Export | Vegetables | Fruit

Export Potential of Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers From India

M. DAHATREYULU

\T/
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Mumbai 1997

Occasional Paper—6

Export Potential of Fruits, Vegetables and Flowers From India

M. DAHATREYULU

National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development Mumbai 1997

Professor M. Dattatreyulu, 52 A, Pocitet I. Phase I, Mayur Vlhar, Delhi - 110 091. Tel.: (Resi.) 2256570.

The usual disclaimer about the responsibility of the National Bank as to the facts and the views expressed in this paper Is implied.

Published by National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development, Department of Economic Analysis artd Research, Jeevan Seva Complex (Annexe), S.V. Road, Santacrui (W), l^umbai - 400 054 and Printed at Karnatak Orion Press, Fort, Mumbai - 400 001.

PART I EXPORT POTENTIAL OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM INDIA

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CONTENTS Pages 1. Introduction II. Global Scenario World production • World Exports World Imports III. India's Scenario Production - Yield levels - Government of India's Efforts - Exim Policy - Wholesale and Retail Rates - A Comparison - Exports - Packaging and Quality Standards Constraints IV. Strategy for Tapping Export Potential List of Annexures I. World Production of Fruits - By major Producing Countries (i) World Production of Apples - By major producing Countires (ii) World Production of Grapes - By major producing Countries (iii) World Production of Oranges - By major producing Countries (iv) World Production of Mangoes - By major producing Countries (v) World Production of Pineapples - By major producing Countries (vi) World Production of Bananas - By major producing Countries II. World production of Vegetables - by major producing countries 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 1— 2 2 — 13

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(i) World production of Tomatoes - by major producing countries (ii) World production of Cucumbers and Ghierkins - By major producing countries (iii) World production of Cabbages - by major producing countries (iv) World production of Cauliflower - by major producing countries (v) World production of Onions - by major producing countries (vi) World production of Peas - by major producing countries (vii) Production of Potatoes - by major producing countries (i) Production of Apples in India - by major produciijig countries (ii) Production of Bananas in India - by major producing countries (iii) Production of Pineapples in India - by major producing countries (iv) Production of Litchi in India - by major producing countries (v) Production of Sapota in India - by major producing countries (vi) Production of Grapes in India - by major producing countries (vii) Production of Mango in India - by major producing countries (viii) Production of Guava in India - by major producing countries

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(ix) Production of Citrus in India - by major producing countries (x) Production of Papaya in India - by major producing countries IV. Production of Vegetables in India - Itemwise (i) Production of Potatoes in India (ii) Production of Cabbage in India - by major producing States (iii) Production of Okra in India - by major producing States (iv) Production of Peas in India - by major producing States (v) Prodyction of Cauliflower in India (vi) Producti'on of Brinjal in India (vii) Production of Onions in India - by major States (viii) Production of Tomatoes in India - by major States V. Exports of Fresh Fruits from India VI. Exports of Other Fresh Vegetables from India VII. Exports of Horticulture Produce in IXth Plan VIII. (a) Exports of Fruits and Vegetables from India (b) Exports of Fruits and Vegetables from 'India IX. Fruits and Vegetables that enter into International Trade from India along with Harmonised Code Numbers X. Major Fruit Seasons in India XI. Working Group on Horticulture Development for the Ninth Five Year Plan.

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99 100 101 102 103 104 105 —106 107 —108 109 110 111 112—114

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and distribution. 1 . In developed countries. There are many horticultural products. INTRODUCTION Horticultural crops provide a better alternative for diversification of Indian agriculture in view of higher returns available from them. a change partly stimulated by the increase in international travel and communications. high-cholesterol foods. Horticulture sector helps in improving productivity of land. And they are frequently produced on small farms. India endowed with abundant labour in relation to capital has competitive advantage in production and exports. 24 crore in the Seventh Five Year Plan. has led to and is facilitated by increasing Imports of new and non-traditional horticultural products. such as meat and livestock products. 1000 crore as against Rs. especially fruits. thus providing an important source of additional income for poor farmers in developing countries. Horticultural products have a high income elasticity of demand. that fetch high prices in world trade. there is an increasing tendency in developed countries to diversify the diet by consuming a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. This. Horticultural products not only have good potential for generating employment in cultivation but also in processing. Conditions for increasing production of horticultural crops are very favourable in the country. plan allocation in the Eighth Five Year Plan has been raised to Rs. enhancing exports and foreign exchange earnings and above all providing nutritional security to the people. especially from the tropical developing countries.EXPORT POTENTIAL OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM INDIA I. generating employment. the growing concern for health and nutrition has caused consumer preferences to shift from high-fat. demand rises rapidly. to low-fat. As income goes up. in turn. low-cholesterol foods. fruits and vegetables. This is partly because production of horticultural crops in general is labour-intensive. especially in the middleand high-income groups in developing and developed countries. marketing. Also. Realising the importance and the role of horticultural crops have to play. such as fish. improving economic conditions of the farmers and entrepreneurs.

11. South America. North & Central America. WORLD PRODUCTION A variety of fruits and vegetables are grown in all the regions of the world .Africa. This paper seeks to assess India's export potential of fruits and vegetables in fresh form. The growing interest in horticultural exports in the country also reflects the search for diversified non-traditional agricultural exports in order to expand foreign exchange earnings so that the country can meet rising import requirements for accelerated economic growth and mounting debt service payments. Global production of fresh fruits and vegetables comprises the following: Fresh Fruits Bananas and Plantains Citrus Fruits Oranges Tangerines and mandarins Lemons and limes Grape fruit and pomelo Tropical Fruits Mangoes Avocados Pineapples Dates Persimmons Papayas .there are. wide variations in the quantities and varieties produced in different countries. Europe and Oceania . Asia. however.Thus the efficient production of high-value horticultural products on small farms can help alleviate rural poverty. GLOBAL SCENARIO A.

Miscellaneous Fruits Apples Pears Quinces Apricots Sour Cherries Peaches and nectarines Plums Stone Fruit Strawberries Raspberries Gooseberries Currants Blueberries Cranberries Grapes Watermelons Cantaloupes and other melons Figs Treenuts Brazil nuts cashew nuts chestnuts Almonds Walnuts Pistachios Kolanuts Hazelnuts (Filberts) Arecanuts (Betel) Coconuts Olives Melonseed Fresh Vegetables Roots & tubers . Potatoes Sweet Potatoes Yantia Taro .

gourds Cucumbers and gherkins Eggplants Chillies and peppers. . fresh or dried Carobs Fruits World production of fruits was estimated at 387. green Broad beans.Yams Hops Miscellaneous Vegetables Sugarcane Sugarbeets Cabbages Artichokes Lettuce Spinach Tomatoes Cauliflower Pumpkins. green Onions. The Annexure I indicates world production of fruits by major producing countries.9 million tonnes in 1994 which increased marginally over the previous years. green String beans Carrots Okra Green corn (maize) Mushrooms Chicory roots Vegetable products. dry Garlic Beans. squash. green Peas. green Onions and shallots.

987 8.411 8.57% India's Rank in World Production : 2 China is the largest producer of fruits in the world followed by India.84.239 9.940 18.4% respectively of world production.6% of world production of fruits in 1994.194 32.021 3. Many categories of fruits are produced on a global basis. In 1994.80. 8.450 31.Table 1 WORLD PRODUCTION OF FRUITS* . FAO.6%.972 11.854 17. USA besides being a major producer is also an important importer as well as an exporter of fruits. These four countries with a combined production of 131902000 tonnes accounted for 34% of world production in 1994. Brazil and USA in that order.235 32.845 8. Rome.4% and 7. 1994 India's Share in World Production : 8. they accounted for 9.159 12. Some of the fruits which are important from trade angle and from India's point of view are given in the following table: .700 9.851 3.960 9.000 8.738 1993 1994 37.939 ' Fruits excluding Melons Source: Production Year Book.BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty : '000 MT Country China India Brazil USA Italy Spain France Turkey Mexico Uganda Iran World Total 1992 26.547 9.509 3. 8.6%.869 20.951 28.003 26.033 9.298 33.701 15.87.559 32.649 32.334 9.431 9.588 31.648 10.995 13.645 10.515 28. India ranked second and accounted for 8.668 9.

6 12.0 2. Rome.6 Source: Production Year Book. others) % Share of 6 Categories in Grand Total 1992 57961 62424 51309 44600 17479 11125 244898 1993 59394 56989 52242 47453 18337 11546 245961 384334 1994 58731 56391 52584 48890 18450 11832 246879 387939 380668 64.6 1.0 63. In 1994.: '000 MT Fruits Oranges Grapes Bananets Apples Mangoes Pineapples Total of 6 Categories Grand Total (All Fruits incl.Table 2 WORLD PRODUCTION OF FRUITS . Share of each category in the world production of fruits in 1994 was as follows: Category Oranges Grapes Bananas Apples Mangoes Pineapple % Share 15.2 6. FAO.8 3.BY MAJOR CATEGORIES Qty.3 64. Italy.6 4.3 15.1 4.5 54.5 13.1 Details regarding countrywise production of major categories of fruits are given in Annexures I. India's position in global production of fruits was as follows: Category Oranges Grapes Bananas Apples Mangoes Pineapples India's Share in 3. 1994.9 India's Rank in 6 17 1 10 1 5 6 .

550 Note : Total Includes Vegetables + Melons Source : Production Year Book.174 1993 1.450 8.477 10.190 10.6 million tonnes in 1994.513 63.894 4. Important vegetables from trade angle and from India's stand point are shown in the following table: .25. Russian Fed.800 33.970 1994 1.503 10.23.28.443 19.661 8. India USA Turkey Japan Italy Spain Korea Rep. Rome.70. 1994 India's Share in World Production India's Rank in World Production 13. India ranked number two in world production of vegetables and it accounted for only 13.85. Many categories of vegetables are produced in the world.050 4. The following table provides world production of vegetables by major producing countries: Table 3 WORLD PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty: '000 MT Country China .209 33.42% 2 China is the number one producer followed very distantly by India and the USA.73.276 10.468 13.350 14.Vegetables World production of vegetables was estimated at 485.569 14. Production showed an increasing trend.537 10.629 10.054 10.680 10.081 10. Iran World Total 1992 1.137 36.354 13.094 64. FAO.798 4.870 13.811 65.449 19.231 10.173 18.42% in 1994.189 14.

Green Total of 7 Categories Grand Total (All Vegetables Incl. Italy.2 0. India's position in global production of vegetables was as follows: 8 .9 Details regarding countrywise production of major categories of vegetables are given in Annexure II.7 1993 291460 74357 40878 30278 18726 10505 4012 467216 473970 98. Green 1«:0 8. Share of each category in the world production of vegetables in 1994 was as follows: Category Potatoes % Share 54. dry Cucumbers & Gherkins Cauliflower Peas.Table 4 WORLD PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES BY MAJOR CATEGORIES Qfy. dry Cucumbers and Gherkins Cauliflower Peas.: '000 MT Category Potatoes Tomatoes Cabbages Onions.3 6.7 Tomatoes Cabbages Onions.7 4. Rome. others) % Share of 7 categories in Grand total 1992 277208 73896 41031 29776 18268 10080 4541 454800 470174 96. FAO.7 Source: Production Year Book.6 1994 265436 77540 40250 32546 19261 10888 346 450267 485550 92.0 2. In 1994. 1994.

T.A. 1994. green 6 5 3 2 N. In 1994.2 13.64% 7 . tree nuts constitute a very small percentage. the share of tree nuts in global production was only 1. 1 3 Tree Nuts In global production of fruits. India's Share in World Production : India's Rank in World Production : 3.7 6. The following table gives details of production by major producing countries: Table 5 WORLD PRODUCTION OF TREE NUTS BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty. FAO.: '000 M.Category India's Share in World Production (Percentage) 5. World Total 1992 803 365 348 345 301 141 374 103 114 4985 1993 600 382 436 327 274 146 170 101 95 4731 1994 724 397 349 292 280 231 170 102 100 4665 Source: Production "Vear Book. Production of tree nuts declined to 4665000 M.A.2 N.2 per cent.1 6. Italy. 44. Country Turkey China Iran Spain Italy BrazH India Greece Korea Rep.5 8.T.2 India' s Rani( in World Production Potatoes Tomatoes Cabbages Onions. in 1994 from previous years. Rome. dry Cucumbers and Gherkins Cauliflower Peas.

Val. WORLD EXPORTS Fruits.09 471 0.00 0. 1993 Qty. Tropical or semi-tropical fruits play a substantial role in international trade. Table 6 WORLD EXPORTS OF FRUITS & VEGETABLES Qty.039 6909 9. Bananas and oranges are very important from export point of view.30 0.19 0.134 0.051 10784 3334167 1.013 0. India's share is insignificant as could be seen from Table 6.63 2811 0. With modern packaging and fruit treatment technologies there is considerable value added attached to the exportation of fresh fruits.085 1846686 12781 0.135 12071 1.011 182709 35 0.34 0.021 3257065 1779 0.008 4539 6.055 410748 470 0. FRUITS Oranges — World — India % Share of India 1992 Val.030 gaoaoas — World — India % Share of India Apples — World — India % Share of India Grapes — World — India % Share of India Pineapple.094 2926410 1153 0.15 0. 5876 3069963 1564 8.019 6399 6.608 0.35 405 0. World exports of fresh fruits are on the increase.221 0.827 680 0.77 8229 0.139 0.00 0.97 2134 0.07 0.018 1649796 10848 0.B.863 724 0.011 2567529 2184 0.: '000 MT Val.63 0. 1994 Qty.512 605 0.009 0. Val.104 1926 15.12 0.93 0. In world exports of fruits.018 10 . There are complementarities in the supply and marketing of fresh and processed fruits. Exports of apples and grapes are also increasing but on a lower growth rate.: '000 US$ Item Oty.146 2009 17. Fresfi — World — India % Share of India 11602 3485592 1. The only other tropical fruit of considerable significance from export point of view is pineapple in fresh form.014 4453 2051818 5.114 1771 1608363 10.658 221989 41 0.692 262914 80 0.012 3910 2455949 8.

anonas.00 0. in fresh or processed form. jack fruits. and third. But tropical fruits constituted a small per cent of total world trade in fresh fruits. This indicates that the demand for tropical fruits in industrialised countries has been limited. 11 . Rome. 1994 Tropical fruit other than bananas and citrus that enter international trade whose value is significant is the pineapple. an increase in international travel.007 — 3080 0.058 7590 5. cashew apples. familiarity with tropical fruits is growing in developed countries as the result of. But there are scores of non exotic fruits which could qualify as well. second. who have created a demand for tropical foods.075 0.006 2483560 40 0. although with more limited applications and among them. longans.004 2815 2128899 0.VFGETARI FS Potato — World — India % Share of India Tomatoes — World — India % Share of India Onions — World — India % Share of India 7563 1571393 5. rising affluence in developed countries.20 0.375 2672 357 13.19 20 0. sour sops. an increase in immigrants from tropical developing countries. a sizeable portion of which is used for processing purposes. The volume of fresh pineapple imports is over 4 million tonnes. the market for exotic fruits. which has fostered a desire for diversification of food consumption patterns and thus a trend towards the more exotic fruits. acerola cherries.066 1745594 430 0. as well as the lychees.002 2578 272 10. therefore. first.029 7102 1290355 7.025 2348 1965711 0. However.193 Source: Trade Year Book. There is a wide range of tropical fruits of a more exotic nature which has attracted increasing attention in the past few years. Among the most promising ones are mangoes. papayas.45 753 0.67 461 0. Food and Agriculture Organisation. guavas. Italy.33 69 0.361 752621 58458 7.726 1016885 62976 6. is as yet limited but the potential is there. and mangosteens of Far Eastern reputation.767 3136 305 9.105 0. mention may be made of tamarinds. to perform well in export markets. Developing countries are expected to have a comparative advantage in tropical fruits and. and pasion fruits.551 712790 45443 6.014 0.

12 . Among fresh vegetables the miscellaneous vegetable categories had the largest share in the value of world exports . however.75 per cent followed by roots and tubers at 20 per cent. potatoes and onions. citrus. Among the vegetables imported potatoes. WORLD IMPORTS Of the various fruits imported. C. At 28 per cent tomatoes were the most Important single item in the miscellaneous vegetables category. bananas. India has a significant share of over six per cent. More than 90 per cent of roots and tubers were potatoes. apples and grapes are very important. chillies and pepper (6 per cent). In the case of onions. but only next to raisins. India's share In world exports of potatoes and tomatoes is insignificant. cucumbers (8 per cent).Vegetables Of the various vegetables that enter into world exports in fresh form. three are important namely tomatoes. Most of the fruits imported in fresh forms are both for consumption and processing. cauliflowers (3 per cent) and carrots (3 per cent). tomatoes and onions are very significant. cabbages (3 per cent). Another 31 per cent was distributed as follows: Lettuce (8 per cent). Table 7 gives world imports of fruits and vegetables while major exporting and importing countries in respect of fruits and vegetables are shown in Annexure ill.

INDIA'S SCENARIO A.: '000MT Val. Food and Agriculture Organisation. Rome. 1993 Qty.74 Fruits Vegetables Total Source : Departments of Horticulture/Agriculture of States/Union Territories . Italy.32 871.45 82.75% of the total.06 967. 32.06 50. 36. 6589 1198 12394 4188 1920 Val.Table 7 WORLD IMPORTS OF FRUITS & VEGETABLES Qty.In the total production of fruits and vegetable in 1993-94.95 1045.Vegetables constituted 62.74 51. fruits constituted only 37.61 1993-94 Area Prod. 13 . 1994 111.: '000 U S $ Item Qty. 28.1 286.37 8011. 1994 Qty.32 585. Val.79 650.55 638.56 394. 5886 1017 10885 3947 1761 505 1134 898 632 283 224 7674 2389 2587 3478788 602569 5323123 3062657 2015697 708783 1007740 980662 379415 277526 382510 1857460 2166171 778874 5984 3266195 610599 1054 11406 5181853 4243 2194414 1775 1868494 538 691254 1096 783505 762 749873 662 369861 249 258908 194 290580 6866 1376506 2768 2278892 800779 2586 575 1291 980 688 290 188 7365 2816 3091 3668136 745639 6157666 2628091 2109606 7177150 925683 905695 381179 268750 271742 1828895 2464224 1124168 VEGETABLES Potato Tomatoes Onions Source: Trade Year Book.25% of the total production. The following table indicates area under and production of fruits and vegetables in the country.50 329. PRODUCTION Production of fruits and vegetables is on the increase recording a level of 104.26 48. FRUITS Oranges Lemons & Limes Bananas Apples Grapes Raisins Pears Peaches Pineapple Dates Pimento 1992 Val.64 1992-93 Area Prod.30 84. .6 million tonnes in 1993-94. Tables 8 PRODUCTION OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES IN INDIA Area : Lakh Prod : Lakh MT Items 1991-92 Area Prod.

6 179. 10. Grapes and Sapota are very important as they together accounted for over 80% of production of all fruits in the country. 14 .7 3626.6 3010.6 242.BY MAJOR STATES (1993-94) Area : 000 Hectares Production: 000 M. others) Area 539.Fruits Production of fruits is spread over many States in the country but six states.9 577.9 295. Apple. item 1.2 372.2%) and UP.are the major ones as shown in the following table. Guava.(7. State Andhra Pradesh Bihar Karnataka Maharashtra Tamil Nadu UP.T.6 304. Tamil Nadu (9. Plains .Andhra Pradesh (15.5 1934. 6.0 3711. 7 8. 3. The following table gives a profile of production of selected fruits in the country. Maharashtra (14. Litchi.6%).2%). Of the various fruits produced in the country. (Plain) Total Six States Total (incl. Pineapple.6 3620. 2.8 Production 6006. 5. Karnataka (10.6 Percentage Share of Six States in All India 53. Table 10 PRODUCTION OF SELECTED FRUITS IN THE COUNTRY Area : Hectares Production : M.67% . Papaya.4%).6 4196. Banana.35% 66. 9. others) Area 431685 1217362 433828 204996 118015 55907 62225 55493 38841 34832 2653184 3626184 Production 11900824 10118505 3911830 1298326 1278883 1266185 1006669 813388 70256 481142 32778218 39478593 Source : Departments of Horticulture/ Agriculture of States/Union Territories Production of fruits in the country is given in Annexure III. Bihar (9. Bananas Mango Citrus Apples Guava Papaya Pineapples Litchi Grapes Sapota Total of above items Total (incl. Citrus.T. 4. Table 9 PRODUCTION OF FRUITS IN INDIA . 2 26322.6%) in that order are important producers. Mango.0 39478.6%).

15 . The following vegetables. China Poland USA. 4. 2. 5. In addition. Bihar. Russian Fed. Major Producing Countries 7147 India Italy France USA Turkey Spain 20548 9964 7746 17332 6228 2639 VEGFTARI FS Potatoes 14591 15000 1. Assam. Ukraine India U. 3. Particularly in the case of vegyields and comparison with other countries is table gives yield levels in selected fruits and Yield levels play a cutting down costs of etables.Vegetables Production of vegetables is spread over the whole country. 4. Orissa. YIELD LEVELS significant role in enhancing production and production. assessment of possible. 4. 5. UP (Plains) and West Bengal are the major States engaged in the production of vegetables. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are also important. Kerala. Table 11 YIELD LEVELS IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES (1994) Hem FRUITS Grapes World India 20548 1. B. Karnataka. 6. 3. 2.S A. China Turkey Italy India Egypt 9935 12505 13585 37394 10545 15000 63661 25959 39375 48052 15672 31081 Tomatoes 27184 15672 1. Andhra Pradesh. Production of vegetables in the country is given in Annexure IV. 3. 5. 2. 6. 6.

Yield in U. 4. 2.A. yield per hectare is very low compared to any major producing country.S. 5. 4. 1994. Korea Rep.A.Cauliflower 17956 17778 1. Peas. per hectare. per hectare is good and equals that of world average. per hectare. 2. China France India U. In U. per hectare in 1994. 6. Poland Source: Production Year Book. 6.S. was 63661 kg. India China France Italy UK USA China India U.A.S. Dry 16087 11026 Cucumbers and Gherkins 15855 NA 1. Turkey Iran China Iran Turkey USA Japan U.7% in 1994. Green 5859 2714 Cabbages 23496 15500 t. Japan 5. 5. 6.33% in 1994. yield level's in India at 15. 5. — In grapes. 2.394 Kg. 3. 4. yield rate was the highest at 37. India 4. Rome.S. 3.000 kg. 2.. India ranked sixth in world production and her share in world production was only 5. FAO. 1. 16 . India attained the highest yield level in the world at 20. — In potatoes.K Russian Fed China 17778 25709 12640 19655 15674 13616 17407 11026 44142 20000 36607 17199 15729 27500 14025 47059 9486 7827 14341 2714 5392 20000 23520 26000 16500 40000 54968 29256 Onions. 3. India ranked seventeenth in production and her share in global production was only 1. 3.A. Russian iFed. 4. 2. 1. 5. — In tomatoes. Italy. :3.548 Kg.

The production of vegetables. The production in the country is expected to increase significantly due to popularisation of hybrid seeds of various vegetables. spices. (g) improving productivity. including potato. Yield at 17778 Kg per hectare compares well with the world average of 17956 Kg.90 lakh tonnes..20 lakh ha. yield rate of onion was low at 11026 kg. in U. (b) establishment of small district level nurseries under private sector. The diversity of physiographic. The Programmes envisaged under this scheme include: (a) establishment of big nurseries under public sector. 21 tissue culture units were established. (c) setting up of tissue culture units under public and private sectors.S. 188 small nurseries. vegetables. 758 demonstration plots have been established and an area of 11. 44142 Kg. Between 1992 and 1995. coconut.— India is the largest producer of cauliflower in the world.. cashewnut. climatic and soil characteristics makes it possible to grow horticultural crops almost throughout the year. in Turkey 20000 kg. during 1993-94 was 650. (e) establishment of oil extraction plants. In China yield was 25709 kg. Vegetables.A. covering an area of about 48. per hectare. flowers. 17 .321 hactare under rejuvenation respectively were covered. and (g) demonstration plots.747 hactare under area expansion and 330. GOVERNMENT OF INDIA'S EFFORTS There is a vast potential for growing a larger variety of horticultural crops like fruits. medicinal and aromatic plants etc. The Central Sector Scheme on Integrated Development of Tropical. Major Development Programmes in Central Sector Fruits. arecanut. Arid and Temperate Zone Fruits was launched during VIM Five Year Plan with an outlay of Rs. — Yields in peas and cabbages are very low in India compared with any major producing country. per hectare. 13 big nurseries. (d) training of farmers. and in Iran 36607 kg. per hecate in 1994. In China it was 17407 Kg. 0. 74 crore. root and tuber crops. (f) area expansion. — In India. per hectare.

