J. Scott Carter Daniel E. Flath
and
i~lasahicoSaito
Mathematical Notes 43
1 
Introduction 

2 
Representations of U(sZ(2)) 

Basicdefinitions 
7 

Finite dimensional irreducible representations 7 

Diagrammatics of U(sl(2)) invariant maps 
12 

The TemperleyLieb algebra 
15 

Tensor products of irreducible representations 
21 

The 6jsymbols 
27 

Computations 
43 

h rccu~sio~lformula for the 61symbols 
63 

Iteillh~hs 

3 
Quantum sZ(2) 
67 
Some finite dimensional representations 
67 
Representations of the braid groups 
70 
A finite dimensional quotient of C[B(n)] 
74 
The JonesWentzl projectors 
80 
The quantum ClebschGordan theory 93
Quantum network evaluation 
99 
The quantum 6jsymbols  generic case 
106 
Diagrammatics of weight vectors (quantum case) 
110 
Twisting rules 
111 
Symmetries 
123 
Further identities among the quantum Gjsymbols 
125 
I
4 
The Quantum Trace and Color Representations 127 

The quantum trace 
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127 

Â 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} 
_{1}_{3}_{0} 

Â 
_{A} _{b}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{a}_{r} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{m}_{s} Color representations _{T}_{h}_{e} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{u}_{m} _{G}_{j}_{}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{} . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . _{r}_{o}_{o}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{u}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{.} 
. _{.} 
. _{.} 
_{.} 
_{.} _{.} 
_{.} _{.} 
_{1}_{3}_{3} _{1}_{3}_{9} 

5 
The TuraevViro Invariant 
Â  
The definition of the TuraevViro invariant 
Â 
_{1}_{5}_{1} 

Epilogue 
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157 

Â 
151 
This book discusses the representation theory of classical and
quantum U(d(2))with an eye towards topological applications
of the latter. We use the TemperleyLieb algebra and the Van
I tum spinnetworks to organize the computations. We define the
6jsymbols in the classical, quantum, and quantumrootofunity
cases, and use these computations to define the TuraevViro in
variants of closed 3dimensional manifolds. Our approach is ele
_{R}_{e}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{s} _{1}_{6}_{0} mentary and fairly selfcontained. We develop the spinnetworks
i
_{I}
I
from an algebraic point of view.
1 Introduction
These notes grew out of a series of seminars held at the University of South Alabama during 1993 that were enhanced by regular e mail among the three of us. We became interested in quantum diagrammatic representation theory following visits from Ruth Lawrence and Lou Kauffman to Mobile.
We develop the ClebschGordan theory and the recoupling the
ory for representations of classical and quantum U(sl(2)).via the spin networks of Penrose 1271 and Kauffman [16]. In these the ories, the finite dinlensio1la.1irreducible representa.tions are real
i~edill spaces oi i~oluogcr~eoil:,l,oi> i~oi~ii,il\111 1\\(,
\ .I: I.II)I~~~TII
the quantum case the variables commute up to a factor of q; z.e. yx = qxy. The tensor product of two representations is decom posed as a direct sum of irreducibles, and the coefficients of the various weight vectors are computed explicitly. In the quantum case, when the parameter is a root of unity, we only decompose the representations modulo those that have trace 0.
We use the spin networks to develop the theory in the classi cal case for two reasons. First, they simplify and unify many of the tricky combinatorial facts. The simplification of the proofs is nowhere more apparent than in Theorem 2.7.14 where a plethora of identities is proven via diagram manipulations. Second, the spin networks are currently useful and quite popular in the quan tum case (see for example [23], [18], [28]). One of our goals here is to explain the representation theory of quantum sl(2) in the spin network framework. We know of no better explanation than


