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Aug 22, 2019

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CABLE

© All Rights Reserved

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CABLE

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 23

Program Version : Civil 2018

00. Contents

01. Overview 3

1. Open

2. Model Overview

3. Design Loads

4. Load Combination

2. Constraints Setting

3. Get Unknown Load Factors

1. Feature Overview

2. Tension Adjustment Function

3. Group Setting

4. Result Item Setting

5. Tension Adjustment

6. Grouping by tension adjustment

7. Apply Final Tensions

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 2

01. Overview

Cable-stayed bridge is a structure type that effectively combines cable, deck, and pylon. It is a type of

bridge that can be easily applied to surrounding environment condition because it can adopt various

structure types such as the type of tower and cable arrangement.

Especially, by introducing the initial tensioning forces to the cable, it reduces the bending moment acting

on the deck, thereby making the bridge lightweight and having the long span. However, since the

calculation of the initial tensions of a cable is difficult and complicated, the initial tensions of the cable

were calculated by referring to the judgment of the designer and the experience of the past when designing

a cable-stayed bridge.

In order to easily find the initial tensions of cables, midas Civil provides the Unknown Load Factor

function. However, in the case of the tension forces calculated through the Unknown Load Factor function,

it is impossible to determine the initial tension forces desired by the designer at one time because it is a

numerical solution satisfying the constraint.

In this case, the designer adjusts the tensions of the cables through the influence matrix, and performs a lot

of iterations to produce the initial tensions desired by the designer.

midas Civil provides the Cable Force Tuning function to improve the Unknown Load Factor function and

to make repetitive work easier for the design process.

Cable Force Tuning is a function that allows the designer to adjust the cable tensions in real time and

quickly calculate the initial tensions by checking the deck moments or the displacement of the pylon in real

time without any additional analysis.

This article introduces how to calculate the initial tensions using the Unknown Load Factor function and

the Cable Force Tuning function for a simple three-span cable-stayed bridge.

STEP 2. Create load cases of dead load of deck and cable unit load.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 3

02. Example Model

1. Open

1. Select ‘Cable Force Tuning_Before.mcb’ and click

2. Model Overview

2) Span: 40m + 125m + 40m = 205m

3) Tower: 20m (lower part) + 40m (upper part)

4) Element type: Deck and Tower (Beam element), Cable (Truss element)

5) The cables are arranged symmetrically with respect to the center of the deck.

Boundary conditions are roller for both ends and fixed for the pylon.

3. Design Loads

2) Superimposed Dead Loads: UDL 72.57kN/m downward

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 4

02. Example Model

| Counter Weight |

4) Cable: Unit Pretension Loads symmetric about the center of middle span

T12 ~ T7 T6 ~ T1 T1 ~ T6 T7 ~ T12

4. Load Combination

The following load combinations are constructed using the 12 unit load cases in which the pretension is

introduced into the cables, the two load cases of the dead loads, and the one load case of the counter weight.

| Load Combination |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 5

03. Unknown Load Factor

Calculate the unknown load factor that minimizes the objective function while satisfying the constraints

entered by the Unknown Load Factor function under the unit load combination entered in the previous step.

The constraint uses a condition that limits the moment (My) to 5000 kN · m in combination of dead loads

and unit loads. To use the Unknown Load Factor feature, you must first perform the analysis.

Sign of unknowns:

Specify the sign of the Main Menu>Results>Unknown Load Factor

values calculated by the

1. Click

unknown load factor.

2. Item Name: unknown

- Negative: Specify the 3. Load Comb.: ULF

range of values to be

4. Objective function type: Square

calculated as the

negative (-) interval. 5. Sign of unknowns: Positive

6. There are two ways to enter Constraints, i.e. Dialog and Table. Input methods are

- Both: Specify the range

described on the next page.

of values to be

calculated for all 7. Check cable tension force Load Case (T1 ~ T12) as unknown load.

intervals.

range of values to be

calculated as the positive

(+) interval.