The Central Sector Scfieme on Production and Supply of Vegetable Seeds is being implemented witti VIII Plan outlay of Rs. 15. Mushroom.03 lakh tonnes. 2. Root and Tuber Crops. production of foundation seed and setting up of hybrid seed production units in private sector. reduction in weeds and increase in yield. Its mandate is to provide research and training support to the State Governments through its Plasticulture Development Centers (PDCs). 250 crore has been made during VIII Five Year Plan for taking up various programmes for popularising use of plastics including drip irrigation.000 per farmer is offered on the 18 . The NCPA has presently 11 PDCs mostly located in State Agricultural Universities. It provides benefits in saving of water. greenhouse. For promoting cultivation of root and tuber crops. in horticultural crops. The Central Sector Scheme on Mushroom cultivation standard in VIII Five Year Plan with an outlay of Rs. 15 crore. The Scheme envisages distribution of vegetable seed mini-kits including seeds of hybrid varieties. Root and tuber crops including potato have been identified as mOst important group of staple food in the tropical countries of the world. aims primarily at creating the infrastructure and for spawn and pasteurised compost production and providing training to farmers for mushroom cultivation. mulching etc. This is a method of irrigation in which the network of plastic pipes distribute required quantity of water directly to th6 root zone of the plants. a Central Sector Scheme is being implemented with VIII Plan outlay of Rs. A subsidy of 50 per cent subject to a maximum of Rs. Drip Irrigation.5 crore. Use of Plastics. overseeing the implementation of the schemes on plasticulture and helping in transfer of technology. distribution of tuber seed mini-kits and laying out of demonstration plots in the States. 10 crore. The production of potato alone during 1993-94 was 180. Total outlay of Rs. Six more new PDCs are being set up to cover the major States. The National Committee on use of Plastics in Agriculture (NCPA) was set up in 1981 for promoting use of plastic in agriculture. Work is under progress for establishment of a total of 20 units each of spawn production and pastuerised compost and training of 800 farmers in 21 States/UTs. The Scheme envisages setting up of Main/Sub Bio-centres.

etc. NHB has adopted a three-pronged strategy as follows: i) to strengthen post-harvest infrastructure for minimising losses. A sum of Rs. maintain soil texture and control soil borne diseases. Schemes of the National Horticulture Board The National Horticulture Board (NHB) is laying special emphasis on strengthening of post-harvest and marketing infrastructure. There is a device to control micro environment for crop production.782 hectares under the drip demonstration during 1995-96.05 crore is being spent in 1995-96 to bring in an area of 6.15 crore during 1995-96 with each beneficiary getting one unit of 500 sq. During the Eighth Five Year Plan.743 hectares of land under drip irrigation installation and 4. and iii) to induce advance technological input for increasing productivity and quality of horticulture produce.8 hectares with an outlay of Rs. Additional 25 per cent financial help will be available to Government farms to enable them to demonstrate the working systems. Special attention is being 19 . crops in harsh weather conditions. NHB has made efforts. 3. especially through high-tech projects for better economic returns to the farmers in domestic and export markets. ii) to provide support services in establishment of national grid for marketing.100 hectares under mulching. high value crops for exports. It is expected to cover 30. raising of season crops. It is proposed to set up polygreen houses over an area of 49.actual cost of the system. conserve moisture. This helps in faster germination. 4. through literature and campaigns. to create awareness about the schemes specially in the States where horticulture has potential but infrastructural facilities for post-harvest management and marketing are lacking. Mulching A thin plastic film (20 to 200 microns) is spread around the plants to prevent the weed growth. Greenhouse. mts.

21. agro/horticulture corporations for creation of such post-harvest infrastructure facilities to a maximum extent of Rs. 24 specialised transport vehicles and 11 grading/packing centres. During 1995-96. The scheme focuses on creating integrated network for marketing of fruits. retail outlets etc. export enhancement. processors and marketers is provided for introduction of high value addition. (a) Integrated Project on Management of Post-Harvest Infrastructure of Horticultural Crops. Soft loan having service charge of 4 per cent is provided to the cooperative/corporate sector.given to the North E^t Hill Region and horticulturally non-traditional/ tribal areas of the country. for direct marketing.27 crore and 95 proposals amounting to Rs. 1. introduction of new processes technologies and strengthening of infrastructural facilities. The 20 . (b) Development of Market Infrastructure through Soft Loan.40. increased use of plastic crates for handling the produce. 12. During 1995-96. one crore. Under the Scheme. 31 projects have been sanctioned for an amount of Rs. Various research institutions/universities are developing technologies which have been tested at laboratory scale and they are found to be advantageous in increasing productivity and enhancing quality and shelf-life. In order to test these technologies and concepts on commercial scale. one crore per project for integrated project focusing on linkages between producers. The project laid special emphasis on reducing the post-harvest losses. The scheme also envisages to popularise use of improved tools and equipments for better production and marketing. transport facilities with particular emphasis on developing chain including establishment of cold storages. 31 pre-cooling units.68 crore for the establishment of 28 cold storages. 64.. and on other aspects where harvest losses could be minimised. Under the project. the scheme is being implemented from 1993-94. assistance is provided for creation of post-harvest infrastructure such as grading/ packing facilities in the producing areas. 33 refrigerated vans. assistance has been sanctioned for 25 projects for an amount of Rs. soft loan upto 40 per cent of the loan portion limited to Rs. rcMntroductlon of New Technologies and Concepts in Horticulture. registered/voluntary organisations.000 plastic crates have also been sanctioned. vegetables and flowers and promote exports of value-added products.27 crore as NHB share are under consideration.

an amount of Rs. (e) Establishment of Nutritional Gardens in Rural Areas. NHB provides financial assistance to State Governments for conducting visits to various research stations of progressive farmers in different areas. Newspapers. poultry and sericulture and set up under the Export Oriented Units (EOUs) Scheme and Export Processing Zones (EPZ) Scheme are entitled to various benefits if the units undertake to export their entire production as per the Exim-Policy (1997-2002) of the country. 52 lakh fruit plants are being distributed entailing an expenditure of Rs. (d) Market Information Service Scheme for Horticultural Produce. 21 . NHB also publishes monthly bulletin. horticulture and agro-related activities may sell upto 50% of the production in value terms in the DTA subject to positive net foreign exchange earning. films. In order to increase production and consumption of fruits in rural areas.6 crore. During 1995-96. — Units engaged in agriculture. 3 crore is likely to be utilized. During 1995-96. horticulture. floriculture. pisciculture. The information is disseminated on daily basis through mass media viz. distribution of literature etc. production or processing provided they are not prohibited items in the Negative List of imports. NHB makes available latest market price and trends of important horticulture commodities being traded in different wholesale markets of the country. 2. D. Some of the benefits include. — Duty free imports of all types of goods including capital goods required for manufacture. (f) Transfer of Technology through Training and Visits to Research Stations/Progressive Farmers.. viticulture. aquaculture.scheme also envisages creation of awareness through audio-visual aids. animal husbandry. All-India Radio and Doordarshan Kendras to a wide spectrum of beneficiaries. Information is collected from 22 Market Information Centres and 11 Sub-Centres sourcing the information from wholesale/terminal fruits and vegetable markets. EXIM POLICY Units engaged in production in agriculture. NHB provides each household upto 10 fruits plants suitable for growing in the respective areas near the dwelling unit/dugwell. Commodity Bulletins and market profiles for the benefit of user organisations.

Agriculture and export produce continue to be exempted from the income-tax. Similar facilities are being provided at Ahmedabad. Earlier. The SIL helps the exporters to import goods which are denied in the normal course. Hyderabad and Pune airports. Double weightage will be given for agri-exports in calculating the eligibility of recognised exporters. APEDA provides technical and financial facilities. Processing units would be major beneficiaries of the concession. Bangalore and Trivandrum airports. 22 . The SIL entitlement will increase by one percent of the FOB value exports if perishables constitute more than 10 percent of the exports made by a company. the farm sector was not able to access the concessional window since the projects were not large enough to account for imports with Rs 20 crore. the floor limit for zero duty import of capital goods under the EPCG Scheme has been lowered to Rs five crore for agriculture and allied sectors. for the first time. As per the Exim policy. APEDA is setting up a State-of-the-art cargo handling facilities for perishables at Delhi and similar facility is being set up in fy/lumbai. These include principally the consumer goods for which there is considerable demand in the country. The Exim policy 1997-2002 provides incentive by granting Special Import Licence (SIL) to the exporters of fruits and vegetables from the North-Eastern region. Madras. Walk-in-cold rooms have been installed at Calcutta. Airport and sea ports are being equipped with specialised cargo handling facilities for perishables and their capacity upgraded and modernised. The Exim Policy 1997-2002 has granted an additional SIL entitlement for perishables like vegetables and fruits and floriculture projects. Items like tractors. green house equipment and machinery for grading and sorting of agricultural commodities could also be imported duty free under the new facility.

Financial assistance to the extent of 50 percent of the total capital cost subject to a ceiling of Rs 5 lakhs per beneficiary. due to financial constraints the scheme is applicable only to some selected fruits and cut flowers including tissue culture propagated plant material. 2. Under these schemes. pre-cooling and storages. APEDA assists in meeting a part of the cost of packaging development as well as a subsidy of 30 percent on the packaging cost upto an amount of Rs 1 lakh per beneficiary. Quality is very important in exports and in order to introduce quality consciousness amongst the exporters. However. APEDA had developed standard specification for cardboard cartons to be used in packaging fruits. So far none of the producers/ exporters in the field of horticulture or processed foods have got registration the ISO-9000 which would be mandatory in future for exporting to developed countries. 1.— APEDA. To induce exporters to use such improved packaging material carrying the "Produce of India" label. It is hoped that the position would improve soon. to set up facilities like sorting. growers. APEDA has scheme to promote quality control. Exporters of fresh horticulture produce have since long complained of the high burden of airfreight which renders their products incompetitive in the international market. packaging. is available as grant-in-aid under the scheme. To introduce better packaging. cooperative organisations and Federations.5 lakhs per unit. APEDA has introduced an Airfreight Subsidy Scheme since September. vegetables and flowers through the expert assistance of the Indian Institute of Packaging. 3. To enable our products to compete more effectively. under the Scheme for Post-Harvest Handling assists exporters including producers. 1993 through which it is reimbursing a part of the airfreight paid. The scale of subsidy given is 25% of the lATA rate subject to a maximum of Rs ten 23 . APEDA assists producers to set up/strengthen quality control laboratories as well as to avail of expert services for installing ISO-9000 and other recognised international Quality Control systems. — APEDA assists in procuring specialised transport units like refrigerated vans necessary for perishables. The scale of assistance under the scheme is 25 percent subject to a ceiling of Rs 1. grading.

Narayanappa Road. Even the retail rates vary significantly in various parts of the consuming areas due to large distance from wholesale/sub-wholesale markets. for Europe and North America and Rs six per kg for West and South East Asia. Shalimar Bagh. quality of produce etc. 4. Sealdah Market. sale potential and several other allied factors. distance between wholesale and retail markets. Road. Booth No. Fruit & Vegetable Project. Mylapore for vegetables. The premium quality exporters scheme under which the exporter having the facilities for scientific post harvest management and adopt good processing practices as detailed out in the pack house manuals are granted premium quality exporters status. No. Horticultural Producers Cooperative Marketing and Processing Society. Delhi. Under this scheme.e.per kg. Finally. Corporation Fruit Market. The substantial difference in these prices is due to certain factors i. for fruits and Tanner Thurai Vegetable Market. APEDA has worked out the comprehensive pre-harvest and post harvest protocols for various fruits and similarly manuals for pack-house practices has been developed. "Produce of India" logo will be given to these exporters and the logo will be aggressively promoted in the importing countries as a symbol of quality agro produce from India.1537. E. Bombay Bangalore Calcutta Madras 24 . WHOLESALE AND RETAIL RATES—A COMPARISON The retail rates are always more as compared to wholesale rates. Retail rates of following five metropolitan cities have been compared empirically with wholesale prices prevailing in respective fruit and vegetable wholesale market of that city. standard of living of residents in that locality. 9 1 .H. Delhi National Dairy Development Board. R. Apna Bazar. perishability of horticulture produce. a substantial margin of international market functionaries.

478 3.600 3. WK.765 4.705 4.781 3.333 25 .886 1.725 3.000 4.571 2.143 3. APRIL 1996 Market Centres 1st 2nd 3rd WK.200 650 1.643 2.017 4.896 3.000 2.371 3.857 2.067 4.690 3.272 2.380 738 1.150 1.688 3.520 2.281 4.000 1.179 1.629 3.000 2. WK.281 4.209 682 1.000 2.500 2. APPLE Bangalore Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 2.650 3.067 2.562 2.836 2.971 1.200 3.168 2.696 506 358 645 681 320 4.731 1.146 293 463 1.600 1.954 2.060 2.821 3.770 3.094 654 1.254 358 503 2.720 1.000 1.000 3.039 2.211 316 470 2.779 2. W = Wholesale Rate per Quintal R = Retail Rate per Quintal 4th WK.400 2.877 3.752 4.358 1.464 2.250 4.800 2. BANANA Bangalore Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras 621 920 1.200 4.The retail rates of selected fruit & vegetables in the five Metropolitan cities have been given as under : Table 12 WHOLESALE & RETAIL RATES IN METROPOLITAN CITIES IN INDIA.825 3.302 470 3.655 2.913 550 600 370 960 636 1.221 1.625 1.672 3.332 2.875 3.200 3.762 4.000 2.852 4.129 3.253 2.812 3. GRAPES Bangalore Bombay Calcutta — 1.925 2.333 4.565 537 683 390 960 730 1.200 3.994 Madras — 2.712 2.913 438 600 330 880 626 1.574 2. Average Average Whole Retail Sale Rates Rates 1.000 2.085 2.200 313 444 1.400 2.115 2.000 2.786 3.750 3.000 2.079 3.219 3.913 507 600 340 880 587 1.000 2.254 Delhi 2.787 3.000 2.433 1.233 4.

743 2.964 1.070 1.300 1.591 6.4.225 1.172 1.257 2.435 3.457 2.000 1.083 3.532 2.067 1.834 1.024 3.190 2.807 1.500 3.257 3.579 2.085 1.457 1.630 1.643 1.821 1.354 1.000 780 1.308 2.942 3.314 2.340 1.095 1.845 1.351 2.280 1. PAPAYA Bangalore Calcutta Delhi 158 430 622 120 26 . MANDARIN Bangalore 812 1.000 164 200 412 551 650 1.854 1.667 2.867 8.200 Calcutta 1. POMEGRANATE Bangalore Bomtiay Calcutta Delhi W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 600 1.133 1.196 1.200 2.285 1.800 162 200 439 571 614 1.842 1.016 Madras 1.736 1.000 2.229 750 2.932 3.932 2.285 2.328 804 1.000 945 1.000 1.400 730 2.425 1.950 1.386 2.200 1.245 1.500 720 1.546 1.400 1.000 150 200 467 586 625 1.450 2.144 1.300 1.814 1.750 2.429 1.221 1.640 1.028 1.225 1.000 709 1.523 1.430 3.335 2.000 947 2.992 1.000 742 1.000 1.775 2.265 1.120 1.517 1. MOSAMBI Bangalore W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 1.160 1.230 1.546 1.400 1.611 1.833 4.858 7.000 1.187 1.600 2.800 1.543 1.500 1.204 Delhi 1.478 2.228 1.188 1.083 3.567 800 2.000 988 1.543 1.600 1.100 1.241 1.667 155 200 404 532 600 1.200 1.846 3.370 1.250 2.000 678 1.380 3.950 2.728 3.786 712 1.557 1.589 1. LEMON Bangalore Calcutta Delhi Madras W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 1.025 1.067 1.500 1.800 1.750 730 2.646 3.332 5.386 3.358 1.600 726 1.257 2.236 Bombay 752 2.000 787 1.680 Delhi 1.433 3.886 Calcutta 746 1.400 1.657 824 1.

097 1.524 Delhi 714 1.500 825 1. TOMATO Bangalore Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras 398 351 576 600 171 479 303 512 198 269 1.200 871 1.200 372 543 285 367 200 500 273 528 Bombay 265 538 Calcutta 418 669 Delhi Madras 12. ONION Bangalore W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 278 560 270 550 385 686 400 600 350 600 169 235 530 1.428 10.689 730 1.9.000 299 526 448 682 187 450 305 507 290 550 416 678 361 546 358 600 192 330 450 1.200 588 1.143 550 1.471 721 1.500 1.436 895 1.016 1.081 647 1.100 600 1.500 1. POTATO Bangalore W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 448 660 390 600 267 397 320 454 492 900- 492 660 460 700 337 44 377 471 500 900 448 666 500 800 359 464 360 564 541 900 677 733 540 800 363 449 353 579 622 1.500 946 1.000 287 392 720 1.200 620 1.000 516 680 Bombay 472 725 Calcutta 332 338 Delhi 352 517 Madras 539 925 11. SAPOTA Bangalore W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 938 1.528 955 1.550 590 1.500 Bombay Calcutta 974 1.855 757 1.200 254 402 595 900 197 500 279 529 240 500 429 676 433 575 340 600 173 260 460 1.207 209 450 230 514 260 550 442 637 400 582 357 600150 251 475 1.100 466 789 475 27 .

203 2.317 341 900 760 946 Bombay 1.800 918 2.300 756 1.025 1.100 1.700 1.700 1.023 1.525 2.564 2.200 582 769 1. GINGER Bangalore Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras W = R .051 1.300 782 1. BITTERGOURD Bangalore Calcutta Delhi Madrets W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 753 1.633 750 1.116 2.012 2.150 2.250 1.700 1.118 1.098 2.300 16.850 2.457 1.614 352 700 756 833 1.120 2.100 2.380 754 2.071 3.800 1.019 2.220 3.651 1.649 1.000 364 680 1.057 Delhi 289 619 Madras 525 15.400 800 1. W = R W = R = W = R = W = R = 1.155 958 950 1.219 425 708 94 500 275 300 330 1.000 1.646 350 814 678 906 1.000 825 1.649 Madras 348 778 14.646 909 2.075 203 564 233 600 220 460 340 242 426 Bombay 335 900 Calcutta 637 927 215 596 187 500 806 1.135 2.150 2.850 1.000 1.014 1.767 1.000 350 700 831 1.138 1.100 696 919 662* 1.657 796 1.100 2.007 312 607 187 500 252 466 370 800 750 1.500 778 555 888 786 1.400 1.300 491 795 988 1.628 1.814 1.020 1. OKRA Bangalore W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 775 1.875 28 .242 1.100 822 1.200 481 790 1.13.216 2.164 1.600 1.138 1.226 828 1.225 1.171 1.243 1.333 421 747 850 1.150 2.700 1.030 2. BRINJAL Bangalore W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 220 480 300 1.192 1.400 320 541 1.170 2.171 611 849 1.800 871 1.165 2.914 798 1.200 Calcutta 437 695 Delhi 1.600 1.

100 450 381 650 19.281 F.007 3.974 2.600 1.500 1. PEAS Bangalore Delhi 2.016 1.990 1.800 760 2.800 830 2. EXPORTS Exports of Fruits The varied climatic and soil conditions in the country are facilitating production of a large variety of fruits viz.358 745 900 360 1.258 2..104 1. i) Temperate fruits.000 829 1.067 420 1. CAULIFLOWER Bangalore Bombay Delhi W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 750 900 380 1.200 1.814 273 529 320 1.200 229 347 157 329 183 500 817 1.300 2. ii) Sub-tropical fruits and iii) Tropical fruits.17.100 254 520 370 1.400 1.025 631 2.307 738 929 400 1. CABBAGE Bangalore Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras 830 748 587 1.000 863 2.025 1.350 2.828 308 358 294 178 241 594 1.200 1.000 603 2.800 880 3.000 351 514 212 412 279 700 784 1.800 Bombay Calcutta Delhi Madras 18.150 3.367 1.200 981 1.700 388 700 340 1.046 1.800 850 3.351 2.000 1.000 1. 29 .500 1.114 957 1.925 2.600 814 1.879 603 2.000 528 2.430 3.450 1.400 695 1.990 587 1.000 264 406 157 382 225 700 771 1.600 950 804 390 736 949 1.323 2. GARLIC Bangalore W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = W = R = 700 1.200 333 534 185 400 276 700 850 1.284 2.200 582 1.700 316 629 400 1.942 3.544 2.400 3.600 600 833 1.192 20.

3 351.2 Total of Major Fruits 75294.2 8240. Exports of fruits registered a spectacular growth at 24.0 234.7 lakh tonnes. Avocado and pomegranate. grape fruit.8 7040.9 94713. the following table shows exports of major fruits from the country.1 84832. India is not only growing a large variety of fruits very successfully and substantially (India emerged as the largest producer of fruits in the world) but is also exporting to global markets.9 5986.1 1994-95 Val Qty 6459.4 2600.5 666.5 268.5 89.4 25414.2 3926.8 147.6 4144.2 6717. exports at over one lakh tonnes constituted only 0. Table 13 EXPORTS OF MAJOR FRESH FRUITS FROM INDIA Qty.9 1081.4 5357.4 11764. Almond.53 crore in 1994-95 to Rs 229.9 Source : DGCI&S.2 253. fresh Apples Pomegranates Tamarind.1 58.7 percent in 1994. fresh Mangoes Oranges. Percentage growth was only 2.9 4049.9 255.0 6063. Walnut. Sub-tropical fruits are oranges.1 15928.7 22150. Mangosteen.9 8624. Peach. Phalsa.6 28. There is an impressive growth in the exports of fresh fruits from Rs 184. Guava.1 2.0 3851.2 22996. Pear. fresh Sultanas and other dried grapes Total of All Fruits 6326. Grape.5 653.5 2422.7 22793. Relative to the huge production of fruits which is estimated at 394.5 463.96 crore in 1995-96. Fig. Rs.9 367.0 4255.2 1744.6 1995-96 Val Qty 6925. Sapota.1 18452.3 665.5 678. lakhs 1993-94 Qty Vai Walnuts Grapes.9 3390. Cherries.7 2623.0 4502.5 17944. Calcutta 30 .4 190.6% in 1995-96 over 1994-95.2 5929. Cashew.0 2328.9 5987.3 359.1 104.4 409. Broadly this points out to the huge potential India has in the export of fruits to global markets. Lemon.7 6507.6 9271. Mango.0 559.0 4387. Prunes.5 2007. Tonnes Val.1 499. Litchi.4 966. While exports of fresh fruits from India are shown in Annexure V.Temperate fruits include Apple.0 99915.2 7959. Plum.7 976.6 109704.9 22269.0 16813. Date. About 40 kinds of fruits are exported from the country.2 85109.8 222.2 17767. India's share in World exports of vegetables and fruits was only 1.3 1. Apricot.253 per cent in 1995-96.5 213.9 1365. fresh Water melons Sapota Banana.9 17559.5 21878. The tropical fruits are Papaya. Pineapple. Jackfruit and Bread fruit.8 in 1994-95 over 1993-94. Strawberry.7 16914. Lime.

Apples.3 .0 16.1 . Market The following table indicates major fresh fruits from the export point of view and the major markets.Percentage growth in exports of major fruits is shown in the following table.2 25.4 19.39.4 2.2 1600.3 14. Pomegranates and Sultanas & other dried grapes.9 32. Table 14 PERCENTAGE GROWTH IN EXPORTS OF FRUIT (IN VALUE TERMS) In Percentage growth/ docline over previous year 1994-95 Walnuts Grapes.4.6 — Growth in exports is clearly evident in respect of Fresh Grapes. fresh Mangoes Oranges. 31 .2 44.1 .24. fresh Apples Pomegranates Tamarind.24. Water Melons. fresh Water melons Sapota Banana.6 85.9 13. fresh Sultanas & other dried grapes 7.8 162. Mangoes. — In the case of Walnuts.0 1995-96 35.1 1.5 .7 52.5 105.9 261. Sapota and Fresh Bananas there is instability in markets. Fresh Oranges. Fresh Tamarind.8 47.

02 32 . Greece.K.K.96 9...K.A.30 Tonnes Rs Crore 1995-96 Qty Val 1029.40 crore. Netherlands.64 6.E. Sri L^nka. Bahrain.. fresh Sultanas & Other dried grapes Walnuts Exports of walnuts fluctuated during the period 1993-94 to 199596. Bangladesh and Sri Lanka Grapes..2 673.77 7.S. Pakistan and U. U K and Qatar Netherlands. and Mauritius Bangladesh. Italy.A. Germany.. The following table indicates exports of Walnuts to major markets. Kuwait. Switzerland.26 12. U. Netherlands.0 791. Bahrain.66 10. In 1995-96. exports recorded a level of Rs 82. UK. Russia.9 783.E..A. (^rmany. Netherlands. N/laldives. Netherlands.E.2 604. Egypt.2 451. U.4 756. Saudi Aratua.81 9. fresh Apples Pomegranates Tamarind.5 14. Qatar.. the highest in the whole category of fruits.1 7. Sri Lanka and Nepal U. Table 16 EXPORTS OF WALNUTS FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty Val 1993^94 Qty Val Spain France Germany Netherlands Greece 952.77 10. Bangladesh Bangladesh.2 709.A.1 10.94 5.. Kuwait.9 892.-79 1994-9S Qty Val 654. fresh Mangoes Oranges.01 5.76 6.7 740. Saudi Arabia. Germany. fresh Water Melons Sapota Bananas.K.A.E..E. U.K. Pakistan and Italy Saudi Arabia.00 6. Bangladesh.Table 15 EXPORTS OF MAJOR FRESH FRUITS AND MAJOR MARKETS Walnuts Spain.96 8. U. U. Saudi Arat>ia. Bangladesh. however. Singapore.. U.8 1071. Belgium and Saudi Arabia U.E.2 621.A. U. Yemen Arab Republic and Saudi Arabia U. USA and Switzerland U. France. Kuwait and Netherlands Pakistan.A.0 1017.

Developed countries are the major market.49 113.54 3.40 Note : Walnuts are exported from the country t)oth in 'Kernals' and in Shell froms. France.12 1.K Egypt Italy U.45 1.60 1. Source : DGCI&S. others) 1217.0 226.01 117.7 7.0 6326.11 1.A Switzerland 138.59 1. Netherlands.0 271.1 99.) Spain France Germany Netherlands Greece U.41 0.S. Exports have grown to reach a level of Rs 54. About 95% of exports of however. 33 .1 10.64 922.94 142. This table provides combined total of Weilnuts in shell and walnuts kernals.3 300.16 121.58 0.8 27.2 270.0 316. The following table indicates Unit Value Realisation in selected markets.10 82.56 0.1 6.8 49.94 0.4 62.05 2.19 2.4 94.0 167. Table 17 UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORTS OF WALNUTS (1995-96) (Rs.93 crore in 1993-94 and Rs 40.63 1.36 1.5 144. are principal markets.14 134.53 60.8 98. U. are in Kernals form.6 134.7 30. per kg.83 3.0 341.0 183.96 1.59 126.85 crore in 1994-95. Spain.49 79. Average Unit value Realisation on exports of Walnuts was Rs 119 per kg in 1995-96.5 6459.9 83.26 1.UK Egypt Italy USA Switzerland Denmark Portugal Jordan Total (incl.7 177. fresh India is exporting fresh grapes to a large number of countries.0 107.37 3.56 2.0 192.63 0.76 crore in 1995-96 from Rs 33.16 149 29 Grapes. Germany. Calcutta Walnuts are exported to about 30 countries.K.18 967.8 6925.91 3.48 119.81 67.

