wrap about 4 turns tightly around the cable and over the cord. adjustment or maintenance. The two methods commonly used to start lacing are a whipped start and a knotted start.1 SUPPORT OF CABLING The cabling must be adequately supported throughout its length. 12. CABLE INSTALLATIONS Cable installations in aircraft must be protected from the effects of abrasion. Bends in cable groups or bundles should not be less than 8 times the outside diameter of the cable group or bundle . however it is still widely used within equipment’s. The lacing cord used on aircraft looms was generally 1mm diameter pvc covered nylon cord. Knotted start. where possible. or during normal flying. or allowed to rub against. as these are less prone to slipping. or cable bundle. kinked or caught on any projection during movement in either direction. The looms should. whip a further eight turns and make a lock stitch. be routed away from such sources of damage. Inside electrical equipment. is normally accepted.2 LACING Lacing is no longer commonly used on aircraft looms. where the cable is suitably supported at each end of the bend. and that the slack will not be fouled chafed. When the end is well secured. at terminal blocks. cables should be routed above rather than below liquid carrying pipelines. Make a clove hitch around the cable and secure the ends with a reef knot. and so that loops or slackness will not occur in any position where the cables might be caught and strained by normal movement of person or controls in the aircraft. Lacing is achieved using a running stitch pressed tightly against the cable loom by means of locking knots or locking stitches formed at regular intervals along the loom.12. The running stitches should be kept in line. 12.

it should be branched out at a lock stitch without any variation in the lacing. sleeve and pliers. cables or irregularly shaped objects. It is made from extruded insulating material which has been subjected to nuclear radiation during manufacture. A lubricant called 'Hellerine' oil is also available to assist in getting the sleeve over the cable or termination to be protected. wrap the cord four times around the loom. They are used as cable markers and to support and insulate a cable at its point of entry into a plug or termination.1. If a group of wires leave the loom at the same point. • Compress the handles of the pliers to expand the sleeve. 12. This whipping takes any sideways forces without straining the main lacing or separating the wires of the loom. form a loop and lay it along the loom. To terminate the lacing. The sleeving is shrunk using a Thermo Gun or Thermo Pistol. in which it is supplied. • Release the handles and withdraw the pliers. Cut off any excess cord. Using a separate piece of cord.1 Fitting Process • Lubricate the prongs of the Hellerman pliers with a small quantity of Hellerine oil. they should be laced together. . There are three sizes of pliers to cover the range of sleeves available. On shrinking the material forms a tight mechanical bond over the item it was placed. thus locking the cord under the last eight turns. The type of protection used depends on circumstances and what is permitted in the maintenance manual.1 SYNTHETIC RUBBER SLEEVES A wide range of synthetic rubber insulating sleeves is available. • Slip the sleeve over the prongs of the pliers. To obtain the correct fit. Branching. make a lock stitch. or through parts of the airframe. • Remove any lubricant from the cable. Wrap eight turns over the loop and pass the end of the running cord through the loop. the tubes are easily slipped over the terminal. A range of moulded parts such as 'Y' and 'T' junctions and 'boots' for connectors is also available. 12.3. the wiring must be protected.3. In its expanded form. The application of hot air causes the tube to shrink to a predetermined size without any appreciable loss of length. tight against the last lock stitch. Pull the loop out by its free ends. Form the wires into the required branch loom. using a knotted start where it leaves the main loom.2 HEAT SHRINK SLEEVING This type of sleeving is referred to as Thermofit tubing.3. They are fitted using special three pronged pliers commonly referred to as 'Hellerman' pliers. Do no expand the sleeve in excess of 300% or it will split. wrap six turns closely together and make another lock stitch. or through fluid contaminated areas. • Ensure the sleeve is in the correct position. • Place the expanded sleeve in position over the cable. If only one wire branches from a loom. the material selected should have a recovered size (shrunk) slightly less than the smallest item to be insulated. around pieces of equipment.Finishing. At the required branching point.3 PROTECTING CABLES When looms pass over. 12. 12.

2. The heating elements is of the totally enclosed type and is mains operated.5 CONDUITS Conduits are generally used for conveying cables where there is the possibility of exposure to oil. The holes in the bung vary in size to accommodate cables of various diameters.2 Thermo Pistol This device uses an air supply obtained from a special air regulator control box. 12. anti-frictional washer and knurled clamping nuts.12. due to the exposed heating elements and motor. having a tapered bore to accept the bung. however.3. . each hole being sealed by a thin covering of synthetic rubber at the smaller diameter end of the bung. 12. It produces hot air feed through a range of deflector shields.2. 12. 12. Cables may take the form of plastic. Where shielding against signal interference is necessary the cables are conveyed by metal conduits in contact with metal parts of the aircraft structure to ensure good bonding. the housing is flanged and threaded.6 CABLE SEALS In pressurised aircraft it is essential for many cables to pass through pressure bulkheads without a break in them an without causing leakage of cabin pressure.3.1 Thermo Gun The Thermo Gun is one device used for heat shrinking. The covering is pierced by a special tool when loading the bung with cables. It is mains operated and is specially designed for the shrinkage of Thermofit products. This is accomplished by sealing the necessary apertures with either pressure bungs or pressure proof plugs and sockets. A pressure switch in this regulator cuts out the heating element if air pressure falls. A pressure bung comprises a housing. For aircraft applications Thermofit products should be shrunk with a Thermo Pistol. A range of heat deflector shields is again available.3 WRAPPING Efwrap and Spywrap are forms of extensible wrapping that can be wound around looms without having to disconnect the cables. flexible metal or rigid metal sheaths. When applied. perforated synthetic rubber bung. the Thermo Gun is not suitable for aircraft use. It comes in a variety of sizes.3. the wrapping needs to be held in place at either end by cable ties.3. 12. to provide protection for single cables or looms. hydraulic fluid or other fluid. It is ideal for workshop loom manufacture.3.4 RUBBER BEADING & GROMMETS Rubber beading and grommets are used on parts of the airframe to prevent chafing of cables or looms that may come into contact with the airframe.3.

In instances where cables 'breaks' are required at a pressure bulkhead. when fully loaded and forced into the housing by the clamping nut. holes not occupied by cables are plunged with plastic plugs. is compressed tightly into the housing around the cables. The anti-friction washer prevents damage to the face of the bung when the clamping nut is turned. the cables at each side of the bulkhead are terminated by specially-sealed plug or socket assemblies of a type similar to those shown in the diagram below. . On assembly.The cables are a tight fit in the holes of the bung which.

An earlier uninsulated form of this crimp type was known as the 'Diamond Grip'. Provides a simpler approach to repetition. The precise form of the crimp is determined by such as the size and construction of the conductor. Up to the late 1950's aircraft cables were largely soldered. so as to grip the cable insulation at the other in order to give a measure of support.1 CRIMPED TERMINATIONS A crimped connection is one in which a cable conductor is secured by compression to a termination so that the metals of both are held together in close contact. Reduces the problems of corrosion and oxidisation. Crimped terminations today are supplied by various manufactures. Tag. Spade. with soldering being retained for use inside equipment's. and the dimensions of the termination.1. Reference should always be made to the installation requirements.G. TERMINATING CABLES All aircraft cables must be terminated at both ends. Ferrules or Pins and sockets. The use of the AMP P. 13.1 CRIMPING RING. Gives a standard level of quality each time. The terminations required will depend on the installation specification. 13. Since that time the main method of terminating cables has been by 'crimping'. type termination far outweighs all other AMP terminations. Reduces the time of connection i. most important that only the correct type of die and crimping tool should be used. shaped to give a particular cross-sectional form to the completed joint. The majority of terminations are usually either Ring. manufactured by Aircraft Marine Products (AMP). but this is rarely seen nowadays. TAG AND SPADE TYPE TERMINATIONS The principle terminations for cables rated at 35 amp and below is a preinsulated connector known as the 'Pre-insulated Diamond Grip' (P. A typical crimp termination has two principal sections. There are several advantages of crimping. Simpler to inspect. The pressure is applied with a hand or hydraulically operated tool fitted with a die or dies. and that all necessary calibration checks have been carried out on the tool.I. crimping barrel and tongue.D.I. The barrel is designed to fit closely around the cable conductor so that after pressure has been applied a large number of points of contact are made.13.D. It is. the materials. a pre-insulated copper sleeve which mates with the crimping barrel at one end and is formed. together with.g. The range of crimps they supply is extensive. during the crimping process. It is also one of the most common forms of ring or tag type terminations in use on aircraft. They can be listed as follows: • • • • • • Does not degrade the cable as other joining methods e.e.). The pins and sockets are for use with connecting plugs and sockets whilst the other terminations are used with terminal blocks. soldering. therefore. in some types.G. has a greater ease of production. Pre-Insulated Ring Tag and Spade Connectors .

These in turn may be recognised by similar coloured handles. During the crimping operation this portion is compressed over the cable insulated in order to provide support. however. Black or Blue. these both being made of tin plated copper. This marking also indicates the cable sizes for which it is suitable. B.Pre-insulated ring tags and spade terminations comprise a cable receiving barrel and tongue. The colour of each connector is related to and is an indication of the size of the appropriate crimping tool. The tool size is stamped on the tongues of each connector. A copper sleeve is pressed over the barrel which in turn is covered by a plastic sleeve. 13. The whole of the connector is covered by a hard plastic sleeve.. The size of the connector tongues are varied and as such may be attached to terminal studs and screws in the B. . Pre-Insulated In-Line Connectors In-line connectors comprise a two way receiving barrel made of tin plated copper. so the earliest version will be used for the tool description.A. This has an indentation midway along its length so as to provide a means of locating the connector in the crimping tool.S. A copper sleeve is pressed over and overlaps each end of the barrel. During the crimping operation this portion is compressed over the cable insulation in order to provide support to the cable. One end of the insulated sleeve overlaps the barrel. Yellow. The insulation on each PIDG connector is coloured Red.1.1 AMP crimping tools There are three different sets of AMP PIDG type crimping tools. the basic design and operation of each set of tools is the same.1.F. Unified and Metric ranges. The sleeve is again coloured for the purpose of identifying the appropriate crimping tool..