6

2

Simultaneous Equations 5

Method :

have the Equality type, 7

option if the number of

unknown loads is equal

to the number of

constraints. In this case,

we use the simultaneous

equations instead of the

optimization technique

| Unknown Load Factor Detail Dialog |

to find the unknown

load factors.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 6

03. Unknown Load Factor

2. Constraints Setting

2. Constraint Name: M1001

3. Constraint Type: Beam Force

4. Element ID: 1001

5. Point: 2/4

6. Component: My

7. Equality/Inequality Condition: Inequality

8. Upper Bound: 5000, Lower Bound : -5000

9. Repeat the same process with different Element IDs for M1002, M1003, M1004,

M1005, M1008, M1009, M1010, M1011, M1012.

10. Copy & Paste function using Excel is provided to easily input multiple constraints.

| Constraints Setting |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 7

03. Unknown Load Factor

1. Click

2. Select ‘Result’.

3. Check the unknown load factors to be applied to the cables.

4. Select ‘Influence Matrix’.

5. Check the unknown load factors to be applied to the cables.

6. Check Influence Matrix for the applied loads.

7. Generate a Load Combination to which unknown load factors are applied.

Name: Moment Control

5

6

4

7

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 8

04. Cable Force Tuning

The unknown load factor obtained using the Unknown Load Factor function may not be able to obtain the

desired unknown load factors if the constraint becomes excessive or the structure becomes complicated. If

you cannot find the unknown load factors, you can modify the constraints to find the unknown load factors

or use the Cable Force Tuning function. Even if you find the unknown load factors that meet the

constraints, if the values are not the optimum tension desired by the designer, you can work efficiently by

using the Cable Force Tuning function.

We will review the Cable Force Tuning function and how to calculate the initial tension of a cable-stayed

bridge.

1. Feature Overview

The outline of Cable Force Tuning is as follows.

1. The tension (or load factor) of the cable can be adjusted using the input table and the bar graph.

2. Select the result item you want to check by changing the cable tension.

3. Output the result items selected in step 2 in the form of Line Type and Bar Type. If you adjust the

tension (or load factor) in step 1, you can check in real time.

4. Adjusted tension can be saved by Load Combination method or replaced with Pretension.

Matrix (green)

3

User-specified range (red) tensions (blue)

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 9

04. Cable Force Tuning

1) Adjusting the Tension with the Factor of the Influence Matrix

If cable 13 is selected in the figure below, Influence Value Line for Cable 13 load is displayed as green line.

The Influence Value Line shows the relative contribution of Cable 13 load to the results along the

horizontal axis.

If the Influence Value Line has a positive value as shown in the figure below, if you increase the tension,

the graph of the result will also change in the (+) direction. Conversely, if the Influence Value Line has a

negative value, increasing the tension will change the graph of the result to the (-) direction.

The Influence matrix is useful when fine-tuning the result through the adjustment of one cable tension.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 10

04. Cable Force Tuning

2) Search function

Use Influence Matrix to check the tension that has

the greatest effect on the results, then use the Search function.

Static load cases including pretension

STEP 3. Range

The range of the tension factor to be adjusted.

The initial value is -20% to 20%.

It should be repeatedly These are the elements to be applied into

executed to find a solution the target range by tension adjustment.

converging to the objective

function of the Search

function.

When the Before Adjust

and After Adjust values of

STEP 5. Object Function Type

the calculated result become The type of the objective function to be applied.

equal, the objective function

of the Search function

converges and the tension

does not change. STEP 6. Boundary

This is the range of the result from which

the solution of the objective function is found.

Find and apply tension forces that satisfy a given condition.

STEP 8. Close

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 11

04. Cable Force Tuning

3. Group setting

2. Add Structure Group (Deck, Cable, Tower).

3. Deck (Element: 1001to1005 , 1008to1012 , Node: 1001to1012 )

Assign by Drag & Drop.

4. Tower (Element: 17to27 , Node: 5001to5012 ) Assign by Drag & Drop.

5. Cable (Element: 28to41 ) Assign by Drag & Drop.

5 5

3 3

| Group setting |

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 12

04. Cable Force Tuning

The Result Item is a function that sets the result to be checked through the adjustment of the tension. The

results you can see are Beam Force, Truss Force, Displacement, and Beam Stress.

1. Load Combination: Moment Control

2. Click on the button on the Results.

3. Name: Deck Moment

4. Group: Deck

5. Type: Beam Force (MY)

Type: Type of x-Axis 6. X-Axis: + DX , Type: Element

for Results

7.