36 25. UAE.2 962.98 27.6 2499. These six countries together accounted for 93. per kg.88 1. It was 20.62 28.4 184.90 14.) UK U.6 4398.1 15931.14 4.0 19.A. Bangladesh.30 34 . Table 19 UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORTS OF FRESH GRAPES (1995-96) (Rs. in 1995-96.4 2558.7 938.4 per kg.A.3 2399. The following table indicates exports of fresh grapes to major markets.19 40.76 Major export markets for grapes include UK.8 532.1 31.71 9.96 33.00 14.93 1994-95 Val Qty 7063.64 4.05 2.6 7.85 1995-96 Val Qty 7766.The ratio of growth in exports of fresh grapes was very impressive. Average Unit Value Realisation on exports of fresh grapes was Rs 24.1 4852.7 16877.4 33.2 4582.1 per cent in 1995-96 over 1994-95. The following table indicates Unit Value Realisation in selected markets.90 10.57 2.06 5.0 23.50 2. others) 2694. crore 1993-94 Qty Val UK U.65 54.3 per cent in 1994-95 over the previous year and 34.E Netherlands Bangladesh Belgium Saudi Arabia Total (Incl.1 6749. Table 18 EXPORTS OF FRESH GRAPES FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty : Tonnes Val .85 27.12 17.E Netherlands Bangladesh Belgium Saudi Arabia Germany South Africa France 29. Netherlands. Rs.7 22414.4 per cent of total exports in 1995-96.31 1.70 0.51 2.60 25.89 0.3 849.50 0. Belgium and Saudi Arabia.1 2037.33 47.

Kuwait. Maldives and Mali.2 1443.97 1. The following table shows exports of fresh mangoes from the country to major markets. Mauritius.2 353.03 crore in 1995-96 and Rs 43.1 4631. Exports declined to Rs 38. Sri Lanka. Saudi Arabia.1 293. others) Source: 10172. Kenya.38 1.09 38.3 per kg in 1995-96. The average unit value realistion on export of fresh mangoes was Rs 17.2 328. Qatar. The unit value realisation in selected markets in 1995-96 Is shown in the following table.Other markets to which fresh grapes were exported from the country included Kuwait. UAE.62 1. Switzerland.0 22269. South Africa.4 4961.5 4907.56 2.87 1994-95 Val Qty 10004. Table 20 EXPORTS OF FRESH MANGOES FROM INDIABY MAJOR MARKETS Qty Val 1993-94 Qty Val UAE Saudi Arabia Kuwait U.K Singapore Netherlands Bangladesh Total (Incl.23 8.47 0. Bahrain. Singapore.16 0. Seychelles. Pakistan. Canada.9 322.52 DGCI&S. 35 .8 22793.25 2. Over 90 percent of exports are directed to seven countries viz.74 3. Sweden. France.2 19. Malaysia. Calcutta India is exporting fresh mangoes to more than 50 countries.85 45.80 2.8 1691.6 1032.09 9. Mangoes Fresh Fresh mango exports are fluctuatiog.03 Tonnes Rs Crore 1995-96 Val Qty 10899.6 1218.68 0.4 21.2 149.87 crore in 1993-94. Nepal.1 1427.14 43.5 4260.36 1. Netherlands and Bangladesh.24 1. UK.48 4.2 1667.52 crore in 1995-96 from Rs 45.1 349. Singapore.0 25414.1 1053. Norway. Hong Kong.76 0.13 6. The decline in 1995-96 was both in terms of quantity and value. Germany.97 2. USA.0 1269.9 20. Oman.

1 17767. others) Source: DGCI&S.S. Seychelles.4 3. The following table shows exports of oranges in fresh form from the country to major markets. Japan.07 2.8 33. Hong Kong.72 — 49.28 5.93 11.§ 335.8 111. fresh Exports of oranges in fresh form are on the increase. Slovenia and Syrian Arab Republic.69 30.6 1256.44 1994-95 Qty Val 11202. Yemen.6 10.5 38. Netherlands Antillas. Mauritius.2 40. Brunei. Oranges.S.56 38.49 •7.5 1995-96 Val Qty 16899.1 340.K Mauritius Sri Lanka Saudi Arabia Bhutan Total (bid. Exports reached a level of Rs 13. Portugal.4 17.3 60. Switzerland.E Saudi Arabia Kuwait U.0 11764.. Sweden.58 13. Maldives.65 20.64 23.A South Africa 17.7 620.55 14.83 665.37 . Austria. Table 22 EXPORTS OF FRESH ORANGES FROM INDIA vBY MAJOR MARKETS Qty : Tonnes Val : Rs.32 8. Crore 1993-94 Qty Val Bangladesh U.07 4. Thailand.K Singapore Netherlands Bangladesh Bahrain Malaysia Qatar U.9 — 359.93 46.21 0.47 — 5986.45 Other countries to which fresh mangoes were exported from the country included Bahrain. Burundi. Gennany. Nepal.0 83.16 12. per kg.02 3. Cateutta 5834. Australia. Oman. Indonesia. Qatar.8 76. Arab Republic.64 39. South Africa.07 11.A. Italy.33 21.58 1. Bhutan.89 1365.) U. Sri Lanka.65 crore in 1995-96 registering 105% growth over the previous year.18 19. Canada. Argentina. U. France. Belgium. Kenya. Ukraine.Table 21 UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORT OF FRESH MANGOES (1995-96) (Rs.53 36 .1 107. Malaysia.39 26.5 — 7.A.

A.42 678.1% growth over the previous year.Bangladesh is the major market as it alone accounted for 92 percent of India's total exports of oranges in fresh form in 1995-96. Other markets in the neighbourhood included Sri Lanka.80 7.7 421.BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty : Tonnes Val : Rs Lakhs 1993-94 Qty Val Bangladesh Sri Lanka Nepal Total (Incl.1 ' 1070. per kg. Table 23 UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORT OF FRESH ORANGES (1995-96) (Rs.6 3.35 Apples Exports of apples increased from Rs 6.84 144. The Unit Value Realisation in selected markets is shown in the following table.3 1564.67 2.09 32. U.51 666. Calcutta 4369.78 crore in 1994-95 to Rs 9. Bhutan and Nepal. Qatar and Bahrain in the Middle East.E 7.0 6507.0 875.04 1995-96 Qty Val 8512. others) Source : DGCI&S.. Oman. The following table shows exports of apples from the country to major markets.K Mauritius Sri Lanka Saudi Arabia Bhutan Hong Kong U.53 37 . Average Unit Value Realisation on export of fresh oranges was Rs 7.92 7.42 86.43 10.) Bangladesh U. in 1995-96.69 per kg.6 657.88 1994-95 Qty Val 5394.40 13.A.09 976.9 9271.5 5987. registering 44.7 31.21 13.52 239.E.42 11. Exports are also directed to Saudi Arabia.1 48. Table 24 EXPORTS OF APPLES FROM INDIA .77 crore in 1995-96.56 27.67 0. Kuwait.6 527.

04 90.76 118.38 10.53 per kg.2 : DGCI & S..24 35. per kg.44 Pomegranates India is exporting pomegranates to a large number of countries. Unit value Realisation in selected markets is shown in the following table.A.2 287.67 27. Kuwait and Qatar and some of the European countries but these markets together constituted about 10 per cent of total exports.K.95 14.40 88. percent of total exports of apples from the country in 1995-96: There are also exports to Sri Lanka.6 834.46 56. 38 .) Bangladesh Sri Lanka Nepal St.K.A.Bangladesh is the major market as it alone accounted for 89.5 265.7 1438.4 76. Total (incl.9 4144.5 4255.08 134.8 635.7 337.9 1019. Calcutta.2 586.12 91 .E Bangladesh Saudi Arabia U. Oman Saudi Arabia 10. Kitts Nevish U. Table 25 Unit Value Realisation on Export of Apples (1995-96) (Rs. 2623.54 crore in 1995-96. Table 26 EXPORTS OF POMEGRANATES FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty : Tonnes Val : Rs Lakhs 1993-94 Qty Vat U. Oman. others) Source 1300.44 89. Exports are valued at Rs.28 13.48 13. U.0 179.16 1994-95 Qty Val 1737. Average unit value Realisation on export of apples is Rs 10. Saudi Arabia. The following table indicates exports of Pomegranates from the country to major markets.E.22 14.4 1995-96 Qty Val 1553.81 559.07 24.1 185.50 10. U.97 367. Nepal.E.A.49 1.32 653. 6.

U.A.E., Bangladesh and Saudi Arabia together accounted for 87% of total exports of pomegranates. Average unit value Realisation on exports of Pomegranates was Rs. 15.35 per kg. in 1995-96. Unit value Realisation in respect of selected markets is given in table below. Table 27 UNIT VALUE REALISATION OF EXPORT OF POMEGRANATES

(1995-96 )
(Rs. per kg.) U.A.E. Bangladesh Saudi Arabia U.K. Bahrain Kuwait Netherlands 18.49 9.32 14.24 3C.36 20.86 15.45 34.15

Tamarind, Fresh Fresh tamarind is exported from the country to a large number of markets both in Asia and Europe. Exports increased significantly to reach a level of Rs 4.99 crore in 1995-96 from Rs. 1.9 crore in 1994-^5. The following table indicates exports of Tamarind in fresh form from India. Table 28 EXPORTS OF FRESH TAMARIND FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS
Qty: Tonnes Val; Rs Ukhs 1993-94 Qty Val Pakistan Sri Lanka Germany Switzerland Yemen Arab Rep. Saudi Arabia Total (incl. others) 3261.5 178 31 1994-95 Qty Val 1577:0 44.0 93.2 40.0 30.0 19.1 2422.2 102.89 4.45 12.55 3.44 3.72 2.40 190.46 1995-96 Val Qty 4686.2 751.3 83.3 76.0 50.0 42.4 5929.8 384.66 53.09 12.06 8.84 6.60 6.07 499.33


38.0


447.54


110.0 138.4 3926.9


14.42 10.46 253.41

Source : DGCI &S., Calcutta.

39

Pakistan has been the largest market for tamarind In fresh form from India. It alone accounted for 77 per cent of total exports of tamarind in fresh form in 1995-96 from the country. Sri Lanka and Germany are the two other important markets. These three markets together accounted for 90% of exports of tamarind from the country. Unit Value Realisation on exports of tamarind in fresh form was Rs 8.42 per kg. in 1995-96. The following table provides unit value Realisation on exports of tamarind from the country.

Table 29
UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORTS OF TAMARIND IN FRESH FROM THE COUNTRY (1995-96)
(Rs. per Kg.) Pakistan Sri Lanka Germany Switzerland Yemen Arab Republic 8.21 7.07 14.48 11.63 15.20

Water Melons Water Melons are exported from the country largely to countries in the region. Exports are, however, around Rs 4 crores and in 1995-96, exports actually declined to Rs 3.5 crore from Rs 4.6 crore in 1994-95. The following table indicates the position. Table 30

EXPORTS OF WATER MELONS FROM THE COUNTRY BY MAJOR MARKETS
Qty: Tonnes Val: Rs Lakhs 1993-94 Qty Val U. A.E. Maldives Pakistan Total (incl. others) Source : DGCI &S, Calcutta. 8304.1 66.9 12.0 8624.5 389.93 4.24 1.62 40746 1994-95 Qty Val 7308.3 231.5 60.4 7959.4 404.45 19.94 5.30 463.53 1995-96 Qty. Val 6444.6 252.1 80.8 7040.0 311.62 12.94 7.76 351.88

40

U.A.E.. is the only major market which accounted for 88.6 per cent of the total exports of water Melons from the country in 1995-96. Maldives, Pakistan, Bahrain, Iran and Nepal are important markets in the region. Italy, Netherlands and UK are important market in Europe. Average Unit Value Realisation on exports of water Melons was Rs 4.99 per kg. in 1995-96. Unit value Realisation from U.A.E. was Rs 4.83 per kg in 1995-96. Sapota Sapotas are exported largely to countries in the Asian region. Total exports are around Rs 2.5 crore per annum. Following table shows exports of sapotas from the country by major markets. Table 33

EXPORTS OF SAPOTAS FROM THE COUNTRY BY MAJOR MARKETS
Qty: Tonnes Val: Rs Lakhs 1993-94 Qty Val Saudi Arabia U.A.E. Bahrain Kuwait U.K. Qatar Total (Incl. others) 263.2 804.1 448,5 67.7 116.5 209.3 2007.9 28.92 82.71 46.51 8.48 13.48 23.16 213.78 1994-95 Qty Val 332.2 1005.2 > ^ 501.6 158.6 170.8 218.1 2600.4 33.95 111.03 55.22 14.55 15.98 17.18 268.50 1995-96 Val Qty 637.2 719.0 443.3 196.0 109.9 125.5 2328.2 90.86 63.20 44.56 23.19 11.33 10.42 255.84

Source : DGCI & S, Calcutta.

More than 90 per cent of exports of Sapotas are directed to Saudi Arabia, U.A.E., Bahrain, Kuwait and Qater. Average Unit Value Realisation on exports of Sapatas from the country was Rs 10.99 per kg. in 1995-96. Unit Value Realisation in selected markets is as follows.

41

Table 32 UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORT OF SAPOTAS (1995-96)
(Rs. per kg.) Saudi Arabia U.A.E. Ball rain Kuwait Qatar

14.26
8.79 10.05 11.83 8.30

Bananas, Fresh Exports of bananas relative to productkin and variety are very limited from the country. Obviously bananas from India are not popular. Exports are directed mainly to Europe and Middle East countries. The following table indicates exports of Bananas in fresh form by major markets. Table 33

EXPORTS OF BANANAS FROM THE COUNTRY By MAJOR MARKETS
Qty : Tonnes Val : Rs Lakhs 1993-94 Val Qty Netherlands Russia U.S.A. Qatar Pakistan Total (Incl. others 442.7 96.7 0.2 30.5 63.60 17.30 2.00 3.23 1994-95 Qty Val 133.8 95.5 5.0 131.9 19.52 21.74 1.34 10,88 1995-96 Qty Val 716.7 143.3 78.4 98.7 129.3 1744.0 110.76 31.78 20.89 8.68 7.79 222.09


1086.1


147.31


966.1


89.56

Source : DGCI & S, Calcutta.

While Netherlands and Russia are important markets, exports are directed in small quantities to West Asian markets including Qatar, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait and Oman. There was significant increase in exports to USA in 1995-96. Equally significant was the export to Pakistan, South Africa and France. Average Unit Value Realisation on exports of bananas was Rs 12.73 per kg. in 1995-96. Unit value Realisation in Selected Markets is shown in the following table. 42

others) Source : DGCI & S..27 15.66 — ^ — 233.06 3.05 4.4 per kg. Table 35 EXPORTS OF SULTANAS & OTHER DRIED GRAPES FROM mom .97 5. 'the UVR was Rs 44.5 12.16 5.20 — — — — 0.2 — — 1.79 6. India has Sultanas & other dried grapes and Raisins which are value-added products.2 neg.8 0.4 0.2 13.84 3.94 lakhs in 1994-95 and zoomed to Rs 1.17 26.5 3. From a modest export of Rs 1.47 0. exports increased to Rs 28.46 43 . on Raisins.31 — — — 30.94 5.E South Africa Germany 15.76 28.A.5 — — — — 0. per kg.E.46 22.21 2. Qatar Pakistan U. 1994-95 Qty Val Tonnes Rs Lakhs 1995-96 Qty Val 187.02 11.04 crore in 1995-96.4 14.3 10.65 Sultanas & other Dried Grapes Apart from fresh grapes.94 — — 2.8 0.26 5.65 8. The following table indicates exports of Sultanas & other dried grapes from the country.2 2. on export of sultanas and other dried grapes and Rs 49.A. Oman Kuwait Hong Kong Bahrain Total (incl.66 lakhs in 1993-94.A.6 per kg.S.BY MAJOR SELECTED MARKETS Qty Val 1993-94 Qty Val UK Germany Saudi Arabia Netherlands Bangladesh Srilanka U.2 15.78 0.40 1. While the Average Unit Value Realisation on the export of fresh grapes was only Rs 24.09 19.0 2. 84.2 — — — — 11.) Netherlands Russia U..08 0.6 per kg.97 — — 104. Calcutta.Table 34 UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORT OF FRESH BANANAS (1995-96) (Rs.5 S8.

per kg.67 Export of Vegetables A large variety of vegetables are exported from the country mainly in fresh form and partly in frozen form. garlic. Exports of frozen vegetables too are growing but their rate of export growth is lower 13 to 15 per cent as against 21 per cent in the case of fresh vegetables.39 40. Oman 45.71 33. In addition. potatoes. cucumbers/gherkins.65 per kg. 206 crore in 1993-94. Details of all vegetables exported from the country are shown in Annexure VI.00 33. Unit Value Realisation from selected market is as follows: Table 36 UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORT OF SULTANAS (1995-96) (Rs. exports of potatoes and mixed vegetables in frozen form are significant.71 101.97 237.UK emerged as the major market for Sultanas & other dreid grapes from India in 1995-96. Exports of vegetables from the country are growing every year. Germany and Netherlands also imported but in small quantities. 301 crore in 1995-96 as against Rs. The growth rate in exports is 21 per cent per annum. The following table shows exports of major fresh and frozen vegetables from the country. in 199596 on export of Sultanas.E. Average Unit Value Realisation was Rs 44.15 651. Exports of major fresh and frozen vegetables from India are shown in the following table: 44 . 294 crore in 1994-95 and Rs. mushrooms. peas and mixed vegetables are the major items. Middle-East countries are also important markets. Exports reached a record level of Rs.) UK Germany Saudi Arabia Netherlands Bagladesh Sri Lanka U. Onions.A.28 137.

4 298.7 204. 5.52 0. The following table shows exports of fresh onions from the country to major markets.10 0.59 5.00 34. Calcutta 182. 231 crore registering a growth of 12 per cent over the 1994-95. fresh 7. Exports in 199596 amounted to Rs. fresh/chilled 4.50 Source: DGCI&S.90 431. Onions.88 7.3 per cent in total export of vegetables.13 7. Mixed vegetables 6.56 3.04 Mixed vegetables.Table 37 EXPORTS OF FROZEN MIXED VEGETABLES FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty : Tonnes Val: Rs.09 Peas Neg.56 14.2 0.38 434.32 8. commoditywise export and their direction are discussed.68 6. fresh 0. fresh Fresh onions are exported to nearly 30 countries.5 1.1 2.6 6. ^ Fresh onions alone accounted for a share of 76.0 1994-95 Val Qty 401.5 6. — Next only to onions are potatoes as they accounted for a share of 6.8 1. In the following pages.2 1.6% in the total exports of vegetables from the country in 1995-96.27 Total (Incl.7 7.4 4.7 18.10 Potatoes.98 Other vegetables.76 1.02 Total 389.9 5.2 — 93% of exports of vegetables are in fresh form in 1995-96 — 70% of exports of vegetables are in frozen form in 1995-96. Exports are increasing year after year particularly in value terms. Crore 1993-94 Qty Val Onions.1 0.4 0.30 15. fresh 357.8 206.1 2.7 1995-96 Qty Val 351. 45 .28 459.73 Potatoes.18 9.04 Garlic 2.3 1.7 1. frozen 10.28 3.7 0.0 301.29 0.9 6.83 204.4 3.7 8.6 10.6 Neg.8 7.42 0.49 5.7 2. others) 390.01 2. frozen 1. fresh 0.40 230.9 248.69 447.2 12.5 4.18 Mushrooms.3 239.09 Cucumbers & gherkins.

0 22.5 1.3 37.9 41.13 5. 65.5 1.1 33.7 56.4 6.3 50.2 42. The Unit Value Realisation in respect of selected markets in 1995-96 is shown in the following table: Table 39 UNIT VALUE REALISASTION ON EXPORTS OF FROZEN UHXED VEGETABLES (1995-96) (Rs.7 1994-95 Qty Val 89.6 63.91 5.09 5.8 5.8 5.4 54.58 per kg..0 43.55 10.6 17.4 2.5 401.Table 38 &LPOR7S OF FeESH ONIONS FROM INDIA Qty : Tonnes Val : Rs.8 182.7 Malaysia. per kg) Malaysia UAE Singapore Sri Lanka Bangladesh UK Netherlands 7.3 101.0 357.8 3. Crore 1993-94 Qty Val Malaysia UAE Singapore Sri Lanka Bangladesh Saudi Arabia Mauritius Bahrain Kuwait Total (incl.6 35.8 23.17 5.2 1.1 2.8 29. 51.6 31.7 204.6 191^^ Val Qty 89. 218 crore in 1995-96 and accounted for 94 per cent of India's total exports of fresh onions.5 4.6 42.1 2. While the average unit value realisation on export of fresh onions was Rs. UAE.2 5. Calcutta.7 .8 8.00 63.2 8.70 7.S 26.4 2.6 1.59 35.1 20.1 351.1 105.7 82. others) Source: DGCI&S.9 151.6 0.18 37. 6.7 10. there were different value realisations from different markets. Sri Lanka and Bangdiadesh are the major markets as these five countries together imported fresh onions valued at Rs. Singapore.9 3.9 12.1 230.6 4.3 26.33 46 .8 3.9 2.1 5.

18. 5. others) Source : DGCI&S. Indonesia.39 1995-96 Qty Vat 7224. Hong Kong.94 4. Netherlands.5 6230.25 2.0 7092.56 2. Burundi.0 3222.5 4. TABLE 40 EXPORTS OF FRESH POTATOES FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty :. Switzerland and Mozambique. The following table indicates Unit Value Realisation in respect of selected markets.Other countries to which fresh onions were exported from the country included Malaysia. Trinidad and Tobago.54 18. Oman.7 7000.14 1.0 5054.89 — — 1359.5 15755. Canada.8 — 0. Mauritius and Nepal are the major markets for fresh potatoes from India. Kenya.4 — 1. These six markets together accounted for about 92 per cent of India's total exports of potatoes in 1995-96. The following table indicates exports of fresh potatoes from the country. UAE.69 Sri Lanka. Calcutta 1994-95 Qty Val 26054 1. Average Unit Value Realisation on exports of fresh potatoes was Rs. Russia.0 2398. Ethiopia.48 per kg in 1995-96.13 — 2995. USA.2 — — 0.68 — 2644. Russia.18 — 150. South Africa. Qatar. Reunion.4 34490. Potatoes.55 2. Nepal. 6. Seychelles.16 6. Germany. from the country. 47 . Turkey. Japan.89 crore in 1995-96.0 3701. Israel. in fresh form. France.0 4634. In respect of markets such as Russia and Turkey there was no regularity in the offtake.0 ~ 1. Australia. UK.58 1. Pakistan. an increase of over 280% over exports at Rs.Tonnes Val : Rs Crore t993-94 Qty Val Sri Lanka Russia UAE Turkey Mauritius Nepal Total (incl.69 crore in 1994-95. Malawi.09 0. Exports reached a record level of Rs. Fresh There has been a significant jump in the export of potatoes.89 1.

Exports increased phenomenally from Rs.04 Other markets for fresh potatoes included Pakistan.6 346.50 5. 640 lakhs in 1995-96.07 5.TABLE 41 UNIT VALUE REALISATION ON EXPORTS OF FRESH POTATOES (1995-96) (Rs.87 2.47 3.1 160.5 7.9 — — — — — — — — 19.4 111.0 12. Seychelles.86 6. Maldives. per kg) Sri Lanka Russia UAE Turkey Mauritius Nepal Pakistan Singapore 6.78 5. Table 42 EXPORTS OF FRESH MUSHROOMS FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty : Tonnes VaP : Rs.0 — — 289.2 3.0 — — 11. 19 lakhs in 1993-94 to Rs. UK.5 156.5 — 19. Singapore.7 • 1995-96 Qty Val 816.0 96. others) Source: DGCI&S. The following table indicates exports of mushrooms in fresh form to major markets from India. The rate of growth in exports in 1995-96 was 220 per cent over the previous year.1 8. Indonesia and Bahrain.4 — — 173. Crore 1993-94 Qty Val USA Netherlands Israel Canada Russia Italy Kuwait Philippines Oman Total (incl.5 5.3 7.0 18. Malaysia. Mushrooms Fresh There has been a spurt in the export of mushrooms from the country.2 9.9 48 .0 1994-95 Qty Val 90.0 — — — — — — — — 41. Bangladesh.5 1.2 1559.8 — 6.8 57. Calcutta -19. 174 lakhs in 1994-95 to Rs.82 6.7 48.34 — — 18. Saudi Arabia.7 09.3 1.9 50.0 15.5 639.0 20.

178.62 lakhs in 1993-94 to Rs.43 39. USA alone accounted for 54 per cent.80 In previous years.28 36.05 lakhs in 1994-95. 17.98 117. The Average Unit Value Realisation on exports of Mushrooms in 1995-96 was Rs. India exported aiso to Germany.12 123.64 33.20 60. no exports to these markets.19 72. Cucumbers & Gherkins. registering a growth of 362%.5 lakhs in 1995-96. Fresh There has been a spectacular increase in the export of cucumbers & gherkins in fresh form from the country during the last three years.000 per cent increase. there were. Again exports escalated to Rs.79 68. 41 per kg. The following table indicates exports of fresh cucumbers & gherkins to major markets.74 39. 645. Exports spurted from a modest Rs. however. The following table indicates Unit Value Realisation in respect of selected markets: Table 43 UNIT VALUE REALISASTION ON EXPORTS OF MUSHROOMS (1995-96) (Rs. Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. over 1. Switzerland.USA. Netherlands and Israel together accounted for over 88 per cent of India's-total exports in 1995-96. Sweden.94 37. In 1995-96. per kg) USA Netherlands Israel Canada Russia Italy Kuwait Philippines Oman France UAE 42. 49 .

Crore 1993-94 Val Qty Belgium Spciln Australia USA UK Sri Lanka France Netherlands Canada Philippines u s Virgin Island UAE Total (incl.28 13.Table 44 EXPORTS OF FRESH CUCUMBERS & GHERKINS FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty : Tonnes Val : Rs.87 per kg in 1995-96.6 118.30 12.02 13.56 11.34 34.46 73.7 139.0 216.09 30.25 1994-95 Qty Val 201.0 89.7 — — — — — — — 17.40 4.4 — — — 178.85 126.1 74.57 5.77 13. Unit Value Realisation on exports to principal markets is shown in the following table: Table 45 UNIT VALUE REALISASTION ON EXPORTS OF FRESH CUCUMBERS/GHERKINS (1995-96) (Rs.0 35.78 14.27 11. Average Unit Value Realisation on exports of fresh cucumbers and gherkins was Rs.78 5.92 21.27 10.21 7.2 5014. others) Source: DGCI&S.0 53.6 42.40 1995-96 Val Qty 735.7 223.24 58.04 9.62 — — — 1101.05 Although exports are directed to many markets 12 markets are the principal ones accounting for over 93 per cent of the total.1 ^664.5 62.3 952.4 2.9 289.6 192.040 6.9 45.99 12.90 13.0 58.88 15.84 6.95 7.55 22. 12. Calcutta 18.55 — 40.22 50 .2 421.29 645.04 25. Belgium and Spain emerged as the major markets accounting for over 40 per cent of the total in 1995-96.68 5.4 243.74 52.3 135.6 26.68 — — — — — — — 179.9 680.8 154. per Kg) Belgium Spain Australia USA SrI Lanka France Netherlands Canada Philippines US Virgin Island UAE 19.0 168.8 — 2.61 16.85 5.