9.3 position. On the newer tools the two handles have two different colours. If the wire still pulls out. one to match the colour of the insulation on the high temperature connectors. position 3 sets the jaws to their largest opening for thick insulation.1. they must be fully closed before the tool can be opened again and any work removed. It should be noted that. 2 position and repeat test. The terminal or connector sleeve should retain its grip on the insulation of the cable. once the handles start to close. The handles are colour coded to match the colour of the insulation on the appropriate size connectors (crimps). 8. The second set are the insulation gripping jaws which are adjustable by means of adjusting pins (2 pins in the older style tools. forming a cable support. Position 1 sets the jaws to the smallest opening for thin insulation. something is wrong i. Place both Insulation Crimping Adjustment pins in the No. these crimp the conductor inside the conductor receiving barrel of the connector. set both Insulation adjustment pins to the No.1. Place terminal or connector in crimping jaws of correct tool (wire size range is stamped on the tool) so that the terminal barrel tests against the locator. check the insulation support as follows. 2. After crimp is made. Firstly it is necessary to determine which insulation crimping adjustment is needed for the cable being used. A set of barrel crimping jaws which are preset and not adjustable. Squeeze handle until the terminal or connector is held lightly in place. 13. . If the wire pulls out. Hold on to the terminal or connector and bend the wire back and forth once. The handles also incorporate a certi-crimp ratchet. 4.The tools have two sets of crimping jaws. incorrect or worn tool. Crimp the terminal or connector. Insert unstripped wire into only the insulation grip portion of terminal or connector sleeve.2 Terminating a cable with an AMP termination The double action hand tools have three insulation adjustments. The adjusting pins can be put in one of three positions. 3.e. 1 position and repeat test. 5. If the wire pulls out. these jaws crimp the connector to the wire insulation. set both Insulation adjustment pins to the No. The crimping operation must crimp the insulation as well as the cable. 1 pin in the newer style tools). 6. the other to match the colour of the insulation on the low temperature connectors. This is to ensure completion of the crimping operation. 7. Proceed as follows.

11. it should be removed. When stripping the wire the insulation should be stripped back until the: Stripped Length = Barrel length of terminal or connector + 1/32 inch or Barrel length of terminal or connector + 0⋅ 6mm Wire stripping should be completed using stripmaster (or equivalent) semiautomatic wire strippers fitted with the appropriate set of jaws. it should be inspected to ensure that the: E. insulation is cleanly cut Under no circumstances should cables be stripped using manually adjusted stripping pliers. Having stripped the insulation from a cable. Correct number of strands visible in conductor DO NOT bend the wire or attempt to pull it from the termination . Deformity of the termination B. Do not deform terminal. Insert stripped wire into terminal barrel. Conductors protruding correct length from barrel F. 13. Squeeze handles until terminal is held lightly in place. however the converse is not true. turn the crimping tool over and repeat the process. 14. 12. Note that once the ratchet is engaged. they will damage the conductors. jaws designed for conventional insulation must not be used on thin wall cables. Jaws designed for the new thinwall cables can be used on cables with conventional insulation. Crimping the termination onto the cable The procedure for crimping the terminals or connectors is as follows: 10. Open crimping jaws by squeezing handles of crimping tool until the ratchet releases. If the terminal referred to above were an in-line connector then to crimp the other half of the connector. Sharp edges on the terminal insulation C. 16. 15. Correct positioning of the crimp E. the wire can now be stripped for the crimping operation. strands are not damaged G. If the connector cannot be turned. Hold wire in position and complete crimp by squeezing handles until the ratchet releases.Removing the cable insulation Having determined the correct setting for the insulation gripping jaws. Place terminal in crimping jaws so that the terminal tongue goes under the locator and terminal barrel rests against locator. correct number of strands remain F. Correct formation of the dot code D. repositioned and the process repeated. Remove the work from the crimping tool and inspect the termination. the handles cannot be opened. Handles will now open automatically. looking for: A.

.1. the process leaves a 'Dot' code on the insulation barrel to indicate whether the correct crimping tool has been used for that connector.G.22 (Minyvin) Large Colour Identity of P. the AMP PIDG terminals and the Dot coding for the earliest set of tools: AWG Wire Size 26 . similar set of tools are used.g. Kapton KP or Raychem 55 a later. Brown Grey or Purple* Orange Orange White White Black Low Temp.16 16 . When crimped.22 22 . it is not intended as a means of checking for the person completing the crimping operation.3 Dot Coding The handles of the crimping tools are colour coded to indicate the correct PIDG terminals to be used. Terminals Small Yellow Red Blue Yellow Black Dot Coding One dot One dot Two dots One dot Two dots 2 lines 2 lines 2 lines For crimping thinwall or lightweight cables e.10 26 . The 'Dot' code enables an inspector to confirm that the correct tool has been used. Black Purple with Black stripe Orange with Black stripe Orange with Black stripe White with Black stripe White with Black stripe --------------- * Depends on model of tool used.I. These have smaller insulation crimping dimensions.D.g. 24 & 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 Dot Code 2 dots 1 dot 2 dots 1 dot 2 dots 1 dot 1 dot Handle Colour Code 1 Black 1 Brown 1 Grey 1 Purple 1 Orange 1 Black Both Orange 1 White 1 Black Both White Both Black Terminal Colour High Temp.13.w.14 12 . The table below sets out the relationship of AWG. These tools are also identified by a colour code and the table below sets out the same relationships of AWG wire PIDG terminals and Dot coding: Wire Size a.1.

Raychem 55. AWG Wire Size 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 Wire Size Colour Stripes Black Blue Green Red White Blue Green Yellow Brown Tool Handle & Insul. A specimen table shown below. A specimen table is shown below. There are normally three stripes on each termination insulation.D. These are designed to be used with the newer thinwall cables that are now extensively used e.G.1. The table below gives the AWG size. one percent of each batch of crimped terminations with a minimum of 2 specimens are subjected to Tensile and Millivolt drop tests in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.I. (TM) Terminals in about 1987. The crimping tool must then be removed from service and the die dimensions checked using a 'GO/NO-GO' gauge to ensure they fall within the limits specified by the manufacturer.1.1.5 Maintenance of AMP crimping tools In order to ensure that the crimping tool is functioning correctly. The terminals are characterised by the inclusion of coloured stripes on a clear pink or blue insulation. Conductor Stranding 19/⋅ 006 19/⋅ 0076 33/⋅ 0076 40/⋅ 0076 40/⋅ 0076 70/⋅ 0076 Equiv AN Cable size 22 20 18 16 16 14 AMP Device size Mini 22 22-16 22-16 22-16 16-14 16-14 Colour of Insulation BLACK RED RED RED BLUE BLUE AMP Tool Test Current Amps 11 14 18 21 21 31 MV Drop Max 8 7 7 7 7 6 Tensile Strength Lbs. . Engineers must ensure that the correct range of crimps are used for the appropriate cables designated for use. The coloured stripe provides an indication of the size of the crimp in relation to the AWG size of the cable. all the terminations made with the crimping tool must be quarantined and individually inspected.1.13. BMS 13-51 which is a Boeing cable.4 Insulation Resisting AMP introduced the latest series of Insulation Resisting P.g. Min 14 19 32 38 38 57 575091 47386 575025 47386 575025 47386 575025 47387 575024 47387 575024 If any of the test specimens fail to pass the performance requirements. colour and dot code for this new range of terminals. Sleeve colour Yellow Yellow Red Red Red Blue Blue Yellow Yellow Crimping Dot Code 1 Dot 1 Dot 1 Dot 1 Dot 1 Dot 2 Dots 2 Dots 1 Dot 1 Dot 13.

1. . The tool must be closed before inserting the gauge. this may take some practice. Low temperature connectors must not be crimped on size 12 or larger EFGLAS. If the connector cannot be turned over to complete the second crimping operation. 13. Additional sleeving is not permitted to achieve the above. to ensure they are in good working order and that the dies are undamaged and are free of foreign matter. that cannot be inspected • • Use of inline is currently restricted to size 10 (35A) or smaller. The tool must be withdrawn from use if it fails to meet any of the above conditions. Ensure operating temperatures not exceeded. Specific approval must be obtained from the appropriate airworthiness authority before using in: • Screened cables • Co-axial cables • Multi cored cables • Cables greater than size 10 • Thermocouple cables • HV cables (above 250V rms) • Fire resistance cables in protective zones • Totally enclosed cables.16 PIDG 16 . whichever comes sooner.14 PIDG 'A' Dimension Go 109 120 No Go 115 126 'G' Dimension Go 035 045 No Go 055 065 When measuring the 'G' dimension.Tool No. the insulation crimping adjustment pins should be in position No. then the tool must be turned over. Crimping tools in regular service should be inspected every three months or 1000 crimping operations.6 Inline crimping The procedure for crimping "inline crimps" or "butt splices" is basically the same as that used for tags or connectors. 47386 47387 A-MP Device Size 22 . When using inline crimps certain points should be noted: • • • • • Each barrel must carry only one cable unless specifically permitted by the airworthiness authority. The crimp must be fitted horizontally or positioned so that ingress of moisture is not possible.1.

5. The tool is used in much the same manner as any other crimping tool. The tool incorporates a hydraulic ram and hand pump and comes with range of interchangeable crimping dies. they are of no use for terminating larger cables. • Maximum joints. • No more than 2 joints permitted in 10ft. • On installation wherever possible observe the following: • All joints must be accessible for visual inspection. 13.8. runs of 200ft . These are fitted into the crimping tool using the Allen keys provide. • All fixing attachments must be approved.g. Once the crimping operation has been completed. the pressure is released by operating a pressure relief valve on the side of the tool. • Joints must be staggered. with the exception that the pump has to be operated several times before the crimping operation is complete. un-insulated ring tags are used in conjunction with a special hydraulic crimping tool.3. If this is not possible then positive separation must be carried out using insulation or cable clips.w. For terminating larger cables.2 ERMA CRIMPING MACHINE Whilst hand tools such as the AMP PIDG are suitable for most smaller size cables.1. .w. runs over 200ft . 0000. When the pressure is released the jaws open and the crimped cable can be removed for inspection. Care must be taken to ensure matched dies are fitted into the tool. • Joints should be positioned so as not to touch: • One another • Ducting • Straps • Other features • Joints must if possible be positioned on outside of loom. 6 to a.g. When the correct pressure is attained a ratchet operates preventing any further increase in pressure. a bleed hose and two Allen Keys.• Repair schemes are restricted to: • Minimum distance between joints in one cable is 2ft. The die set comprises matching upper and lower die sets coded hg to hn for cable sizes a. runs of 20ft .

Press trigger to release turret to indexing position. without the turret and is designed for size 12 up to 22 contacts using 12 . Again.3.1. students are expected to make themselves conversant with other systems and their associated tooling. Position turret head onto retainer ring in tool.26 AWG cable. 19.13. 13. using 9/64 in. choice is by selector knob. Basic tool M22520/1-01 Turret head TH-1 or 1A. tighten socket head screws. As with the AMP tools.3. and it is this system that will be examined in these notes. Again. Installation of turret heat assembly: 17.1.2 AF8 Crimping Procedure Setting up tool for operation Tool must be in open position. With turret head properly seated against retainer ring. The turret should index without binding.1. .M22520/1-02 Crimping tool test gauges G125 or M22520/3-1 Both tool handles and turret head body are coloured blue.1 AF8 Crimping tool This tool will normally be supplied with a changeable turret and is used with a selection of pin and socket type inserts.3 CRIMPING OF CONNECTOR PINS & SOCKETS Modern plug and socket connections have removable insert pins or sockets made to American Wire Gauge specifications. 18. various systems are in use. One typical system in common use employs the AF 8 crimping tool. Eight indentor closures are provided. M22520/1-01 refers to the basic tool. the AF8 tool has a double acting ratchet and cannot be opened without completing the crimping operation. 13. Allen key. and it is not possible to cover them all on the course.

