Line

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identifiable path created by a point moving in space one-dimensional often outline and define the edges of a form suggests direction and movement, depth and texture leads your eye around a composition can communicate information through its character and direction

Types of Line and their Meanings
1. Horizontal lines
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suggest a feeling of rest, serenity, quiescence, inactivity, relaxation, death/repose, informality, passivity, calmness/tranquility, stability, contemplation help give a sense of space imply infinity or the continuation of a landscape beyond the picture plane found in reclining persons, in landscapes, calm bodies of water and in distant meeting of the earth and sky (horizon)

2. Vertical lines
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communicate a sense of height, integrity/dignity/uprightness, formality, order, discipline, poise, alertness, balance/equilibrium, firmness/strength and forcefulness/assertiveness tend to express as well as arouse emotions of exaltation, solemnity and inquietude seen in a man standing straight, a tall tree, and statues of saints and heroes giving an impression of dignity

3. Diagonal lines
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suggest a feeling of action/movement, energy/dynamism, tension, passion/emotion, instability/insecurity/uncertainty, aspiration/goal or impending collapse can also indicate depth/directionality through perspective pull the viewer visually into the image

4. Jagged lines

imply danger, torture, pain, difficulty, discomfort, physical/psychological menace, confusion, disturbance, quick motion, conflict, violence, lightning, battle/war, and sudden death

5. Curved lines
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suggest grace, movement, flexibility, buoyancy, joyousness, feeling/emotion, sensuality/eroticism, impulse/spontaneity, beauty/charm, softness/delicateness and play never harsh or stern since they are formed by a gradual change in direction

Other Types of Line
1. Actual line

points are connected and continuous

2. Implied line

points are discontinuous

Shape
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is an enclosed space. When a line crosses itself or intersects with other lines to enclose a space it creates a shape. an area or a plane with distinguishable boundaries (usually lines)

Shape vs. Form
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Shape is two-dimensional. Form is three-dimensional shape. Sometimes, the two terms can be used interchangeably.

Types of Shape and their Meanings
1. Natural / Organic shapes
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resemble those we see in nature such as shapes of men, animals, or trees may sometimes be called biomorphic shapes which are free flowing, often assymetrical

2. Abstract / Amorphous shapes
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irregular and loose simplified versions of natural shapes

3. Geometric shapes
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mathematically devised, regular and precise have measured angles or curves have two types:

o

Rectilinear - with straight edges  Triangle/Pyramid –stability equilibrium danger power aspiration energy masculine (pointing up), feminine/womb (pointing down) strength aggression dynamic movement

Square/Cube/Rectangle/Hexagon/Octagon/Other polygons with equal number of sides rational order and logic firmness stability rule of law containment security

Star fame glory/honor brightness guidance dream/aspiration

o

Curvilinear - with curved edges  Circle/Sphere perfection eternity oneness connection community wholeness endurance movement safety

perfection feminine warmth comfort sensuality fulfillment all cycles: the seasons, life and death, etc. the self the universe timelessness protection gold or money nothing/emptiness Heart- love Oblong Cylinder Cone

   

Other Types of Shape
1. Positive shape
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foreground In a drawing or painting, positive shapes are the solid forms in a design such as a bowl of fruit. In a sculpture, it is the solid form of the sculpture.

2. Negative shape
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background In a drawing, it is the space around the positive shape or the shape around the bowl of fruit. In sculpture, it is the empty shape around and between the sculptures.

Color

is the byproduct of the spectrum of light, as it is reflected or absorbed by objects, received by the human eye and processed by the human brain

Hue

the name of a color and its position in the color wheel

Color Wheel

(also referred to as a color circle) is a visual representation of colors arranged according to their chromatic relationship. Begin a color wheel by positioning primary hues equidistant from one another, then create a bridge between primaries using secondary and tertiary colors.

Saturation

purity/intensity/strength of a color

Color Classifications

Primary o red, yellow and blue In traditional color theory, these are the 3 pigment colors that can not be mixed or formed by any combination of other colors. All other colors are derived from these 3 hues. Secondary o green, orange and violet (purple) o made by mixing two primary colors Tertiary
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combinations of primary and secondary colors the plus side of the color wheel (from red through orange to yellow) produce excitement and cheerfulness convey emotions from simple optimism to strong violence for neutrals: black, brown, tan, gold, and beige are considered warm the minus side of the color wheel (from green through blue to violet) associated with weakness and unsettled feelings tend to have a calming effect cold, impersonal, antispectic colors, comforting and nurturing for neutrals: white, ivory, silver, and gray are somewhat cool

Warm
o o o o

Cool
o o o o o

Complementary o colors opposite each other in the color wheel o Because they are opposites, they tend to look especially lively when used together. When you put complementary colors together, each color looks brighter and more noticeable.