South Africa.0 198.25 34.94 52.14 36.8 — 74. Kuwait.35 crore in 1995-96. 1Q. Japan.30 71.26 728.9 251.38 111.78 106.75 20. Bahrain. Of these the first four countries together accounted for over 65 per cent in 1995-96.3 1116.16 33.30 UK Russia Qatar Canada Oman Germany Total (inct. Qatar.7 10025.65 19. The country is also exporting preserved cucumbers and gherkins and their export amounted to 11. Export growth.05 1994-95 Qty Val 25580.7 192. others) Source: DGCI&S. Qatar.949 tonnes valued at over Rs.4 1336.9 190. UK. exports are directed to Brazil. Germany and Singapore. Mixed Vegetables..67 — 557.3 262.46 30.3 979. 20 crores.57 19. Crore 1993-94 Qty Val Saudi Arabia Kuwait UAE .by major markets.Apart from the principal markets.65 91. is fluctuating. viz.0 476.5 984. however. Frozen India's exports of frozen mixed vegetables amounted to Rs. Switzerland.9 — 41. The following table shows exports of frozen mixed vegetables from India . Oman and Germany accounted for over 90 per cent of exports.1 936. Venezuela.17 103. UAE. Table 46 EXPORTS OF FROZEN MIXED VEGETABLES FROM INDIA BY MAJOR MARKETS Qty : Tonnes Val : Rs.70 Average Unit Value Realisation on exports of frozen mixed vegetables was Rs. Unit Value Realisation on exports to principal markets is shown in the following table: 51 . Calcutta — 947.06 40.99 86.46 per kg in 1995-96.47 136.7 236.64 71. Russia.34 1035.64 70 64 57.8 234.26 1995-96 Val Qty 3135.81 29.3 7694.3 1401.7 325.08 29.37 72.5 234.44 67. Saudi Arabia.0 100.^ Bahrain 3858.8 209. 10.4 580. Italy.76 127.3 1328. Canada.8 563. Ten markets.5 1112. Russia. Exports growth in 1995-96 was nearly 42 per cent over the previous year.1 413.8 9899.0 299.5 1203.9 283.

The best foundation for drawing up such a distribution model is direct study of all the operations involved.28 14. a distribution model should be drawn up.10 G.48 29. PACKAGING AND QUALITY STANDARDS packaging is to provide the produce with to survive a number of different hazards during storage. the model is valuable as a structure for establishing the requirements. Although such information may be imperfect. comprehension is required with respect to The main purpose of the attributes necessary which can be expected Therefore foresight and the distribution pattern. In all cases the sequential character of distribution must be taken into consideration. To do this. transport and distribution.23 9. however. The first step in selection of a package for a specific product and particular target market or markets is to form a clear picture of the distribution pattern which the product must follow. The extent to which such models may be used depends upon the characteristics of the produce and the complexity of the market.59 7. The package chosen should be acceptable in all links of the distribution chain. selecting the package. seldom allows for such detailed investigations. The distribution model is a representation of the system through which the produce is transferred.Table 47 UNIT VALUE REALISASTION ON EXPORTS OF FROZEN MIXED VEGETABLES (1995-96) (Rs.82 29. In most cases the distribution model will have to be based on second hand and general information. 52 . in qualitative as well as quantitative terms. per kg) Saudi Arabia Kuwait UAE Bahrain UK Russia Qatar Canada Oman Germany 9.04 10.09 9.12 11.21 11. Practice. and planning future changes.

relative humidity. A package may have to facilitate both the rapid cooling of the contents from high field temperatures. and hence the need to avoid gas build up in transit. for example under conditions of forced air cooling. require packages which allow for effective external air ventilation (e. usually with perforations to allow gaseous exchange. It must allow removal of metabolic heat during storage and transport. Certain commodities have special treatments which must be taken into account when designing the package. mechanical injury and attack by pests and diseases. are used for some commodities. if it is a climacteric or ripening fruit. Some commodities have a high sensitivity to ethylene gas. vapour pressure deficit. For effective ripening the product requires exposure to increased temperature in a uniform manner. avocado). and may have to contain the product. for effective warming and gassing. and good temperature management depends on achieving good contact between the product and the external environment. and to ethylene gas. these include temperature. throughout the ripening process. high in water content and diverse in terms of morphology. The successful development of a package is based on the requirements of the product within the framework of the handling and marketing system. Environmental factors can affect the rate of decline of product quality. composition and physiology. Polyethylene liners. atmospheric composition and exposure to light. Temperature management is one of the most critical factors. and the maintenance of low storage or transit temperatures. The main causes of deterioration are metabolic change. Such packages must therefore have adequate ventilation capability.The protection required by fresh fruits and vegetables Horticultural crops are living tissues. A package may also protect the produce from moisture loss.g. for example sulphur diox53 . The package into which the product is placed can also influence the environment.

and under such conditions water may condense on the product and package. and by unitization and improved package fillers. can reduce the chance of bruising. overfiing.ide treatment of grapes. be minimized. and in-package use of ethylene absorbants. Impact bruises result from dropping the commodity individually or in the package onto a hard surface. Produce preparation Fruits and vegetables for export are usually brought to packing houses soon after their harvest for preparation and packing. Vibration and abrasion bruises are generally a result of product movement within the package. I^acking house operations 1. Fluctuations in environmental temperature and relative humidity can arise. the extent to which the commodity bears this weight should. 85-95 per cent RH). the package may be exposed to high relative humidities (i. 54 . The package must therefore be able to perform under all the temperature and humidity conditions that are likely to be encountered. International packaging materials. the commodity may have to absorb much of the stacking weight.e. With overfilling and inadequate package performance. paddings. by the use of in-package cushion pads. it can adversely affect the value of the commodity in the market. Whilst the damage may be superficial. trays. for example. Bulging of the package can reduce the benefits of a tight fill. This can be reduced by the adoption of careful handling procedures. Whilst different commodities may have differing degrees of resistance. and inadequate package performance. Packages must assist in protection of the commodity against damage. there exists a number of different types of bruises which can occur and the appropriate design of the package and its fittings. Compression bruises result from incorrect packing. This type of damage can be minimized through correct package sizing and fill density. by removal from cold store. such as warps. may also be beneficial. In attempting to maintain optimal environmental conditions for the commodity.

washing. The deteriorating produce may also: — Cause spreading of any disease to the rest of the contents of the package — Increase the evaporation of water to the air in the package which may accelerate deterioration of the rest of the contents (this is relevant particularly to commodities which require a lower relative humidity in storage. and increases the waste 55 . fungicide application. onions). waxing. Produce in conditions such as those stated increases the risks to the rest of the produce. sizing and labelling. During this preparation. the produce is sorted to remove rejects or produce unfit for the fresh market. and normally after washing and drying. e. It is no less important to eliminate produce which is: — Injured. drying. Such produce deteriorates rapidly during storage and transportation and causes increased sorting during later stages of the distribution process. as such produce behaves more or less in the same manner as diseased produce and moreover is extremely vulnerable to attack by disease. depending upon its characteristics.g. Such preparation may include degreening. — Othenwise unable to satisfy the market's requirements with respect to size. causes intensified sorting and control. — Overripe.Before being packed. — Produce high levels of ethylene. taste. colour. shape. adds to the packaging and transportation costs. as it is liable to arrive at the market in unsaleable condition and to cause deterioration of the rest of the contents of the package. — Too immature to ripen normally. visual defects. Elimination of diseased produce is essential. — Attract insects. produce is normally prepared or treated in various ways. etc.

The UN/ECE and OECD standards contain provisions for: — Identification of quality. — Size the produce to obtain a uniform product in each package. — Criteria for classification into 3 classes: "Extra". specific for each type of produce. "Class I" and Class 11". — Sizing. They are identical in principle. including: — Minimum requirements. — The European Economic Community (EEC) These standards cover a range of common types of fruits and vegetables grown in Western Europe. upgrade the consumer appeal. Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ ECE). Proper sorting is of utmost importance in order to preserve the quality. Depending on its type. but differ slightly in respect to classification and selection of produce. without contributing to the ultimate income from its sale. — The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).quantities in later stages of the distribution chain. A few products have 2 classes only. in particular for high volume trade. the produce is normally sorted for quaRty and size at the same stage as it is sorted for rejects. and maximize the efficiency of the distribution process. Observance of international quality standards International quality standards are issued by: — The United Nations. 56 . It is necessary to: — Grade the produce according to the quality criteria of the market.

— Quality and size tolerances. EEC has based its regulatory system on these quality standards. each package should be marked "Class 11". Reference to specific marking and other provisions are stated for each product in Annexure IV. the identification of : — Packer and/or dispatcher — Nature of produce — Origin of produce — Commercial specifications — Control mark. Even where not statutory. If other markings or no markings are stated. including. — Marking. if the packages are marked according to the quality marking regulation. — Presentation. 57 . it is presumed that they conform with class I. The UN/ECE and OECD standards are recommendations without direct legal power. and for imports from third countries in Europe and non-European Mediterranean countries. including uniformity and packaging. The regulations also apply to imports from other countries. Commercial requirements One of the main aims of selecting for quality and size is to obtain uniform produce which can be transferred in unbroken transport units from the packing house in the producing country to the retail trade and/or the retail prepacking house in the consuming country. however. If not they should at least qualify for Class II in order to obtain import permission. In this case. The EEC regulations are mandatory for internal trade within the Community. Other European countries have adopted the UN/ECE and OECD standards on a similar basis. with minor alternations. the standards are used for guidance.

Transport and. However. storage should be under cover in a moderately dry atmosphere. which in respect of size. which will degrade plastic materials. which will reduce the strength of fibre based materials. rust staples and other iron-based components. snow and dew. suitable materials and correct manufacture. Such conditions are detrimental to most types of packaging. 58 . By sorting the produce into categories. or are stored there exposed to the weather and to sunlight. Management of empty package supplies A good package starts with an appropriate design. Sorting to fulfil the commercial requirements for uniformity may differ from that required to meet international quality standards. fade and discolour printing inks and materials. even more importantly. — Exposure to rain. if handling of the empty package and its preparation for filling are carried out carelessly and without regard to specific package properties and requirements. and dry out fibre based materials causing a reduction in strength. but even then the conditions may be unsuitable. Storage for empty packages should always avoid: — Direct sun. Weighing and other kinds of individual classification are becoming less acceptable to retail traders because of the increased product preparation costs prior to sale. The commercial requirements normally remain within the framework of international quality standards. even the best package may fail.Another important aim is to adapt the produce for retail sale in the consuming country. colour and shape are indistinguishable to the consumers. Empty packages should be stacked and raised from the ground by means of pallets or racks to protect the packaging from moisture below and to ensure good ventilation. the optimum being a relative humidity of 45 to 65 per cent. the retail trade is able to prepack and to sell in uniform packages or by the piece at standard prices. very humid or extremely dry. though ^they are often more demanding. Empty packages are often transported to the packing station unprotected. decompose many types of glue and cause an accumulation of water in cavities. Alternatively they may be covered by a tarpaulin or stored indoors. for example.

Erecting. is done manually and with simple equipment. Three bask. Short fibre materials with weak surfaces are not appropriate. — Sudden breakdown causing stoppage of packing operations. These processes may be carried out with automatic machines. — When intended for use with gummed paper tape. — Rapid wear of tf^e equipment. A regular maintenance programme established with the advice of the suppliers of the equipment will help to avoid problems such as: — Malfunction of the equipment which results in improper package assembling. but most erection and closure. ffietta©«lte are availaible lor assen^iing and closing mmiQ^lli^ and s o i j IR3f©board boxes. it should be kept in •ramd thai most equipment & very specialized and will only perform a ^^>eafic teisk with specific pac^ging materials. — Is not coated with paraffin wax. It requires that the flaps to be taped meet and that the material used for the outer liner: — Has a cohesive surface. Highly absorbant surfaces are not appropriate. When selecting tools for these processes. should not be polyethylene coated. filling and closing At the packing house the final operations involve erecting. such as tape dispensers. Local availability of syctn ma&miaSs ^odld bs idi^cked before investment. 59 . — When intended for use with gummed paper tape. even in industrialized countries. staplers and strapping tools. but this does not imply that no inspection and maintenance is required. should not absorb moisture from the tape too quickly. as follows: (a) Taping Tajimg is appropriate for certain styles of box. filling and closing the package. Most equipment of this kind is quite sturdy.

This should reduce bruising or abrasion of the produce by vibration in transport and handling. When the produce is arranged in layers without additional internal packing such as dividers and/or trays. pneumatic power assistance can be used. It is. The method can be carried out completely by hand or with machines of any degree of sophistication. or can be fully mechanized. In all cases. With some types of additional packaging greater size tolerance may be acceptable. produce should be arranged in layers or jumble-packed to fill the package in such a manner as to reduce movement of the produce. including cohesion between the liners and the fluting in corrugated fibreboard. Wire stitching machines may be preferred for high outputs. (c) Gluing Gluing is an assembling method requiring good cohesion of the surfaces and of the paper material in depth.Taping can be performed manually. but a good resistance to tearing when exposed to probable increased relative humidity during transport is required. size grading must be precise in order to secure dense packing and level layers. 60 . Stapling is usualty performed by operatives with foot-pedal machines. Short fibre materials are generally less appropriate for stapling. usihg a dispenser/applicator. utmost care must be taken in order to achieve the appropriate open and closing time specific for each glue/material combination. Care should be taken to prevent the staples from coming into direct contact with the surfaces of the produce. equally important that the package not be overfilled. (d) Filling Fijgng the package requires considerable care. the potential machine supplier should be asked to carry out practical tests with the packaging and assembling materials to be used on the equipment. however. (b) Stapling Stapling offers the advantage that the total composition of the packaging material is effectively secured in the assembling. Surface properties are unimportant. Before investing in any assembling method. Irrespective of the packing method.

Ventilation holes should normally be 4 to 6 per cent of the short side surface. Forced air cooling normally requires only few hours for the product to reach storage temperature. The package containing the product is filled with a predetermined quantity of ice. the package should be adapted to the cooling facilities that are used. Vacuum cooling is a rapid cooling technique used primarily for leafy vegetables. Ventilation holes on the sides and the horizontal edges accelerate the cooling. Its use for packed commodities is limited and requires the package to be water tolerant. flake ice or ice and water slurry in the package generally requires that the package be water tolerant. It is essential for good functioning of forced air cooling that the package be closed in all directions other than the air stream direction. from 12 hours to several days may be required. ice is placed in a watertight container inside the package. but only if space is left between the packages for circulation of the cold air. the packages should be constructed to give the air easy access to the produce. the package is generally constructed with ventilation holes in one direction only and so situated that the air can pass unimpeded from one box to the next throughout the entire block. To obtain effective forced air cooling. is generally used on produce in bins or in bulk before packing. When closed packages are used. The packages are before placing in a vacuum 61 . If cooling is simply by circulation of cold air. Where produce is cooled after packing. Hydrocooling involving the use of cold water to rapidly cool produce.tilatk>rf holes should preferably be located on the short sides of the package. However. The use of crushed ice. Package-icing is used for the cooling and temperature management of some products. In order to reduce the number of transfers the ven. Ventilation holes will normally be required on all sides and frequently in the top and bottom as well. With forced air cooling the air is forced through a block of filled packages. in many cases. The circulation of air is generally a slow method of cooling.Cooling Cooling of the produce may be carried out before or after packing. it should be expected that most of the cooling will be by conduction rather than convection.

other than pallet size compatibility. road. transport etc. Transport costs are considerable in the international fruit and vegetate trade.cooler. there are no specific package design factors which need to be taken Into account. the package is required to be water tolerant. 3. 5. Oestrftjution patterns Ihe method of transportation is one of the most important factors %} be taken into consideration in the choice of packaging to be utilized. extension and development support ii) Production and Export of Fruits and Vegetables A number of constraints would have to be overcome in developing production and exports. D. and consequently packaging should be chosen to minimize ttiese o^sls. citrus decline etc 4.air. Where water Is applied to the product before or during the vacuum cooling process. 2. Acute shortage of infrastructure for post-harvest processing. These are: 62 . Large tracts cdf unproductive/senile orchards and plantations. InadecjUite availability of planting materials of high-yielding varieties. sea. CONSTRAINTS i) Horticulture Development 1.. Unorganised marketing 6. The principal m ^ e s Q f tnynspotrWite . and raili> generally consist of the lollowa^ l^tpcal ssitp^Kses of oper^iw^ H. Inadequate research. Transportaion and Storage 1. Several chronic production problems such as mango malformation. guava wilt.

India's share was 8. tenth in apples and seventeenth in grapes. India stood frist in the global production of Bananas and Mangoes. I . cargo space. sub-tropical and temperate fruits and vegetables. India's exports remained meagre at only Rs. The growth rate of 22.— Lack of infrastructure (storage. showed the export growth potential of the sector. fruit chilling and vapour heat treatment) — Institutional support (credit arrangement. sixth in organges. India is located geographically close to important world markets for fruits and vegetables. India is endowed with production of a wide variety of tropical. transport. In vegetables.16 crore in 1995-96. third in cabbages and green peas and fifth in tomatoes ahd potatoes. second in onions. promotion of Indian fruits & vegetables abroad) — Research and development efforts for high quality and yields comparable to those in other producing and exporting countries.6 per cent in 1995-96 over 1994-95.4% respectively in 1994. facilitiers at air/sea ports. Despite having a second position in World production of fruits and vegetables. As per world production data of FAO in 1994. What measures are needed to sustain the tempo of export growth over the years.531. however. Conceding that there is high growth potential.6% and 13. India ranked second in the overall production of fruits and vegetables (China ranked first). the task is how to tap the potential. In fruits. Why did it remain sluggish so far. Apart from the natural factors of soil and climate.7% in 1994. India's share in world exports of fruits and vegetables was only 1. 63 . fourth in Guava. fifth in pineapples. India ranked first in cauliflower. STRATEGY FOR TAPPING EXPORT POTENTIAL V The horticulture sector in the country has the highest potential for export because of various favourable factors including the soil and climatic conditions. In world production of fruit and vegetables. What are the strengths and weaknesses.

In order to encourage this. Air cargo space needs to be augmented to facilitate exports in fresh form. In onions. Exports need to be jacked up through a deliberate and planned change in the basket of exports in line with the global demand pattern. Developed countries where the costs of production are escalating are likely to shift their production bases to countries like India. Infrastryctural constraints need to be removed so that post-harvest losses me reduced and incomes are increased. Exporters need to organise themselves unitedly to face global competition instead of each exporter trying to export in small quantities in the most unorganised manner. save onions. 64 . India has to attract foreign direct investments through appropriate policy modifications including changes in land laws and taxation laws. Air-freight rates and sea-freight rates are to be examined regularly to ensure that India's exports remain competitive. India's export basket has to undergo a revolutionary change in order to establish India as a competitive and reliable supplier. A paradigm shift in exports is absolutely necessary. India has to take advantage of the low cost of production of horticultural products. the share is over 6 per cent. however. Pre-harvest practices are to be followed by ihe farmers so as to improve the quality of the produce to make 1 acc^table in in^iwrt markets. Presently India's share in the value of world exports in many fruits and vegetables. Over 90% of India's exports of fruits and vegetables are presently directed to West Asian and East European markets. is ridiculously low at much less than one per cent. Similarly enlargement of export markets is necessary. Indian exporters need to recognise the professional management approach of deriving synergy to build competitiveness to emerge as dependable suppliers on a sustained basis.Global imports are increasing and this should encourage India to strengthen her efforts to supply to global markets by removing various constraints in production and exports. Land ceiling laws aire to be reviewed and modified so as to facilitate export production.

broccoli. and lettuce in the high value vegetable category are important. potato. seasonal vegetables and high value vegetables. custard apple. capsicum. peas. In addition. ii) developing infrastructure for post-harvest handling and marketing. vii) export enhancement. These States have the potential 65 . viii) human resource development. asparagus. vi) transfer of technology. improving infrastructure and data base for fruits and vegetables. banana and lychee. In order to tap the full potential of exports of fruits and vegetables it is necessary to impart export orientation to production through marketing to achieve competitiveness in supplying to global markets.Export Target There is sizeable potential for export of fruits and vegetables from the country. ber. and ix). iv) increasing availability of quality seed/planting material. tomato. export potential exists in onion. Therefore. mushrooms. Exports of fruits and vegetables constitute an insignificant per cent of total production and do not in any way clash with domestic consumption needs. Beans. iii) product diversification and improving consumption. strawberry and pineapple. Fruits that have export potential include mangoes. v) area expansion. the development paradigm has to focus on the following: i) improving productivity and quality of produce from the existing plantations. grapes. export potential exists in the case of Sapota. North-Eastern and Hilly States have unutilised potential in horticulture which could be harnessed. In vegetables. apple. citrus. green chillies.

Since production is meant for consumption either in the domestic market or in export markets. production and supply of vegetable seeds and development of root and tuber crops and the conversion of land under subsistence farming into high value horticulture crops. Specialised facilities like irradiation for onion and potato. adopting the concept of "Packing Houses". okra. 66 . are required to be set up to cater to the sophisticated markets abroad and in domestic metropolitan cities. India has to aim for a larger share of global export markets.to produce surplus fruits and vegetables for exports. Private sector should come fonward to provide transport and storage facilities by new investments. dynamic infrastructure need to be developed around each major production zone. There is also the need for developing appropriate combination of post-harvest infrastructure facilities at the level of primary cooperative socieities. crop specific curing. with each such unit linked to the wholesale market. Vegetables such as beans. X-ray detection of spongy tissue in Alphanso mango. ripening chambers etc. temperate and arid zone fruits. intermediary levels and terminal markets. The off-seasonal advantages available in catering to European and American markets coupled with large production surpluses provide an edge to diversify export markets. Diversification of Exports Taking advantage of diversified production in fruits and vegetables. chillies and other seasonal vegetables are required to be cultivated exclusively to cater to the export markets. Production would also increase because of the incentives being provided under the various centrally sponsored schemes like the integrated development of tropical. More airports should be converted into international airports for handling perishable commodities with each airport having independent and efficient transit and storage system. vapour heat treatment.

Protocols are to be developed for shipment of assorted vegetables in large volume to the markets of Middle East and South East Asia.) should be explored for possible markets in near future. Pakistan market offers scope for export of fruits and vegetables during selective periods. 67 . Production of fruits and vegetables without using inorganic chemicals mainly to cater to developed markets has to be encouraged. Korea. apple and oranges have good export prospects in these markets. An item like Sapota is export competitive but is less known outside India. Market promotion efforts need to be intensified in the existing markets of South East Asia. Efforts need to be intensified to promote fruits like mango and grapes in South East Asian markets. less pungent and white and yellow varieties of onions should be cultivated. Market promotion efforts are necessary for tapping European market for Sapota and lychee. other fruits such as strawberry. SAARC countries and the Middle East for onions. In order to meet the needs of European markets. Therefore. Technologies need to be developed to reduce the effects of residues in fresh fruits and vegetables. The region where India has cost advantage in transport is East Asia.Currently India's exports of fruits and vegetables are largely directed to West Asian markets and only small quantities are marketed in Europe and USA. Japan. Onion exports should be made free and brought under OGL. Vapour Heat Treatment protocols are to be completed to export various fruits to Japanese market. Along with. Hong Kong. East Asian region (Singapore. etc.

200 crore by 2001-2002 and Rs. APEDA envisages that exports of fruits & vegetables from India would reach a level of about Rs. 68 . 1. 1.Exports of horticultural products in Ninth Plan in quantitative terms is given in Annexure VII.500 crore by 2005-2006.

LIST OF ANNEXURES .

.

700 9.431 9.159 12.972 11.649 9.021 3.854 17.940 18.ANNEXURE I WORLD PRODUCTION OF FRUITS* BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty : '000 M.509 1993 32.334 1994 37.80.645 10.235 32.000 8.194 32.298 33.559 32.T 1992 China India Brazil USA Italy Spain France Turkey Mexico Uganda Iran World Total 26. 2 .668 + Fruits excluding Melons Source: Production Year Book.033 9.57% India's Rank in World Production .547 9.845 8.960 9.939 3.738 26.995 13.515 28.851 3.987 8.87.588 31.239 9.003 9. FAO.869 20.951 28. 1994 India's Share in World Production : 8.450 31.648 10.411 8.701 15.84. Rome.

FAO.T. Rome. Italy. India's Sheire in World Production : 2. Iran Romania Poland India World Total 6568 4798 2344 2394 2100 1830 1463 1993 9078 4861 2079 2144 2080 1700 1624 1097 1842 1200 47453 1994 12007 4948 2157 2103 2080 1700 1690 1451 1441 1238 48890 541 1570 1110 44600 Source : Production Yecir Book. 1992 China USA France Italy Turkey Russian Fed.53% India's Rank in World Production : 10 72 .ANNEXURE I (i) WORLD PRODUCTION OF APPLES BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty : '000 M.

33% India's Rank in world production : 17 73 .ANNEXURE I (j i) WORLD PRODUCTION OF GRAPES BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty : '000 MT. Italy. India's Share in world production . Rome. 1. 1992 Italy France USA Turkey Spain Argentina Iran China Germany South Africa Greece Romania Chile Australia Azerbaijan Brazil India World Total 10625 7995 5490 3450 5757 2953 1508 1255 1806 1673 1350 1993 9757 6656 5467 3700 4568 1945 1835 1517 1312 1490 1400 1339 1300 1994 9372 6933 5377 3550 3167 2900 1875 1690 1482 1480 1400 1349 1200 905 1141 987 1126 791 900 786 730 56989 987 860 801 750 56392 800 700 62424 Source : Production Year Book. FAO.