In order to connect this outer conductor.4. utmost care must be exercised if the conductor insulation is not to be damaged. Unless utmost care is exercised. Ensure conductor is visible in inspection hole of termination. Refer to the data plate on the turret head assembly. After whipping the wire is soldered. 29. Remove the spring clip lock from the selector knob. Selector positioner. Repeat above procedures when changing contact and / or wire size Crimping procedure Assuming the tool has been set correctly and that the correct termination has been selected. Press trigger so that indexing turret pops out to indexing position.1/32" from the bucket of the termination. Again. Below the wire size and opposite the contact size is listed the correct indenter closure number. 27.4. Rotate turret until colour position is in line with index mark on top of turret head. Replace the spring clip. and the tool is ready for use.2 Heat Shrinkable Solder Sleeve This method employs the use of special sleeves that contain two bands of sealant and a central band of solder. The sleeve is placed over the screen and stripped end of the fly-lead. Raise selector knob and rotate to desired selector number. Tool must be in the open position when using the selector. these are: • Whipping with tinned copper wire • Using mechanical crimping procedures • Using a heat shrink solder sleeve 13. 25. Setting the Indenter Closure Selector: 21. and again ensure cable is visible in inspection hole. connector or another screen a 'tail' or 'fly-lead' is used.1. The tail is whipped onto the screen or braid of the cable using thin tinned copper wire. the screen. It calls for a high degree of engineering skill. 24. Inspect crimp for correct formation. such as metsheath are often used in audio applications. damage to the insulation of the cable is inevitable. 32.1. 23. 28.4 TERMINATING SCREENED CABLES Cables which have a braided outer conductor or screen. the insulation is 1/64" . . 22.Indexing the turret: 20. Allow handle to return to the open position then remove crimped contact and cable. 30. Squeeze handles together until ratchet releases. 26. refer to colour code date plate on side of turret head for colour of correct positioner. Strip the cable insulation so that when the conductors are inserted into the termination. 13. Insert contact and prepared cable through the indenter opening into the turret positioner. There are three principal ways of connecting the tail to the screen. to a terminal block.1 Whipping This method is rarely used today.1. 13. 31. Press in turret until it snaps into locked position. Heat is applied using a Thermo Gun or Thermo Pistol which shrinks the sleeve and melts the adhesive and solder.

Place the ground wire into the ground trap and the shielded cable into the bottom of the connector. This will overload the dies. Installing the connector on shielded cable: • • Insert the connector.3 Mechanical Crimping Procedures A variety of mechanical crimping systems are available for the application of tails. Push up firmly and insert the lower die stem into the hole in the ram. . with the ground trap facing up. • • Matching the connector and die to the cable: • • For twisted pair and other non-symmetrical shielded cables. Caution: Be sure that neither the cable outer jacket nor the ground wire insulation is under the metal portion of the connector. The Thomas and Betts system has been used as an example in these notes.4. into the nest area of the die. measure the dimension of the major axis or the largest width of the cable. Installing the dies in the WT740 tool: • Insert the stem of upper die into the tool frame. Measure the diameter of the cable shield using a calibrated measuring tool. • Insert the separation spring of the lower die into the upper die opening. Exert only light pressure on the cable to get an accurate measurement.13. Be sure to centre the connect. The ground wire can exit from either direction.1. Be sure to butt the cable jacket and ground wire insulation against the metal connector edge. Squeeze the tool handles to form the connector around the shield. Rotate the cable in order to locate the maximum shield diameter.

2.230 in.) 132 .162 in.80 .98 mm.33 mm.66 .1.70 mm.84 mm.37 .35 .4.2.56 . (6.100 in.5.) 251 . When the cable inner conductor insulation is vinyl of .) 050 .62 mm.78 mm.10 mm. (5.201 in.4.13 .) 202 .) 101 .089 in. Caution: During all stripping operations. No. (3.27 . (2. (4. • • .300 mm.• Use the "Diameter of Shield" column in the table below to match the measurement to the correct connector and installing die. (7. use extreme care to prevent nicking or cutting of the shield or inner conductor insulation.14 .11 mm. (2.63 mm.) 090 . Diameter of Shield (1. or less thickness.070 in.) 231 .3. or less thickness or Teflon or 0.01 .) 144 .35 mm. • Remove the cable jacket as required and prepare the shield as shown in the standard method illustration.72 .26 mm. This could result in short circuits. (1.) 071 .) 119 .) 276 .118 in.300 in.29 .10 in.131 in. No 101A 101B 201C RSK201 BLUE 201RSK 201D 201E 201F RSK301 YELLOW 301RSK 301G 301H 301J 401K RSK401 GREEN 401RSK 401L 401M 401N 1 OR 2 *20 AWG STR OR 1 *18 AWG STR 1 OR 2 *22 AWG STR OR 1 OR 2 *20 AWG STR 1 OR 2 *22 AWG STR OR 1 *20 AWG STR Ground Wire Range 1 OR 2 *24 AWG STR OR 1 *22 AWG STR Die Gage Cat.022 .3.6.87 . & Code RSK101 RED 101RSK Die Cat .6.185 in. Connector Cat.54 mm. use foldback method 1 or 2 as illustrated.7.015 in. No.5.250 in. (3.275 in. (3.) 186 . (5.143 in. 101AG 101BG 201CG 201DG 201EG 201FG 301GG 301HG 301JG 401KG 401LG 401MG 401NG Cable preparation: Note: These connectors should not be used with multi-conductor shielded cables whose conductors are solid or stranded bonded wire. (4.) 163 .

(11 mm) and twist the strands together. strip the wire 1/2 in. If the gage will not enter with gentle pressure up to its shoulder. Refer to the table for proper die selection. Caution: Do not solder dip the ground wire ends. When using either foldback method. • Select the gage whose catalogue number corresponds to the die catalogue number and insert it from either side of the die into the slots in the upper and lower dies as shown. Do not squeeze the tool beyond this point. For two ground wires. be sure to measure the diameter of the shield after it is folded back. Use one die size larger. strip the wire 7/16 in. Caution: Do not use solid ground wire. If the gage freely enters until the gage shoulder touches the side of the lower die. • • • • • • Gaging the dies: • • Install the die set into the WT740 tool. (12 mm) and twist the two wires together. • Intended Use: Wrap around connectors have been designed to ground the shield of single or multiple conductor shielded cables. . Close the handles of the tool so that the face of the red insert in the lower die just touches the face of the upper die. Ground wire preparation: For a single ground wire. (12 mm) and bend it as shown. the die is worn beyond limits. use foldback method 2. If hairpinning (hooking) the ground wire is desired. the dies are within limits and will produce good installations.• • When the shield is foil or is spiral wrapped. strip each wire 1/2 in. It is suggested that the customer evaluate the suitability of these connectors and verify their performance for the particular application.

and it is essential that the correct iron is chosen for a specific task. This iron has an 18 watt element which reaches working temperature in about 90 secs. For certain soldering operations. The working end.1 SOLDERING IRONS To enable the solder to run freely and to combine with the surfaces to be joined. e. Solon 983/984 are two commonly used heavy duty irons. The Antex type G240 is one of a large range of general purpose mains operated miniature irons. the use of a bench mounted solder pots is recommended. . A typical pot consists of an electrically heated crucible and a tube which is tapered so that the end of a lead inserted into it is guided down and dipped into the molten solder. Mains operated irons. Due to the increasing reliability of modern components. The normal method of applying heat is with an electrically heated soldering iron. A large number of different types of soldering irons are in service use. is made from copper because it is a good conductor of heat which allows the solder to create a tinned working face. The reliability of a soldered joint depends on the condition of the material to be joined and on the care and skill of the operator making the joint.2. Heavy duty irons. the solder and the surfaces must be at the correct temperature. 12 volts and 24 volts. Poor joints caused by surface oxidisation can be virtually eliminated by sealed storage methods and by careful preparation of the materials immediately prior to soldering. 3/16 inch and 1/4 inch. The bits are interchangeable with four different sizes being available.g.2 SOLDERING Connections inside electronic equipment are normally made by soldered joints. Temperature controlled irons.13. Servo controlled or Curie effect irons meet this requirement. tinning the ends of jumper leads. In some case a thermostat control and thermometer are incorporated. 1/8 inch. They are designed for heavy duty soldering tasks and must not be used for printed circuit or other transistorised work. 13. A high level of operator skill can only be maintained by regular repetitive practice and by meticulous attention to detail when making a joint. failure of soldered connections is causing an increasing proportion of the total equipment failures. Soldering irons used in micro-miniature work should be temperature controlled where the bit temperature is monitored and maintained stable within specified tolerances. Solder pots. Low voltage Irons. These irons are used mainly for work on printed circuits boards and transistorised equipment and operate from the mains through electrostatically screened isolating transformers. or bit. Several types exist with operating voltages of 6 volts. 3/32 inch. These irons have either 65 watt or 240 watt elements and have an oval shape bit.

melting at 190ºC. and to facilitate removal and replacement. 13. The residue is not-corrosive. Bits are manufactured from high grade copper and may be unplated. this results variations in heat retention capabilities. grease or oxide present at the joint surfaces.1. to prevent feed-back of solder. The flux used for electronic work is a high-grade chemically developed resin. also ensure that a hot iron does not come into contact with the mains lead as a fire or worse can result. Soldered joints can only be used at temperatures below 150ºC. Ferroclad bits must not be cleaned with a file. The lack of strength in a solder joint means that a good mechanical joint must be formed prior to soldering. • • • The bit must be kept clean and tinned at all times. Residue should always be removed from joints used at high frequencies to prevent its dielectric properties from affecting the circuit.2. place on a heat sink between jobs. It is melted and allowed to flow between the surfaces to be joined. • 13. flux-cored wire. A fused joint is formed by an alloying action between the solder and the metal surfaces. 13. The joint produced is not very strong mechanically but is a good conductor of electricity. To prevent this the iron should be switched off when not in use.3 FLUX Soft solder cannot alloy with a metal if there is any barrier such as oil.Bits. These are generally detachable and designed in a variety of shapes and sizes to enable selection of the best suited for the job. Unplated bits require frequent dressing with a file on account of wear. use a damp sponge. moisture proof and hard. it causes the bit to pit and oxidise. Do not overheat. Some solders contain small amounts of antimony or copper and melt between 190ºC and 240ºC. The shanks are normally chromium plated to protect against corrosion. Ensure the leads are not frayed or damaged. The soft solder normally used for electrical work as supplied at 22 SWG. Any oxides that form on the bit should be removed immediately and should be retinned immediately. Ferroclad (Iron clad) bits wear less rapidly and are therefore recommended.2. These surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned and a flux must be used to prevent oxide formation when making the joint. The following hints will help to achieve this.2 SOLDER Soft solder is an alloy of tin and lead. . or plated with an iron coating called ferroclad. alternatively. The most suitable solder for electrical work contains 60% tin and 40% lead.1 Care & maintenance of irons When properly used a soldering iron has a long life. If so they can kill.2.