II
=I 1I1
I
I.u
xu,II, I UIYI VJ31 IVI,,"ba
IN L~UUU~IIVIV
on triangulations of a 3manifold while the orthogonality condition
I and then to imitate the classical theory in the quantum case. can be interpreted as a Matveev [25] move on the dual 2skeleton
^{I} Here we give an overview.
_{d}_{e}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{1} _{o}_{v}_{e}_{r} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{x} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{s} _{a} _{g}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{p} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} The TuraevViro invariants were based on work of Kirillov
I
^{1}
to run through the classical case (which should be more familiar),
The set
of
(2 by
2) matrices of
of a triangulation.
SL(2). The finite dimensional irreducible representations of SL(2) are well understood. In particular, it is known how to decompose
and Reshetikhin on the representation of quantum groups [19].
This work together with ReshetikhinTuraev [29] formed a math
_{I}
_{I}
_{I}
_{I}
ematicdy rigorous framework for the invariants of Witten [34].
_{M}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{w}_{h}_{i}_{l}_{e} _{K}_{a}_{u}_{f}_{f}_{m}_{a}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{L}_{i}_{n}_{s} _{[}_{1}_{8}_{]} _{g}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{a} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{b}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{i}_{c}
approach to the invariants based on the Kauffman bracket and
of the socalled ClebschGordan theory. The finite dimensional the spin networks of Penrose [27]. Piunikhin [28] showed that the
representations of SL(2) are the same as those of U(sl(2)) which
is an algebra generated by symbols E, F and H subject to certain _{S}_{o}_{m}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{K}_{a}_{u}_{f}_{f}_{m}_{a}_{n}_{'}_{s} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{i}_{b}_{u}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} _{c}_{a}_{n} _{a}_{l}_{s}_{o} _{b}_{e} ^{r}^{e}^{l}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{s}^{.}
KauffmanLins approach and the TuraevViro approach coincide.
the tensor product of two such representations into a direct sum
of irreducibles. In this decomposition one can compute explicitly
the image of weight vectors and such computations form the heart
found in the papers [14], [15], and [17]. A more traditional alge
braic approach to quantum groups can be found in [30]; in partic
ular, they discuss from the outset the Hopfalgebra structures.
Ticl;ol.isll'q [23] d(\finition of tlic Rt~sl~ctiklii~l~~~.aoviilval inlltb
_{F}_{u}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{o}_{r} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{r}_{e}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{c}_{a}_{n}
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e}
rrrn~~,,l?riqt/)ro,~ll.clllfl
_{b}_{e} _{d}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{n}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{l} _{w}_{a}_{y}_{s}_{.}
two decomytosit ions
is sornctimcs c,rllctl
p
_{I}_{*}
$1
tile rccou1)llllg t uell~c~erit:,,ir c. I,I~o\LI~ LJ~CG~'~~~l~]~~l~,rlllese
_{1}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{a} _{c}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{l}_{b}_{i}_{~}_{~}_{a}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{~}_{a}_{l}_{n}_{a}_{t}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{I}_{<}_{a}_{u}_{i}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{}_{L}_{~}_{n}_{s}_{[}_{I}_{S}_{]} _{d}_{e}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{~}_{t}_{~}_{o}_{~}_{l}_{0}_{1}
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{T}_{u}_{r}_{a}_{e}_{v}_{}_{V}_{i}_{r}_{o} _{i}_{n}_{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{s} _{i}_{s} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} _{s}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y}_{.} _{N}_{e}_{i}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e}
combinatorial approaches relied on representation theory. How
ever, the remarkable feature of quantum topology is that there are
close connections between algebra and topology that were hereto
symbols satisfy two fundamental identities (orthogonality and the
ElliottBiedenharn identity) that can be interpreted in terms of
the decomposition of the union of two tetrahedra. In the ~lli~tt
Biedenharn identity the tetrahedra are glued along a single face
and recomposed as the union of three tetrahedra glued along an fore unimagined. The purpose of this paper is to explore these
^{l} edge For orthogonality the tetrahedra are glued along two faces, _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{b}_{y} _{e}_{x}_{a}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{a}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{c} _{m}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{m}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d}
^{I}^{t} and the
_{s}_{y}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{t}_{r}_{y} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{6}_{j}_{}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{i}_{r} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{h}_{i}_{p} _{t}_{o} Here is our outline. Section 2 reviews the classical theory of
_{1}_{1} M~ahedrawas for the most part a mystery, until &aev and _{o}_{f} _{U}_{(}_{s}_{Z}_{(}_{2}_{)}_{)}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} _{i}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{t}_{h}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{n}_{e}_{w} _{h}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{,} _{b}_{u}_{t} _{w}_{e}
do
_{a}_{r}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{k}_{e}_{t} _{e}_{x}_{p}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{(}_{a}_{t} _{A} _{=} _{1}_{)}_{.} _{I}_{n}
_{S}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{3} _{w}_{e} _{m}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{c} _{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{c}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{t}_{r}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{t}_{o} _{o}_{b}_{t}_{a}_{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{q}_{u}_{a}_{n}_{t}_{u}_{m}
_{C}_{l}_{e}_{b}_{s}_{c}_{h}_{}_{G}_{o}_{r}_{d}_{a}_{n} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{6}_{j}_{}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{s}_{.} _{I}_{n} _{S}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{4} _{w}_{e} _{w}_{i}_{l}_{l} _{d}_{e}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{e}
recomposition is not simplicial.
by using diagrams to prove algebraic results.
_{I} _{T}_{h}_{e}
I
^{I}^{/} I
Viro 1321 constructed 3manifold invariants based on the analo
gous theory for quantum sZ(2).
The
Gjsymbols are also satisfied by their
identities satisfied by the
quantum analogues. The
ElliottBiedenharn identity corresponds to an Alexander [I] move
how the ClebschGordan coefficients and the 6jsymbols
/'i
I
_{I}_{!}
I/
^{i}
^{i}
I :(/I
_{'}
_{C}_{L}_{}_{8}
I
/
_{1}_{1}
_{1}_{1}_{1}
j
$1
"
r
VUnLJLILUfiU
fl1lU
WUXIY 1 UM
tJJ>YMB(JLS
quantum trace and discuss the recoupling theory in the root of
unity case.
invariants and proves that the definition is independent of the triangulation by means of the Pachner Theorem [26].
^{a}^{n}^{d}
R. Lawrence for the interesting conversations that we have had.
Section 5 reviews the definitions of the TuraevViro