FAO. Rome.ANNEXURE I (Hi) WORLD PRODUCTION OF ORANGES BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty . 1992 1993 18771 9972 6074 2510 2852 2000 2109 1440 1324 1180 58731 1994 18604 9515 6175 2597 2570 2100 1610 1485 1300 1200 Brazil USA China Spain Mexico India Italy Iran Egypt Pakistan World Total 19682 8082 4820 2926 2541 1900 2112 1819 1771 1160 57961 59394 Source : Production Year Book. India's shre in World production : 3.T. Italy.58% India's Rank in World Production : 6 74 . '000 M.

ANNEXURE I (iv) WORLD PRODUTION OF MANGOES BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty : '000 M.000 1117 1158 794 750 620 500 400 334 230 212 205 186 180 184 197 135 123 18337 1994 10.T. 1992 India China Mexico Pakistan Indonesia Thailand Nigeria Brazil Philippines Haiti Zaire Madagascar Tanzania Dominican Rep.000 1180 1090 800 779 630 500 400 360 230 214 200 187 185 . Bangladesh Egypt Sudan Srilanka World Total 9500 974 1076 787 700 615 500 394 330 230 212 200 185 191 183 179 135 69 17479 : 54. 184 180 135 133 18450 India's Share in World Production India's Rank in World Production 75 .20% : 1 1993 10.

1992 Thailand Philippines Brazil China India Nigeria Indonesia Colombia USA Vietnam World Total 2180 1135 1993 2589 1254 1994 2686 1190 826 668 769 800 380 347 499 500 11125 818 777 800 800 383 381 336 300 11546 999 860 820 800 383 378 331 315 11832 Source : Production Year Book.96% India's Rank in World Production : 5 76 . India's Share in World production . FAO. Rome. 1994. 5.ANNEXURE I (v) WORLD PRODUCTION OF PINEAPPLES BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty : '000 M.T.

ANNEXURE I ( i v) WORLD PRODUCTION OF BANANAS BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty : '000 M. Rome. India's share in World Production : 15. FAO.02% India's Rank in World Production 1 77 .T. 1994. 1992 India Brazil Ecuador Philippines Indonesia Colombia Costa Rica Mexico Thailand Papua New Gulne Vietnam Burundi Nigeria Honduras Panama World Total 7778 5624 3995 3005 2400 1900 1667 2095 1630 1250 1265 1645 1050 1023 1093 51309 1993 7800 5587 4422 3069 2300 2150 1827 2344 1650 1280 1300 1585 J 050 1013 819 52242 1994 7900 6022 4715 3250 2300 2000 1932 1700 1658 1329 1321 1269 1050 980 900 5258 Source : Production Year Book.

350 14.503 10.354 13.189 14.970 1994 1.629 10. Iran World Total 1.ANNEXURE II WORLD PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLESBY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty .443 19.669 14.85.661 8.209 33.050 4.537 10. 1994 India's Share in World Production : 13. Rome.798 4.081 10.680 10.811 65.276 10.468 13.137 36.800 33.449 19.870 13.73.23. '000 M.70.173 18.190 10.T 1992 China India USA Turkey Japan Italy Spain Korea Rep. FAO.28.42% India's Rank in World Production 2 78 .231 10.094 64.550 Note : Total Includes Vegetables + Melons Source: Production Year Book.513 63.25. Russian Fed.174 1993 1.450 8.894 4.477 10.054 10.

150 1.303 73.300 5.S.ANNEXURE II (i) WORLD PRODUCTION OF TOMATOES BY MAJORPRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty: '000 M.540 Source: Production Year Book.896 1993 10.560 1.763 2.200 1.600 3.148 74.250 1.886 1.029 4.340 2.810 1.940 1.665 6.259 5.781 1.694 2. Rome. 1994 India's Share in World Production : 6.200 1.501 6.850 4.398 1. Uzbekistan Ukraine World Total 9.733 8.195 77.085 8.066 2.380 1.693 1.550 1.150 5.49% India's Rank in World Production 5 79 .T 1992 U.483 4.450 5.357 1994 12. FAO.647 2.600 4.450 1.389 8.223 4.141 2.A China Turkey Italy India Egypt Spain Brazil Iran Greece Mexico Russian Fed.806 2.935 6.413 1.371 1.

268 636 500 18.100 984 800 0 f Ukraine IMetherlands World Total Source.ANNEXURE II (ii) WORLD PRODUCTION OF CUCUMBERS AND GHERKINS BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty: '000 MT 1992 China Iran Turkey USA Japan 7. FAO.510 1.050 961 836 1993 7.051 1.726 516 514 19.261 Production Year Book.852 1994 8.650 1. 1994 80 . 387 507 18. Rome.050 922 899 ' 1.057 1.

357 2.A Indonesia World Total 9. Poland U.282 40.659 1.772 3.600 1.954 1.332 40.819 2.636 1. FAO.250 Source: Production Year Book.878 1994 9.200 2. India Japan Korea Rep.S.650 1.600 1.000 41.286 1.685 4. 1994 India's Share in World Production : 8.BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty: '000 M.031 1993 9.700 2.698 2. Rome.407 4.672 1.850 4.20% India's Rank in World Production : 3 81 .703 1.680 3.844 4.ANNEXURE II (iii) WORLD PRODUCTION OF CABBAGES .T 1992 China Russian Fed.300 2.

ANNEXURE II (Iv) WORLD PRODUCTION OF CAULIFLOWER BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty: '000 M.068 489 482 410 313 302 198 10.505 1994 4.167 555 441 409 305 275 256 10. Rome.800 2.08% India's Rank in World Production 1 82 .220 2.265 553 443 414 294 271 220 10.080 1993 4.S.A Spain Poland World Total 4.888 Source: Production Yearbook.500 2. 1994 India's Share in World Production 44.T 1992 India China France Italy UK U. FAO.

024 1.859 2. DRY BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty: '000 M.017 32.590 1.481 1.650 957 1.426 4.300 2.305 1.051 1.000 927 885 30.546 Source: Production Year Book. 1994 India's Share in World Production : 13.ANNEXURE II (v) WORLD PRODUCTION OF ONIONS.397 810 896 1.332 3.278 1994 4.367 1.020 29.000 1.776 1993 4. FAO. Rome.000 2.400 1.21% India's Rank in World Production : 2 83 .590 2.T 1992 China India USA Turkey Iran Japan Korea Rep.435 1.700 1. Brazil Spain World Total 4.629 4.

K.012 1994 1111 490 413 268 262 140 210 110 105 100 4. Belgium.FAO.Luxembourg Hungary Egypt Italy World Total 1291 452 460 266 262 136 204 118 105 160 4. GREEN BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty: '000 M.T.Italy.541 1993 798 461 427 267 261 147 210 108 100 146 4.ANNEXURE II (vl) WORLD PRODUCTION OF PEAS.17% India's Rank in World Production : 3 84 .346 Source : Production Year Book.Rome. 1992 USA China France India U. Russian Fed. India's Share in World Production: 6.

Rome.ANNEXURE I ( l ) I vl WORLD PRODUCTION OF POTATOES BY MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES Qty. India's Share in World Production: 5.: '000 M. 1994.65% India's Rank in World Production: 6 85 .T. China Poland USA UKraine India Germany Belarus Netherlands UK France Turkey Spain Japan World Total 1992 38224 37826 23388 19294 20277 16388 10897 8984 7595 7802 6679 4600 5181 3400 277208 1993 38054 35037 36271 19445 20949 15718 12260 11644 7699 7065 5860 4650 3821 1994 33780 40039 23058 20835 16102 15000 9257 8241 7748 7065 5456 4350 4058 291460 265436 Source: Production Year Book. FAO. Country Russian Fed. Italy.

Area Production 9730 294734 792750 201000 1298326 5523 72406 73103 53903 204996 86 .ANNEXURE III (i) PRODUCTION OF APPLES IN INDIA (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production : MT State/Ut's Arunachal Pradesh Himchal Pradesh Jamtnu & Kashmir Uttar Pradesh (Hills) Total (incl. others) Source : National Horticulture Board Gurgaon.

ANNEXURE III (il) PRODUCTION OF BANANAS IN INDIA (1993-94) Area . Area 33302 2210 41423 24913 1760 28530 45455 23667 20000 57157 3390 5695 2485 1249 34123 83308 3638 1029 15400 1570 361 31685 Production 832550 8540 572674 497860 10560 1141200 1500015 308871 731000 2827093 9500 71187 9399 17049 322000 2782310 26250 23000 189400 7495 10296 11900824 87 .others) Source : National Horticulture Board Gurgaon. Hectares Production: MT State/Ut's Andhra Pradesh Arunnachal Pradesli Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat Karnatal<a Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Tamil Nadu Tripura Urrar Pradesh (Plains) West Bengal Andaman & Nicobar Pandicherry Total (Incl.

others) Source : National Horticulture Board.ANNEXURE III (iil) PRODUCTION OF PINEAPPLES (1993-94) IN INDIA Area . Area 3298 3869 13002 2815 460 2530 5033 6500 8495 810 1166 656 934 3706 8950 62225 Production 175618 13860 188013 70400 6700 31675 46706 61500 73057 4189 28221 9600 39610 32000 225540 1006669 88 . Hectares Production: MT state/ Ut's Andhira Pradesh Arunachal Praesh Assam Bihar Goa Karnataka Kerala Manipur Meghalaya Mizoreim Nagaland Orissa Tamil Nadu Tripura West Serial Toral (ind. Gurgaon.

Area 20753 1640 Production 249036 225 106 4800 5750 11190 16881 813348 44 1165 12820 8530 3310 55493 89 .ANNEXURE III (iv) PRODUCTION OF LITCHI IN INDIA BY MAJOR PRODUCING STATES (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production: MT State/Ut's Bihar Himactial Pradesh Nagaland Orissa Tripura Uttar Pradesh (Hills) West Bengal Total (incl.others) Source : National Horticulture Board. Gurgaon.

2422 1440 34832 90 . othere) Source : National Htortkxilture Board.ANNEXURE III (v) PRODUCTION OF SAPOTA IN INDIA BY MAJOR PRODUCING STATES (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production : MT State/Ut's Andhra Pradesh Bihar Gujarat Kamatayia Area 4218 Production 56616 5 6880 1526 4387 16 82560 270226 5^15 8700 8710 481142 Ortesa W ^ t Beng^ Total (ind. Gurgaon.

Gurgaon. Area 2258 1113 57B6 23948 Production 56450 19185 173580 348963 61803 38950 702466 22m 2359 38841 91 .ANNEXURE III (vi) PRODUCTION OF GRAPES IN INDIA BY MAJOR STATES (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production: MT State/ Ut's Andhra Pradesli Haryana Karnatal«a Maharashtra Punjab Tamil Nadu Total (Ind. others) Source : Naticmal Horticulture Board.

ANNEXURE III (vii) PRODUCTION OF MANGO - BY MAJOR STATES (1993-94)
Area : Hectares Production; MT State/ Ut's Andhra pradesh Bihar Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Maharashtra Orissa Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh (Hills) West Bengal Total (incl.others) Source : National Horticulture Board, Gurgaon. Area 241901 150527 23449 88810 96693 58076 67818 20255 55300 1217362 Production 2902812 1806324 1010 843695 378293 321000 422036 73000 1849356 10113505

92

ANNEXURE III (viii) PRODUCTION OF GUAVA IN INDIA BY MAJOR STATES (1993-94)
Area : Hectares Production: MT State/Ufs Andhra Pradesh Bihar Gujarat Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh (Plains) Best Bengal Total (incl.others) Source : National Horticulture Board, Gurgaon. Area 7550 25903 4833 11834 7259 6100 6295 5367 5851 18548 4800 118015 Production 90600 310836 106326 147925 141000 55876 36000 53670 31950 167160 50000 1273333

93

ANN£XUR£ W ftx| PRODUCTION OF CITRUS IN INDIA BY MAJOR PRODUCING STATES (1993-94)
Area : Hecteires

State/Ut's B\Um Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Jarmmi & Kaetvw Karrratste Macthya Prade^ Maharashtra Meghalava Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkkn TamH Nadu Trpura Uttar Pradesh (Hills) Total (ind. c#ieis) Source : Netfonai HortaMure Bo^tJ,Gurga<xi.

Area 12251 8650 37692 9781 35766 10140 9870) 7190 13769 391^ 9324

Produdion 87241 173000 4409 10^3 ^3193 1610000 11248000 49611 6»X50 3197^ 38800 18071 2167TO6 44500 62000 ^11830

ems
111*3 12727 21646 43:^28

94

ANNEXURE III (x) PRODUCTION OF PAPAYA IN INDIA BY MAJOR STATES (1993-94)
Area : Hectares Production: MT State/Ut's As&am Bihar Gujarat Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Orissa West Bengal Total (incl. others) Source : National Horticulture Board, Gurgaon. Area 7153 3500 4200 4679 12108 2000 12363 5350 55907 PrcKJuction 106146 105000 210000 407023 54840 50000 139000 150200 1266185

95

Hectares Production : Item Potato Onion Cabbage Tomato OI<ra Peas Brinjal Area 1231003 887314 228327 345944 295227 181611 281884 191886 Production 18832931 4279080 3575411 4988980 3029453 1528371 4424281 2890388 Cauliflower Total of above items Total (incl.ANNEXURE IV PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES IN INDIA—ITEMWISE Area . others) Percentage share of the listed items 3643195 4829864 75.4% 43548895 65094918 66.9% Source: Department of Horticulture/Agriculture of States/Union Territories 96 .

MT State/Ut's Andhira Pradesh Arunactial Prad^ihi Assam Bihar Delhi Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Meghalaya Orissa Punjab R^jasthan Sit^im Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh (Hills) Uttar Pradesh (Plains) West Bengal Total (ind. others) Source : National Horticulture Board.ANNEXURE IV (I) PRODUCTION OF POTATOES IN INDIA (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production. Area 1117 4985 64030 345000 Production 8042 32509 506857 48500000 26998 455000 245000 152800 62269 760249 433000 117143 168323 123056 971261 19822 343220 128360 586000 392200 7449327 1823881 18832931 14M 19500 14760 14325 4021 2472 33172 9557 18^6 12288 48500 1762 5280 5816 3200 19000 384997 1766550 1231003 97 . Gurgaon.

98 . others) Source : National Horticutture Board.ANNEXURE IV (ii) PRODUCTION OF CABBAGE IN INDIA BY MAJOR PRODUCING STATES (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production : MT State/Ut's Assam Bihar Karnat^ui Maharashtra Area 18100 70915 7657 11113 44530 4578 20917 26196 228327 Production 331230 1134640 183768 188985 685700 20934 310796 270618 3575411 Orlssa Uttar Pradesh (HiHs) Uttar Pradesh (Plains) West Bengal Total (ind.Gurgaon.

Area 13991 10290 73810 6100 1050 11388 79800 4393 3969 3166 26537 36213 295221 Production 139910 1033340 1771 30500 4450 68300 688900 17280 41540 13316 310800 37414 3029453 99 .BY MAJOR STATES (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production : MT State/Ut's Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujarat Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Orissa Rajasthan Tami Nadu Uttar Praedesh (Hills) Uttar Pradesh (Plains) Best Bengal Total (incl. others) Source : National Horticulture Board. Gurgaon.ANNEXURE IV (iii) PRODUCTION OF OKRA IN INDIA .

Area 30694 4000 6450 7107 24500 3100 3630 10369 66019 3010 181611 Production 16097 32000 83000 70228 245000 79072 9823 44749 817996 31094 1528371 100 .ANNEXURE IV (iv) PRODUCTION OF PEAS IN INDIA BY MAJOR PRODUCING STATES (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production : MT State/Urs Assam Bihar Haryeina Himachal Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Punjab Rajastan Uttar pradesh (Hills) Uttar Pradesh (Ranins) West Bengal Total (ind.others) Source: National Horticulture Board.Gurgaon.

Gurgaon. Area 12725 38853' 4849 4600 5300 1282 8074 6985 47900 4472 3255 26190 191886 Production 161607 621698 139269 115000 106000 78768 322000 135609 585300 2380 207199 270600 2890388 101 .ANNEXURE IV(v) PRODUCTION OF CAULIFLOWER IN INDIA (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production: MT State/Ut's Assam' Bihar Delhi Haryana Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh (Hills) West Bengal Total (Ind .others) Source : National Horticulture Board.

others) Source : National Horticulture Board.ANNEXURE IV (vi) PRODUCTION OF BRINJAL IN INDIA (1993-94) Area : Hectares Production: MT State/Ufs Andhra Pradesh Assam Bitiar Gujarat Karnataka Maharasshtra Uttar Pradesh (Plains) West Bengal Total (incl. Area 1.0929 123.70 66751 1700Q •222F1 22232 29659 69869 281884 Production 169290 itSSSSQ 1335020 255CX30 614817 444640 41439 216629 4424231 102 . Gurgaon.

Others) Source: National Horticulture Boardj Gurgaonr.ANNEXURE IV (vil) PRODUCTION OF ONIONS IN INDIA BY MAJOR STATES (1993-94) Area: Hectares Production: MT State/UT's Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Delhi Gujarat Haryana Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh (Hills) Uttar Pradesh (Plains) West Bengal Total (Incl. Area 20000 7108 47866 1418 23000 4300 15348 79665 43760 2600 16073 24596 4956 30694 14200 337314 Production 174000 15138 957320 33127 549300 74000 182000 1038065 320780 50260 122362 197840 21477 370572 145800 4279030 103 .

Gurgaon. Others) Source: National Horticulture Board. State/UT's Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Oefiii Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Karnataka ^tedthya ^Btadie&h Mabatashtra Oflssa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh (Hills) Uttar Pradesh (Plains) West Bengal Total (Incl. Area 47156 12840 55610 1054 7000 5400 2366 32073 23389 43269 S0200 iKOO 12892 »145 5803 4145 14109 345943 Production 471560 250380 111112^^ 24124 105000 99700 59000 801825 350000 382274 s^aoo i.T.ANNEXURE IV (viii) PRODUCTION OF TOMATOES iN INDIA BY MAJOR STATES (1993-94) Area: Hectares Production: M.^«6 60295 265580 39203 25667 145755 4933980 104 .

fresh Other citrus fruits 15928.9 2.0 1.2 — 1.2 135.0 3.2 8.4 976.6 49.0 — 9. fresh Raisins Sultanas other dried grapes Mangoes Mangoes Sliced & Dried Mangosteens Apples Apricots Avocados Grapes .2 570.0 — 17767.7 4.5 324.6 — 0.5 104.9 28.0 142.4 661.1 3390.9 Neg.2 22793.6 21.8 Neg 2.1 5.7 13.5 0.5 3851.7 5987.4 644.0 21.8 9271.7 24.5 289.7 0.4 30. 0.4 23.0 — 29.3 8.7 2.5 17.6 100.5 0.ANNEXURE V EXPORTS OF FRESH FRUITS FROM INDIA Qty : Tonnes Val : Rs Lakhs 1993-94 Qty Val Grapes.3 5.1 Neg 0.0 12.6 — 593.4 4.4 56.1 35.3 34.1 0.5 32.7 — 1.7 200.4 360.9 666.1 — 89.1 0.4 5.7 0.6 100.9 39.8 18.7 — 665.5 95.7 19.5 5.6 221.2 435.3 40.fresh Gooseberries (Blad(.5 215.6 28.3 72.fresh Guava Lemons Litchi Mandarins Marioc (Cassava) Oranges.8 1.0 14.1 — 11764.6 5.3 0.7 5357.9 — 1365.3 5.8 1995-96 Qty Val 22150. 5986. 359.4 — 1086.9 153.5 — 0.8 233.4 182.0 0.2 16.2 234.0 105 .9 403.0 1994-95 Qty Val 16813.dried Grape fruits .9 62.2 36.7 4.6 0.2 — 19.white or red) Bore Cherries Cranbery Bilbers Custard Apple Dates fresh Dry Dates Hard (Chhdhara) Dry Dates Soft Figs.3 4049.6 12.1 1.8 12.9 29.7 452.5 29.2 6507.5 Neg.fresh Figs.7 4387.9 Neg.2 348.4 319.2 3.9 4.2 — 221.8 28.4 4.1 678.3 490.3 357.0 22269.9 146-6 — 222.4 — 51.0 3.3 Neg 61.6 27.1 0.5 72.0 6.9 39.9 6.2 25414.9 — 147.1 1312.3 5.9 43.4 0.3 58.4 — 966.2 21.6 — 1744.9 4502.

5 482.7 371.1 — 8.9 50.2 453.2 — 245.9 320.5 — 253.4 257.3 5676.0 6445.0 7830. 1426.4 5483.0 — 255.7 1477.6 367.2 Negl.5 463.4 20.8 7040.1 28.4 71.— — 2600. 106 .2 49542 316.1 2007.3 351.4 94713.8 6.7 4255.4 358.6 — 5929.7 — 4462.4 — 262.4 4144.0 Negl.9 — 836.5 -. 18.8 40.9 — 649.2 4.3 Neg.2 — 842.5 42.2 1994-95 Val Qty 1995-96 Qty Val 415.1 22996.1 5881.0 Neg.3 — 134.2 7959.0 435.8 2.1 .2 40.8 2623.4 85.1 1.6 — 116.5 — 8.4 409.1 Source: DGCI & S.8 44.8 200.6 10.8 17944.0 .6 6003.5 2444.5 559.5 893.5 15.2 29.7 84832.0 52. Calcutta.1993-94 Val Qty Other edible roots & Tubers Other fresh fruits Papaya Peaches Pear & Quince Peel of citrus fruit or Melons PIneapple.7 — 29.6 0.4 109704.fresh Plums & sloes Pomegranates Raspheraies Blackbns. 12.0 — 3926.5 653.3 360.0 — 190.2 1.4 — 2328. — 9.2 12.0 — — 268.3 428.9 18452.9 8624.9 47.2 1.3 213.9 1.2 — 499.9 _ 383.5 29.5 — 2422. — 27.0 75. Mulbrs Sago Pith Sapota Sitafal Strawberries (fresh) Sweet Potatoes Tamarind fresh Water melons Shelled Hazelnuts Walnut in shell Walnut Kernals Total 35. 120.

1 47597.5 169.7 1.3 208.8 6127.2 0.6 141.8 — 26.5 7181.ANNEXURE VI EXPORTS OF OTHER FRESH VEGETABLES FROM INDIA Qty: Tonnes Val: Rs.4 18.5 1994-95 Qty Val 15755.5 — — 289.8 186. Neg.7 10.0 122.2 65.5 7.9 — — — 63990.0 1.8 846.7 556.9 19.5 50.8 17805. fresh Tomatoes Shallots Leeks Cauliflower Kohrb/Kale small edible brassicas Cabbage lelthuced Other lilfhue.8 — — 17372. 0.3 166.0 55720.2 1327.0 — Neg.9 1231. f r e ^ Horse radish.8 21329.6 839. Crore 1993-94 Qty Val Potatoes. Neg.9 4390.5 64.0 20.9 121021.1 5040.5 74914.0 Neg.5 22.0 250.0 — Neg.3 12320.5 123.2 69.8 — — 107 .3 1842.2 81.2 1903.0 5675.2 26605.9 21.2 6814.9 846.6 — — — 3.8 99.9 39.8 608.1 179.6 1995-96 Qty Val 34490.0 6732.0 14279.8 2252.0 29.9 73.3 115.2 497.5 5014.7 46.G 41.8 6293.1 — — 133.1 — 59.0 47.5 365.5 30.9 1101.9 5. — 147. fresh Asparagus (fresh) Mushrooms (fresh) Green chilly Other chilly Olives fresh Plantatain (curry/Banana) Mixed vegetables Green pepper Pumpkins 7092.7 — — 133. fresh Other root. 2.6 151.2 — 135. fresh Peas Beans Other leguminous vegetables (shelled /unshelled) Globe artichokes.0 5794.0 8590.0 3611.5 31. 66929.8 — 304.4 — 10.4 10796.8 646.4 — — 546.2 — — — 271.2 — — — 1559.1 54824.8 18.9 — — 143.4 1072.6 6.1 94.3 0.2 1762.2 34.3 3.9 3877.5 188904. fresh Witloof chidkory Carrots & turnips Salad beet root.6 — — — 33.8 34.0 10.9 — Neg.0 — — — 16.0 Frozen potatoes Frozen peas 1984.0 Neg 24.5 1477. fresh Cucumtiers & gherkins.3 64555.2 70.4 70.7 7.9 2179.1 44152.0 182.0 Other vegetables fresh/chilled 4044.0 1.5 — — 4.1 3330.1 2263.7 29361.4 317.5 714.4 9.8 41.6 1145.

1 58551.9 77.8 441257.6 2250. frozen Total (Incl.2 87267.0 Neg.3 7694.9 103529. others) Source: DGCI&S.3 4.5 1924.1993-94 Qty Val Boeins.0 734.8 83411.9 72870.0 1004.6 106.9 Neg. 748.9 135.5 1994-95 Qty Val 1995-96 Qty Val 58.0 9899.1 128. Calcutta 40. frozen Mixed vegetables.0 108 .0 33366.8 6.6 233075.7 704728. shelled/unshelled Other leguminous vegetables frozen Terragon Other vegetables.6 10025. 25.

live plants.000 25.000 30.000 30.000 40.000 5. seeds and bulbs) Fruits Mango Grapes Citrus Apple Utchi Banana Others Vegetables Onion Potato Seasonal Vegetables High value vegetables 100.000 20.000 109 .000 1.000 15.000 60.000 75.000 30.000 500.000 800.00.00.25.000 70.000 20.ANNEXURE Vil EXPORT OF HORTICULTURE PRODUCE IN IXTH PLAN Qty.000 2.000 150.000 65.000 20.000 5.000 40.000 90.00 By Sea 3.000 50.000 5.000 650. in MTs By Air Floriculture (flower.000 50.000 30.000 100.000 1.00.

ANNEXURE Vlli (a) EXPORTS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM INDIA Qty : '000 MT Val : Rs Crore Qty. Val. 475 554 544 1150 1500 2000 385 433 531 800 1186 1500 110 . New Delhi. 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 2C©1-02 2005-06 Source: APEDA.

76 54.4 16.64 45.31 67.46 385.3 58.1 230.3 182. 351.0 554.5 204.67 23.28 531.8 475.43 1994-95 Qty Val 401.8 15.93 34.85 38.27 1995-96 Qty Val.16 Source : Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics.1 33.3 22.87 33.4 6.1 544.18 43.9 22. Calcutta (Various Volumes) 111 .9 39.6 6.4 58.01 433.ANNEXURE VIII (b) EXPORTS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM INDIA Qty: Thousand Tonnes Val: Rs crore 1993-94 Qty Val Fresh Onions Other Fresh Vegetables Walnuts Fresh Magoes Fresh Grapes Other Fresh Fruits Total 357.5 25.47 82.72 70. (DGCI&S).3 22.0 83.4 6.13 60.9 46.62 44.03 40.52 54.40 38.