2. The jaws of the tool are of the reverse-spring type. Wicking should not be allowed to extend beneath the insulation covering of a lead and it is therefore recommended that an anti-wicking tool be used. the connectors should be mated and heat applied for the shortest possible time. A thermal shunt can be made by sweating copper bars into the jaws of a crocodile clip. . Heat sinks can also be used where application of heat to.5 ANTI-WICKING TOOL Wicking is a term used in connection with the soldering of leads.2. Heat sinks are designed to shunt the heat away from the soldered joint. and the shape of the tips permits gripping of the lead insulation and the exposed part of the lead. The mated connector will act as a heat sink for the one being soldered and help to prevent damage to the insulation. transistors are easily damaged by heat and must be protected during the soldering operation.4 HEAT SINKS Some components e. thereby protecting components. so that during soldering the tips serve as a heat sink. See diagram below. When soldering leads to miniature connectors.g.13. In use the heat sink is clipped to the wire between the component as near the joint as possible so that heat is absorbed by the heat sink and does not reach the component. and it refers to the seepage of solder along the conductor. and joint is likely to melt the solder of adjacent joints. 13.

31. The surfaces to be soldered must be clean. If the contour of the conductor and joint configuration cannot be seen then there is excessive solder.6 SOLDERING PROCEDURE Good soldering is a skill which can be developed only by repetitive practice. 32. The ends of leads protruding through holes should not extend excessively from their mounting lands.7 INSPECTION OF SOLDERED JOINTS On completion of a soldering operation. The basic methods is as follows: 30. bright and free from oxides. 13. joints should be visually inspected.2. Apply the tinned iron to the surfaces to be joined. When enough solder has been applied the iron should be removed and the joint allowed to cool naturally. 35. Allow iron. • . 34. paying particular attention to the points below. Make a firm mechanical connection and apply heat sinks to protect sensitive components. bright and shiny appearance with well formed solder films or fillets feathering out to a thin edge. time to reach the correct working transistorised circuits. Clean and tin the working face of the soldering iron bit. Where necessary a magnifying device be used: • • All joints should present a neat. not to the iron. Apply the flux-cored solder to the work. 33. It is important that the solder solidifies before the surfaces are allowed to move. Some cables have a protective wax coating which must be removed with a suitable solvent. The quantity of solder should not be excessive. Remove any surplus flux from the joint and remove the heat sinks. If the work is sufficiently hot the solder will readily melt and run into the joint.2.13.

which may be very difficult to trace after the equipment has been returned to service. There should be no evidence of cold joints as indicated by a dull. The flexibility of a stranded cable can be destroyed by allowing excess solder to run along the strands from a joint.• There should be no evidence of flux residue at points of contact. The most common causes of dry joints are grease. In extreme cases the tail may touch an adjacent connection under vibration conditions and cause a short circuit Excess Flux. Insulation Damage.2. The insulation on a wire or component can be damaged by the application of heat for too long a period. This is the name given to a joint when the solder fails to alloy with the work surfaces. • • • 13. There should be no solder spikes. and to determine whether the defects are only surface imperfections. dirt and moving the joint before the solder has solidified. chalky or crystallised flaky surface of the solder. Insulated leads should be checked to ensure their insulation is at the specified distance from the termination and that the insulation is not damaged. A dry joint usually has a dull rough surface and can easily be broken by slight pressure with the blade of a screwdriver. Spikes. Excessive Solder. • • • • . A spike or tail of solder projecting from a joint can be caused by using an iron which is not at its full working temperature or which has a dirty bit. It will cause a high resistance connections possibly intermittent.8 COMMON SOLDERING FAULTS All the faults described are the result of careless working methods or lack of skill. These spikes may cause corona discharge to take place at high voltages and affect the operation of the circuit. A short circuit can then be caused by vibration or movement of the exposed conductor which could result in an equipment fire. or of pitting and holes in solder. The damaged insulation must be replaced or a suitable insulating sleeve fitted. Excessive solder on the buckets of miniature connections or the conducting strips of a printed circuit board will reduce the spacing between adjacent connections and may allow arcing to occur at high altitudes. Joints with such defects should be carefully inspected to ensure that no movement of the conductor occurs when the joint is probed. The rigid end could fracture under vibration conditions causing an open circuit and total loss of the circuit function. It can be removed by gentle pressure with a small screwdriver blade. • Dry Joints. Flux residue left on or near a joint will act as a dielectric at high frequencies and may affect the circuit.

Press the reset knob to engage the release latch.2.2.2. or it may form part of a specially designed iron.2 Cleaning After several cycles of operation the tool should be cleaned out. Hold the tip firmly against the joint at an angle of 45 degrees. This method should only be used to remove solder from surface joints 13.2.2. molten solder and spaces in the wick creates a capillary action. .9. lengths of stranded wire such as bonding straps made be used. Reset the tool immediately to eject the solder from the tip. The solder is drawn into a chamber from which it can be immediately ejected by pressing the piston again. and then releasing it when the solder at the joint has melted.13. which is applied to a solder joint between the solder and the heated bit of the soldering iron. 37. 13. press the operating trigger. The combination of heat.1 Wicking Method This method utilises a length of flux impregnated braid formed to resemble a lamp wick.2. Remove the iron as soon as the vacuum stroke has ended. 38.9.9 DESOLDERING METHODS 13.9. Do no press into the joint.2 Solder Suckers In this method de-soldering is carried out by drawing molten solder from a joint through a hollow bit. As soon as the solder has melted. 13. Apply heat to the joint. This involves unscrewing the teflon tip and removing the solder deposits from inside the tube and tip if necessary. Damage may result.1 Operation 36.9. In simpler types the suction is generated by a squeeze bulb of stiff rubber connected to the hollow bit via a small collecting chamber. 39.2. The hollow bit may form part of a separate suction desoldering tool which is used in conjunction with a conventional soldering iron. which causes the solder to be drawn into the wick. In the absence of commercially available wicks. In a separate de-soldering tool the suction is generated by depressing a spring loaded piston inside the tool body.

9.9. The pins are of tubular steel and are precision brazed in the block at a spacing which corresponds both to the relevant hole spacing of the board and to the pin configuration of the package.13. . the connection of dual-in-line circuit packages.2.3 Hot Air Jet method This method uses a controlled flow of hot air and permits melting of a solder joint without physical contact. This can greatly simplify the servicing tasks and reduce the possibility of damage caused by the application of excessive heat during component replacement.4 Heater Block method The heater block method is intended for the simultaneous de-soldering of a number of connections. The heated air may be supplied through the hollow bit of a specially designed tool. Residual solder should be removed from the holes by a solder extractor iron before remounting the original package or a replacement. They act as heat reservoirs and when applied to a board considerable heat can be transmitted into the base material. or. it may also be selected as a mode of operation. 13. These devices allow the rapid removal of solder from tags or printed circuit board component mounting points. Extreme care should be exercised when using heater blocks of all types.g. The de-soldering bit take the form of a small copper block which is normally arranged in the manner shown in the diagram below.2. e. The block should be applied to connections on the circuit side of a board and with the aid of tweezers the package should be gently pulled from the board. in some commercially available solder extractor irons.

with a central guide hole. known as the bit. and this will exert sufficient pressure to maintain good electrical contact between the wire and the post. The bit is caused to rotate. which fits into the terminal post. The wire must be a single-strand conductor with good electrical properties. and the procedure is primarily used for heavier-gauge wire.3 WIRE-WRAPPING OF ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS The wire-wrapping procedure is based on the elasticity of metals and is aimed at producing a corrosion-resistant joint.1 TYPES OF WIRE-WRAP Conventional wire-wrapping (class B).3.e. The latter is known as point-to-point wiring. less risk of interference and lower weight. The wire is usually tin-plated or silver-plated. 13. a constant tension will remain in the wire. with low electrical resistance.2 TOOLS The wrapping tool consists of a metal rod. It is usually made of bronze and has at least two sharp corners. the stripped end must be wrapped 8 turns around the post. criss-crossing the board. After relaxation. This provides significantly improved resistance to vibration (see Detail B in the diagram above). followed by about one turn of the insulated part of the wire. The advantages of point-to-point wiring include simplified service. and the wire is then stretched around the terminal post (see diagram below). only the stripped part of the wire is wrapped around the post.13. with a cross-sectional area of 25 mm2 or above (see Detail A in the diagram below). or directly between the wire-wrap points. The post should be relatively hard. under such tension that the wire is deformed around the edges of the post. A wire is stretched around a terminal post by means of a bit and sleeve. . The wires are run bunched together into looms along special paths on a circuit board. which fits the wire. i. 13. and with a narrow groove in the periphery. Modified wire-wrapping (class A).3.

41. Fit the stripped end of the wire as far as it will go into the wire groove of the bit (see Detail A in the diagram below). 13. 42. to the position at which wrapping is to start (see Detail C in the diagram below). Hold the wire with the fingers and push the tool into the terminal post. If a connection must be re-wrapped. Tools for stripping and wire-wrap must have gained type approval and must be subjected to periodic inspection. The correct length of wire must be stripped. . so that the correct number of turns will be obtained. During wrapping. (The unwrapped end of the conductor must be not be used again). In other words.3 WIRE-WRAPPING PROCEDURE Stripping is an extremely important operation in wire-wrapping. provided that the post is undamaged. The correct length of stripped end for modified mini-wrapping is 25 mm for posts 0⋅ 025” x 0⋅ 025” and 35 mm for posts 0⋅ 045” x 0⋅ 045”. 43. it is important to employ the correct tools.The tensile force during wrapping around the post is decisive to the quality of the connection and is determined by the dimensions of the tool. along its length (see Detail B in the diagram below). hold the tool straight and exert slight pressure in the direction of the post (see Detail D in the diagram below). Fit the wire into the recess in the sleeve and bend the wire towards the sleeve. Wrapping may be repeated on a post from which earlier wire had been unwrapped. 40. and the wire must be entirely free from scratches and other stressraisers.3. cut the wire and unwrap it with an unwrapping tool. which are suitable for the intended combination of wire area and type of post.