Acknowledgments.
We all are grateful to L. Kauffman
Their visits to Mobile were supported by the University of south
~~~bama'sArts and Sciences Support and Development Fund.
Additional financial support was obtained from Alabama EPSC~R for funding of travel for the first named author and support of
a Conference in Knot Theory, Low Dimensional Topology, and
Quantum Groups in Mobile in 1994.
Murasugi, and R. Peele provided us with valuable information. Jim Stasheff read a preliminary version of the text and provided
us with many helpful comments. Cameron Gordon's past finanical
support of Masahico Saito was greatly appretiated. Finall!. ive all
C. Pillen, B. Kuripta, K.
grdtcfull) dcl\nowledgc tile suppo~taild patle~~ccL~~ALotll wlbes have shown to us over the years.
I
_{2}
_{R}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{o}_{f} _{U}_{(}_{s}_{l}_{(}_{2}_{)}_{)}
2.1 Definition.
Let C denote the complex numbers.
The
group SL(2) is defined to be
SL(~)={(;
\
\
;) :a,b,c,dEC,
adbc=l
where the law of composition is matrix multiplication.
sociated Lie algebra sZ(2) consists of the set of matrices of trace
The as
0:
,,(,)={(;
i) :a,b,c,di(:,
a+d=n
I 
This is spanned by E =
(
;),.=(
a=

y2) . The Lie bmdei is c~mputed via [A, Bl = AB 
\r!.~]=! >(liu11l7
131.,oti,at[1:.1]=~~i. (

exponential function, exp : sl(2) + SL(2), which is defined by the
power series:
"
~XPQ= j=o
Q3
for Q E sZ(2). The function exp maps a trace 0 matrix to a matrix
with determinant 1.
^{T}^{h}^{e}
2.2 Finite dimensional irreducible representations.
group SL(2) acts on the vector space of linear combinations of.
variables _{x} and y by
I
i
^{i}
1 11 ^{1}^{1}
'
_{I}
i
_{t}
AND QUANTUM6jSYMBOLS
_{(} _{;}_{)}_{y}_{=}_{c}_{x}_{d}_{y}
where the action is extended 
^{l}^{i}^{n}^{e}^{a}^{r}^{l}^{y}^{.} 
^{T}^{h}^{i}^{s} ^{i}^{s} 
^{c}^{a}^{l}^{l}^{e}^{d} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{f}^{u}^{n}^{d}^{a}^{} 
mental representation of SL(2). 
Â  
More generally, define an action of SL(2) on and 1 
the space of poly 
= (ax
One way to verify that this is a group action is to consider the embedding
.
.,
Y and where the sum is over all
geneous ~ol~nomialsof degree (r +s) in x and y into the tensor
product of (r+ s) copies of the fundamental represelltation space.
The tensor product V 8 W of representations V and ]/V illherits
an action via g(v @W) = gv 8gw where v E
I' denotes the fundamental representation space, then v@(T+s)is
V and w E W. ~h~~ if
also arepresentation space. Furthermore, the image of the space of
~olynomialsconsists of the subspace of tensors that
fixed under the ! action of the permutation group on the tensor factors of VB('+"), and this space is stable under the
action of SL(2).
denote the set of homogelleous poly
Note
that v1I2 is the fundamental representation, and V0is the trivial
nomials of degree 2j = r + s where j E
It is customary to let ~j
).
representation, VO = C. The index j is sometimes called the spin
of the representation V3. The associated Lie algebra d(2) acts on V38s ~~UOWS:
E~~~~= dl
dt t=o
exp (tE)xTys = srTt1ys',
_{F}_{~}_{~}_{y}_{S} _{=} _{r}_{x}_{T}_{}_{I} _{y}_{S}_{C}_{1}_{,}
and
HSTyS=  rs
2
xTyS.
A weight vector is an eigenvector under the action of H in any
representation; its eigenvalue is called its weight. For example
xTyS E V(T+S)I~is a weight vector of weight y.Observe that
the set of weights in ~j is {j,j
the corresponding weight vectors form a basis for VJ.
and by definition
,j),
2.2.1 well ~lzownXheorenl.
(See [g] or [33], hic~lm
The representations of SL(2) On V3 are irreducible.
proof.1f W is an SL(2)subrepresentation of V3, then W is also
invariant under the action of the algebra sl(2) that is given above.
Therefore, it is enough to show that the representation of sl(2) On
_{v}_{j} _{i}_{s} _{i}_{r}_{r}_{e}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{i}_{b}_{l}_{e}_{.} The matrix E acts by sending a weight vector to one of higher
_{w}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} F sends such to one of lower weight. Since the image
of anv nonzero vector under powers of E and F spans V37 this
representation is
Remark. In the sequel, it will be more convenient to work with
the universal enveloping algebra U(sl(2)). This is an algebra gen
erated by symbols E, F, and H that are subject only to the rela _{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{E}_{F} _{} _{F}_{E} _{=} _{2}_{H}_{,} HE  EH = E, and HF  FH = F.
The relations are motivated by the properties of the Lie bracket
irreducible.
_{i}_{i}_{r}
8
^{1}^{0}
REPRESENTATIONSOF U(sl(2))
~rof U(sl(2))is deter mined by assigning to E, F, and H operators on a vector space
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{b}_{i}_{e}_{c}_{t} _{t}_{o}
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{r}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{l}_{o}_{p}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{a}_{l}_{g}_{e}_{b}_{r}_{a}
_{}_{} _{} _{}_{}_{}_{}_{e} _{v} _{i}_{s} _{a} _{v}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e}
.,

L




_{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{V}_{.}
In the discussion of Section 3, the representations VJ of d(2)
and the enveloping algebra U(sl(2))will have quantum analogues.
There is a quantum analogue of the group SL(2), but we will not
use it to describe the representations.
_{e}_{3}_{,}_{m} _{=} 5J+m 3m.
Y
should be indexed by
The first subscript of e is the highest weight of the represen
tatloll
<111dind~taft5 tht tl~rnel~slonof thc rcprt~.;crltdfioll 5pr7(t\
^{I}^{)} ^{=} ^{L}^{J} ^{$} ^{1}^{)} ^{w}^{l}^{l}^{l}^{l}^{e} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{s}^{c}^{c}^{o}^{n}^{d} ^{~}^{~}^{l}^{d}^{l}^{c}^{a}^{t}^{e}^{s}^{t}^{i}^{l}^{e} ^{i}^{c}^{e}^{l}^{g}^{h}^{t} ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e}
^{v}^{e}^{c}^{t}^{o}^{r}^{.} ^{N}^{o}^{t}^{e} ^{t}^{h}^{a}^{t} ^{j} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{m} ^{a}^{r}^{e} ^{b}^{o}^{t}^{h} ^{h}^{a}^{l}^{f}^{}^{i}^{n}^{t}^{e}^{g}^{e}^{r}^{s} ^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{t}^{h}^{a}^{t} ^{j} ^{+} ^{m}
^{a}^{n}^{d} ^{j} ^{} ^{m} ^{a}^{r}^{e} ^{i}^{n}^{t}^{e}^{g}^{e}^{r}^{s}^{.} ^{I}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{i}^{s} ^{n}^{o}^{t}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{,}
^{(}^{d}^{l}^{1}^{1}^{1}^{j}^{l}
and
Ee3,m = (j  m)eJ,m+l,
_{F}_{e}_{j}_{,}_{m} _{=} _{(}_{j} _{+}_{m}_{)}_{e}_{J}_{,}_{m}_{}_{1}_{7}
^{H}^{e}^{l}^{,}^{m} ^{=} ^{m}^{e}^{J}^{,}^{,}^{.}
2. The vector v has weight j.
Then j
E
),
4 : VJ+ W such that $(x2"
the action of U(sl(2)).
and there is a unique linear map
= v and such that .11, commutes with
(b) Every finite
dimensional
irreducible
U(sl(2))is isomorphic to VJfor some j E
representation
).
of
Proof.
Let vo = v, and for r > 0 let v,
= FTv.
_{W}_{e} _{a}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{m}_{e} _{b}_{y} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{v}_{,} _{h}_{a}_{s} _{w}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{(}_{j} _{} _{r}_{)}_{.}
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e}
Hv = jv and [H,F] = F,
FHv, = (j  (r + l))~,+~;thus vT+l has weight (j  (r +1)).
we have HV,+~= HFv, = Fur
+
Furthermore, we inductively assume that there are constants
using the relation [E,F] = 2H,
y, such that Ev, = y,v,1.
By
we have that EV,+~= EFv, = 2HvT+ FEU, = (2(j  r) +YT)~T.
_{=} _{r}_{(}_{2}_{j}_{}_{r}_{+} _{1}_{)}_{.}
_{H}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{?}_{,}_{+}_{I}
