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Determination of Initial Tension of Cable-Stayed Bridge

Using Cable Force Tuning Function

Product: midas Civil


Program Version : Civil 2018
00. Contents

01. Overview 3

02. Example Model 4

1. Open
2. Model Overview
3. Design Loads
4. Load Combination

03. Unknown Load Factor 6

1. Unknown Load Factor Setting


2. Constraints Setting
3. Get Unknown Load Factors

04. Cable Force Tuning 9

1. Feature Overview
2. Tension Adjustment Function
3. Group Setting
4. Result Item Setting
5. Tension Adjustment
6. Grouping by tension adjustment
7. Apply Final Tensions

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 2
01. Overview

Cable-stayed bridge is a structure type that effectively combines cable, deck, and pylon. It is a type of
bridge that can be easily applied to surrounding environment condition because it can adopt various
structure types such as the type of tower and cable arrangement.

Especially, by introducing the initial tensioning forces to the cable, it reduces the bending moment acting
on the deck, thereby making the bridge lightweight and having the long span. However, since the
calculation of the initial tensions of a cable is difficult and complicated, the initial tensions of the cable
were calculated by referring to the judgment of the designer and the experience of the past when designing
a cable-stayed bridge.

In order to easily find the initial tensions of cables, midas Civil provides the Unknown Load Factor
function. However, in the case of the tension forces calculated through the Unknown Load Factor function,
it is impossible to determine the initial tension forces desired by the designer at one time because it is a
numerical solution satisfying the constraint.

In this case, the designer adjusts the tensions of the cables through the influence matrix, and performs a lot
of iterations to produce the initial tensions desired by the designer.

midas Civil provides the Cable Force Tuning function to improve the Unknown Load Factor function and
to make repetitive work easier for the design process.

Cable Force Tuning is a function that allows the designer to adjust the cable tensions in real time and
quickly calculate the initial tensions by checking the deck moments or the displacement of the pylon in real
time without any additional analysis.

This article introduces how to calculate the initial tensions using the Unknown Load Factor function and
the Cable Force Tuning function for a simple three-span cable-stayed bridge.

STEP 1. Cable-stayed bridge modeling

STEP 2. Create load cases of dead load of deck and cable unit load.

STEP 3. Apply dead load and unit loads.

STEP 4. Load combination of dead load and unit loads

STEP 5. Perform Unknown Load Factor.

STEP 6. Adjust initial tensions using Cable Force Tuning.

STEP 7. Check analysis results and determine final initial tensions.

| Procedure to determine initial tensions of cables |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 3
02. Example Model

1. Open

Main Menu에서 File> Open Project


1. Select ‘Cable Force Tuning_Before.mcb’ and click

2. Model Overview

1) Type: Three span concrete cable-stayed bridge


2) Span: 40m + 125m + 40m = 205m
3) Tower: 20m (lower part) + 40m (upper part)
4) Element type: Deck and Tower (Beam element), Cable (Truss element)
5) The cables are arranged symmetrically with respect to the center of the deck.
Boundary conditions are roller for both ends and fixed for the pylon.

| Example model of 3 span concrete cable-stayed bridge |

3. Design Loads

1) Dead Loads: Self weight


2) Superimposed Dead Loads: UDL 72.57kN/m downward

| Superimposed Dead Loads |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 4
02. Example Model

3) Counter Weight: UDL 600 kN/m at both ends downward

| Counter Weight |

4) Cable: Unit Pretension Loads symmetric about the center of middle span

T12 ~ T7 T6 ~ T1 T1 ~ T6 T7 ~ T12

| Unit Pretension Loads |

4. Load Combination
The following load combinations are constructed using the 12 unit load cases in which the pretension is
introduced into the cables, the two load cases of the dead loads, and the one load case of the counter weight.

| Load Combination |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 5
03. Unknown Load Factor

Calculate the unknown load factor that minimizes the objective function while satisfying the constraints
entered by the Unknown Load Factor function under the unit load combination entered in the previous step.
The constraint uses a condition that limits the moment (My) to 5000 kN · m in combination of dead loads
and unit loads. To use the Unknown Load Factor feature, you must first perform the analysis.

1. Unknown Load Factor Setting


 Sign of unknowns:
Specify the sign of the Main Menu>Results>Unknown Load Factor
values calculated by the
1. Click
unknown load factor.
2. Item Name: unknown
- Negative: Specify the 3. Load Comb.: ULF
range of values to be
4. Objective function type: Square
calculated as the
negative (-) interval. 5. Sign of unknowns: Positive
6. There are two ways to enter Constraints, i.e. Dialog and Table. Input methods are
- Both: Specify the range
described on the next page.
of values to be
calculated for all 7. Check cable tension force Load Case (T1 ~ T12) as unknown load.
intervals.

- Positive: Specify the


range of values to be
calculated as the positive
(+) interval.