The unwrapped end of the wire must be straightened and wrapped again.e. Wrap too far up on the post (the wrap must not exceed beyond the chamfered part of the post) (see Detail F). in a multi-strand conductor) to a post or is one unsatisfactory wire-wrap must be soldered. Physical damage (the wire must be free from scratches) (see Detail H). Never pull the wire off.13. (Refer to above diagram). The corners of the post will then be deformed and it will be impossible to use the post again. The entire wire must be replaced or. The relieving turn. all wire-wraps on that particular post shall be soldered. .4 INCORRECT WIRE-WRAPPING Wire-wrapping with one of the defects specified below shall be rejected. If one conductor must be soldered (e.5 MODIFICATION AND REPAIRS If a connection must be made again. • • • • • • • • 13. The wire must not be stretched between wrap points. The wire must be run so that the bottom turn will not be unwound (see Detail J). i. if the length is sufficient.3.3. Spiral wrapping (in the case of open turns and in spiral wrapping. stripped and wrapped again. • • • Insufficient number of turns (see Detail A) One turn not closed (see Detail B).g. the bottom turn of insulated wire must be wrapped around at least three corners (see Detail I). Projecting end of the wire (the wrapping operation has been interrupted too early) (see Detail G). Overlapping turns (see Detail D) Overlapping wire-wraps (see Detail E). cut off the wire and leave the wire-wrap in position or remove it by means of an unwrapping tool. the distance between the turns must not exceed one-half of the wire diameter) (see Detail C). the end should be cut off.

Pull-off Force (N) 40 35 30 25 20 15 Wire Size . . The pull test involves applying a force to the wire-wrap and measuring the force at which the wire-wrap slides off the terminal post (see Detail A in the diagram above). The unwrapping test is considered to be satisfactory if unwrapping is carried out without the wire fracturing.6 METHODS OF INSPECTION The following methods of inspection are intended for checking the tools and terminal posts. Separate test post and conductors of the same type as those employed in the relevant work shall be used. During the unwrapping test.40 0. The test can be carried out in different ways: • • • By means of special tools.65 0. Note: The methods of inspection are of the destructive type.13.80 0. Min. By means of the unwrapping tool. and shall be carried out as random sample tests in production. By hand. the conductor must not be subjected to tension and/or torsion.32 0.25 30 The unwrapping test involves wrapping the wire off the post (see Detail B in the diagram above).3.AWG 20 22 24 26 28 Diameter 0.50 0.

but was more fully developed. mechanically weakening it. system. The actual connectors were in either single or double tier and incorporated both a spring lock a locking screw.1 TERMINAL STRIPS The earliest form of terminal blocks consisted of phenolic mouldings which housed two or more terminals and were available in various sizes.B. removing the tinning and sometimes even fracturing one or more of the strands.A. Methods like this are totally unacceptable for aircraft use. by no means the least important. if too much pressure is applied it will crush the conductor.1 SBAC TERMINAL BLOCKS Immediately after World War II the Electrical Committee of the Society of British Aircraft Constructors developed a new terminal block known as the S. Connection was made by gripping the wire under a screwed down terminal head. 14. The last type. . employs plugs and sockets otherwise referred to as multi way connectors. The block was ultimately found to be too large for the confined conditions resulting from the use of extended electrical systems and panels in later installations. INTERCONNECTING CABLES There are three types of wire connection. semi-permanent and those which can be rapidly broken and remade for installation or maintenance purposes and which usually involves a number of circuits or wires which must automatically be connected correctly. It comprised a block of phenolic insulation arranged with a number of barriers to accommodate from 5 to 15 cable ways. The simple insertion of the crimped end into the terminal block metalwork ensured a satisfactory spring loaded electrical connection which could be rendered permanent by tightening down the screw.14. The connection was made on circular ferrules crimped onto the ends of the cables. This terminal block bore some resemblance to a system used on German military aircraft during the war. The first two types are used in the manufacture and testing of aircraft and generally employ terminal blocks or strips. 14.1.C. A connection such as this is totally unpredictable. A miniature block of a similar nature was developed but never produced. permanent.

These terminal blocks are made from Polyethersulphate 430P and are either black or red in colour. in America terminations were.5 or 10 way configuration.1. as shown above.2. miniature block led the Plessey Company to develop a smaller terminal block which was used extensively on British aircraft.3 WARD BROOK TERMINAL BLOCKS Later built British aircraft use a terminal block which has screw studs for mounting ring terminals.B. as they still are. The decision not to proceed with the S. The ring tags are secured using special torque spanners. 14. locking into a metal clamp with spring retainer.1. The unit could accommodate up to 20 terminations and employed a spade type crimped terminal. . The screw studs are made of stainless steel and secured by steel cadmium plated stiff nuts called 'Kaylock fasteners'.14. the cables being fitted with ring type tags which were placed over the pillars and clamped down with an ordinary nut. They are supplied in both single and double row of either 1. This method has been extremely successful in providing solid reliable connections in thousands of aircraft over millions of hours. which could be further secured by a screw to from a rigid connection.2 PLESSEY TERMINAL BLOCKS Whilst the British were preoccupied with elaborate designs.3. These blocks are called ward Brook terminal blocks. on plastic strip bases with fixed terminal pillars.C.A.

22 and 24 • Size 16 .13 amps conductor sizes 16.5 ampsconductor sizes 20. They are sealed with flourosilicone rubber coloured red or white.18 and 20 • Size 12 . A typical example of this is the Terminal Junction Module shown below.23 amps conductor sizes 12 and 14 The dielectric use can withstand 1500 volts rms at sea level. The contacts and the bus plate assemblies are made from gold plated copper alloy.7.3 amps conductor sizes 22 and 24 • Size 20 . the layout is indicated by trace lines on the top of each module as shown below. The contact sizes are determined by their current rating and each contact size can accommodate more than one conductor size as shown below: • Size 21 . These terminal blocks have a temperature range from -50°C to 175°C. Although the bus plates cannot be seen. They are made from Diallyl Phthalate and are red or black in colour.1. .14.4 TERMINAL JUNCTION MODULE Today newer types of terminal block are available. having lower toxicity together with easier construction and manoeuvrability of pins.

Cables were originally attached to connector pins and sockets by soldering and although retained within some equipment. There are numerous variations in the design of connectors governed principally by the requirements of the circuit. the number of conductors to be terminated and the environmental conditions in which the connector is to be used. i. this has now been superceded by crimping techniques which have already been studied. A conductor assembly comprises two principal parts. This arrangement reduced the risks of shorting the circuit and of electrical shock. The bodies or shells are mostly of light alloy or stainless steel finished overall with cadmium plating. To prevent distortion of the insulated moulding and to assist in correct mating of the connectors. In many cases special clamps are provided. It can be seen that if larger electrical or electronic equipment were connect by terminal strips a similar problem would result. the operation would take a considerable amount of time. which are a sliding fit in the shells and secured by retaining rings and /or nuts. In addition. they also prevent movement between the contacts. The plug section generally contains 'pin sockets' and the socket or receptacle. it is a comparatively simple matter to unplug the section at both ends and remove the damaged section. panel or equipment. In many cases it is simpler to refer to the two sections as ‘the socket section’ and ‘the pin section’. fixed in a junction box.e. a special ‘filler’ insert must be fitted to ensure correct cable support and to prevent the ingress of dirt or moisture.14. Connectors used on rack mounted equipment may be square and simply push together. These parts are generally called the plug and socket or receptacle. thereby preventing straining of the conductor and pin or socket joints. thus providing support and preventing the ingress of dirt or moisture. They may be provided with either a male or female thread. and sockets contacts have a resilient section which is designed to grip the mating pin. For example. they also prevent displacement of the contacts in the softer material insulators. The shells of free connectors are extended as necessary by the attachment of outlets. ‘the receptacle’ and the section containing the pins ‘the plug’. if may be necessary to replace a damaged section of electrical harness in an aircraft. Whichever way the connectors are described. If the section of harness is connect other sections by connectors. these compress the soft insulation material so that it grips the conductors. If the damaged section were connected by terminal strips. contains pins. Insulators are made from a variety of materials depending on the connection application. the live side of the circuit should always be connected to the socket section. thereby reducing strain when the coupling rings are tightened. or may be of the bayonet type for quick connection and disconnection. or free as part of a loom assembly to couple onto a fixed item. These provide a means of supporting the cables at the point of entry to the connector. all positions in the connector should be fitted with a pin or socket as appropriate. The contacts are retained in position by insulators or inserts as they are often called. A completely new section may then be quickly installed. Polarising keys and keyways are provided to ensure that plugs and sockets mate correctly. in some instances this may require the use of special pin insertion tools. Some confusion may arise concerning plugs and receptacles because some authorities call the section containing the pin sockets. Connectors may be fixed or free items. . Plug contacts are usually solid round pins. retention being achieved by locking the equipment into the rack.2 CONNECTORS Electrical connects are designed in many shapes and sizes to facilitate the installation and maintenance of electrical circuits and equipment in all types of aircraft.

students must therefore consult both manufacturers literature and maintenance manuals whenever possible. A variety of old connectors Old Bendix MS type connectors .Identification of pins and sockets is achieved by numbering or lettering. then low case letters and then double capital.e. The diagrams and procedures that follow are only intended to give an insight into what can be considered as a subject in its own right. Detailed information must be obtained from the relevant aircraft maintenance manuals. When letters are used I. To provide information in respect of all manufacturers and all specifications is beyond the scope of these notes. but not all. a spiralling guideline embossed on the faces of the inserts is used to signify the sequence. In many connectors. i. O and Q are not used and to allow for larger numbers of contacts capitals are used first. AA.

Additional Insert Configurations for MIL-C-26482 Series Connectors . Typical ITT Cannon Part Number KPSE 00 E .Assembly of Mil-C-26482 Type Connectors Connector Part Numbering G.32 S X ( ) Modification Alternate Insert Position P = Pins S = Sockets Insert Arrangement Shell Size Class 00 01 02 06 07 08 Wall Mounted Receptacle Cable Connecting Plug Box Mounted Receptacle Straight Plug Jam Nut Receptacle 90º Angle Plug H.18 . Typical Burndy Part Number L 22 T F 55 P 0 N A* Keyway Position Shell Style Contact Style 'P' for Pin. 'S' for Socket Insert Arrangement Class 'E' Grommet Seal 'F' Grommet Seal with Strain Relief Shell Style Shell Size Smooth Bantam Insert Configurations for MIL-C-26482 Series Connectors View shown is Front Face of Pin Insert.

Contacts without insulation cups are inserted by sliding wire barrel into front end of insertion tip until contact shoulder butts against insertion tip.installing tools 44. J. I. (see diagram 1 below). Removal tools for unwired connectors . (see diagram1 below). 33.(rear release connectors) Installing and removal tools for front release connectors Operating Instructions . (see diagram 2 below).View shown is Front Face of Pin Insert. Operating Instructions . Align tool and contact axially with grommet hole and carefully guide contact through grommet into lock position. Select correct insertion tool and place contact/wire assembly in tool.removal tools . #20 contacts with insulation cups are inserted by sliding cup into front end of insertion tip until end of cup butts against shoulder in insertion tip.

22M Part No. Tool must be held in straight line.45. Push plunger slide forward to eject contact. 47. parallel to contact and square to connector face. Identification Colour Yellow Blue Contact Size 12 16 20 22 22D. MS27495R12 MS27495R16 MS27495R20 MS27495R22 MS27495R22M Removal Tool: Red Brown Black . Note: Plunger slide must remain in retracted position as removal tool tip is inserted into connect. 22M Part No. Select correct contact removal tool. Insert removal tool tip into connector. Tweezer type installing and removal tools for rear release connectors. MS27495A12 MS27495A16 MS27495A20 MS27495A22 MS27495A22M Installing Tool: Red Brown Black Colour Yellow Blue Contact Size 12 16 20 22 22D. 46.