_{=} _{2}_{(}_{j}_{}_{r}_{)}_{+}_{y}_{T}_{;} _{s}_{i}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{y}_{o} _{=} _{0}_{,} _{w}_{e} _{h}_{a}_{v}_{e} _{y}_{,}
_{Y}_{o}_{\}_{\}_{,}_{,}
_{0} _{f}_{o}_{l} _{,}_{o}_{n}_{~}_{c}_{I}
_{I}_{,}_{c}_{~}_{c}_{,}_{l}_{~}_{l}_{\}_{c}_{.}_{I}_{f}_{*} _{I}_{?} _{f}_{n}_{r}_{t}_{e} _{t}_{l}_{~}_{m}_{r}_{.}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{~}_{~}_{,}_{~}_{\}_{a}_{n}_{d}
vo, vl,
that v,
are eigenvectors for distlnct elgenvalues of H. Suppose
So
the subspace of W generated
= 0 and v,1
# 0. Then Ev,
),
= 0 = r(2j  r + l)v,1.
j
= (r  1)/2 E
by vo is spanned by the linearly
and this subspace is isomorphic to VJ.This proves (a).
independent vectors vo,
,v,1,
(b) Let W denote a finite dimensional irreducible represertta
tion of U(s1(2)),and let w be a nonzero eigenvector of H. Let the
integer r be such that E'w # 0 while E'+'w = 0. Then v = E'w
satisfies the
hypotheses of (a). Hence
W = VJ where Hv = jv.
^{2}^{.}^{2}^{.}^{3} ^{W}^{e}^{l}^{l} ^{K}^{n}^{o}^{w}^{n} ^{L}^{e}^{m}^{m}^{a}^{.} ^{(}^{a}^{)} ^{L}^{e}^{t} ^{W} ^{d}^{e}^{n}^{o}^{t}^{e} ^{a} ^{f}^{i}^{n}^{i}^{t}^{e} 2.2.4 Theorem. Every finite dimensional representation space
for U(sZ(2))decomposes as a direct sum of irreducible representa
^{d}^{i}^{m}^{e}^{n}^{s}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{a}^{l} ^{r}^{e}^{p}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{e}^{n}^{t}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} ^{s}^{p}^{a}^{c}^{e} ^{f}^{o}^{r} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{a}^{l}^{g}^{e}^{b}^{r}^{a} ^{U}^{(}^{s}^{l}^{(}^{2}^{)}^{)}^{.}^{L}^{e}^{t} W denote a nonzero vector that satisfies:
E
_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.}
^{1}^{.}
^{E}^{v} ^{=} ^{0}^{.}
_{I}
Proof. See [33]or [8]for example.
111
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{P}_{e}_{n}_{}
rose spin networks facilitate the computation of U(sl(2))invariant maps via diagrammatic techniques. At the heart of the networks are three elementary maps U, n, and / that are defined in Sec tion 2.3.1. Their relations are described in Lemma 2.3.2. The networks or spinnets will consist of trivalent graphs embedded in the plane with nonnegative halfinteger labels on the edges.
^{P} These labels will satisfy an admissibility condition at each vertex that will be made explicit as we continue the discussion.
i
2.3 Diagrammatics of U(sl(2))invariant maps.
^{I} ^{,}^{l}^{i}^{t}
2.3.1 Definition.
Consider the U(sI(2))invariant maps U :
170 +
~112,g, ~112, ,: v112 fg ~112+
vO, : v1/2 fg ~1124
I i lf 1/2fg171/2, and I : v1I2+ v1I2that are defined on basis elements
I (and extended linearly) via
X(afgb)=b@a
where i = G.Finally
^{]}^{(}^{a}^{)}^{=} ^{a}
^{f}^{o}^{r}
for
a,bâ‚¬{x,y}
^{a} ^{E} ^{{}^{x}^{,}^{y}^{)}^{.}
_{2}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{2} _{L}_{e}_{m}_{m}_{a} _{(}_{P}_{e}_{n}_{r}_{o}_{s}_{e} _{[}_{2}_{7}_{]}_{)}_{.}
1. The maps U, n, X, and ( commute with the action of U(sl(2)).
2. The fundamental binor identity holds:
= I fg 1+ (U o n) : v1J28 v1I2 +
v1I2 8 ~112:
3. (I fg n) 0 (U 8 1) = ( = (n 8 1) 0 (1 fg U) : v1I2+ v1I2
under the identification of C ,g, v1I2= y1l2fg C = v1I2.
4.
(n 8
1) 0 (I fg 1) = (I @ n) 0
(1 @ 1) : (v1/2)@3
^{v}^{1}^{/}^{2}
where as before we identify C 8 '[fl/2 = ~1128 c = 1/1/2.
6.
/
/
flou:C+C
is multiplication by 2.
Proof. Items (I), (2), (3) and (6) are elementary computations. Item (4) is a general property that holds for any bilinear. form n; similarly, item (5) follows for any "cobilinear" form U.
2.3.3 Remarks. Penrose and I<auffman introduced these maps in a diagrammatic context. The domain of a map repre sented by such a diagram appears at the bottom of the diagram,
I
(1
.i

z
,
16 'THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM~~SYMBOL,S
I
and
The key observation about the diagram algebra is that ~lallaf
hk H
nL+

(
I
A 
I
21L1
I.
isotopies of arcs (that are properly and disjointly embedded ill
a rectangle) are generated by the topological moves that corre
spend to (a) the relationship depicted in Lemma 2.3.2 (3) and (b)
example, in the illustla
tloll above the Criticdlp01111~~el~le~el~tlllg111 Cdll 11~])~l~il~(/(I0'' "
:.,r c~lclldn~illgdisfant critical l>ointq.
Algebraically, this
The diagra7n algebra consists of formal linear combinations of cer interchange represents the identity h1h3 = h3hl.
tain diagrams. The diagrams are generated by the diagralns rep The correspondence between the TemperleyLieb algebra and
resentillg I alld hk for k =
the algebra of diagrams shows that the dimension of TLn is the
and those representing h3 can be pushed up.
,2j
_{} _{1} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{d} _{a}_{b}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{.}
nth Catalan number, A(:), where n = 2j. This result follows
by establishing a onetoone correspondence between the possible
diagrams and the collection of legitimate arrangements of n pairs
of parentheses (See also [16]).
Next we let the ground ring R denote ihe complex numbers,
_{b}_{e} _{j}_{u}_{x}_{t}_{a}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d} _{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} _{t}_{o} _{r}_{e}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{e}_{n}_{t}
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{w}_{o} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s}_{.} _{H}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{b}_{e}_{e}_{n} _{s}_{o} _{j}_{u}_{x}_{t}_{a}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e}_{d}_{,}
the product
angle. Two di%pms that are isotopic via an isotopy that keeps
the top and the bottom of the diagrams pointwise fixed represent
into a standard size rect
two such diagrams can
is rescaled vertically to fit
the same element in the diagram algebra. For example, the prod
uct
an ex~ressiollis at the top of a diagram; thus the bottom most 2.4.1 Lemma. Let j be a fixed element in
and choose matrix representations for the symbols U and n.
h2hlh3
is depicted below. Always the element on the left of
I'
I
18 THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM6jsy~~o~~
_{R}_{E}_{P}_{R}_{E}_{S}_{E}_{N}_{T}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{S}
_{O}_{F} _{U}_{(}_{s}_{z}_{(}_{2}_{)}_{)}
_{1}_{9}
^{f}^{u}^{n}^{c}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{s}
roof. The proof depends on standard facts about the represen
^{(}^{~}^{1}^{/}^{2}^{)}^{@}^{2}^{.}^{1}^{,}^{(}^{~}^{1}^{/}^{2}^{)}^{@}^{2}^{.}^{1}
The image O(I) is the identity, and for k = 1,
We refer the reader to the excellent
text, [31] for details. Let n = 2j. Since dim (TLn) = Catalan(n)
we must prove that dim (B(TLn)) = (T)/(n +1) The binor iden
^{t}^{i}^{t}^{y} ^{s}^{h}^{o}^{w}^{s} ^{t}^{h}^{a}^{t} ^{B}^{(}^{T}^{L}^{,}^{)} ^{=} ^{b}^{(}^{C}^{[}^{C}^{n}^{]}^{)}^{,} ^{w}^{h}^{e}^{r}^{e} ^{@} ^{i}^{s} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{l}^{i}^{n}^{e}^{a}^{r} ^{e}^{x}^{}
tension of the representation defined in the remark immediately
Proof. It is necessary to check that O respects the defining rela above. We will establish that dim (@(C[xnI)) = (',") /(n + 1). The
representation 6 is decomposed as in [33]. Namely, as En repre
ation theory of GL(2) and C,.
,2j
 1, the gen
erator hk is mapped to the composition Uon where
on the (k, k +1) factors of the tensor product as in Section 2.3.1.
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{r}_{e} _{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g}