6
2

Simultaneous Equations 5
Method :

If all selected constraints


have the Equality type, 7

you can check this


option if the number of
unknown loads is equal
to the number of
constraints. In this case,
we use the simultaneous
equations instead of the
optimization technique
| Unknown Load Factor Detail Dialog |
to find the unknown
load factors.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 6
03. Unknown Load Factor

2. Constraints Setting

1. Click on the Constraints window.


2. Constraint Name: M1001
3. Constraint Type: Beam Force
4. Element ID: 1001
5. Point: 2/4
6. Component: My
7. Equality/Inequality Condition: Inequality
8. Upper Bound: 5000, Lower Bound : -5000
9. Repeat the same process with different Element IDs for M1002, M1003, M1004,
M1005, M1008, M1009, M1010, M1011, M1012.
10. Copy & Paste function using Excel is provided to easily input multiple constraints.

Copy & Paste

| Constraints Setting |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 7
03. Unknown Load Factor

3. Get Unknown Load Factors

1. Click
2. Select ‘Result’.
3. Check the unknown load factors to be applied to the cables.
4. Select ‘Influence Matrix’.
5. Check the unknown load factors to be applied to the cables.
6. Check Influence Matrix for the applied loads.
7. Generate a Load Combination to which unknown load factors are applied.
Name: Moment Control

5
6

4
7

| Unknown Load Factor Result and Load Combination |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 8
04. Cable Force Tuning

The unknown load factor obtained using the Unknown Load Factor function may not be able to obtain the
desired unknown load factors if the constraint becomes excessive or the structure becomes complicated. If
you cannot find the unknown load factors, you can modify the constraints to find the unknown load factors
or use the Cable Force Tuning function. Even if you find the unknown load factors that meet the
constraints, if the values are not the optimum tension desired by the designer, you can work efficiently by
using the Cable Force Tuning function.
We will review the Cable Force Tuning function and how to calculate the initial tension of a cable-stayed
bridge.

1. Feature Overview
The outline of Cable Force Tuning is as follows.

1. The tension (or load factor) of the cable can be adjusted using the input table and the bar graph.
2. Select the result item you want to check by changing the cable tension.
3. Output the result items selected in step 2 in the form of Line Type and Bar Type. If you adjust the
tension (or load factor) in step 1, you can check in real time.
4. Adjusted tension can be saved by Load Combination method or replaced with Pretension.

Factor Line by Influence


Matrix (green)

Results based on cable


3
User-specified range (red) tensions (blue)

| Cable Force Tuning Window |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 9
04. Cable Force Tuning

2. Tension adjustment function


1) Adjusting the Tension with the Factor of the Influence Matrix
If cable 13 is selected in the figure below, Influence Value Line for Cable 13 load is displayed as green line.
The Influence Value Line shows the relative contribution of Cable 13 load to the results along the
horizontal axis.
If the Influence Value Line has a positive value as shown in the figure below, if you increase the tension,
the graph of the result will also change in the (+) direction. Conversely, if the Influence Value Line has a
negative value, increasing the tension will change the graph of the result to the (-) direction.
The Influence matrix is useful when fine-tuning the result through the adjustment of one cable tension.

Check Influence Value Line.

| Influence Value Line for Cable 13 |

Adjust cable tension.

Check the change of results.

| Change of results when increasing the tension of Cable 13 |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 10
04. Cable Force Tuning

2) Search function

STEP 1. Matrix & Search


Use Influence Matrix to check the tension that has
the greatest effect on the results, then use the Search function.

STEP 2. Load Case


Static load cases including pretension

STEP 3. Range
The range of the tension factor to be adjusted.
The initial value is -20% to 20%.

STEP 4. Element No.


 It should be repeatedly These are the elements to be applied into
executed to find a solution the target range by tension adjustment.
converging to the objective
function of the Search
function.
When the Before Adjust
and After Adjust values of
STEP 5. Object Function Type
the calculated result become The type of the objective function to be applied.
equal, the objective function
of the Search function
converges and the tension
does not change. STEP 6. Boundary
This is the range of the result from which
the solution of the objective function is found.

STEP 7. Calculate & Apply


Find and apply tension forces that satisfy a given condition.

STEP 8. Close

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04. Cable Force Tuning

3. Group setting

1. Select Group Tree.


2. Add Structure Group (Deck, Cable, Tower).
3. Deck (Element: 1001to1005 , 1008to1012 , Node: 1001to1012 )
Assign by Drag & Drop.
4. Tower (Element: 17to27 , Node: 5001to5012 ) Assign by Drag & Drop.
5. Cable (Element: 28to41 ) Assign by Drag & Drop.

5 5

3 3

| Group setting |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 12
04. Cable Force Tuning

4. Result Item setting

The Result Item is a function that sets the result to be checked through the adjustment of the tension. The
results you can see are Beam Force, Truss Force, Displacement, and Beam Stress.