- Distance: Express x-axis

by relative distances. 8. Name: Tower Displacement

9. Group: Tower

- Element: Express x-axis

by element. 10. Type: Displacement (DX)

is represented by the actual

12.

cable position.

13.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 13

04. Cable Force Tuning

5. Tension Adjustment

1. Check ‘Show Result 2’.

2. Results의 Result 1: Deck Moment

3. Show Range: Enter -5000 and 5000, and click

4. Results의 Result 2: Tower Displacement

5. Show Range: Enter -0.03 and 0.03 and click

The graph below shows the results of deck moments when tension is introduced. Use the Cable Force

Tuning function to adjust the tension so that the deck moment is distributed within the red range (-5000

kN-m ~ 5000 kN-m). Also, the displacement of the main tower should be within -0.03 m ~ 0.03 m.

2 3

4 5

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 14

04. Cable Force Tuning

To satisfy the tower displacement, use the method described in "Adjusting the Tension with the Factor of

the Influence Matrix" on page 10. Based on the correlation between the tower displacement and the cable

tension, adjust the tension factor to satisfy the target displacement of the tower.

forces T1 ~ T6 is larger

than the sum of the tension

forces T7 ~ T12, and thus

the tower displacement is

inclined toward the global

X (-) direction. Therefore,

the tension of T11 and T12

is corrected to satisfy the

target displacement of the

tower. 6

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 15

04. Cable Force Tuning

To satisfy the deck moment within the target range, adjust the T8 tension by referring to the Influence

Value Line.

8. Check on ‘Show Influence Value’.

9. Select T8 and check Influence Value Line.

10. Enter T8: 6400.

7 8

10

Line is negative, the result value

decreases as the factor of T8 increases.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 16

04. Cable Force Tuning

Check the tension that affects the Element 1005C and then use the Search function to adjust the Tension

Factor.

11.

12. In the Influence Matrix window, identify the tension (T6) that has the greatest effect on Element 1005C.

13.

14.

15. Chk: T6, Range: 20, Step : 4

16. Object Function Type: Square, Boundary: Low ( 0 ) , High ( 0 )

17.

18.

It should be repeatedly

executed to find a solution 19. Execute step 15 ~ 18 one more time.

converging to the objective

function of the Search

function. 11 14

12

13

15

16

17

18

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 17

04. Cable Force Tuning

Tension Factor (T11) is adjusted to satisfy the member force of Element 1012 within the target range by

the method described in " Adjusting the Tension with the Factor of the Influence Matrix" on page 10.

20

Value Line is negative, the result

is increased when the value of T11

Factor decreases.

| Deck moment for T11: 8000 | Since the sign of the Influence

Value Line is positive, the result

decreases when the value of T11

Factor decreases.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 18

04. Cable Force Tuning

The tension forces are finely tuned so that the deck moment and the displacement of the main tower do not

deviate from the target range. And the grouping of the tension forces will make the construction

advantageous.

2. Enter T1: 6800, T2: 8400, T3: 7300, T4: 6700, T5: 5500, T6: 3600, T7: 2400,

T8: 5400, T9: 5400, T10: 5400.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 19

04. Cable Force Tuning

1.

2. Main Menu>Result>Combinations

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 20

04. Cable Force Tuning

2) Update to Model

1. Click .

2. Perform Analysis

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 21

04. Cable Force Tuning

3) Results Check

Finally, the designer can check the target deck moment using Beam Diagram.

2. Select Whole Deck group.

3. Activate.

4. Main Menu>Results>Force>Beam Diagrams

5. Load Cases/Combinations: Select CB: Moment Control.

6. Component: My

7. Type of Display: Check on Contour and Values.

8. Output Section Location: Check off abs Max.

9. Output Section Location: Check on Center.

10.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 22

04. Cable Force Tuning

You can see the displacement of the tower targeted by the designer with Deformed Shape.

2. Main Menu>Results>Deformations>Deformed Shape

3. Load Cases/Combinations: CB: Moment Control

4. Component: DXYZ

5. Type of Display: Check Values and click .

6. Check MinMax Only and select Abs Max.

7.

8.

Tutorial | Determination of initial tension of cable-stayed bridge using Cable Force Tuning function 23

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