^{i}^{l}^{l}
^{I}
^{I} tions (15) of the TemperleyLieb algebra. The calculatioll follows from the diagrammatics of Lemma 2.3.2 part (3). JI
As we continue to discuss U(s1(2)), we will work with the
TemperleyLieb algebra under this representation witllout explic
Our justification for this notational
^{a}^{b}^{u}^{s}^{e} ^{i}^{s} ^{g}^{i}^{v}^{e}^{n} ^{i}^{n} ^{T}^{h}^{e}^{o}^{r}^{e}^{m} ^{2}^{.}^{4}^{.}^{3}^{.}
llill
I itly mentioning the map 8.
^{2}^{.}^{4}^{.}^{2} ^{L}^{e}^{m}^{m}^{a}^{.}
Let 6 =
2.
fir
any j
E {0,1/2,1,3/2,. , ^{.}^{I}^{,}
^{i}^{5}
^{1}^{1}
^{~}^{J}^{(}^{~}^{~}^{I}^{~}^{o}^{I}^{I}^{J}^{O}^{~}^{~}^{)}^{/}^{I}^{I}^{~}^{~}^{~}^{~}^{(}^{1} 1 ,,,,l/c,/,o,j
qJ,J,,,,y2! ,,,,
2,
letters zlzto TL23 that 2s yzven by p(ak) = I + hk where ak zs the
_{t}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{c}_{h}_{a}_{n}_{g}_{e}_{s}
_{a}_{n}_{d} _{k} _{+} _{1}_{.}
Proof.
Clearly, the images (under p) of distant transpositions
^{,} ^{c}^{o}^{m}^{m}^{u}^{t}^{e}^{.} ^{F}^{u}^{r}^{t}^{h}^{e}^{r}^{m}^{o}^{r}^{e}^{,}
l1
/I1
p(ukokklok) = I+ hi +hxt~+hihi51 +hkil hk = p(okklokok*l1.
Finally, (It hk) 0 (Ithk) = 1 $ 2hk +6hk = 1.0
Remark. The binor identity shows that the 1~omomorphismp is
^{}^{a} ^{f}^{a}^{c}^{t}^{o}^{r} ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{r}^{e}^{p}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{e}^{n}^{t}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}
: CZ3+ AU~((V~/~)@~~)where the

permutation group acts on (V~/~)@~Jby permuting tensor factors.
2.4.3 Theorem.
In case 6 = 2,
the representation, B of TLz3
on (V~/~)@~J,is faithful for evert, i E !0.1/2.1.3/?
_{1}
(v'l2)@" = $T(m)d(T)
(1) the index T ranges over all 2row Young frames with n
(i.e.
T = (r,s), n = r +s, and 0 L r
I s);
(2)the sul13$a~d\ITrr is the irrc~I,,cil,lc rel)resentatioll of
^{l}^{l}^{l}^{c}^{l}^{t}
corresponds to the toung lldllle 1 ;
(3) the exponent d(T) is a positive integer that, incidentally, is
equal to the di~nensionof the representation of GL(2) correspond
ing to the Young frame T.
jyow c[xn] is a semisimple algebra because the group En is
finite. The Wedderburn theory of semisimple algebras [g], applied
to C[Cn], asserts that as algebras
I
 @(C[Cn])% $~Mat(n~X n~)
where nT
matrices. It follows that
= dim WT and Mat( x ) denotes the algebra
dim (j(C[C,]))=
n;.
square
For T = (r, n  r) with 0 5 r _< Ln/2] (where 1.1 denotes the
greatest integer function), we have
This is the number of ways of filling in the n boxes in the Young
frame T with the integers 1,2,
increase across both rows and increase down all columns. The Young frame has n  r boxes on the top row and r boxes on the
in such a way that numbers
,n
bottom row.
The proof will follow from the following interesting combina
torial identity for Catalan numbers:
Let
G(r, n  r)
= n(,,,,)
denote the number of legitimate
filling.; of the Young frame nxilh I, I~n~c>inri f 11~1101 lor?] J.(IU. ;I nd
n  1. boxes on the top. For a two ron. rectangular array,
so in fact G(r, r) is the rth Catalan number. that
We wish to show
Each term in the sum on the right is the square of the number
of ways of Wgg in a smaller
_{[}_{n}_{/}_{2}_{j}_{,} _{w}_{e} consider the Young frame (n, n) to be decomposed as the union
of a frame (s, n  s) and its mirror image. For example,
Young frame.
For s
I
.
A filling of the frame (s, n  s) with the integers 1, .,n to
ther with a filling of its mirror image with the integers n $
yields a filling of the rectangular frame. Therefore, the
m on the right is no larger than G(n, n).
On the other hand, let a filling of the rectangular frame be
_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n}_{.} Then consider the subset of the rectangular array that
ontains the numbers 1, .,n. This subset is convex and forms
a smaller frame of type (s,n  s). Thus we have a filling of it
and a filling of its mirror image. Therefore, G(n, n) is no larger
than the sum on the right. This proves the combinatorial identity.
Consequently, the representation is faithful.
,2n
Re
call that if V and W are spaces on which the group SL(2) acts,
then there is an action given on the tensor product by g(v @ tu) =
2.5 Tensor products of irreducible representations.
911
~IL)
\1i
element .Y in the assoriatctl 1,ic alge111.a. d(2).acts
on tensor protluc~svia the Leibniz rule, .Y(u LI ru) = St?)I , iu $
v @ X(w) since the action is determined by differentiation. Notice
that if v and w are
weight vectors, then so is v @ w, and its weight
is the sum of the weights of v and w. Recall that V3 is isomor
phic to a subrepresentation of the 2jfold tensor product of the
_{,} fundamental representation via the map
(P3 : XI . ' ' ' ' x2j ++
1
^{}
Cp
xu(1) @ . ' @ Xu(2j)
_{2}_{.}_{5}_{.}_{1} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s}_{.} The projection of (V1/')@'j onto the
image (Pj(Vj) can be written in terms of the TemperleyLieb ele
ments as the map
Observe that +2j
0+2j
= 42, So that this map is indeed a projec
^{I}^{n}
35, the quantum analogues of these projectors are de
^{2}^{.}^{5}^{.}^{2} ^{D}^{e}^{f}^{i}^{n}^{i}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n}^{.}
^{L}^{e}^{t}
I
^{u}^{=} ^{u} ^{:} ^{c}
~112a ~112. H~~~~~
^{d}^{e}^{f}^{i}^{n}^{e}^{d}
C + (v"~)@~("~),define 5 to be the composition
The map fi is defined dudy. ^{L}^{e}^{t}
C (1,
,n}.
^{D}^{e}^{f}^{i}^{n}^{e}
^{2}^{.}^{5}^{.}^{3} ^{L}^{e}^{m}^{m}^{a}^{.}
proof. The proof follows by induction.
2.5.4 Definition.
j
E
{a + b,a + b 
Suppose that a, b E
{0,1/2,1,3/2,. Let
,la
 bl + 1,la  bl). Such a triple of
halfintegers (a,b,j) is said to be admissible. Notice that admis
sibility is a symmetric condition in a, b, and j. Define an U(sl(2))
_{i}_{n}_{v}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{m}_{a}_{p}
: (~'/2)@23 (~1/2)@2a
(~1/2)@~~
where ,1
is the identity map on the mfold tensor power of v1l2
The map (pa@pa)oY
ab
0q5~where
de is the isomorphism of
3
ve with the symmetric tensors while pe(xl@ @~2e)= 51 
for 1 = j,a, or b  is called the ClebschGordan map: V3 +
' 'x2e
_{2}_{.}_{5}_{.}_{5} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{o}_{r}_{e}_{m}_{.}
There is a direct sum decomposition
24 THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM6jSYMBOLS
where the sum is taken over all j such that (a,b,j) is admissible.
Furthermore, if (a,b,j) is an admissible triple, then any U(sl(2))
invariant map Vj + Va @ Vb is a scalar multiple
of pa @ pb o
v
0 q5j. Finally,
Proof.
The map
y:"is U(sl(2))invariant because it is the
composition of lT(s/(2))invariant maps
for
(Pa @ 1
(
,'
(4. (x'J)))/ follows by cornputatiol~using
and
G. TIle follnu~~l
Lemma 2.5.3; thus
y
ab
# 0 for (a,6,j) admissible. The ^{t}^{e}^{n}^{s}^{o}^{r}
3
product Vaâ‚¬3vbhas dimension (20+ 1)(2b+ 1) while the image of V3 has dimension (2j + 1). Since
x(2j +1) = (2a +1)(2b+1)
^{3}
(3 )
P (
isomorphic to v'.
is the only space of v
8 v
Consequently every U(sl(2))invariant
V3 +
Va 8 Vbmust be a multiple of this map.
_{i}_{s}
_{(}
Example. Consider v~/~@v~/~.According to Theorem 2.5.5,
this tensor product decomposes as the direct sum of V0 and V1.
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{p}
112,112
coincides with _{U} while
0
and finally
112,112
yI
(~xY)=~I~(x@Y+YBx).
2.5.6 The ClebschGordan coefficients.
weight vector xj+tyjt in ~j
_{V}
ab
o $; :
of
Let ej,t denote the
weight t. We have maps pa @ pb o
vj + Va 4 vbprovided that (a, b, j) are admissible.
_{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{u}_{m}
_{8} _{p}_{b} _{(}_{y}_{3}
c:;t:ea,U (A (e3,t)l) = u+v=~