As obtained from Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority. White or Red Gooseberries Bore ^ Cherries Cmbery Bilbers Custard Apple Dates Frash Dry Dates Hard {Chhohara) Dry Dates Soft (Khayzuf) Figs Dried Figs Fresh Grape Fruit Fresh Guava Lemons Utchi Manarins Mangoes Sliced & Dried Mangosteens Manioc (Cassava) Oranges fresh Other Citrus Fruits Other Edible Roots & Tubers Other Fresh fruits Papaya Peaches 1. 112 .ANNEXURE IX FRUITS AND VEGETABLES THAT ENTER INTO INTERNATIONAL TRADE FROM INDIA ALONG WITH HARMONISED CODE NUMBERS' FRUITS Subhead 08061000 08062001 08062009 Subhead 08045002 Subhead 08081000 08091000 08044000 0803000 08103000 08109006 0809200) 08104000 06109005 08041001 08041003 08041002 08042002 08042001 08054000 08045001 0805300 08109007 08052000 08045003 08045009 07141000 08051000 08059000 07149009 08109009 08072000 08093000 Grapes Fresh Grapes Fresh Raisins Sultanas & Other dried grapes Mangoes Fresh Mangoes Other Fresh Fruits Apples Apricots Avocados Bananas Fresh Black.

08082000 08140000 08043000 08094000 08109001 08102000 07149001 08109003 08109004 08101000 07142000 08109002 08071000 VEGETABLES Subhead 07031001 Subhead 07092000 07082000 07102200 07042000 07051100 07061000 07094000 07070000 07093000 07102100 07091000 07096001 07099004 07069003 07049000 07039000 07109000 07099003 07095100 07099001 07052900 07096009 07102900 07089000 07051900 07069009 Pear & Quince Peel of Citrus Fruit or Melons Pineapple Fresh Plums & Sloes Pomegranates Raspberries. Blackberries and Mulberries Sago Pitch Sapota Sitafal Strawberries. Fresh Sweet Potatoes Tamarind Fresh Water Melons Onions Fresh Onions Other Fresh Vegetables Asparagus (Fresh) Beans Beans Shelled/Unshelled Brussels Sprouts Cabbage Lettue Cauliflower Celery Other Celeric fresh/chilled Cucumbers & Gherkin Fresh Egg Plants Fresh Garlic Globe Artichokes Fresh Green Chilly Green Pepper Horse Radish Fresh Kohrbi/kale Smaller Edible Brassicas Leeks Mixed Vegetables Frozen Mixed Vegetables Mushrooms Fresh Olives Fresh Other Chickory Other Other Other Other Other Chilly Leguminous Vegetables Frozen Leguminous Lettuce Fresh Root Fresh 113 .

07108009 07099009 07061000 07099002 07019000 07011000 07099005 07069001 07069002 07031002 07097000 07103000 07104000 07108001 07020000 07095200 07052100 Subhead 08022104 08022200 08023100 08023200 Other Vegetatde Frozen Other Vegetables Fresh/Chilled Peas Plantain (Curry Banana)Potatoes Fresh Potatoes Seeds Pumpkins Radishes Salad Beet Root Resh Shallots SpinsK^ Spinach frozen Sweet Corn Terragon Tomatoes Truffles Witloof Chlckory Walnuts Hazelnuts in Shell Shelled Hazelnuts Walnut in Shell Walnut Kemal 114 .

Throughout the year Janueuy. July January. April May. March January. September. February. May. Octotier. March.ANNEXURE X MAJOR FRUIT SEASONS IN INDIA Mangoes Table Grapes Litchies Apples Bananas Guavas Bers Sapotas Pineapples Pomegranates Walnuts Strawberries March. November November. June August. April. March. January. December.March Throughout the year Throughout the year Throughout the year October. February. 115 . February. February. November. June.

(v) area expansion (vi) transfer of technology (vii) export enhancement (viii) human resource development. 5. rejuvenation/rehabllitatidra of old orchards or plantations. 3. comprising fruits. Available infrastructure of governmental seed farms and nurseries be strengthened to improve their capabilities. spices etc. The targets envisaged can be achieved by promoting development of different crops and related activities to be conceived around specific thrust eireas namely. This sector therefore. Horticulture sector has established its credibility for improving productivity of land. enhancing exports and above all providing nutritional security to the people. productivity and quality of the produce to enhance its consumption and exports. 2. use: of plastics. (ii) developing infrastructure for post harvest handling and marketing (ill) product diversification and improving consumption. and (ii) those which are crop/activity specific. liiprootng of senile/diseased picintations and adoptJorr of bib-control measures. Productivity improvements be achieved through use of high yielding varieties. 6. the targets proposed would be 184 million tonnes leaving a gap of about 28 million tonnes. 8. centres tie set up based on demand and potential. vegetables..1ure related activities should be taken up as a new initiative tor improving nutritronal s^fus of people In general. if ee<tuired. As against this. Support for improved technologies of propagation like tissue culture. The basic objective of ttie development process should focus on improving production. namely (i) those are common to all crops/schemes. generating employment. 7. 9. coconut. beekeeping. be continued. needs to be brought to the forefront in the overall agricultural strategy of the country cind continued to be treated as extreme focus area for providing strong support for its overall development by the Government. Private sector be involved in multiplication of seed/planting material. (1) Improving productivity ard quality of produce from the existing plantations. These need to be declared as enviRsmmenta hazards and uprooted In systematic mwmet for replanting. New units. 116 . Utptoductive orchards and plan&tbns •uMA are old or heavily nfected with pests and efisesKes have tiecome major source of Infeclion and oonft^te to the low productivSy. using legal means. Common Recommendations : 1. True Potato Seed (TPS) etc. A. cashew. Intervention of horfliail. The total demand of the major horticulture produce is estimated to be 212 million tonnes at the end of IX Plan. 4.ANNEXURE XI WORKING GROUP ON HORTICULTURE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE NINTH FIVE YEAR PLAN Summary of Recommendations The recommendations made by the Working Group have been arranged in two sections. improving economic conditions of the farmers and entrepreneurs. and (ix) Improving infrastructure and database for horticulture crops. and for preventing disorders associated with deficiencies of vitamins and minerals in particular.. (iv) increasing availability of quality seed/planting material.

nutritional values of different horticultural products. 11. Building up of a ^tie^ass on diKterent crops and related activities and setting up of an effective mamagement iinABmntation system bottt at the Centre and State levels should be given high priority in the Ninto Pfer. Assistance for area expansion be extended to vegetables. spices. The Implementation agencies should be suitably strengthened with additional staff and required infrastructural facilities. Strong linkages be developed at the State level with the research institutions for producing nucleus seeds/planting material. 12. greater autonomy should be given to the Board/Directorates for direct implementation of selected components under various schemes. use of plastics. 117 . 14. 2t. For this. their importance in daily diet etc. Human resource development involving Improving professional capabilities of the departmental staff. Front line demonstrations be undertaken in close collaboration with ICAR/SAU institutions on identified technologies and closely monitored. Panchayati Raj institutions and other field level organisations in implementation of schemes should be encouraged.10. Organic farming and adoption of IPIvl should be encouraged. Area expansion be encouraged and supported on a compact area basis. entrepreneurship development in small and medium scale sectors related to horticulture. The State be encouraged to Introduce appropriate legislation for certification of nursery plants. While developing programmes and allocating funds for horticulture development.. Jurisdiction of Seed Act be extended to cover certification of nursery plants and other kinds of planting material of horticulture crops. Irrtegrated programmes for horticultural development Involving horticultural-based land use/cropping system m backward/tribal areas be taken up to help in raising the economic status ofi \S6im intialiiit!»iri^ atKi encouraging infrastructure development. Use of media (TV & Radio) be strongly supported for giving publicity to new technologies. Similarly. 19. attention be paid for balanced regional development. 16. While implementation of schemes would continue mostly with the states. Marketing and processing. participation of private and public sector units. 22. medicinal and aromatic plants also. The problem of pesticide residue should receive special attention. All Schemes implemented during VIII Plan be continued with suitable modifications as s u ^ K t e d under each crop/activity. The schemes be allocated to different states/UTs m demand driven basis instead of assigning activities and fixing the targets centrally. improved methods of cultivations and Input utilisation. mushrooms. NGOs. post han/est handling. beekeeping and developing resource base of the trained" personnel in commercial horticulture be given high priority. project proposals should be invited in advance and approved individually for each state with required element of inbuilt flexibility for implementing the same. commensurate with the growing Investments in the horticulbjre sector. 18. Women's participation in horticulture development be promoted by reserving 30% of seats in training programmes and targeting certain activities for majority particip^bn by women. 15. 13. 20. 23. 17.

Agriculture Produce Market Committee should come under the purview of the Ministry of Agriculture so that proper linkages for providing infrastructure can be facilitated. A new component of providing assistance for establishing of tissue analysis laboratories in the major states be included in the scheme. with each such unit linked to the wholesale market. The national standards for horticulture products should be conformity with the international standards of EEC. Post liarvest Management. post harvest handling facilities including marketing and primary processing of mushrooms be included in the scheme. 37. 25. Assistance for training. Cataloguing of elite trees and establishing a national register for multification of these clones be taken up. 36. National Seeds Corporation be involved in a bigger way for production of seeds of vegetables particularly Fl hybrids and TPS. 33. Tfie cissistance to existing nursery units be provided on revolving fund Ijasis and private sector be encouraged for establishing small nurseries. 39.Specific Recommendations Fruits and Vegetables. 34. Intermediary technologies/project should be encouraged for hinter-lands and difficult areas for the purpose of providing soft loans for marketing projects. financial institutional/banks should come forward in financing post harvest infrastructure projects. intermediary levels and terminal infrastructure projects. Revolving fund for running the old and new units be provided. 26. Collection and dissemination of market intelligence relating to horticulture crops in foreign markets should also be initiated. 32. New regulated markets should be established alongwith secondary and tertiary markets. Market information service for horticulture crops should be strengUiened. While National Horticulture Board (NHB) should continue to play the role of a promoter. lUlarketing and Exports 30. 38. 118 . 35. The required infrastructure need to be developed around each major production zone. 28. including Tuber Crops and Mushrooms 24. 27.B. 31. using improved technologies with the primary objective of reducing losses and improving quality of the products should receive highest priority and larger investment in the IX Plan. Appropriate combination of post-harvest infrastructure facilities need to be created at the level of primary cooperative societies. 29. Crop/Activity . The financial assistance to professional organisations for the development of horticulture should be enhanced. particularly perishable. Developing infrastructure for post-harvest handling and marketing of horticulture commodities. More units for production of spawn and pasturised compost for mushroom be set up. adopting the concept of 'Packing Houses'.

and based on the coverage achieved during the Eighth Plan. 48. Other applications of plastics such as lining of water courses. Development of eco-friendly bio-degradable plastic film be promoted through imports as well as indigenous efforts. also known as Plasticulture. Quality standards for different components of greenhouses be developed and enforced. 50. Use of plastics in agriculture. 41. its promotion should be pursued vigorously for efficient water management. 43. Use of-low tunnels. 47. Demonstration on use of greenhouses for protected cultivation and also mulching be covered for support in the Ninth Plan. Specialised facilities like irradiation for onion and potato. Pattern of assistance fbr drip irrigation shouW ensure that the farmers' contribution remains same in all categories of states. enhancing productivity and quality. marketing and export. sfiading nets and artificial nets be promoted as a part of improved technology for protected cultivation. Use of sprinkler system in annual horticulture crops he included for subsidy support In the Ninth Plan. mulching etc. and therefore. The categorisation of states tor cost calculation and subsidy support for drip irrigation should be revised. reducing cost of production. 51. has gained wide acceptablity in major horticultural states. 119 .. There Is need to aggressively promote selected horticulture products in overseas markets. More airports should be converted into international airports for handling perishable commodities with each airport having independent and efficient transit and storage system. 53. Evaluation of the impact of Plasticulture. Drip irrigation scheme be integrated with Million Well Scheme under Jawahar Rozhar Yojana for improving water use efficiency.40. 46. Horticulture Development Boards should be set up in each state for promoting horticulture activities particularly post harvest management. constraint faced and the reasons for poor take-off in other states therefore becomes prerequisite to make the technology more attractive and ensure benefit of the same spread uniformally to all states.. and extending area under irrigation through saving on water and power. greenhouses. These may be set up in governmental/institutional farms on priority basis. be encouraged. 54. 52. packaging of fruits. PVC water distributbn network pond lining. Use of Plastics in Agriculture 45. are required to be set up to cater to the sophisticated markets abroad and in domestic metropolitan cities. Similarly for internal transportation improvement in road network and development of specialised wagons be given priority. 55. X-ray detection of spongy tissue in Alphanso mango. vegetables. crop specific curing/ripening chamber etc. flowers. involving use of drip and sprinkler irrigation systems. 49. 42. 44. These Boards will be linked to the NHB for coordination. vapour heat treatment. Higher rate of assistance be considered for hlll/trit>al and backward areas.

Plastics Design and Technology Centre be set up for developing prototypes keeping in mind optimal product costs.. and its office suitably strengthened to allow it to play a major role In future. and adequately strengthened. 57. 58. location specific research. training etc. for testing facility of plastic materials and for creating facilities for weathering and field performance tests. . Introduction of exclusive course on plasticulture be encouraged. monitoring of Schemes in the States. 59. Plasticulture Development Centres (PDCs) should play a greater role In promotion of plasticulture. NCPA should be upgraded to an autonomous institution. Similarly.56.

PART II EXPORT POTENTIAL OF INDIA'S FLORICULTURAL PRODUCTS .

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Consumption. Changing Patterns in Global Production. Strategy for Tapping Export Potential ANNEXURES I. Trade and Distribution IV.C O N T E N T S Page I. Exporters of Floricultural Products 59 60 61 — 79 1 — 2 3 — 17 17 — 25 25 — 43 43 — 54 54 — 56 . World Imports of Floricultural Products III. Global Markets for Bulbs. Floricultural Products II. India's Export Efforts VI. Plants. Flower Auction System in Netherlands 111. Cutflowers and Foliage II. Cuttings. Development of Floriculture in India V.

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shrubs. These are products that may be planted in pots. floricultural products encompass the following: SITC 292. bleached. impregnated or otherwise prepared. dried. Tubers and Tuberous Roots. being goods of a kind •suitable for bouquets or ornamental purposes. Tubers. boxes or similar containers. dyed. Tuberous Roots.01 06.02 Description Bulbs.72 06. bushes. branches and other parts (other than flowers or buds) of trees. bushes and other plants. Ornamental plants include flower bulbs. cuttings and slips) Cut-flowers and flower buds.61 292. Live Plants.71 06. corms and tubers in the dormant as well as growth and blossoming stage and other li^ve plants such as young vegetable plants and mushrooms' spawn which" 1 .I. Other live plants (including trees. homes and buildings. Definition FLORICULTURAL PRODUCTS As per International Trade Classification. These are plants that are used for permanent or semi-permanent decoration in offices. dyed. fresh dried. roots. 292. bleached. lichens and grasses. impregnated or othenA/ise prepared. fresh. MS Codes of Government of India follow the BTN (Brussels Tariff Nomenclature) Bulbs. and mosses. These are whole plants which are suitable for planting or for ornamental purposes. Foliage.03 292. shrubs.69 BTN 06.04 Note: The Government of India has adopted a new Indian Trade Classification which is based on Harmonised System of Commodity Description and Coding Systems.

cannot always be separated from ornamental plants. Floricultural products also include dried flowers and foliage. bulbs etc. Fresh cut foliage is used in combination with cut flowers for bouquets. Cut flowers generally mean all cut plant components the economic value of which lies in the decorative effects of their blossoms. These refer to flowers and flower buds with a suitable stem of varying length. windows or balcony boxes. chrysanthemums. tissue cultured plants and starter and adult ornamental plants including house plants. twigs. iv) Cuttings. which makes them suitable for bouquets or for ornamental purposes. Cut Flowers.. leaves. This refers to plant parts i. flower arrangements and decorations when cut flowers and foliage are presented together in pre-arranged bunches. the economic value of which lies not in the decorative effect of the blossoms but in its colour and shape. cuttings. gladioli and many other types. tubs. dining and iaalcony plants for planting out in the open in beds. v) Cut flowers and foliage. Examples of cut-flowers are roses. seedings and other young plants for pot plants as described above. ii) 8ed. iii) Rooted and unrooted cuttings for cut-flowers especially of carnations knd chrysanthemums which are supplied to cut flower growers as operational inputs.). air layers.e. to be plao^ bdoor or less frequently in the open in pots or flower bowls. Cut Foliage. orchids. .. propagating materials (seeds. carnations. Fresh foliage is recorded in trade statistics as a secondary product and the bunch is classified as cut flowers. shoots etc. canes. grasses. tal plants include: Live ornamen- i| Indoor plants ready for sale (pot f^ants).

however. WORLD IMPORTS Table 1 provides world imports of floricultural products. April 1996 for 1944 data. by over 20%. WORLD TRADE IN FLORICULTURAL PRODUCTS Global trade in floricultural products is recorded in terms of live plants and bulbs. Volume II. World imports of floricultural products measured in value terms declined in 1993 as compared to the period from 1990 to 1992. International Trade Centre. cut flowers and cut foliage. compared to 1992. Imports declined steeply in 1993. world imports of live-plants and bulbs accounted for a share between 45 per cent and 49 per cent. In 1994.II. During the same period. ii) Market News Sen/ice (MNS). world imports totalled US$6406 million while world exports totalled US$6952 million. imports showed an increase of over 6 per cent compared to 1993. In 1994. Imports fluctuated from year to year showing ups and downs in alternate years. productwise. 1993 for data for 19901993. The two-way global trade was thus in excess of US$13 billion. UNCTAD/WTO. United Nations. imports of cut flowers and foliage accounted for about 56 per cent of all floricultural products. world imports of floricultural products increased to US$6819 million. 3 . In 1993. however. In 1994. Table 1 World Imports of Floricultural Products US$ Million Product Live plants and bulbs Cut flowers Cut foliage Total 1990 4229 4105 560 8894 1991 3664 3390 471 7525 1992 3992 3592 509 8023 1993 2870 3055 481 6406 1994 3027 (P) 3792 (P) 6819 (P) P: Provisional Sources: i) International Trade Statistics. World imports of cut-flowers and foliage together accounted for a share between 51 per cent and 55 per cent in the overall imports of floricultural products during the period 1990-94.

000). Volume II.8) 128 (3. the following market characteristics are evident.9) 238 (7.0) 185 (5. — German market for cut flowers declined substantially from a share of 50.0) 1991 1245 (36.2) 319 (8.9 per cent in 1990 to 15.7) 3390 (100.9) 244 (6.9) 306 ' (9. Table 2 World Imports of Cut Flowers .2) 469 (15.5) 144 (4.IMPORTS OF CUT-FLOWERS A large number of countries import cut flowers.0) 338 (10. — Imports into the United Kingdom market are slowly but steadily increasing — Imports into French market are showing fluctuating trends — Netherlands market has been growing steadily .4) 297 (7. (There are over 50 countries. 1993. From Table 2.9) 3592 (100.By Major Importing Countries Value: US$ Million Counntry Germany USA United Kingdom France Netherlands Japan Other countries World Total 1990 2087 (50.8) 437 (12. Germany. — US market has been growing steadily. Table 2 furnishes imports of cut flowers by major countries.4 per cent in 1993.4) 315 (7.0) 1993 893 (29. by far.0) 118 (2. United Nations.7) 403 (11. Germany.3) 4105 (100.7) 165 (4.0) 1992 1322 (36.9) 243 (7. Netherlands and Japan are the major importers and together they accounted for 75.08) 408 (9. each of which is importing over US$100. USA.8) 158 (5. United Kingdom.8) 3055 (100.9) 320 (8. is the biggest importer and it accounted for 29.2 per cent in 1993.9) 302 (7.6) 822 (22. Its share in total imports increased from 9.2 per cent of world imports of cut flowers in 1993.0) Note : Figures in brackets indicate percentage share In the total Source : International Trade Statistics.9) 710 (17.2 per cent of imports in 1993. France.2) 769 (22.2) 757 (24.8 per cent in 1990 to 29.

6) 3664 (100. Italy.0) 1994 596 (19.6) 341 (9.1) 303 (10. has been stirinking from the peak of US$4229 million in 1990 to US$2870 million in 1993 but Paging a slow recovery to reach US$3027 million in 1994.2) 448 (11. Germany ranked first among the importers with a share of 19.6) 1296 (30.9) 1500 (38. each country importing over US$100.4) 340 (8.0) 1993 519 (18. however.3) 97 (2.0) 219 (5.— Japanese market is showing definite trend of growth although slow. United Nations.6) 113 (2. Volume II.0) 259 (8.0) Sources : i) InternationaJ Trade Statistics. Table 3 shows imports of live plants and bulbs by major countries. UNCTAD/WTO.7) 203 (7. Major importers are Germany.0) 236 (8.7 per cent. .6) 4229 (100.7) 276 (7.0) 251 (8.4) 1185 (39.2) 69 (1.3) 194 (5.2) 127 (4. International Trade Centre. United Kingdom. April 1996 for data for 1994.000) Import market for live plants and bulbs.2) 3922 (100. ii) Market News Service (MNS).6) 279 (9.8) 320 (7. — Imports into 'other countries' are increasing and the trend is continuing. Table 3 World Imports of Live Piants and Bulbs US$ Million Country Germany France Italy United Kingdom USA Japan Other countries World Total 1990 1649 (39.0) 1992 1026 (26.6) 1378 (37.1) 3027 (100.9) 2870 (100.6) 163 (5.6) 260 (6.4) 1203 (41.2) 463 (12. France.3) 266 (7.3) 241 (8.0) 456 C10.1) 179 (4. USA and J ^ a n and these six countries together accounted for nearly 61 per cent of total imports in 1994. 1993 for data from 1990-93. imports of Live Piants and Buibs The market for live plants and bulbs is characterised by a large number of importers (There are over 50 countries.0) 1991 925 (25.7) 332 (11.

1) 48 (10.4) 94 (18. . Table 4 provides detels of imports by major importing countries.2) 481 (100.6) 76 (13.5) 23 (4.9) 12 (2. Nevertheless Germany has maintained its lead and remained number one importer. declined steeply from US$1649 million in 1990 to US$596 million in 1994. Table 4 World Imports of Cut Foliage — By Major lmporfrn§ C^fiitries US$ Milton Country Germany Netherlands United States Switzerland United KIngdoni France Japan Other c»untries World Total t990 286 (51.0) 1993 137 (28. In 1993.6) 105 (20.3) 471 (100.2) 56 (11. imports of cut foliage constituted a relatively small share of 6.0) (3. the growth was 55 per cent.0) >>^ ^ ^ (5.3) 17 (3.6) 560 (100. Volume II.5) 112 (23.2) 1992 181 (35. — Share of French market remained at 11 per cent in 1994 although it experienced ups and downs in between. 1993.5 percent during 1990-93. — Italy and United Kingdom registered increases in their respective shares of world imports of live plants and bulbs.6) 27 (5.8) 9 (1.9) 52 (9.0) Note : Figures In brackets indicate percentage share in the total Source : i) International Trade Statistics.0) 1991 170 (36.5) 509 (100.9) t3 (1.1) 78 (13.9) 25 (5. however.5) 16 (2.0) 28 (5.8) 22 (3.6) 19 (4.8) 11 (2.1) 90 (19.6) 51 (10. the following market chacterfstics are observed— Germany has been the major importer of live plants and bulbs.From Table 3. Imports into Germany. United Nations. the total value of world imports of cut-foliage amounted to US$481 million.3) 27 (4.3) 15 (2. — Japanese market registered rapid growth of 136 per cent during the period 1990-94.5) 97 (20.3 to 7.3) 86 (18. — US marl^et has been witnessing growth and during th& period 1990-94. Imports of Cut Foliage Of the total imports of floricultural products.

— Japan has emerged as an important market for cut foliage. During the period 1990-93.From table 4. Ten countries. Major import Markets Markets for floricultural products are spread over many countries on the globe.6 to 3. More than 60 per cent of total imports are accounted for by Europe only. however. although ite share of the total import market declined drastically to 28. are the major importers and they together accounted for over 85 per cent of the total world imports during the period 1990-94. in step with world imports of floricultural products. Netherlands. Switzerland. Netherlands import market registered a growth of 45 per cent. These countries include the following: Germany USA France United Kingdom Netherlands Italy Japan Switzerland Austria Sweden .1 per cent in 1990. Germany. — Germany continues to be the number one importer of cut foliage. ImfKjarte nearly doubled from US$ 9 million in 1990 to iJS$17 milion in 1993 and its share increased from 1. — Europe is the largest import market. the foltowing market characteristics are observed.5 per cent during the same period. — Netherlands market is growing gradually over the years and achieved a share of 23. France and Japan are the major markets for cut-foliage and they together accounted for about 80 per cent of global imports.2 per cent of the total market in 1993. Global markets have been listed as per their ranking vide Annexure 1. USA. Netherlands and USA together accounted for over 60 per cent of total imports.5 per cent in 1993 as compared with 51. — Cut foliage market. has been declining — Germany. United Kingdom.