Do not squeeze. Caution!! The tips on installing and removal tools used on small contacts have very thin wall sections. Holding the tool tips firmly against the positive stop on the contact.Instructions To install contacts: 48. Carefully push the contact forward and directly in line with the grommet hole until contact is felt to snap into position. 52. 50. Slide the tool back along the wire insulation until it clears the grommet and remove tool from wire. Slide the tool down the wire until tool tips enter the grommet and come to a positive stop (see diagram below). This causes them to have sharp edges which can cut the wire insulation or connector sealing grommet. . A slight increase in resistance will be noticed just before contact. grip the wire and simultaneously remove the tool. tip or rotate the tweezers while entering the connector grommet. contact and wire. Open the tool tips by squeezing the handles and the tips around the wire insulation. 49. Open the tool tips sufficiently to be places around the wire insulation. To remove contacts: 51. Slide tool along the wire until tip ends butt against the shoulder on the contact. spread.

56. between the thumb and forefinger. Hold the insertion half of tool (coloured) between the thumb and forefinger and lay the wire to be inserted along the slot. 54. Pull it back through tool until the tip seats on the back end of the crimp barrel. leaving about ½" protruding from the end of the tool to the crimp barrel of the contact. Holding the connector with the rear seal facing you slowly push the contact straight into the connector seal. 57. and at the same time quickly pull the protruding wire with the other hand away from the tool. .Instructions For Plastic Tools. Squeeze the wire hard into the tool at the tip. 55. The wire will now have snapped into place. A firm stop will be evident when the contact positively seats in the connector. Installing (coloured end): 53.

. At this time the contact retaining clip is in the unlock position. Press the wire of the contact to be removed against the serrations of the plastic tool and pull both the tool and the contact-wire assembly out of the connector. Slide the tool down over the wire and into the rear seal and push it slowly into the connector until a positive resistance is felt. 61. Caution: Do not tip. spread or rotate tool while it is in the connector. The wire will now have snapped into place. 60. lay the wire of contact to be removed along the slot of removal half (white) of the tool. Squeeze the wire hard into the tool between the thumb and forefinger about ¼" from the tip and at the same time quickly pull the connector away from the tool with the other hand. 59. leaving about ½" from the end of the tool to the rear of the connector. With the rear of connector facing you.Removal (white end): 58.

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The coil consists of fine copper wire wound on an aluminium former that is fitted with a spindle at either end. although its angle of rotation is limited due to the cylinder supports. Opposition is provided by two contra-wound springs that are attached at one end to the spindle and at the other to the spindle support frames. the pointer would simply move across the scale to the end stop. It is in this airgap that the coil rotates. The introduction of digital measuring instruments has simplified the task of making measurements and greatly improved accuracy. . however. a range of instruments are required that enable these variables to be effectively and accurately measured. The coil is terminated on the spindles.1 BASIC MOVING COIL TYPE 15. which are insulated from the aluminium former. With no opposition to the motor torque. supported by brass supports. moving across the scale or scales on the face of the instrument. The coil is free to rotate in the airgap between the cylinder and the permanent magnet. To enable efficient maintenance and testing of these circuits. The springs are contra-wound to provide temperature compensation and also provide for electrical connection to the moving coil. there remains certain situations that require the use of an analogue instrument.1. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS The variety of electrical and electronic circuits is forever on the increase. positioned between them.1 CONSTRUCTION A basic moving coil instrument comprises a horse-shoe shaped permanent magnet that is aged to reduce the rate at which the flux density decreases. current and frequency ranges over which the circuits operate is immense and has undergone many changes over the years. The poles of the magnet are shaped and have a soft iron cylinder. The pointer is attached to one of the spindles and rotates with the coil and aluminium former.15. The spindles run in jewelled bearings that are mounted in non magnetic frames positioned either side of the magnet. This arrangement reduces the reluctance of the magnetic circuit and produces a radial field in the airgap between the cylinder and the pole pieces. The voltage. 15.

The larger the current flowing in the coil. Control for the movement is provided by the contra wound springs. Therefore the meter movement is linear and the scale can be linear. the current required to moved the pointer to full scale deflection. The current required to move the pointer to the furthest point on the scale is called full scale deflection current.2 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION With no current flowing in the coil. The coil and pointer will come to rest when the torque created by the springs cancels the torque created by the moving coil. Both conductors form part of the coil. the greater the torque produced and the further the coil will rotate. the applied force is the motor torque. the field above the conductor on the right is strengthened whilst the field below the conductor is weakened. Hookes law states that the extension of an elastic body is directly proportional to the applied force. The direction of field rotation can be found using the Right Hand Grasp rule.s. even a small current would cause the coil to rotate to its end stop and indicate full scale deflection. so the coil will rotate on its pivots. causing the conductor to move down. When the meter is connected to an electrical circuit.15. there is a uniform field in the air gap between the permanent magnet and the soft iron cylinder as shown in the diagram.d. As the coil rotates.e. This means that the relationship between the extension and the applied force is linear. If the current in the coil is less than I f. The field above the conductor on the left is weakened. The field around the conductors of the coil react with the main field. without a controlling force to oppose the movement. one spring is compressed the other extended. causing the conductor to move up. i. As the coil rotates it will continue to distort the main field. which also has a linear relationship with the current creating it. whilst the field below is strengthened. current flows through the coil creating a field around its conductors. provided the force remains within the elastic limits of the material. the pointer will take up a position between zero and full scale deflection. . Rotation of the coil moves the pointer across a scale calibrated to indicate the value of circuit current or voltage.1.

some meters have a mirror fitted behind the pointer. 15. The faster the meter moves.3 DAMPING The moving coil meter is designed to move quickly from zero to the required value. If the reader moves. this is known as parallax error. An advantage of ideal damping is that. The field around the former opposes the main field and tries to prevent movement. Critical damping is one specific value of damping. With no damping. the observer positions themselves so that the reflection of the pointer is hidden by the pointer itself. the damping tends towards critical damping. the greater the induced emf. To prevent the meter oscillating. Again. this is difficult to obtain and is easily changed by changes in operating conditions.4 PARALLAX ERROR When the value displayed on an instrument is read. The amount of damping necessary to get the meter to move to the correct position with no over-swings. The initial speed of response is quicker than a critically damped movement.15. the value appears to change. the meter takes slightly longer to come to rest at the required position. and the greater the damping provided. adjacent to the scale. too much and the movement will be sluggish and may not stop at the correct position. thus improving its response time. Aluminium is a conductor. Meters are normally set up with ideal damping. thus providing damping. the force created by the springs is greater than the torque created by the coil. as the meter ages and friction increases. with no damping.1. Ideal damping allows the meter to move to its intended position with one over-swing. a damping system is incorporated. Under these conditions the meter is being read correctly. momentum will cause the movement to overshoot. the motor torque being unable to overcome the damping force. To prevent parallax error. so the meter swings in the opposite direction back towards its intended position. When reading the meter. until the movement comes to rest. each over-swing being smaller than the previous. When the damping is insufficient. the movement is said to be under-damped. the value returned is dependent on the position of the reader.1. . When the movement overshoots. The torque produced by the fields is now greater than the force produced by the springs and so the meter swings back in the original direction towards its intended position. Damping is provided by the aluminium former on which the coil is wound. any changes affect the response of the movement. the meter will overshoot. too little and the movement will oscillate. however. when too much damping is provided the meter is over-damped. in the shortest possible time is called critical damping. With no damping the movement oscillates. eddy currents and field. The amount of damping used is important. When moved in the field of the permanent magnet the former has emf’s induced in it that result in eddy currents and the production of a field.

The range of use can be extended by using shunts for higher currents. Vfsd = Ifsd × Rmeter. If a meter is stood upright during calibration. To determine the multiplier value.Vfsd must be calculated. and may well exceed Ifsd. the resistor being known as a shunt To determine the value of shunt resistor required .Imeter The value of shunt resistance can now be calculated from Vfsd and IS. and multipliers for higher voltages. a resistor must be connected in series with it.6. Is = IT .2 Determining the multiplier resistance When using the meter to measure voltages it is connected in parallel with the circuit under test.005 volts. This resistor is known as a multiplier. 15. In a parallel circuit the voltage is common to both arms.15. it should be stood upright whilst making measurements.1. 15.1.5 METER POSITION Errors in meter readings can also be caused by incorrectly positioning the meter. both of which are normally written on the movement. 15. Therefore: . The amount of current that the shunt must bypass is the difference between the total current and the movement current. the meter movement should then be connected to the shunt. To limit the current through the movement.1. RS = = When using a shunt it should be connected directly to the main conductors of the circuit under test. Vfsd can be calculated from the meter resistance and Ifsd. this is determined by the circuit voltage and the meter resistance. Ifsd and the meter resistance must be obtained from the movement.1 Determining the shunt resistance When using the meter to measure current it must be connected in series with the circuit under test.1. This will prevent an accidental open circuit damaging the meter movement. the remainder must be made to bypass it. The maximum current that can pass through the movement is again that which gives full scale deflection. The maximum current which can pass through the movement is that value giving full scale deflection. The series combination of meter resistance and multiplier resistance must limit the maximum current to Ifsd. if the meter was laid down for calibration it should be laid down whilst making measurements. This is achieved by connecting a resistor in parallel with the movement. This makes it far too sensitive for use in practical circuits where voltages and currents far in excess of these values are encountered.6 EXTENDING THE METER RANGE Typical values of full scale current and voltage for a basic moving coil are 100µ A and 0.6.

Meter + Multiplier resistance = 100kΩ fsd voltage = 100 volts Ohms/volt = 100 000/100 = 1000 Meter + Multiplier resistance = 2MΩ fsd voltage = 100 volts Ohms /volt = 2 000 000 / 100 = 20 000 The second meter in the examples above has the higher Ohms per volt value and will therefore cause a smaller loading effect on the circuit when used for voltage measurement. therefore the combined resistance must be as high as possible in order not to short circuit the circuit under test. Using a meter with an incorrect resistance value can cause very large errors in the measurements taken. and therefore changes the values of voltage and current in the circuit.8 OHM’S PER VOLT When a meter is used as a voltmeter. An alternative method used for calculating the Ohm per volt value s to take the reciprocal of the fsd current. the majority of current will flow through the meter instead of the circuit under test. the degree of circuit loading is indicated by the “Ohms per volt” value. changing the voltage drop across the circuit component.1. and is sometimes called the “Figure of Merit”. The degree of error caused depends on the resistance value of the meter used. If the resistance is too low. metals such as Manganin and Eureka. A voltmeter and its multiplier are connected in parallel with the circuit under test. An ammeter and its shunt are connected in series with the circuit under test.1.7 METER LOADING Whenever a meter is connected into an electrical circuit it changes the total circuit resistance. therefore in order not to change the circuit current their resistance must be as small as possible. the circuit current will be reduced and the meter will under read. .Ifsd = Ifsd therefore as RTotoal = Rmeter + Rmult = . 15. This means that the values of voltage and current indicated on the meter will differ from those in the circuit when the meter is disconnected. This is calculated from the combination of meter and multiplier resistance and the full scale deflection voltage of the meter. If the meter resistance is too large. If Ifsd = 1mA the Ohms per volt value would be 1/⋅ 001 = 1000 If Ifsd = 50µ A the Ohms per volt value would be 1/⋅ 00005 = 20 000 The Ohms per volt value also gives an indication as to the sensitivity of the meter. 15.Rmeter Rmeter + Rmult = Rmult = Shunts and multipliers should both be made from metals that have low temperature co-efficient of resistance.