8 eblv.
2.5 7 Lemma, The ClebschGordan coeficients satisfy the fol
lowing recursion relation
(j + t + l)ct:%= (a+ U + l)~:;b:,v,t+l t (b+v + l)'::b:l,t+~.
Z,w:~+w=3t
(jtt)!(j t)!(a+b j)!
(a+u +~)!(b+v+w)! z!w!(a u  z)!(b v  w)!'
1
11
_{I}
E
I
11.
26 THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM6jSYMBOLS
Proof. The recursion relation is found by applying F to both
sides of the equation that defines the ClebschGordan coefficient.
The closed form is determined by solving the recursion using the
2.5.8 Diagrammatics for weight vectors.
By definition of
4, the weight vector $t(ej,t) is the image under kzj of
m
n
where m = j +t, n = j  t.
We represent x (resp. y) by a white (resp. black) vertex with
a string coming out from the top: 6 (resp. _{)}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{n}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}
These conventions have been known to physicists (see 1161).
It is convenient to introduce similar diagrams for dual vectors.
Consider the dual vector space (v1l2)*. We represent the dual
basis vectors x* and y* of tkis dual space diagrammatically by
7 aid 7 , respectively. For parallel strings representing tensor
products of the fundamental representation, putting one of these
dots on the top of the strings algebraically means that we take
the values of the pairing among vectors and dual vectors. In par
ticular, X means the pairing between x and x* which is equal to
one. We have, then, that the dual to
I
1
REPRESENTATIONS OF U(~1(2))
a+u
au
a~61vb3
Y=T
j+t
jt
27
From the closed formula given in Lemma 2.5.7 for the Clebsch
Gordan coefficients, one cannot easily see the symmetry properties
^{"}^{P}^{<} of the coefficients under replacing ej,m with ej,,. However, this
symmetry and the probabilistic nature of the coefficients is more
apparent in the network evaluation.
Here we consider the space of U(sl(2))
invariant maps vk + Va @I Vb@I VC.We will construct such maps
_{2}_{.}_{6} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{6}_{j}_{}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{s}_{.}
THECLASSICALAND QUANTUMSYMBOL^
_{R}_{E}_{P}_{R}_{E}_{S}_{E}_{N}_{T}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{S} _{O}_{F} _{U}_{(}_{S}_{Z}_{(}_{~}_{)}_{)}
^{i}^{n} ^{t}^{w}^{o} ^{d}^{i}^{f}^{f}^{e}^{r}^{e}^{n}^{t} ^{w}^{a}^{y}^{s}^{.} ^{F}^{i}^{r}^{s}^{t}^{,} ^{c}^{o}^{n}^{s}^{i}^{d}^{e}^{r} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{c}^{o}^{m}^{p}^{o}^{s}^{i}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} (a, b, n), and (n, e, k) form admissible triples, form bases for the
I1li
i
'
I
I
/11 /I
I
I
II~I11 If
it
_{I}
/I
\ \
k
N
( I2a â‚¬3 ','
^{f}
vector space of U(sZ(2)) invariant linear maps vk+ va@vb@VC. fiere pabc = pa @ pb @ pc is the tensor product of the multiplication maps and d3 : ~j + (v1I2)B2j sends a a homogeneous polynomial
in x and y to a symmetric tensor.
_{P}_{r}_{o}_{o}_{f}_{.} The triple tensor product Va @ vb@ VC decom
_{(}_{v}_{1}_{I}_{2}_{)}_{@}_{2}_{k}
_{(}_{v}_{1}_{1}_{2} _{~}_{2}_{a}_{@}_{(}
poses as ($,Vn) â‚¬3 VC = $,(Vn â‚¬3 VC) where the direct sum
is taken over all n such that (a, b, n) is admissible, by Theo
^{S}^{e}^{c}^{o}^{n}^{d}^{,} ^{c}^{o}^{n}^{s}^{i}^{d}^{e}^{r} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{c}^{o}^{m}^{p}^{o}^{s}^{i}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} rem 2.5.5. For each such n, (Vn @ Vc) contains at most one copy
of vk.Thus h~m~(,~(~))(v~,Va@vb@VC)decomposes as a direct
_{1}_{1}_{2}_{)}_{8}_{2}_{6} _{@} _{(}_{~}_{.}_{l}_{/}_{~}_{)}_{@}_{2}_{c}
for various values of j.
y.'
I.
^{I}^{&}
ab sum of the 1dimensional spaces h~m~(,~(~))(v~,vnâ‚¬3 VC).Sim
ilarly, it decomposes as a direct sum of the 1dimensional spaces
h~mu(~i(z))(V~,Va â‚¬3 V3 ).
Define the Gjsymbol to be the coefficient
=( y
y
nc
k
812C)o
2.6.2
{
Definition.
] in the following equation.
for various values of n.
The values of j and n are restricted so that (b, c, j), (a, j, k),
(a, b, n), and (n, c, k) all form admissible
'
'
Lrlples.
Alternatively,
if one of these triples is not admissible, then we may declare the
corresponding map
is admissible, then so are the triples obtained by permuting a, b,
V to be the zero man. (Recall that if fn
,"&."IA
h
;\
I
Pa @ Pb @ PC'
2.6.1
Lemma.
The sets
aVbA
)
a\
b\/c)
as the indices j and n range in such a way that (6, c, j), (a, j,k),
By convention, {
abn
}
= 0 if any of the triples (0,c,j),
(a,j, k), (a, 0, n),jn, c, k) is not admissible.
//
^{I}^{/}^{1}
nlI
,
I
30
In the 'paces
hom~(~l(2))(Vk7Va @ Vb @ Vc), we have the two
bases that are defined by these trees, and the ~i~~~b~lis the
change Of basis matrix. For example, consider the case when
_{=}
^{=} ^{=}
= l/2 One can compute direct]y from the definitions that the possible values for j and n are 0 and 1, and that:
and
Ji'
S('rfioil 2 fi
{:;::;; {:;:;;: }
] = lP,
Recall that a spinnet is an embedding in the plane of a graph
with edges labeled by nonnegative halfintegers in which each
vertex has valence3. The three edges coincident at a vertex must
_{=} _{1}_{,} form an admissible triple. The halfinteger labels represent the
spin carried by an edge. When we need to emphasize the number
of strings represented by an edge (and hence the number of tensor
{ti; :;:P}= 3/47
factors of the fundamental representation carried by an edge), we
will label the edges with natural numbers that are twice the half _{{}_{;}_{;}_{;} _{;}_{:}_{;} _{}} _{=} _{1}_{/}_{2}_{.} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{g}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{.} _{T}_{h}_{e} suffers from this minor inconsistency, but
we have found that the meaning of the labels is clear within the
coll~c'xt111 ~til:t h !i I
\'
I 1l1~'ll

ur~yivc A
IYIII
5i1 o
:,,(,t
I,(,(!
_{(} _{c}_{,}_{,}_{,}
_{,}
^{w}^{e} ^{n}^{e}^{e}^{d} ^{t}^{~} ^{d}^{e}^{f}^{i}^{n}^{e} ^{a}^{n} ^{u}^{(}^{s}^{z}^{(}^{~}^{)}^{)}^{i}^{n}^{v}^{a}^{r}^{i}^{a}^{n}^{t}
^{m}^{a}^{p}
(V112)@2a@ (v1'2)@2b + ^{a}^{s} ^{f}^{o}^{l}^{l}^{o}^{w}^{s}^{:}
(v112)B2J,for admissible triples (a,b, j)
j
= +2J
ab
( /a+jb 8
a+bj
n
8
/j+ba ) 0 (42,
_{+}_{2}_{b}_{)}
_{.}
The compositi~nirj 0
U(sz(2)) invariant.
3
ab
0 (+a 8 mb) :
va 8 vb ,vj is also
^{2}^{.}^{6}^{.}^{3}
_{c}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{u}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.}
_{~}_{h}_{~} _{e}_{l}_{e}_{g}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e}
addition, we assume that the embedding is in general Po
sition with respect to a fixed height function: Thus each vertex
appears at a distinct level, the critical points on each edge are
nondegenerate, and these critical points are at distinct levels from
the vertices. Furthermore, some edges may be marked with 'ym
metrizers: +. More precisely, we include valence 2 vertices in
which the two incoming edges have the same hbel.
~h~ principal results of the current section are the orthogo
nality and the EEottBiedenharn identities that are satisfied
^{s}^{p}^{i}^{n}^{}^{n}^{e}^{t} ^{n}^{o}^{t}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{a}^{t} ^{w}^{e} ^{h}^{a}^{v}^{e} ^{d}^{e}^{v}^{e}^{l}^{o}^{p}^{e}^{d} ^{s}^{o} ^{f}^{a}^{r} ^{i}^{s} _{i}_{t} _{f}_{a}_{c}_{i}_{l}_{i}_{} the ~j~~~b~l~.We will give proofs of these relationships (and
tates Otherwise tedious calculations.
^{t}^{a}^{g}^{e} ^{i}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{a}^{t} the calculations are performed in the tensor power,
There is
slight
_{d}_{i}_{s}_{a}_{d}_{v}_{a}_{n}_{} others) that are simply manipulations of diagrams. To this end