Cut Flowers/Foliage Total Italy A.2) 1994 596 1103 1699 (24. Table 5 Ten Major Import Markets for Floricultural Products Value : US$ Million Country Germany A.9) 203 316 519 (8. Cut Flowers/Foliage Total 456 325 781 (11. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants B.2) 153 160 313 (5.1) 276 342 618 (7. 207 244 451 (6.6) Japan A.9) 97 156 253 (3.6) 463 351 814 (11.Table 5 shows Imports irrto major countries.0) 303 259 562 (9.6) 151 169 320 (4.1) .4) 341 144 485 (6. Cut Flowers/Foliage Total United Kingdom A.8) 1992 1026 1504 2530 (32.8) 163 215 378 (5.0) 236 525 761 (12. B.0) 171 179 350 (5.5) 251 134 385 (5.4) 113 140 253 (3.7) 248 349 597 (7.3) 1993 536 1037 1573 (25.6) 161 327 488 (7.1) 448 335 783 (10. B. Cut Flowers/Foliage Total Switzerland A. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants 8.2) France A.5) 145 168 313 (4.2) 259 574 833 (12.5) 194 451 645 (8. 1990 825 1187 2012 (29. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants B.3) 241 338 579 (8.2) 127 174 301 (4.9) Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants Cut Flowers/Foliage Total 179 460 639 (9.7) 219 275 494 (6.1) Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants Cut Flowers/Foliage Total 320 115 435 (6. Cut Flowers/Foliage Total 69 127 196 (2.6) 266 331 597 (8.2) 263 144 407 (6.0) 332 285 617 (9.8) 219 488 707 (9.6) 340 143 483 (6.5) Netherlands A. Bult>s/Cuttings/Plants B.3) 159 168 327 (4. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants B.0) 260 324 584 (8.8) 1991 925 1416 2341 (31.8) 179 326 555 (8. Cut Flowers/Foliage Total USA A. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants B.

B.4) 2220 3112 139 77 216 (3.2 50. — Japan is a growing market for horticultural products Imports from India India is emerging as a source of supply to global markets. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants Cut Flowers/Foliage Total Sfiare of 10 Countries in the total A. France. .0 48. United Kingdom and Netherlands. Cut Flowers/Foliage 92 98 190 (2. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants Flowers/Foliage Total 5846 6776 5332 5829 3327 3433 6760 3550 3812 7362 3792 4035 7827 2774 3476 6250 3027 3792 6819 49. — Europe is the largest market for floricultural products — Germany is the single largest market and it accounted for 25 per cent of world imports in 1994.6 44.5 Source : Market News Service (MNS). Cut Flowers/Foliage Total Sweden A. USA. B.5 48.2) 2442 3387 Total Total of 10 Countries A.3 85.2) 111 106 217 (3.8) 95 102 197 (2.7) 103 103 206 (2.3 80.6 85. April. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plahts B.8 86. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants B.4 51.2) 164 SI 245 (3.8 87.2 51.6) 101 96 tS7 (3. International Trade Centre. Cut Flowers/Foliage Total Total World Imports of Floricultural Products A. together accounted for about 63 per cent of world imports of floricultural products in 1994.5) 2918 3485 6403 178 94 272 (3.4 55.6) 2717 3129 167 90 257 (3.Austria A. From Table 5.0 89. 1996.5) 3110 3666 137 74 211 (3. following market information emerges: — Germany.6 86. Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants B. UNCTAD/WTO.

44 0.87 244.00 194.79 0.95 0.78 0.05 0.8 per cent of world imports.13 1037.84 1.04 0.60 0.02 1. Value of imports by selected countries in 1994 was US$3739 million as against world imports of US$6819 million.14 342.10 2.62 0.83 0.36 2.17 0.00 1.48 488.18 0.00 0.18 275.15 1102.92 5.05 350.66 1. constuting 54.57 525.10 3.08 3.68 0.74 0.52 0.04 315.67 3.00 0.39 0.33 450.02 0.49 0.05 0:03 219.20 2.84 0.28 459.61 0.73 1.13 5.62 0.41 1.29 0.20 0.54 0.25 258.25 0.77 0.15 2sjm fflS7 iO.29 285.50 0.00 0.57 1.49 324.38 0.24 375.17 0.06 0.06 338.17 0. Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Netherlands Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share United Kingdom Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share France Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Sheire 1^1 1992 1993 1994 tmm QSIl 0.45 0.44 0.99 0.21 0.07 335.01 324.72 0.35 2.18 327.47 0.08 331.38 0.14 1415.m ©-S 178.88 1.02 0.14 1503.09 1.Tabte 6 indicates imfKjrts from India by selected countries^ Table 6 Imports of Fioricuitural Products from India by Selected Countries Value : US$ Million 1990 e S Market Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Netherlands Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share New Zealand Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Sfiare Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Stiare Cut Flowers/Foliage Germany Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share USA-Puerto Rico .13 0.15 0.15 0.00 0.90 0.27 2.94 2.25 0.94 0.11 0.42 0.60 573.04 0.32 0.00 218.60 1.07 0.86 2.78 0.70 2. 10 .56 2.« •^m G.00 161.00 0.12 0.00 om 248.91 0.28 0.16 349.18 50.48 1.87 1 ^ 0.76 0.27 0.80 3.00 207.68 1136.08 1.27 0.09 3.17 0.

56 0.99 5.14 51. April.00 0.71 0.41 11.24 36.58 30.00 2.31 49.22 0.88 3184. 1996.26 0.32 10.49 0.05 0.62 143:84 0.14 2.35 3739.03 1.34 1.00 3.001 0.t3 0.03 0.05 0.05 1.01 0.17 016 0.08 140.20 59.07 018 41.96 0.99 0.72 4.06 0. UNCTAD/WTO.00 4.3S ail 0.00 0.48 024 ail 134.22 0.06 47.55 2.54 0.00 &.04 0.50 0.08 50.54 0.12 5.06 2.24 0.51 0.36 0.29 0.35 ai6 0.76 0.64 5.m 26.00 2.72 97.03 0.44 ai6 0.21 16.13 0.06 1.Japan Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Italy Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Austria Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Canada Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Denmark Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Spaikt TiDtal Imports Imports from.00 17.06 0.08 1. International Trade Centre.53 0.10 155.56 0. 11 .90 a 12 0.75 020 075 39.09 0.19 0.61 Oil 0.80 0.05 103.55 Oman Total Import Imports from India India's Percentage Share Sri Lanka Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Total value of Imports by Selected Countries as listed above Imports from India India's percentage Share in the selected Countries 2.15 0.26 0.58 44.20 7.01 0.99 0.06 215.86 0.45 019 0.67 144.00 114.62 29.39 aio 010 96.82 ail ai8 49.38 a27 2.39 0.04 0.78 4.05 0.91 5.89 0.45 0. India India's Percentage Share IVtexico Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share Australia Total Imports Imports from India India's Percentage Share 12657 0.84 8.27 52.05 0.00 0.39 37.42 9.06 0.07 014 55.00 0.05 101.21 4033.24 0.00 0.00 14.73 0.18 0.77 0.39 0.94 ai2 44 44 3394.39 a 13 0.00 10.30 a 19 0.15 0.64 0.00 0.54 ail 1.10 0.13 0.09 1.46 ai3 ai3 106.58 3777.11 174.25 Source : Market News Service (MNS).20 0.79 5.69 143.

productwise. exports declined to US$6952 million from US$7591 million. The time is opportune to put in place policies that are investor-friendly to strengthen the supply base and delivery systems and mechanisms. WmM Exports Table 7 provides world exports of floricultural products.4 per cent in 1993. Acceptability of India's floricultural products has been amply demonstrated by leading import markets. Volume H. United Nati6ns. Overall exports of floricultural products registered an increase from US$6652 million in 1990 to US$7591 million in 1992. India's exports registered a nearly three-fold increase from US$5. an increase of 14 per cent. Worlii EsqKKts of Roilcultur^ Products Product Live ptwts and bulbs Cut Flowers Cut Foliage Total 1990 3451 2857 344 66S2 1991 3503 3075 372 6950 1992 3807 3395 389 7591 US$ Millton 1993 3297 3207 448 6952 Source : International Trade Statistics. Live plants and bulbs. The increase has been steady and without any fall in between. however.4 per cent.58 million in 1990 to US$16. Exports of cut flowers too witnessed an increasing trend from US$2857 in 1990 to 12 . In all the important markets. India's share is insignificant. a fall of 8. Export potential for floricultural products is very sizeable and it is for India to tap the potential without losing time.39 million in 1994 to the selected markets.There has been a significant increase in the exports of floricultural products from India during the last five years as is evident from table 6 above. tubers and tuberous roots are clubbed together in international trade statistics and they accounted for the largest item with a share of 47. 1993. In 1993.

7) 143 (5.0) 3207 (100.8) 280 (9.0) 1992 2260 (66. a fall of 5.US$3395 in 1992. Italy.2) 63 (2.1) 464 (13. Exports of Cut Flowers A large number of countries are exporting cut-flowers.4 per cent in 1993. the Netherlands is also a major distribution centre for the floricultural products of many countries.5) 1 (Meg.38) 229 <8.9) 3 (0. Cut flowers and cut foliage together accounted for the largest share of 52.4) 3075 (100. an increase of 18. India is emerging as an important exporter particularly during the last five yea's.0) 133 (4.0) 13 (0.5 per cent.3 per cent in the total world exports of floricultural products in 1993. Netherlands is the biggest exporter consistently accounting for over 60 per cent of world exports although there have been fluctuations in the value of exports over the years.O) US$ Million 1993 1997 (62.0) 123 (3. Exports of cut foliage have shown a steady increase over the years but as a single item their share in overall exports of floricultural products accounted for only 6. Colombia. Netherlands.6) 3 (0.0) Note : Figures in brackets indicate percentage share in the total Source : International Trade Statistics.9) 127 (4.6) 141 (4.1) 23 (0.3) 382 (11.6) 341 (10.7) 3395 (tOO.8) 125 (4. A 13 .1) 147 (4. Table 8 World Exports of Cut Flourers By Selected Exporting Countries Value Country Netherlands Colombia iteraaeil lt£ily Kenya India Others Total 1990 1950 (68. 1993.) 388 (13. Israel and Kenya are the major exporters.7) 3 (0.8 per cent but in 1993 exports declined to US$3207 million.6) 2857 (100.2) 63 (1.0) 103 (3. Table 8 provides world exports of cut-flowers by selected supplying countries.1) 512 (16. United Nations. Besides being a producer and exporter on its own. Volume II.0) 1991 2086 (67.1) 411 (13.

USA is Colombia's single largest market. the Netherlands supplies over 60 per cent of the total imports of Germany.8 per cent. Two of. Major Colombian producers have well organised marketing arrangements and some of them have established wholly owned importing/wholesaling companies in USA and Europe.000 square metres area and this has enabled the producers to operate a full temperature—controlled distribution system from the farm to the airport (called the cold chain). 95 per cent of cut flowers and 70 per cent of pot plants go through the auctions. Bogota airport has a modern flower terminal of 5. Colombia started exports of flowers way back in 1964 and it has an estimated 4. 14 . Geographical proximity to the major consuming centres in the USA is Colombia's major strength and opportunity.700 hectares under floriculture cultivated under green house conditions.an average growth rate of 22 per cent per year over the ten year period. The Dutch flower auctions are known all over the world as they provide an open market system of trading. the world's largest flower auctions are held at AALSMEER (Near Amsterdam) and in the WESTLAND (near Rotterdam). There are around 250 companies engaged in floriculture business in Colombia. In live plants. The Netherlands supplies over 80 per cent of cut flowers imported by Germany. 80-85 per cent of Colombia's total exports of cut flowers are directed to the US market. Belgium and Denmark. Colombia ranks second next only to the Netherlands but the volume of her exports is only 1/6th of the Netherlands exports. Exports from Colombia have increased steadily and during the period 1990-93. Colombia's principal exports are carnations.number of countries send their floricultural products to the Netherlands for auctions and onward distribution in Western Europe. During the period 1983 to 1993 Colombia's cut flower exports escalated from US$120 million in 1983 to US$382 million in 1993 . chrysanthemums and roses. Spain. The relatively lower airfreight from Colombia to the USA makes Colombia's flowers very competitive compared to European supplies. exports grew by 66. European markets are highly dependent on the Dutch trade for a variety of floricultural products throughout the year. Flower auctions are a very important trade channel. Italy. Colombia enjoys reputation for the supply of and consistently high quality standard products. Belgium and Denmark. France.

Growth in exports from Kenya is remarkable as during the period 1990-93. In 1993. gypsohila and roses. EXPORTS OF LIVE PLANTS AND BULBS Many countries are exporting live plants and bulbs. 15 . exports increased by 638 per cent. Chrysanthemu^ms. Israel has about 1850 hectares under floriculture. about threefourths of which is covered.4 million in 1985 to US$127 million in 1993). however. A wide range of flowers are exported from Kenya including alstroemeria. Kenya's main export markets are Germany and the Netherlands. exports were subject to serious fluctuations. In Europe the principal markets are the Netherlands.9 per cent. there was a big turnaround in Kenya's exports when exports touched a level of US$83 million and accounted for a share of 2. Prior to 1993. are the major exporters. a fall of 4.5 per cent. Developed countries. Kenya's rise to fifth position in global exports is a good example for many developing countries with exports spurting from US$8. Although exports fluctuated and even declined in recent years.8 million in 1985 to US$83 million in 1993. Main varieties of flowers exported from Israel include carnations. spray carnations and standard carnations. Israel accounted for 4 per cent of world exports of cut flowers in 1993.Israel has emerged as the third largest exporter of cut flowers in the world.5 and 1. Agricultural Export Company (AGREXCO) of Israel undertakes export maritetlng of cut-flowers under the brand name "Carmel". Growth in exports from Israel is very impressive and during the period 1985 to 1993 the growth was about 12 per cent per annum (exports increased from US$65. World exports declined from US$3451 million in 1990 to US$3297 in 1993. Kenya's share in world exports remained during 1990-92 between 0. More than 90 per cent of Israel's flower exports are directed to Europe and the balance to the US market. Strict Quality control is observed and the flowers are processed under a complete cold chain from farm to the packing house to the temperature—Controlled flower distribution centre at Lod Airport.6 per cent in gtobal exports. Table 9 shows world exports of live plants and bulbs by selected exporting countries. roses. Germany and the United Kingdom.

85) 179 (4.0) 114 (3.1) 138 (4.0) 1992 2204 (57. India is emerging as a supplier to world markets.1) 3451 (100.9) 279 (8. Denmark. their combined exports accounted for 54 per cent of world exports in 1993.6) 294 (8.2) 373 (10.3) 2 (0.0) 360 (10. Table 10 provides world exports of cut foliage in value terms by selected exporting countries.2) 1. Italy and Netherlands are the major ones.7) 2 (0.0) 3297 (100.4 per cent in 1993.0) 1993 1913 (58.0) 1991 2003 (57. USA.5 (0. Sources : I) International Trade Statistics. Volume II.9) 200 (6. Germany and Italy.3) 343 (9. 16 .0) 2 (0.0) Note : Figures in brackets indicate percentage share in the total.9) 391 (10.4) 176 (5.6) 104 (3. Belgium. 1993.06) 541 (15.04) 611 (16.2) 122 (3. In the overall exports of floricultural products. Netherlands has been the biggest exporter of live plants and bulbs in the world with a share of 58 per cent in 1993. Other major exporters included Denmark. While many countries are in the export business.3) 299 (7.1) 330 (9. cut foliage accounted for a share only of 6.06) 562 (17.0) 3807 (100. EXPORTS OF CUT FOLIAGE World exports of cut foliage increased by 15 per cent over 1992 to reach US$448 million in 1993. United Nations.05) 520 (15.Table 9 World Exports of Live Plants and Bulbs by Selected Exporting Countries US$ Million Country Netherlcinds (Denmark Belgium Gemieiny Italy India Others World Total 1990 1873 (54.4) 3503 (100.7) 121 (3.

6) 88 (19.) 155 (41.6) 201 (44.0) 1992 90 (2a 1).5)= 41 (1T.5} 3m (100.0) 1993 4 (9.3) 36 (9. USA maintained consistent export growth.9J 448 (100.0) teo (46. Germany had almost twice as much area as the Netherlands under floriculture. new production centres emerged.6) 67 (15:0) 42 (9.) 177 (45.1) 65 (17.0) 13 (3. during the past four decades floricultural crops cultivation has undergone significant changes.5) 1 (Neg.World Export Table 10 of Cut Foliage By Selected Countries US$ Million Country Denmark USA Italy Netherlands India Other countries World Tolal 199a 72 (20. In 1992. USA's main export product is the leather leaf fern.9) 57 (16.7) 372 (100. United Nations. the Netherlands had 20 per cent greater area under floriculture crop than in Germany. Thailand and Kenya and 17 . The land area under the crop has remained stationery in the traditionally recognized production centres such as the USA. 71 (18.4) 1 (Negi) 1991 97 (26. However.6) 39 (11. During the late 1970s and early 1980s.6) 1 (Neg.4) 7 (1. the Netherlands and Mexico.3) 15 (4. III. CHANGING PATTERNS IN GLOBAL PRODUCTION CONSUMPTION. In the 1950s. These were Colombia.3) 14 (3. 1993. While Denmark's exports fluctuated very widely. Volume II.0) Note : Figures in brackets indicate percentage share in the total Source : International Trade Statistics.5) 389 (100. TRADE AND DISTRIBUTION Cultivation Presently more than 140 countries are Involved in the cultivation of floricultural crops. Israel.

During the late 1980s and early 1990s. Table 11 Area Under Flower Crops Selected Countries (1991) Area : Hectares Europe Japan USA Mexico Colombia Taiwan Kenya India 15. Into-American Hybrid Seed. mainly cut flowers. Table 11 depicts area under flower crops in selected countries. Indo-American Hybrid Seed. by Vishnu Swarup. Country-wise area is shown below: Table 12 Floriculture under Green House Cultivation in Europe Area : Thousand Hectares Country Italy Spain Netherlands Germany France Greece Great Britain Belgium Portugal Denmark Ireland Luxembourg Total Floriculture 5 1 5 2 2 9 6 3 2 2 1 + 1 1 + + + + Source : Paper on "Roriculture Industry in India".300 800 38. New countries like Zimbabwe and Morocco in Africa. the developed countries faced the problem of increasing production costs and thus more production was shifted offshore.400 5. tadia stands out separately with relatively large area under floriculture.000 Source : Paper on "Floriculture industry «i 'Wia". 18 . toy Vishnu Swarup.000 4. In Europe. Delhi.030 13. Malaysia and India in Asia started production and export of floriculture products. most of the flower production is under Green Houses.300 6. Ecuador and Costa Rica in Latin America and Singapore.these countries specialised in the export of cut flowers. Delhi.000 to 16.000 4.

22 Source : Flower Council of Holland. 19 . Developed countries with high per capita incomes obviously are the major consuming markets. Increased consumption of floricultural products is envisaged to lead to increased demand particularly in the late 1990s. With rising incomes. Consumption of floricultural products in major consuming countries is shown in Table 13. In USA. consumption of floriculture products is on the increase. Table 13 Capita Consumption of Flowers and Plants in Major Consuming Countries Value: Country Flowers Norway Switzerland Germany Denmark Sweden Austria Italy Holland France Belgium/Luxembourg United States Japan Greece Great Britain Spain 120 155 81 68 72 73 95 73 54 66 47 93 33 38 27 1991 Plants 150 93 73 145 105 70 38 51 47 67 Total 270 248 154 213 177 143 133 124 101 133 Flowers 112 143 83 55 64 78 98 79 58 68 44 81 29 38 28 1993 Plants 158 90 79 101 83 66 39 51 49 36 48 Total 270 233 162 156 147 144 137 130 107 104 92 81 60 53 48 Dfl. Despite being the largest producer of cut flowers. Rs. This would call for additional supplies from new production centres in developing countries. increase in consumption resulted in more and more imports to supplement domestic production. Consumption in Germany spurted by 150 per cent since 1970. — — 32 16 20 — 93 65 54 47 — 31 15 20 Note : Dfl : Approx. chrysanthemums (70 per cent) and roses (40 per cent) are imported from Latin America.Consumption Consumption of floricultural products is closely linked to the GDP of countries. a significant percentage of carnations (80 per cent).

Ecuador and Costa W«^ m hs^ fimmka.Cultivation of floricultural products in some of the developing countries is on the increase to cater to the global markets mainly to earn foreign exchange. roses. TalNe 14 Estimate of Demand for Floricultural PriMlycts in Selected jReglons/Ck>untrles Value : y s $ Billion Region/Country Western Europe Year 1990 1995 2000 1990 1995 2000 1990 1995 ^00 Demand (In Value) 12 15 18 05 07 09 06 08 11 Japan United States Source : Bureau of Holland. Demand Pattern Some of the estimates indicate expansion in demand for flixfcultural products m Western Europe. aiid Jndia in Asia. 20 . flowers and pot plants that are range of floricultural products to from the cut flowers and pot plants Tables 15 and 16 indicate the cut popular at the auctions in Holland. The consumer has wide choose from as could be seen that are auctioned at Holland. chrysanthemums and statice Roses and gladiolus Other emerpr^ deveit^ing countries include Morocco In Africa. Japan and USA as may be ^ e n from Table 14. The leading exporting developing countries are: Colombia Thailand Malaysia Singapore Kenya Zimbabwe Carnation and roses Orchids Orchids Orchids Carnations.

40. Rose Chrysanthemum Tulip Carnation Lily Gerbera Freesia Cymbidium Aistroemeria Limonium 902 581 265 275 237 133 145 102 79 68 1994 994 278 569 261 244 150 138 110 31 72 Percentage 10% % 1% 5% 3% 13% 5% 8% 3% 6% 1 Dfl. 9. = Approx. 22 % Number of cut flowers : 10.90.Table 15 Top Ten Cut Flowers Auction Turnover: Dfl: Million.90. 7.000 Source . 6. Channels of Distribution Product quality and assortment are important in the final delivery.14. Table 16 Top Ten Pot Plants Auction Turnover: DfL: Million 1993 Ficus Dracaena Kalanchoe Begonia Chrysanthemum 6. 1993 1.000 Source: Flower Council of Holland. Rhodoendron Simsii (Azalea) Hedera Saintpaulia Spathiphyllum Yucca 119 69 51 45 43 40 33 35 30 36 1994 125 64 53 48 46 39 38 36 33 33 Percentage 5% -7% 4% 7% 7% -3% 15% 3% 10% -8% 1 Dfl. 9. 5. 3. 7. Rower Cbuncil of Holland. 4. 0. 22 % Number of Plants : 95. 10. = Approx. Quality is also a function of the distribution chain. 8. 2.00. 21 .00. 8.

Vase life is determined by the internal quality. Table 17 indicates the marl<et segments. the flower should have a good appearance. Externally. Equally it is necessary to ensure that the selected varieties have good vase life. free from ail bruises. pest and disease management. Absence of optimal temperatures — High ethylene levels — Bad handling — Bad water quality (high bacterial count) — Inappropriate packaging. The distribution chain is very important. Sending a quality product from the farm to the destination and finally to the end-user is very crucial. Some of the problems encountered in the distribution chain are: — Long periods of transport (including transhipments) — . Good growing practices need to be practised which should include fertilizer application. the colour should be clear and no insects or disease should be visible. End-Uses and Channels of Distribution. The Dutch auctions have a five digit system for coding for the types and varieties of flowers available. Table 17 Market Segments Percentage Country Germany Holland Italy Occasions Home Use Funeral Institutional Total 1CX) 1CX) USA Source : Bureau Holland 14 35 66 61 39 42 14 10 17 8 14 25 15 6 4 100 100 22 .The quality of the flower is determined both by its external and internal qualities. post harvest handling etc. Usage pattern and channels of distribution are closely related. Quality of the product can be ensured by growing good quality and this is possible through right selection of varieties.

florists play a very important role as 75 per cent of sales take place ttirough this distribution channel. florists.150 920 1. It is the customer's buying habits that determine the channels of distribution. street vendors and Supermarkets are important channels of distribution. The frequency with which the customers visit the supermarkets and the customers' impulse buying largely contribute to the popularity of Supermarkets. Florists and Supermarkets play an important role in reaching the buyers. Table 18 Channels of Distribution in Selected Countries As percentage of Turnover Channel Florists Garden centres Street vendors Supermarkets Others Source : Bureau Holland USA 75 Holland 56 2 26 12 4 UK 36 3 20 29 12 — — 15 10 In the US market. Table 16 provides data on sales outlets in Holland: Table 19 Sales Outlets for HorticulturaK Products in Holland Number Traditional flower shops Street and Van Sales Supermarkets and Department Stores Garden centres Petrol stations Total Source : Flower Council of Holland. Table 18 shows the channels of distribution in selected markets. petrol stations have also emer^d as important sates outlets.200 10.270 1. In Holland. Supermarkets have become very effective outlet in a number of countries and IJiey are threatening the florists at the lower end of the market.740 2.Channels of distribution differ from market to market.280 23 . In Holland and UK. 4.

phyto-sanitary precautions and use of suitable preservation agents . handing and warehousing. commonly referred to as the "package . since the success or failure of an export tends to a large extent depend on the packaging . drops. compression and vibrations. The corrugated boxi^fisw|]ackaging are a success. The package and its contents. Packaging must preserve the intrinsic qualities of the products. Corrugated fibreboard is the material most frequently used for shipping cut-flowers and foliage as well as certain. Mechanical stresses are directly connected with transportation. handling and storage requirements from standpoints of strength. 24 .the type selected. sizes and structures of boxes. at every stage from harvesting of flowers to retail sale. The stresses are fr) Mechanical stresses. necessary to ensure reduction of losses during the various stages of marketing process to make exports a viable proposition. Adaptation to Markets. there are many factors. In the physical and chemical stresses. humidity (water vapour in the air). cold. its particular features and how well it is suited to the contents. over 20 per cent. This is' because the material is suitablis te te floricultural products for this shipping. These are shocks.contents due" are exposed throughout the shipping process to a variety of stresses. and (ii) PhysicaT and chemical stresses. Careful handling. number of units or bunches. packaging colour. It is employed to nrfaraufadtore many types. lightness and economy. danpness (water in a liquid state) and desiccation (lack of water or humkfity).Packaging Packaging plays a decisive role. Wooden boxes could also be used for packaging but they need to be adapted to the flower and they need to be adapted to the flower and foliage market. labelling etc. These are heat. handling. vajrieies of green plants and cuttings overseas. storage and distribution. therefore. better temperature regulation. Importing countries' requirements and preferences differ in respect opf package dimensions. Losses occur. arrangement of the products within the container. It is.all these contribute to control of losses and along with it selection of appropriate packaging to protect the products during transportation.