Analogous o colors adjacent each other in the color wheel o tend to look pleasant together because they are closely related

Neutrals or Achromatic colors o don't usually show up on the color wheel o include black, white, gray, and sometimes brown and beige o sometimes called “earth tones” o help to put the focus on other colors or serve to tone down colors that might otherwise be overpowering on their own Tint
o

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hue + white hue + blackmbolisms

Shade
o

Red

Yellow

Orange

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Pink
o

sweet, nice, romance, playful, delicate, joy, love, warm riches, extravagance, bright, traditional

Gold
o

Blue

Green

Purple royal, precious, romantic, sacred, mourning, penance, power, artistry denotes knowledge of the spiritual in conscious existence Lavender o grace, elegance, delicate, feminine Turquoise o feminine, sophisticated, retro Black o conservative, mysterious, sophisticated, ignorance, despair, gloom, death, mourning Gray o formal, conservative, sophisticated, weight, solidity, neutrality Silver o sleek, glamorous, rich White o purity, innocence, softness, peace, simplicity Ivory o quiet, pleasant, understated elegance Brown o earthiness, wholesomeness, simplicity, friendliness, humility, confidence o fertile, organic, practical, that which is not pretty in itself but out of which beauty can grow Beige o conservative, relaxing, dependable, flexible
o o

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Value
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lightness or darkness of a surface/color conveys the mysterious as well as the dramatic as light and dark become conflicting forces translated onto the symbolic plane sets the mood of the work, and, along with color, expresses subjective feeling and inner states of mind

Types of Value and their Meaning
1. light

positive symbolism

2. medium

neutral symbolism

3. dark

negative symbolism

Value Contrast
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relative differences in value may be high or low

Chiaroscuro
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a composite word made up of the Italian chiaro "clear," and oscuro "dark" method of gradually shifting from light to dark through a successive gradation of tones to create the illusion of a curved surface

Texture
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surface character of a material that can be experienced through touch or the illusion of touch produced by natural forces or through an artist’s manipulation of the art elements adds variety and contributes to the illusion of depth in a work of art

Types of Texture
1. Actual / Tactile
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quality of a surface that is experienced through the sense of touch most evident in the work of three-dimensional artists

2. Simulated / Visual

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quality of a surface that is experienced through the sense of sight an illusion which makes an object look the way it would be when touched are seen in two-dimensional art such as photographs, paintings or drawings, where objects seem to have the actual textures of fur, velvet, grass and the like

Texture Terms
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smooth/fine rough/abrasive/coarse/rugged shiny dull/matte slick/slippery sticky wet dry hard soft silky satiny velvety sandy furry feathery slimy oily gritty porous irregular warm cold jagged/spiky/sharp clear blurred

Impasto

technique of building-up paint on a surface to create actual texture

Movement
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the process of relocation of objects in space over time the design element that operates in the fourth dimension - time the component of a composition that implies or gives the sensation of activity or action

Types of Movement
1. Actual / Literal 2. Simulated / Compositional

Achieved through lines o slow o fast o changing o inactive o uneven o leaping o crawling o shaking o rolling o flowing o rising Achieved through color o advancing o receding o expanding o contracting

Space
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an extent or expanse of a surface or three-dimensional area the area between things or inside of something

Types of Space
synonymous to positive and negative shapes 1. Positive space

is the main area or object of focus in an artwork

2. Negative space

is best described as “everything else”

Techniques in Creating 3D Space
1. Overlapping planes

where objects appear to be on top of one another, each closer to the observer than the next

2. Variation in size

Largeness of size indicates nearness and a diminishing size as distance.

3. Positioning on the picture plane
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Objects found at the bottom of the frame are closer to the observer. Farther distances are indicated by the positions of the objects higher in the picture plane.

4. Variation in color
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Warm and bright colors give the illusion that they are closer to a viewer than the cool colors. Figures are painted in the foreground using warm colors, and those in the background in cool colors.

5. Showing Perspective 6. Shading

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