Main Menu>Results>Cable Force Tuning


1. Load Combination: Moment Control
2. Click on the button on the Results.
3. Name: Deck Moment
4. Group: Deck
5. Type: Beam Force (MY)
 Type: Type of x-Axis 6. X-Axis: + DX , Type: Element
for Results
7.
- Distance: Express x-axis
by relative distances. 8. Name: Tower Displacement
9. Group: Tower
- Element: Express x-axis
by element. 10. Type: Displacement (DX)

- Cable Name: The x-axis 11. X-Axis: + DZ , Type: Distance


is represented by the actual
12.
cable position.
13.

| Result Item Setting |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 13
04. Cable Force Tuning

5. Tension Adjustment

Main Menu>Results>Cable Force Tuning


1. Check ‘Show Result 2’.
2. Results의 Result 1: Deck Moment
3. Show Range: Enter -5000 and 5000, and click
4. Results의 Result 2: Tower Displacement
5. Show Range: Enter -0.03 and 0.03 and click

The graph below shows the results of deck moments when tension is introduced. Use the Cable Force
Tuning function to adjust the tension so that the deck moment is distributed within the red range (-5000
kN-m ~ 5000 kN-m). Also, the displacement of the main tower should be within -0.03 m ~ 0.03 m.

2 3

4 5

| Deck moment distribution obtained by the Unknown Load Factor function |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 14
04. Cable Force Tuning

To satisfy the tower displacement, use the method described in "Adjusting the Tension with the Factor of
the Influence Matrix" on page 10. Based on the correlation between the tower displacement and the cable
tension, adjust the tension factor to satisfy the target displacement of the tower.

 The sum of the tension 6. Enter T11: 8000 , T12: 9000


forces T1 ~ T6 is larger
than the sum of the tension
forces T7 ~ T12, and thus
the tower displacement is
inclined toward the global
X (-) direction. Therefore,
the tension of T11 and T12
is corrected to satisfy the
target displacement of the
tower. 6

| Cable tension adjustment considering tower displacement |

| Tower displacement for T11: 6471.79, T12: 7467.89 |

| Tower displacement for T11: 8000, T12: 9000 |

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04. Cable Force Tuning

To satisfy the deck moment within the target range, adjust the T8 tension by referring to the Influence
Value Line.

7. Check off ‘Show Result2’.


8. Check on ‘Show Influence Value’.
9. Select T8 and check Influence Value Line.
10. Enter T8: 6400.

7 8

Influence Value Line: (-)

10

Since the sign of the Influence Value


Line is negative, the result value
decreases as the factor of T8 increases.

| Tension adjustment using Influence Value Line |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 16
04. Cable Force Tuning

Check the tension that affects the Element 1005C and then use the Search function to adjust the Tension
Factor.

11.
12. In the Influence Matrix window, identify the tension (T6) that has the greatest effect on Element 1005C.
13.
14.
15. Chk: T6, Range: 20, Step : 4
16. Object Function Type: Square, Boundary: Low ( 0 ) , High ( 0 )
17.
18.
 It should be repeatedly
executed to find a solution 19. Execute step 15 ~ 18 one more time.
converging to the objective
function of the Search
function. 11 14

12

13

15

16

17

18

| Identify and adjust the tension affecting the element |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 17
04. Cable Force Tuning

Tension Factor (T11) is adjusted to satisfy the member force of Element 1012 within the target range by
the method described in " Adjusting the Tension with the Factor of the Influence Matrix" on page 10.

20. Enter T11: 7000.

20

| Deck moment for T11: 8000 |

Since the sign of the Influence


Value Line is negative, the result
is increased when the value of T11
Factor decreases.

| Deck moment for T11: 8000 | Since the sign of the Influence
Value Line is positive, the result
decreases when the value of T11
Factor decreases.

| Deck moment for T11: 7000 |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 18
04. Cable Force Tuning

6. Grouping by tension adjustment

The tension forces are finely tuned so that the deck moment and the displacement of the main tower do not
deviate from the target range. And the grouping of the tension forces will make the construction
advantageous.

1. Check on ‘Show Result2’.


2. Enter T1: 6800, T2: 8400, T3: 7300, T4: 6700, T5: 5500, T6: 3600, T7: 2400,
T8: 5400, T9: 5400, T10: 5400.

| Confirm results by final tension |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 19
04. Cable Force Tuning

7. Apply Final Tensions.

1) Save Load Combination

1.
2. Main Menu>Result>Combinations

| Moment Control with Adjusted Tension Factors |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 20
04. Cable Force Tuning

2) Update to Model

1. Click .
2. Perform Analysis

| Tension Factors applied by Pretension Load |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 21
04. Cable Force Tuning

3) Results Check

Finally, the designer can check the target deck moment using Beam Diagram.

1. Select Group Tree.


2. Select Whole Deck group.
3. Activate.
4. Main Menu>Results>Force>Beam Diagrams
5. Load Cases/Combinations: Select CB: Moment Control.
6. Component: My
7. Type of Display: Check on Contour and Values.
8. Output Section Location: Check off abs Max.
9. Output Section Location: Check on Center.
10.

| My of deck element at the center |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 22
04. Cable Force Tuning

You can see the displacement of the tower targeted by the designer with Deformed Shape.

1. Click Activate All.


2. Main Menu>Results>Deformations>Deformed Shape
3. Load Cases/Combinations: CB: Moment Control
4. Component: DXYZ
5. Type of Display: Check Values and click .
6. Check MinMax Only and select Abs Max.
7.
8.

| Confirm the displacement of tower |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 23