When a resistor is connected between the terminals. 15. To limit the circuit current to Ifsd. Under these conditions. therefore if the cell voltage decreases. In accordance with Ohms law. a battery must be connected in series with the movement. the meter movement is determined by the amount of current flowing in the circuit under test. As the cell ages. When using a multimeter to measure resistance. the circuit current will decrease and the meter will under-read. When the test leads are shorted together maximum current flows and the meter should move to fsd.9 MEASURING RESISTANCE In order to use a basic moving coil instrument for measurement of resistance. the value of current is determined by both the circuit resistance and the circuit voltage. measurement and 1MΩ for a. indicating zero resistance. The positive terminal of the cell must therefore be connected to the meter movement and the negative terminal to the red terminal of the meter. For the meter to indicate correctly. . that is no pointer movement. therefore any change in voltage will affect the value of current.1. therefore another variable resistor must be connected in series with the meter movement and the circuit under test to enable correction.c. Cell voltage reduces with age. the value of resistance is reduced increasing the circuit current to its correct value. a current limiting resistor is connected in series with the movement and circuit under test. The frequency range varies from 0 to 20 kHz upwards. the current will be determined by the value of the resistance and the meter will move to some intermediate position to indicate the value of the resistor. and current flows through the circuit under test from black to red.c. the current must flow from the red to the black terminal of the meter. The values for each meter should be confirmed before use. When the probes or meter terminals are open circuit zero current flows and the meter should indicate maximum resistance. When a multimeter is used for resistance measurement.There are numerous types digital meters on the market. and the circuit under test. the circuit voltage is derived from the cell. but even the most basic have input impedances of 2MΩ or greater for d. the black terminal of the meter is positive with respect to the red terminal.

the other voltage. If circuit 1 were used. 15. because the expected resistance values are small. If the unknown resistance is low. In circuit 2.1 THE BONDING TESTER The Bonding tester employs the ratiometer principle. and the current coil only measures current through the unknown resistor. currents up to one amp may be required. the voltage coil measures the voltage drop across both the current coil and the unknown resistance. the voltage drop across the current coil would be very large in comparison to that across the unknown resistor. it is better to use circuit number 2. Under most conditions current flows in both coils of a ratiometer. one coil tries to move the pointer clockwise the other anti-clockwise.e. The air gap between the soft iron spindle on which the coils are wound and the permanent magnet between which it rotates is no-linear. The two coils can be inter-connected in two different ways as shown below. When measuring a low resistance the current through it will be relatively high. At the same time the other coil is pushed into the smaller airgap. Using circuit 2. If the unknown resistance is high.e. the low resistance of the series current coil has little effect on circuit current. As only small resistances are to be measured. and the voltage coil measures the voltage across the unknown resistance only. Using circuit 1. The coil with the larger current creates a torque that causes that coil to rotate towards the larger airgap. One coil is used to measure current. therefore a small wet NIFE cell is used as the power supply.15. creating a large error in the voltage measured. the two coils are connected as in circuit 1.e. i. i. when carrying out an insulation resistance check. creating an increasing torque. it is better to use circuit number 1. When the two torque's are balanced the pointer stops moving. when carrying out a bonding check. If circuit 2 were used. and the voltage coil only measures the voltage drop across the unknown resistor. and the voltage drop across the small resistance of the current coil is negligible in comparison to that of the unknown resistance. This creates a reduction in torque as the coil moves into the larger air gap and vice versa. the current through the voltage coil would be large in comparison. . Both coils are mounted on the same spindle but are wound in such a manner that the torque's produced are in opposition. the high resistance of the voltage coil draws little current in comparison to the unknown resistor. creating a large error in the current measured. i. In circuit 1. decreasing the torque it is producing.2. creating a negligible error in the current reading.2 RATIOMETER TYPE INSTRUMENTS A ratiometer is basically a moving coil instrument that uses two coils as opposed to a single coil. When measuring a large resistance the current flow through it will be low. the current coil measures the sum of the current flowing in the unknown resistor and the voltage coil.

either the aircraft main bond datum or a secondary bonding point thus ensuring a good connection. and consequently the pointer moves. a 60 ft "static" lead that is fitted with a single spike and an open ended ring terminal. both spikes having to be in contact with the bond under test in order for the meter to work. under the influence of the current coil.Two test leads are used. however. The ratio of current through the two paths is determined by the value of the resistance being tested and the meter will take up an intermediate position to indicate the value of this resistance. Under these conditions no current flows in the voltage coil. the voltage coil is shunted by the test circuit. When the meter is used to measure the resistance of a bond. and a six foot lead that is fitted with a double spike. When the single spike of the 60 ft lead is used to short circuit the double spike of the 6 ft lead. to give a zero resistance indication. When the two spikes of the 6 ft test lead are shorted by a suitable conductor and the 60 ft lead is left disconnected. indicating a high resistance. The 6 ft test lead is pressed onto the item whose resistance is to be measured. Some current will flow through the voltage coil and some will flow through the circuit under test. the current through the voltage and current coils is the same. . the torque produced by the voltage coil is arranged to be greater than the torque produced by the current coil and consequently a full scale reading is obtained. The double spike acts as a switch. the voltage coil is no longer shorted. The 60 ft lead is connected to a fixed terminal point.

2.Prior to carrying out a bonding test. .2 is used. The 60-foot lead of the test equipment should be connected to the main earth (also known as the bond datum point) at the terminal points which are usually shown diagrammatically in the relevant Aircraft Maintenance Manual. It may be necessary to remove a small area of protective finish (e. any protective treatment removed must be re-applied after the measurements have been taken. Since the length of a standard bonding tester lead is 60 feet. the resistance of the bond. a check should be made on the state of the nickel-alkaline cell of the tester by observing that: • • a full-scale deflection of the meter is obtained when the two spikes of the 6foot cable probe are shorted by a suitable conductor. 15. When the two spikes of the test lead probe ate brought into contact with the aircraft part. If the test terminals are open circuited. The generator current flows entirely through the voltage or control coil and the pointer is arranged to indicate infinity on the scale. If the test terminals are short circuited. A finite value of resistance between the test terminals will cause the pointer to take up an intermediate position dependent on the value of the resistance. and that the meter reads zero when the two spikes of the 6-foot probe are shorted by the single spike of the 60-foot probe. any test leads can be used. in ohms. the current through the current deflection coil is zero. unlike the bonding tester.g. the measurement between the extremities of the larger types of aircraft may have to be done by selecting one or more main earth points successively. although they are generally supplied with the instrument. circuit 2 from chapter 34.2 THE INSULATION RESISTANCE TESTER The Insulation resistance tester also uses the ratiometer principle. In order to generate a useable current. because the expected values of resistance are high. this negates the need for an on/off switch. strippable lacquer or paint) in order to carry out a Bonding check. in which event the resistance value between the main earth points should be checked before proceeding to check the remote point. these are usually specified in the bonding test schedule or the Maintenance Manual for the aircraft concerned. The 6-foot test lead should be used to check the resistance between selected points. current flows through both coils and the pointer is arranged to indicate zero on the scale. The high values of resistance being measured also mean that. a high supply voltage is required. this cannot be obtained from a battery and therefore a hand wound generator is used. the test-meter will indicate.

Care must be taken to ensure the correct voltage tester is used. If a fault is detected it should be ratified and the insulation test repeated. electronic and supply systems. Insulation testers are also available in a range of higher voltages. all connections should be remade and all switches reset to their correct positions. When the insulation test is completed. All appropriate switches should be set for normal in-flight operation. All insulation resistance tests carried out should ensure the proper functioning of both individual and integrated elements of the circuits. They should be carried out in accordance with the details of the maintenance manual.3 CARRYING OUT AN INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST Insulation resistance testing is carried out with an instrument whose working voltage is nominally 250V. but which does not exceed 300 volts. On completion.not less than 100MΩ Between terminals bunched together and also to earth MΩ . components such as out-puts and relays may be bridged to ensure continuity of the circuit. these should only be used if specified in the maintenance manual. Tests are normally carried out between individual conductors and also between individual conductors and earth.not less than 10MΩ Terminals . All necessary safety precautions must be taken. The results obtained may signify little when taken on their own. This includes radio. This will indicate a possible deterioration in the insulation resistance. wiring diagram manual or modification instruction. All relevant CB's must be closed. They should be related to the results obtained during previous tests. All other switches involved should be put to 'ON' or minimum resistance position.2.15. Prior to carrying out the insulation resistance check. functional checks should be carried out to ascertain the serviceability of the system. Typical minimum values are: • • • Wiring . Where necessary. the following should be observed: • • • • • • • The battery and external supply must be disconnected. Ensure no semi-conductor devices are included within the circuits to be tested. All relevant equipment must be disconnected.