_{w}_{e} _{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{e} _{a} _{d}_{i}_{a}_{g}_{r}_{a}_{m}_{m}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{l}_{e}_{m}_{m}_{a}_{.}
32
THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM6jSYMBOLS
The following relationships hold among the
U(sZ(2)) invariant maps )\ , y, 6,Inl and fi. (Here we iden
tify C 8 V and V for any U(sl(2))space V.)
1. (In 8;)0(68 l,)=~n=(fi~ln)o(ln 86).
2.6.4
Lemma.
Proof. Part 1 follows from Lemma 2.3.2 part 3, and induction since the cancellation of a U with a n can occur regardless of the tensor factors on which those maps are acting. Part 2 follows by induction and part 5 of Lemma 2.3.2. Part 3 follows similarly using part 4 of Lernma 2.3.2. Part 4 and part 5 are proved using
2.6.5
Remark. Consider the collection of proper embeddings
of two and three valent graphs in a rectangle whose edges are parallel to the coordinate axes in the plane. The free end points
of the edges of the graph are embedded in the top and bottom
edges of the rectangle. If two such embedded graphs are isotopic via an isotopy that keeps the boundary fixed, then there is an
isotopy between them that can be decomposed as a sequence
moves that are the diagrammatic descriptions of items 1 through
5 in Lemma 2.6.4. The valence two vertices are represented in
the Lemma by the projectors, and the valence three vertices are represented by the ClebshGordan maps.
To find such a nice isotopy, one replaces a given isotopy by
one that is in general position with respect to the height fuliction defined on the rectangle. The existence of the generic isotopy is
guaranteed by a transversality argument, and a similar transver
^{o}^{f}
,,i~,d~
CIII~I(\II~(~(~(~~~~t:~~~~~~.:II,>
l,O~olj\
IIII~~ ~II!II~~
1
,
,
of pieces each of which is of the diagrammatic form specified.
_{(}_{a}_{,} _{b}_{,} _{n}_{)}_{,}
(c,k,n), (a, b, m), and (c, k, m) are admissible triples. Then then 6jsymbols satisfy the following relation:
2.6.6
Theorem
(Orthogonality).
_{S}_{u}_{p}_{p}_{o}_{s}_{e} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t}
Proof. Define
~h~~ we have the following calculation.
Therefore,
THECLASSICALAND QUANTUMSYMBOLS
_{R}_{E}_{P}_{R}_{E}_{S}_{E}_{N}_{T}_{A}_{T}_{I}_{O}_{N}_{S}_{O}_{F} _{U}_{(}_{s}_{z}_{(}_{2}_{)}_{)}
_{3}_{9}
. This complex is depicted in Figure 1. Each face of the Zdimensional complex arises as the cartesian product of an edge of the tree and a unit interval; the interval factor is thought of as a time parameter in the deformation between the two trees. The vertex of the complex occurs as the edge labeled b passes through the lower junction of three edges. The 2dimensional complex has I vertex, 4 edges, and 6 faces; thus it is the dual complex to a
tetrahedron as indicated in the figure.
Let us associate to this complex a 6jsymbol. Then consider the orthogonality conditions and the ElliottBiedenharn identities. Either side of each equation can be similarly thought of as _{a} _{2}_{}
tllllle~l~lo~ldlcell co~iil)lcx.1'01
C~~III~~C,111 I'I~LIIC'2 ulle \icil: O[ t11e
orthogonality relation is depicted both as a movie description and as a 2dimensional complex; the Zcomplex is the "time elapsed" version of the accompanying movie. The sucessive stills of the
movie differ by a 6jsymbol and these symbols are associated to the vertices of the 2dimensional complex on the right of the fig ure. The trees in the stills are the trees that represent the maps in _{2}_{.}_{6}_{.}_{8} _{A}_{s}_{s}_{o}_{c}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{6}_{j}_{}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l} _{t}_{o} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{d}_{u}_{a}_{l} _{s}_{k}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{t}_{o}_{n} _{o}_{f} the orthogonality relation. Figure 3 depicts the other side of the orthogonality relation, and the 2dimensional complex here differs _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{o}_{c}_{c}_{u}_{r}_{s} _{w}_{h}_{e}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{b}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{h} _{l}_{a}_{b}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{d} _{b}_{y} _{b}_{'}_{i}_{s} _{m}_{o}_{v}_{e}_{d} _{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} _{t}_{h}_{e} from the previous one by one of the Matveev moves [25, 16, 321. Simaarly, Figure 4 depicts in a movie fashion the three trees that
^{r}^{i}^{g}^{h}^{t} ^{s}^{i}^{d}^{e} ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{t}^{r}^{e}^{e}
to the left side of the tree
cessive stills in the movie differ by a 6jsymbol. In Figure 5 the stills in the movie are the trees on the other side of the Elliott Biedenharn identity. The 2complex in either figure represents the
THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM6jSYMBOLS
Figure 1: A movie of a 6jsymbol and the Matveev complex
Figure 2: A movie of Gjsymbols and ort.hogonality (left hancl side)
Figure 3: A movie of 6jsymbols and orthogonality (right hand side)
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{4}_{:} _{A} _{m}_{o}_{v}_{i}_{e} _{o}_{f} _{6}_{j}_{}_{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{s} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{E}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{o}_{t}_{t}_{}_{B}_{i}_{e}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{n} _{i}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{}
_{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{(}_{l}_{e}_{f}_{t} _{h}_{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{)}
dual to the union of tetrahedra  two tetrahedra glued along a
face for Figure 4 and three tetrahedra glued along an edge for
Figure 5. These two complexes are related by a deformation that
is also one of the Matveev moves [25, 16, 321.
Thus the identities expressed among the 6jsymbols are dia
grammatically expressed as deformations between 2dimensional
cell complexes. So the use of 6jsymbols in the construction of
the TuraevViro invariant appears quite natural in the context of
the representations and their diagrammatic realizations.
However, there are two obstacles to overcome before the defini
tion of the TuraevViro invariant can be made. First, the invariant
is a sum over representations, and since we have irreducible rep
resentations for all nonnegative halfintegers j, such a sum would
be infinite, so we cannot use the classical theory of U(sl(2)) to
obtain an invariant. Second, the Gjsymbols that we have defined
_{(}_{I}_{J}_{J}
_{1}_{1}_{0}_{1}
r1111I(~~~~II~(~CI~~II,) llllll~~t
III(I
1 IIII,
t ill,\
( ,111~10~I)(>
associated to tetrahedra in any meaningful way. We will overcome
the first obstacle in Section 4, by passing to the representations of
U,(s1(2)) for q a root of unity. Professor Biedenharn informs us
that this is the physicist's notion of renormalization since we are
converting an infinite sum to a finite sum. We will overcome the
second obstacle by normalizing the 6jsymbols and by showing
that the normalized versions possess the desired symmetr'y while
still satisfying orthogonality and ElliottBiedenharn relations.
2.7 Computations. We now express the 6+symbols in terms
of evaluations of certain spinnets. In particular, we determine
^{s}^{o}^{m}^{e} ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{s}^{y}^{m}^{m}^{e}^{t}^{r}^{y} ^{p}^{r}^{o}^{p}^{e}^{r}^{t}^{i}^{e}^{s} ^{o}^{f} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{6}^{j}^{}^{s}^{y}^{m}^{b}^{o}^{l}^{s} ^{i}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{e} ^{c}^{u}^{r}^{r}^{e}^{n}^{t}