Once the task is completed the hard copy must be destroyed. there is a marked difference between the manuals associated with public transport aircraft and the manuals associated with other categories of aircraft. • Microfilm. contained within a cartridge rather like a small video cassette. . There are advantages and disadvantages to each format.1. although some manuals use other formats.1 ATA 100 The majority of manufacturers and operators of commercial aircraft use the ATA 100 Specification as the plan for the manuals needed to maintain. Manuals are still produced in all of the above formats because some operators are not up-to-date with the latest technology. generally A4 or letter size depending on origin.1 LARGE COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT Maintenance documentation associated with large commercial aircraft is produced in a variety of different formats. It is one of several such specifications issued by various bodies. This format requires the use of special reader-printers. been successfully applied to small aircraft. You may encounter any of these formats and are therefore expected to be familiar with all of them. 16. This is the format being used for the latest Boeing manuals. and was thus prepared primarily to meet the needs of large passenger carrying airlines. Photographed version of the manuals put onto what looks like cine-film. servicing and maintenance data on accessory equipment. but the extensive use of vendor manuals for descriptive. Although this format requires the use of a computer. in the main this is due to changing technology. The printer is used to make a working 'hard copy' of any section relevant to a maintenance task. however. Its basic principles have. • DVD. In some cases the manual is presented very much like the paper version and suffers the same limitations. One of the main aims of the specification is to ensure that all the information needed by an operator is included in one or other of the manuals provided by the aircraft manufacturer. others prefer certain formats and some are loath to change. 16. therefore the two will be looked at individually. the use of a laptop makes the documentation transportable unlike the book version. which require not only the use of manuals supplied by the aircraft manufacturer. except accessory overhaul data which is covered in vendor overhaul manuals. • CDRom. This is in contrast with some other specifications. • Paper. The specification was drawn up by the member airlines of the Air Transport Association by America. In other cases the manuals have been formatted especially for use on the computer giving far greater flexibility. Printed both sides. AIRCRAFT MANUALS The purpose of this section is to give an introduction to the publications associated with the maintenance of aircraft.16. but has gained much wider acceptance than any of its competitors and will therefore form the basis of these notes. although the writer believes that CDRom versions designed specifically for computer use are far superior and will no doubt take over in time. overhaul. and repair their aircraft. CDRom formats vary. Although much of the terminology is the same.

and accordingly ATA Specification 100 provides for such systems to be subdivided. the sub-systems being allocated the numbers 32-10 and 32-20. air conditioning is Chapter 21. Some bulletins provide a quick path for any urgent "once over" inspections that may have been highlighted by a fault discovered on another aircraft of the same type.ATA Specification 100 calls for the following manuals: • • • • • • • Maintenance Manual Wiring Diagram Manual Illustrated Parts Catalogue Overhaul Manual Structure Repair Manual Tool and Equipment Lists Weight and Balance Manual The Specification calls for another medium for Information-Service Bulletins. Fuselage structure data. The Specification ‘breaks’ an aircraft down into its systems. and landing gear. . Thus. electrical power and landing gear. in the Wiring Diagram Manual. These time limits are contained in a separate manual called the Maintenance Schedule. and then allocates these systems chapter numbers. in the Overhaul Manual and in the Illustrated Parts Catalogue. Should it be necessary to issue a Service Bulletin referring to the landing gear. others provide information on modifications. or reduces the time interval. explaining their purpose and giving the method of incorporation. The general description is referenced 32-00. These bulletins provide two different types of information. such as air conditioning. the fairlings. The various system chapters are arranged alphabetically. Thus. Some sub-systems may be sufficiently complex to require further subdivision. in the Illustrated Parts Catalogue and in the Structural Repair Manual.. etc. According to the Specification. Most systems are too complex to be covered in one go. these being allocated reference numbers such as 32-10-11. 32-10-21 and 32-10-31 respectively. Thus. landing gear is described generally and then divided into main gear and nose gear. Chapter 24. electrical power. A feature of the Specification is that where applicable the various Chapter Numbers are the same in all the manuals. The maintenance schedule can be amended by the operator. respectively. but only if the amendment increases the scope. covered in Chapter 53. tests and overhaul should be provided in a separate manual wherever possible. the bulletin would carrying the prefix ‘32’. Chapter 32. the manufacturer’s recommended time limits for inspections. Overhaul information on other components and on the engines is produced by the vendors and engine manufacturer. side stay assembly. The Overhaul Manual referred to previously contains information on components designed and manufactured by the aircraft manufacturer. information on the landing gear is found in Chapter 32 in the Maintenance Manual. Thus ‘main gear’ could be broken down into main leg. there being no natural order of precedence or importance. is found under Chapter 53 in the Maintenance Manual..

50 Dimensions & areas Lifting & Shoring Levelling & Weighing Towing & Taxing Parking & Mooring Required placards Servicing Standard practices .Engine Power plant General Engine Engine fuel & control Air Engine controls Engine indicating Exhaust Oil Starting Water injection Charts Code abcd abcd abcd abcd ae acde acde acde acde acde acde ac abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd ab Code: a.General Doors Fuselage Nacelles / Pylons Stabilisers Windows Wings Standard practices . . Structural Repair manual * Issued in part or complete by the engine manufacturer. Wiring Diagram Manual c.A.Airframe Air conditioning Auto pilot (or Auto flight) Communications Electrical power Equipment / Furnishings Fire protection Flight controls Fuel Hydraulic power Ice & rain protection Instruments Landing gear Lights Navigation GPWS Code b a a a a a d a abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd abcd Chapter 35 36 38 49 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 *70 *71 *72 *73 *75 *76 77 *78 *79 *80 *82 91 Title Oxygen . Overhaul Manual d. Illustrated Parts Catalogue e. Pneumatic Water / Waste Airborne Auxiliary power Structure .A.T. Maintenance Manual b.100 CHAPTER BREAKDOWN Chapter Title Equipment List 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 34 .

.........................1 to 100 Disassembly ...............801 to 900 Fits and clearances Trouble shooting Fig........................A.T.201 to 300 Inspection/Check ...............................601 to 700 Cleaning/Painting ..................501 to 600 .................1101 to 1200 For simple units................ with paragraphs numbered 1 to 12 corresponding to the above breakdown..................................................501 to 600 Inspection/Check.......... fixtures and equipment ........ operation and data .....................101 to 200 Cleaning ......401 to 500 Assembly .......201 to 300 Or where complex: Serving...........................................................A..100 PAGE BLOCK BREAKDOWN Each chapter of the manual is further sub divided by page as follows • Maintenance Manual Description and operation .............701 to 800 Storage instructions ...1 to 100 Fig...........................................................301 to 400 Repair ........901 to 1000 special tools........101 to 200 Maintenance practice .............................101 up Testing ....................1 to 100 Trouble shooting ....................... .........................................701 to 800 Approved repairs ...........801 to 900 • Wiring Diagram Manual Routing charts (Diagram) Theoretical (schematics) • Overhaul Manual Description.1001 to 1100 Illustrated parts list .601 to 700 .401 to 500 Adjustment/Test...................... pages are numbered consecutively.....301 to 400 Removal/Installation ...................

. Standard Practices Engine . some manuals warrant special mention at this stage.2.1. but only one page may apply to the aircraft being worked on.Chapter 70 and Standard Practices Avionic.2 Maintenance Manual & Standard Practices As we have seen the Maintenance Manual (MM) is divided into chapters and each chapter is further divided into page groups.1 Component Location Manual The component Location Manual (CLM) follows the same chapter breakdown as the Maintenance Manual and lists all functional systems with their respective locations and access doors. each page looking similar to the one in front. It is essential that the effectivity is checked when carrying out maintenance work of any description on an aircraft. 16.2 Special mention Although you should take every opportunity to become totally conversant with all maintenance documentation in all formats. 16.1.1 Customisation and effectivity Aircraft have different equipment fitted and are at different modification states. They comprise 3 main books.2. There may be several pages one after the other in a manual.1. It is not possible to detail all the information contained within these three manuals. When the information in a manual is not applicable to all aircraft. contained in Chapter 20 of the Wiring Diagram Manual.1. The differences in specification are catered for by customising the maintenance documentation.16. Standard Practices Airframe Chapter 20. 16. The maintenance manual is the basic document for all information concerning maintenance procedures.1.1. Customisation is limited to the: • Maintenance Manual • Wiring Diagram Manual • Illustrated Parts Catalogue • Overhaul Manual • Fault rectification or Isolation manuals exist in customised and no customised versions. A non customised document will apply to all aircraft produced by a manufacturer.1. aircraft registration numbers or a manufacturers serial number. the pieces of information are grouped in paragraphs of effectivity. not even to all aircraft of the same type. or all of the aircraft within a pool's fleet.1. A customised document covers all of the aircraft within a customer's fleet. Each component is identified by an electrical or mechanical identifier and a designation. The statement of effectivity is included in the introduction to each manual. The effectivity is generally shown at the bottom of each page of each manual and is indicated by customer or pool fleet numbers. The chapters containing standard practices are considered to be the engineers Bible. therefore a single manual cannot apply to all aircraft. therefore YOU MUST EXAMINE THESE MANUALS YOURSELF AND BECOME FULLY CONVERSANT WITH THEIR CONTENTS. This should be taken as an indication of the importance of these manuals to your daily work.

when different configurations of the same system exist. You will be expected to be able to use this manual to identify part numbers.1.1. they will be reflected on page 2. When a diagram is referenced to another. only the diagram number is used. Aircraft continually monitor and test themselves.1. Therefore.4 Fault Isolation Manual The Fault Isolation Manual (FIM) is a ground manual allowing the maintenance engineer to perform quick trouble shooting and to determine which line replaceable unit (LRU) is faulty. This manual is effectively being built into modern aircraft and equipment’s. it is necessary to refer to the effectivity block to make certain the diagram applies to the aircraft of interest. Guidance on the use of illustrated parts catalogues is given in the introduction chapter of the manual. These additional sheets are identified as sheet 2. . On occasions the manual can be misleading and can result in the replacement of serviceable components or equipment’s. this can only be achieved through practice.2. This manual was designed to reduce the ‘down time ‘ of aircraft.2. however it should be noted that it will not (in the foreseeable future) replace the experienced engineer. To use the manual properly. Wiring diagram manuals The wiring diagram manual is the basic document concerning electrical system information. The IPC is a companion document to the MM and includes all parts for which maintenance practice has been provided.1. Chapter 20 of the WDM is the avionic engineers primary source of information for ALL standard practices used on the associated aircraft. one needs a good understanding of the system under test.2. it will be page 1. Excellent guidance on its use is generally provided in the manual. If diagrams of the same circuit cannot be shown on one sheet. 3 etc.3 Illustrated Parts catalogue The illustrated parts catalogue is used for the identification and provision of replaceable aircraft parts and units. When only one configuration of a diagram exists. READ IT and LEARN HOW TO USE IT. when there is more than one page of the same diagram. Each diagram is assigned a page number. should a fault condition arise the LRU at fault is normally identified by the automatic test procedure and displayed or stored for later identification. 16. sheet 3 etc. 16. it contains: • The electrical and electronic block and wiring diagrams • The list of cables and connectors • The wiring repair procedures Diagram numbering is in accordance with ATA specification 100. having the same title and diagram number. they are shown on additional sheets.

but simply an international agreement.2 LIGHT AIRCRAFT MANUALS The ATA specification 100 is generally used for all large commercial aircraft. the only information given for maintenance procedures are expected values or tolerances. . In the worst case. the procedure is left to the engineer’s experience. The much smaller scale of operation does not warrant the use of such systems and therefore individual companies are left to their own devices. however it is not a legal requirement. This agreement does not extend to smaller aircraft. This results in a variety of different formats and variations in the level of information or detail provided.16.

a list of circuit symbols can be found in the WDM Chapter 20. as without them you will be unable to negotiate the aircraft schematic diagrams and wiring diagram manuals. You will be expected to memorise common symbols. the ATA specification 100.a. This applies irrespective of your intended trade.w. For manuals produced i.17. . CIRCUIT SYMBOLS The following circuit symbols have been taken from a typical aircraft manual and are intended to be a small selection of what you will find being used in aircraft maintenance documentation. For other aircraft no such list may exist and you will have to rely on memory.