Figure 5: A movie of 6jsymbols and the ElliottBiedenharn iden _{t}_{i}_{t}_{y} _{(}_{r}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} _{h}_{a}_{n}_{d} _{s}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{)} normalization, and we find a normalization that has full tetrahe
dral symmetry.
_{4}_{4} THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM 63SYMBOLS
2.7.1 Topological invariance. Let a spinnet be given. This
network is a graph with its edges labeled by nonnegative half integers that has only 2valent and 3valent vertices. Two edges incident at a 2valent vertex must have the same label, and if edges with labels a, b, and j are incident at a vertex, then the triple (a, b, j) is admissible. Choose an embedding of the spinnet
into a rectangle such that the endpoints of free edges (if any) are on the top and bottom of the rectangle. Suppose that the labels
.,a,, and those that
of the edges that appear on the top are al,
appear on the bottom are bl,
from left to right once the rectangle has been embedded in the _{.}
plane. The embedding of the spinnet allows us to define a map
,b,
where these labels are read
_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{o}_{r}_{s}
are associated to the 2valent vertices and maps
and )\ are associated to the 3valent vertices. At the bottom of
the rectangle the vbs are mapped via q5 into the tensor powers of the fundamental representation, and at the top the tensor powers ^{} are projected back onto the Vas. Some care has to be taken with regard to the indices along the edges as we indicated in the defi nition given in Section 2.6.3. Finally, the embedding of the graph
' is to be in general position with respect to the height function on
_{2}_{.}_{7}_{.}_{2} _{L}_{e}_{m}_{m}_{a}_{.}
_{c}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{s} _{(}_{r}_{e}_{l}_{.}
_{d}_{o}_{e}_{s} _{n}_{o}_{t} _{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d} _{o}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{s}_{o}_{t}_{o}_{p}_{y}
_{b}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d}_{a}_{r}_{y}_{)} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{e}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{d}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{g}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{n} _{g}_{r}_{a}_{p}_{h} _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e}
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{m}_{a}_{p}
KEYKESLN'l.A'l.lVNS
OF U (S1(L))
_{4}_{5}
Proof. This follows from the remarks 2.6.5.
2.7.3 Lemma.
given by
The value of fi: (v~/~)@"@ (v~/~)@~i C is
in( l)#{"'"k'~)
if
if
~j=fjforsome j=
for all
1,
_{j} _{=} _{1}_{,}
{xj, fi} = {x, y}
_{1} where xj,q E {x, y} for all j =
.,n.
n,
_{,} _{n}
Proof. This follows by induction, let us exemplify the formula. In case n = 2, the nonzero values of n are as follows:
2
2.7.4
Lemma.
_{F}_{o}_{r} _{u} _{+} _{v}
= j, consider the map,pj o
(Pa @ q5b : Va @ vbi
Vj. We have
Proof. Recall that e,,, = xa+"y
eb,, holds, and that the image under 4 of a weight vector, ej,t, is a symmetrized version of it.
, that a similar formula for
THE CLASSICALAND QUANTUM6jsyMBOLS
Proof. Part (1) is a direct calculation that can be achieved by
evaluating
(2)follows from (1) and Lemma 2.7.2 by rotating the vertex of the
for (2) 180'. Parts (3) and (4) follow by
right side of the diagram
either side on the highest
weight vector, 4J(22~). part
on the tensor
products of appropriate weight vectors.
^{2}^{.}^{7}^{.}^{6} ^{T}^{h}^{e}^{o}^{r}^{e}^{m}^{.}
^{w}^{h}^{e}^{r}^{e}
is a Kronecker 6 function, A, = (1)2~(2j+ 11,
@(a,b, k) =
REPRESEN lAllUlV3 Up
u
\J1\"J/
proof. Since the given composition maps an irreducible repre
sentation VJ into vk,it is O when k # j. And when k = j it is a
constant multiple of the identity. In Theorem 2.5.5 we computed
4a(xa+uyau)4 4b(~~+~â‚¬3 yb')))
= x2~
u+u=1
( ])'i'
ia+b~ia+b~(I)~u
(c,

+ 1, 
?)'((L t
71)'(h t
(2a)!(Lb)I
!))I
.
((afb j)!)2(a+b+j+l)!(a+jb)!(b+ja)! ^{(}^{2}^{~}^{+} ^{l}^{)}^{!}^{(}^{a}^{t} ^{b} ^{} ^{j}^{)}^{!}
(a+b  j)!(a+j  b).( 1 b+j  a)!(b+j +a +I)! (2a)!(2b)!(2jt I)!
~h~ next to the last equality is a combinatoric identity. The
proof that follows was indicated to us by Rhodes Peele. Consider
_{a} _{+} _{b} _{+} _{j}
_{+} _{1}_{)} _{s}_{u}_{c}_{h} _{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} _{f}_{(}_{a} _{+}_{j}
_{}
_{b} _{+} _{1}_{)} _{i}_{s}
every element of f ({a + j  b + 2,.  ., 2j + 1)) We count the
elements of the set B in two ways
50
THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM6jSYMBOLS
There are ('+,'tl)possible choices for the image f ({1,
,2j+
I)), and each such choice can be arranged in (a+j  b)!(b +j a)!
distinct ways while f ({2j
in (a +b  j)! distinct ways. Thus
,a
+b +j +1)) can be arranged
Alternatively, B = UeBe where Be = {f E B
f
+ I), so #B = xe#Be.
the set f '({l,.
,!))
a+bj'
There are (e(a+jb)
1) =
) possibilities for
since the inverse image must exclude the
the
in the closed interval [I, a +j  b]. Each such set can be
: f(a+ jbf
integers in the closed interval [a+j _{} b _{+}_{1}_{,}_{2}_{j}_{+}_{1}_{1} and include
integers
arranged in l! distinct ways. Furthermore, f '({l+
,a
+b +
j +1))is determined by f
in (u + b +j  e)! distinct ways. So
,!))
that
and this can be arranged
Now let C = a + u, and let j
= u + v, we have
(a t j  b)!(b +j  a)!(a +b  j)!.
The required identity 
follows by rearranging the factors 
in the 
above equation. This completes the proof. 

The spinnet version of Theorem 2.7.6 is indicated in 
Corol 
lary 2.7.7. Here we have labeled the spinnets with the number of
strings (= number of tensor factors of v'f2involved). The loop
closure of 'Czj gives the value Azj = (1)~j(2j + 1) which is the
denominator of the right hand side. The value AZj gives the spe
cial case when a = 0 of Theorem 2.7.6. The closed network in the
numerator on the right has the value @(a,b, j)  this is why the
function is named theta.
2.7.7 Corollary. Let (a, b,j) denote an admissible triple of half
integers.
Then we have equality between the following spinnets.
2.7.8 Lemma.
The 6j symbols possess the following symmetry
Proof. Embed the spinnet
labeled m and p attached to the top edge while the edges labeled
By Lemma 2.7.2, the eval
uation of the spinnet remains the same when the cross bar of
s and t are attached to the bottom.
in a rectangle with the edges
S
_{5}_{2} THECLASSICALAND QUANTUM6jSYMBOLS
the mHis rotated clockwise 180' while the end points of the
s
t
boundary remain fixed.
Having performed such a rotation, recouple; the 6jsymbol
I
that appears is
, where a sum is being taken over
u. Then rotate the (now vertkal) cross bar 180' counterclockwise. We obtain,
,If
u
Thus the coefficients are equal since pm @ppo
04,@I& forms
Vm@I VP.
a ba.sis for the set of U(sZ(2))invariant maps VS@Vt i
Proof. Any of these constants is the coefficient Z in the ecluation
That there is such a constant Z follows since the space of U(sZ(2)) invariant maps vk + Vm@ VP is 1dimensional and is spanned
by pm @ pp o
corresponding diagrams.
Y
mP
k
o 4k. We leave it to the reader to draw the
1
_{f}
2.7.10 Lemma. Let TET(a, b, c, d,e, f) denote
spinnet depicted below:
Then,
the value of the
Proof. The proof follows by recoupling and then applying Corol
2.7I., and LCII~LI;~2.7.9(~f. [!(i].;). I Sagrammatic proof is shown below.
_{} ^{}
n
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