. as pickers in raiirai gireas and as garland makers in the cities. tha buds are arranged in a graduated pattern. DEVELOPMENT OF FLORICULTURE IN INDtA Growing flowers in the country for domestic use is intiimately connected with Indian culture itself. The scope for earning foreign exchange is ample. set up a high level Expert Group on Floriculture Development. transportation. higher incomes and foreign exchange earning. adaptation to transport modes. new packaging bearing the importer's brand mark and colours. P.g. Trivedi. Floriculture provides excellent employment oppoAwiiities for agricultural labour especially women e. The original packaging is not kept. The pack^ffig needs of drfferent markets are to be taken into account while ensunng that packaging is serving the basic purposes right from production until export marketing including consolidation. Recommendations of the Expert Group are of great significance as they laid the foundation for future growth. IV. the Government of India in the Ministry of Agriculture.P. Development of fforfcutture offei^s many socio-economic benefits in terms of employment generation. and then repackage them. storage and fowwarding. identification and presentation. A large semi^illisc^ faimuT force is required for such operations as enmscoEation and lipids pollination of Fl Hybrid seeds and other forms ol aitensive floriiaiilture. instead. is used. ¥\mmMitm generates a lot of economic actfvity right from production uinil e^pcspt marketing including packaging. But floriculture as an industry for commercial purposes has taken root only during the last six to seven years. under the Chairpersonship of Mrs. The Group which reviewed in depth the various issues involved submitted its report in 1989. importers normally open the box. Some of the recommendations are as follows: 25 . immerse the flowers in water for several hours to refresh them. whereas in most other countries. French market for roses requires all the buds in a single bunch to be of the same height. The diameters off buirdfiies in France are larger than those elsewhere. Expert Group on Floriculture Recognising the immense potential of floriculture.In Netherlands market. a former Secretary to the Government of India and a dedicated floriculturist..

production. viii) To provide facilities for storage of floricultural products at the airport for import and export. vi) To organise training programme on advanced research and production for scientific. ix) To relax the import policy and customs duty with regard to import of materials including green house components. fertilizers etc. ii) Strengthening and setting up of necessary infrastructures for research.. storage and transportation to be provided at fee JFA level. scientific and technical personnel and funds. propagation. technical and extension staff and growers including the small and marginal growers. vii) To facilitate clearance of imported plant materials by the customs and quarantine at the airport without damaging them. x) To set up National Council on Floriculture for formulating the policy at the National level and to advise on all aspects of floriculture. for green house cultivation of flowers and plants. iii) To strengthen and intensify need-based research adequately at the Agricultural Universities/Research Institutes by providing necessary infrastructure. extension. training.i) Constituting the Identified Floriculture Development Areas (IFAs) in 10 zones/States for taking up intensive programme on floriculture development for domestic and export market in the first phase. iv) To import germplasm of important commercial flowers and plants and develop new and outetanding v^ieties. v) To develop improved methods of propagation of important Hmm crops by provicfii^ fadJities of mist and fog houses and throu^ mioo-f^-opagation. plant protection chemicals. 26 . media. post-harvest treatment. Emphasis should be given on protected cultivation of flower crops and related aspects of management and production.

xvi) Cash Compensatory Support withdrawn recently from export of cut flowers and plants should be reintroduced xvii) Special infrastructure of cold chain must be provided for transport and storage. Government of India gave tremendous boost to horticulture development by allocating a sum of Rs. xviii) About 5% of the cost of construction of new buildings and roads and of their maintenance should be provided for landscaping and environmental protection. Internal air-freight also to support transport of a highly perishable commodity. Floriculture growers' cooperative societies should be promoted in the IFAs on the pattern of Amul. no clear data are available on a regular basis for many hor27 . xiii) Employment generation small schemes for production of flowers to supply to the domestic market must get priority in allocation of funds. Area Under Cultivation of Floriculture Although flowers are cultivated in the country from times immemorial. Pakistan & Kenya. xii) Floriculture should not be viewed as an elitist programme. 1. It should be linked with employment and income generation programmes. xv) 100% export-oriented projects should have a minimum limit of 50% of estimated production.000 crore in the VIM Plan as against Rs. 24 crore in the VII Plan.xi) To set up State Floriculture Committees for formulating the policy and advise at State level. xiv) Air-freight for export should be nationalised keeping in view the freight charged by other developing countries like Sri Lanka. Various economic reforms and liberalisation policies ushered in into the economy from July 1991 onwards and exim policies modifications have given a fillip to the development floriculture. and State Executive Committee for implementing the decisions of the State Committees and monitoring the progress of IFAs.

000 Ishnu Swarup's Estimates states Karnataka Tamil Nadu Maharashtra West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Uttar Pradesh Haryana Gujarat Punjab Jctmmu & Kashmir Delhi Himachal Pradesh Manipur Assam Total (incl. others) Area (Hectares) 14.827 8.055 2. The absence of data renders it difficult to plan the development of the sector.045 34.150 3.500 600 500 405 250 100 100 50 50 40 37.000 37.671 ICAR Survey (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) National Commission on Agriculture APEDA (Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority) Dr. New Delhi state Directorates of Horticulture. Indo-American Hybrid Seed.253 8.500 34.000 7.987 28 .055 2.164 2. Data available on area under cultivation are as follows: Table 20 (A) Estimates of Area Under Floriculture In India Source (Hectares) 1962 1976 1989 1992-93 1995 4.987 40.500 3.200 3.384 3. Vishnu Swarup.ticultural crops including floriculture. others) Area (Hectares) 8. (B) APEDA's Estimates (1989) States Karnataka Tamil Nadu West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Rajasthan Maharashtra Total (incl.384 4.

Kerala. Traditional flowers are those that are cultivated in the country for hundreds of years for the purpose of wor29 . Delhi.200 43.000 300 100 250 100 45 12. Varieties of Flowers Grown in the Country Flowers cultivated in the country are generally classified as 'Traditional Flowers' or 'Modern/Cut Flowers'.340 1. Nasik.(D) Estimates of Directorates of Horticuiture (1995) Andhra Pradesh Assam Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Karnata)<a Madhya Pradesh MahcU'ashtra Manipur N^aland Punjab Rajasthan SIkkim Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total 5. Pondichery. Lakshadweep. Andhra Pradesh. intensive cultivation of cut flowers has been undertaken in certain areas around Pune.243 650 4. This does not mean that there is no production of flowers in these States and Union Territories. Tripura. it is clear that Karnatka.000 3. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh are the leading States in the country where the land under floriculture is significantly high.788 280 100 SO 400 50 50 25 15. Thanks to the various development schemes being implemented under the Central and State sectors. Bangalore and Trivandrum. Tamil Nadu. Meghalaya.971 From the estimates of Directorates of Horticulture. Bihar. Particularly Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have emerged as the major floriculture States in the country. It Is necessary to estimate the area under cultivation on a regular basis in all the States and Union Territories of the country as that would help in planning the projects both for domestic and export markets. Information regarding the area under floriculture is not available in respect of Arunachal Pradesh. Traditional Flowers.

Lotus and Chrysanthemum.000+ Area Under Modern Flowers Total Karnataka Tamil Nadu West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Maharahstra Total 15. Reddy. Traditional flowers such as rose.243 12.395 10. Tuberose.150 3.761 8.055 10.055 2.045 8. Area under traditional flowers is as follows: Table 21 Area Under Traditional Flowers In Selected States states Area (Hectares) 3.384 3. Marigold. These are used as single or in groups strung together or in the form of a garland and the emphasis here is only on the petals.761 2.395 Source : Paper on Traditional Flowers by Dr. public functions and personal adornments. Table 22 Estimates of Area Under Cultivation of Traditional and Modern Flowers in Selected States (Hectares) state Area Under Traditional Flowers 10. Table brings out the distribution clearly.V.150 Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Maharashtra Tamil Nadu West Bengal Total 27.ship.045 27. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are the two major States that have large areas under cultivation of "Traditionai Flowers". jasmine and tuberose are also used in the production of essential oils and perfumes. These include Jasmine. social occasions. Reddy 30 .V.200 3.395 Source : Paper on Traditional Flowers by Dr.045 37. University of Agricultural Sciences.384 3. T. T. festivals. Crossandra. GKVK. Bangalore. as in the case of floriculture cultivation as a whole. Here again. colour and natural fragrance of the flower.055 3.340 3.

Jasmine flowers and buds are used for preparing garlands. Chrysanthemum. French. Domestic demand for traditional flowers is on the increase and because of this. Karnataka (1728 hectres Bihar. Tuberose. Marigold. Available estimates are as follows: Variety Jasmine Marigold Chtysanthemum Tuberose Area (Hectares) 8. The flowers are also used for the production of perfumed hair oils and attars particularly in Uttar Pradesh. The flowers are used largely for garland making and for religious purposes. Hybrid are produced in the country. Different types of marigold. bouquets. Domestic Marlot The domestic market for traditional flowers at the retail level is 31 . Delhi West Bengal. Karnataka (1456 Hectares) Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh Usage pattern of traditional flowers is as follows: Jasmine. India Is also exporting jasmine flowers to Sri Lanka.All the traditional flowers are produced outdoor in the CQuntry. Singapore. production is spread over many States. African. The flowers are used as 'cut flowers' with spike and loose flowers are used for garland making. Variety-wise area under cultivation of traditional flowers is not available. etc. namely. The traditional flower growers are mainly small farmers and their income levels are generally better than the marginal farmers of other agricultural crops. Jasmine oil is used for producing high grade perfumes. The oil is also used for producing soaps and cosmetics. The flower is valued for its fragrance. Malaysia and Gulf countries. Jasmine oil is extracted from the flowers of the Spanish jasmine (Jasminmum grandiflorum).000 NA NA Areas Cultivated through-out the country West Bengdal.

5 A.5 82 5. Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Arr. per kg.5 77 60 104 52.5 99 5 89 5 98 6 84 5. Bangalore.Mari1gold 132 3 103 5 70 4 30 11 7 7 Tuberose 55 15 45 19 38 19 55 12 58 17 72 14 71 11 82 12 80 20.50 Marigold 113 5 105 3. Table 23 Wholesale Prices and Arrivals of Traditional Flowers in Bangalore Market during 1994 A: Arrival In Tonnes P: Average 1Price in Rs. t50 crore per year.estimated at Rs.5 33 165 55 32 51 39 41 40 53 39 63 55 55 60 64 40 76 40 83 35 56 45 75 47. Wholesale Prices Indicative wholesale prices and arrivals of traditional flowers in Bangalore market during 1994 are shown in Table 23.5 133 •9. (A) Jasmine Kakacta Price (P) A P A P A P A P A P A P A P A P A P A P A P A P 13 113 15 65 26 45 38 109 45 75 64 35 67 26 85 90 81 50 55 45 77 82.5 135 3 Dec Source : National Horticulture Board.5 105 6 86 3.5 115 11 131 8 179 8 183 8 — — — — — — — — — — 73 7.Chrysaandra nthemum 63 90 67 70 78 40 80 45 87 45 90 37.5 Cross.5 65 27 83 14 69 14. 32 . The distribution chain is as follows: Farmers Commission Agents/Wholesalers Retailers Small Vendors Consumers Consumers Commission agents/wholesalers have strong business relationships with the farmers/growers.50 94 90 85 100 83 11 67 9 68 10 16 11 — — 10 17 74 15.5 91 6 67 6.5 81 5.5 109 180 72 67.50 66 21.

of India took up a scheme and earmarked an outlay of Rs. chrysanthemum. gerbera. For the development of floriculture. and to impart training to farmers and entrepreneurs. anthurium. which will be operated in all the 32 States and Union Territories. tuberose. Some of these schemes are as follows: Central Sector Scheme on Commercial Floriculture The Govt. 100 crore. Flowers included in this category are rose. 33 . Government of India initiated many schemes. envisages to introduce improved varieties of flowers of commercial importance to intensify production of planting material. etc. gladiolus. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) Srinagar in Jammu & Kashmir Bangalore in Karnataka Trivandrum in Kerala Pune in Maharashtra Mohali in Punjab Gangtok in Sikkim Ooty in Tamil Nadu Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh Calcutta in West Bengal These centrs would serve as focal units for development of floriculture in the regions. In addition. The scheme. Trade in modern flowers is estimated at around Rs. carnation.Modern Flowers The cut flowers that are used with long stem in bouquets and for other decoration purposes come under this category. 10 crore for the development of all major cut flower crops as well as traditional flowers. Establishement of nine (9) Model Floriculture Centres (MFC) in the Public Sector in the following places is an important component of the scheme. in the above states except Jammu & Kashmir. are also proposed to be set up. eight (8) more centres in private sector. orchids. to introduce modern systems of production of flowers and post-harvest techology.

training of farmers/entrepreneurs.1 lakh (25%). i) Andhra Pradesh. x) Lakshadweep. area expansion programme is also being taken up with a target to increase the area under floriculture by 2000 hectares. Maharashtra. packing and grading sheds. 20 small tissue culture units on cottage scale are also planned to be set up in private sector. ii) Andaman & Nicobar Islands. xvii) Rajasthan. it!) Assam.These MFCs will be the focal units for procurement and multiplication of elite varieties/hybrids for commercial use. Soft loan upto a maximum limit of Rs. Under these schemes several floricutlture projects have received assistance for setting up export-oriented units in the corporate sector. xvili) Sikkim.1000 per unit of 0. The loan facilities are also available for the integrated projects involving production and disposal of floricultural products on the same terms and conditions. Each unit will be provided with an assistance of Rs. During the current plan period. xvi) Orissa. 1 crore is advanced for setting up infrastrucutral facilities like cold storage. v) Delhi. ix) Himachal Pradesh. 34 . viii) Haryana. vii) Gujarat.1 hectare. iv) Bihar. distribution of the planting material to nursery men. 44 lakhs while those in Private sector Rs. Cooperatives. Schemes of National Horticulture Board The board has two major schemes. Assistance is available to Public sector undertakings. refrigerated transport etc. 25 lakhs (10%) in the states. xiv) Mizoram. These will be set up in the following states. Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. xii) Manipur. xv) Nagaland. xiii) Meghalaya. Each unit in Public sector is allocated Rs. xix) Tripura and xx) Uttar Pradesh. pre-cooling units. Each unit will receive an assistance of Rs. Each cultivator receives support at Rs. xi) Madhya Pradesh. Five large post harvest handling centres are proposed to be established in private sector in the States of Andhra Pradesh. All these centres would also have a facility of a large tissue culture unit.10 lakhs (10%). No interest is charged except bank handling changes of 4-5 per cent after two or three years depending upon the loan sanctioned. Farmers' Associations and Corporate sector. vi) Goa. Delhi.

000 per hectare or 50% of the cost for the drip irrigation. Subsidy is provided for use of drip/micro irrigation systems. 50 crore has been earmarked for utilisation by NHB.1 lakh. 250 crore.1 lakh). Export Promotion The Ministry of Agriculture has initiated a project which provides for setting up of infrastrucutre for promoting exports. National Horticulture Board (NHB) and Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) are involved in the project. ill) Scheme for packing development (30% of cost. maximum Rs. medium and high cost greenhouses. i) Scheme for development of infrastructure and services (25% of cost. maximum Rs. greenhouses/polyhouses of low.000/-). 2 lakhs) 35 . Rs. maximum Rs. A sum of Rs.31. APEDA has following schemes to assit Export-oriented Floriculture projects. v) Scheme for Survey. iv) Scheme for export promotion and market development (40% of cost. while for greenhouse the rates of assistance differ for low. for the latter two the assistance is restricted to 40% of the total cost for medium cost units and 10% for high cost units or Rs. maximum Rs. 50.500 per unit of 500 sq. consultancy and data base (40% of cost.5 lakh for purchase of reefer van).Scheme for use of Plastics in Agriculture The Ministry of Agriculture is implementing a scheme for the use of plastics for horticulturre crops with a total outlay of Rs. medium and high cost and plastic mulch. 5 lakhs for setting up of pre-cooling and cold storage facilities).. While for the low cost units assistance is available upto 50% of the cost or Rs. The floriculture projects are also eligible to avail of the assistance available. feasibility. mts. 1. li) Scheme for development of post harvest infrastrucutre (50% of cost. 15. Each entrepreneur/beneficiary can avail of the facility with a limit of Rs.

rters' Association organised meetings between Indian Floriculture industry and prospective entrepreneurs and Japanese importers and Thailand floriculture industry representatives during 1993. Pune. maximum Rs. Possibilities of export of tropical flowers like orchids and anthurium from India to Japan were also explored. Similarly Karnataka Agro Industries Corporation Ltd. Asia).E. 36 . Thus the establishment of wholesale Market-cum-Auction centres for flowers is still to take place. The Government of India will meet 50% of the cost and the balance 50% by the concerned State Government. As a result of these efforts. The land for e s t ^ i ^ i n g the cenfres at Pane and Bangalore has since been identified. In Delhi. refrigeration equipments and suppliers of planting materials and technical know-how. Bangalore and Madras in Association with one of the agencies of the concerned State Governments. In Maharashtra. the State Government nominated the f**/laharashtra State Agricultural Mari^eting Board to work with APEDA ior the setting up of ttie centres at Bombay and Pune. Arising from the initiative taken by APEDA in 1993 to give thrust to the floriculture industry. APEDA. regular exports of cut flowers have started from India.6/. The Government of Tamil Nadu is still to identify the agency. APEDA'S Programmes for Export Promotion Joint Ventures with Dutch Companies. Bombay. 10/. a number of joint sector ventures for export-oriented production of cut flowers have emerged between Indian companies and Dutch companies who are manufacturers of green houses.vi) Scheme for airfreight subsidy (25% of lATA rates. 1994 and early 1995 to study cut flower production and marketing. the Government of National Capital Territory has approved the proposal of Delhi Agricultural Marketing Board to work with APEDA for establishing tlqe centre but the land is still to be identified. would associate itself with APEDA for setting up a centre at Bangalore. in collaboration with Japan External Trade Organisation (JETRO) and Japan cut-flower Impo. Setting up of Wholesale Market-cum-Auction Centres for Flowers Under this scheme APEDA will set up wholsesale Market-cum"Auction Centres for flowers at Delhi.per kg for export to West Asia and S. Japanese Market.per kg for Europe & USA and Rs.

Important components of the projectis are as follows. 37 . g) Study tour to Afrk:a for studying competitor's production system. the State Governments are evincing considerable interest in developing production of horticultural products for domestic markets and export. The project aims at achieving a quantum jump in cut flowers exports from the country based on inriproved production expertise and market intelligence. e) Preparation of a report on the design. State Level Programmes At the States level.Market News Service. Singapore. post harvest handling and strategies for export of cut flowers. a) Direct advice to 12 selected entrepreneurs on production. c) Market survey reports on Europe. i) Industry level seminars for dissemination of information to existing and prospective entrepreneurs. Many schemes are drawn up to give fillip to increase export-oriented production. f) Feasibility study on assessment of potential for production of orchids on commercial scale in North East India. Hong Kong and d) Regular information on market prices and conditions through ITC . Carnations.Implementation of UNDP Project The Ministry of Commerce of Government of India is implementing a UNDP assisted three year project (1994-95 to 1996-97) through APEDA. Chrysanthemums for use by Indian growers. management and role of auction centres for the major markets in India. h) Market orientation missions for producers to Europe and Japan including Buyer-Seller meets. b) Preparation of crop manuals on Roses. The results of tfie project are envisaged to make India a global player of repute.

Goa 38 . The State is providing support for floriculture development. Twelve export-oriented units are being set up in the State. gladiolus.Tfie State of floriculture in different States is as follaws: Andhra Pradesh. Flowers such as crossandra. Major flowers grown in the State include marigold. Bihar. tuberose and chrysanthemum. tuberose etc. jasmine. Climatic conditions also exist for growing foliage plants. The state has suitable climate for production of a variety of flowers. tuberose and rose. In addition to Pune. chrysanthemum. Arunachal Pradesh. jasmine. Assam. The traditional flowers are grown to cater to the local requirements. Area under floriculture is not known clearly. Bangalore and Delhi. Customs clearance facilities and issue of phytosanitary clearance at the point of production for export are being created. The State has around 280 hectares area under flower crops such as rose. There is ample potential for promoting floriculture in Bihar. The State has been growing flowers for long but commercial cultivation is yet to make a beginning. jasmine and chrysanthemum are grown traditionally but commercial floriculture is yet to become popular in the State. byt the government of India's scheme would help promote floriculture. marigold. jasmine. The Floriculture Parks would make available land to the prospective entrepreneurs on long term lease or outright sale. The Government of Andhra Pradesh is planning to establish Floriculture Parks in an area of 40 hectares in and around Hyderabad and Kuppam and also to create infrastructural facilities such as pre-cooling. Goa. Already there are well established Tissue Culture Units in Hyderabad and export-oriented flower production will be an extension of that activity. The utilisation of orchids is being promoted in the state. About 50 hectares of land are under floriculture. Export-oriented cut-flowers production is slowly emerging. An export-oriented unit for orchids and cut-flower production with facility of tissue-culture units are being set up in the State. Hyderabad has also been identified as one of the centres for cut-lower production specially for roses and carnations. cold storage and refrigerated vans. The Government of Andhra pradesh is providing subsidies towards plant material for crops like rose.

tulips. jasmine. static and several seasonal flowers. tropical and sub-tropical climate. An additional 100 hectares of land will be under floriculture in about 2 years. The estimated area under floriculture is 25 hectares. The area under floriculture has increased from 50 hectares during 1989-90 to 1600 hectares during 1994-95. Jammu & Kashmir. iris. tuberose. Private enterprise is taking initiative to produce flowers for export markets. Haryana. In addition. narcissus/daffodil. 39 .offers opportunities for growing rose. Gujarat. carnation. The State offers good climate for growing flowers. while for Jammu region. The State is emerging as a flower grower with around 30 hectares of land under commercial floriculture out of a total area of 50 hectares of land in 1993-94.000 hectares by 1998. Floriculture is yet to develop in a big way in the State. tuberose. gladiolus and rose are the main crops. Flower crops gladiolus. gladiolus. gaillardia etc. Kerala. tuberose. rose. chrysanthemum. lilies and other bulbs and chrysantfiemum are grown in the State. aster. Marigold. marigold. Estimates of area under floriculture arei not available. carnation. chrysanthemum aster and marigold. chrysanthemum. The flower crops grown popularly include marigold. The State has an estimated area of 400 hectares under floriculture which is likely to go up to 1. The other crops being grown in Kashmir valley are liatris. paeoni. Progressive farmers are evincing interest to take up commercial cultivation of orchids. spider lily. The State possesses temperate. anthuriums and also bush jasmine. gladiolus and rose. chrysanthemum rose and gladiolus are grown in the State. there is potential to grow tulips and roses in the State. hyacinth. The major crops of the Kashmir valley are lilies. gerbera. Himachal Pradesh. Floriculture is fast developing in the State and production of flowers on a commercial basis is undertaken. The climatic conditions enable cultivation of almost all types of flowers and plants in the State. Foliage plants are also cultivated.

birds of paradise and certain other bulbous crops and foliage. Madhya Pradesh.000 hectares under floriculture. Cut-flower production in the State particularly in and around Bangalore city is well poised for tremendous growth because of the mild and favourable weather conditions that prevail in the State and the availability of infrastructural facilities. 2 crore.Karnataka. The Government of Karnataka is providing all support and assistance to give fillip to floriculture development in the State including export marketing. Maharashtra. pesticMes etc. aster. tube-rose. The regions of Pune and Nasik are ideally suitable for floriculture development. crossandrai. Infrastructural facilities including post-harvest management are also developed. orchids. Nearly 27 per cent of the total flower production in the country comes from Karnataka. 3. chrysanthemum. and the farmers are also given technical know-how. gladiolus. Flowers grown on commercial basis in the State include rose. The Government had a plan to give the horticulture sector the Status of an industry. jasmine. gerbera.000 tonnes. Encouragement is given to formation of Growers' Cooperative and Marketing Soceities. The State has also taken up Government of India scheme on commercial floriculture. Ujjain has an estimated area of 400 hectares producing nearly 2. Karnataka State is the pioneer State in floriculture development in the country. carnation. The total area under various flower crops has been assessed at 15243 hectares with an annual production of 88. The State Government is providing financial assistance to small and marginal farmers for growing traditional and non-traditional flowers in t/25 hectare plots upto Rs.000 tonnes of flowers per annum valued at Rs. An estimated area of 650 hectares is under flower production in Madhya Pradesh.000 per plot for inputs such as planting material. Incentives are also provided to large scale producers. Major production centres are located around Ujjain. rose and jasmine. fertilizer. gaillandia. Indore and Gwalior. tuberose. The major traditional flowers grown in the 40 . marigold and champaka and cut-flowers including anthurium. The State has more than 4. aster. chrysanthemum. Flower crops grown in the State include marigold.

jasmine. Floriculture in Punjab is acquiring importance. dahlia and lies. Many entrepreneurs are taking up commercial cultivation of floriculture crops. The State has an estimated area of 300 hectares under floriculture. Gladiolus. lilies. chrysanthemum. Maharashtra State Agricultural Marketing Board is providing assistance in the marketing of flowers. jasmine and tuberose.State are rose. The State has the climatic condition for growing floriculture crops. tuberose. marigold. has good potentiai for growing many flower crops. The State of Orissa has an estimated area of 100 hectares under flower crops. The State with salubrious climate ranging from the subtropical m the valley area to the temperate in the hiHs. Non-traditional flowers such as gladiolus. carnations and several types of foliage plants is also undertaken. marigold. A large number of Export-oriented Umils have come up in the State with foreign collaboration smi investments. gladiolus and jasmine. anthuriums. gladiolus. gaiilardia. marigold. Irish variety known as Iris Bakeri grows wild in the State. carnation. aster. Punjab. TTrere are no estimates of land area under floriculture in the State. Value-added traditional flowers are being exported to Middle East countries. chrysanthemum. Major flower crops grown in the State include marigold. Orissa. Growing of roses. More than 500 varieties/species of orchids are grown. Tuberose. rose. zinnia. begonias. Nagaland. Manlpur. chrysanthemum. chrysanthemum and orchids are grown in the State. rose and jasmine are cultivated. Several tissue culture units have come up in the State in private sector with commercial production of selected floriculture crops. gerberas and carnations are also grown. chrysanthemum. statice. The State grows world famous Siroy Lily (Lillium machliniae). The State has an estimated area of 250 hectares under flower crops. Important flower crops cultivated in the State include rose. orchids. There is also production of flower 41 . Commercial cultivation of flowers is being undertaken by the farmers.

Rajasthan. Cymbidium orchids are also grown by a number of growers. Some export oriented units are coming up in the State. marigold. carnation and gladiolus are grown around Hosur area. Commercial cultivation of cut-flowers is taking place in the State particularly around Hosur in Dharmapuri district. crossanda. marigold and chrysanthemum are cultivated in the State. cymbidium orchids. Gerbera. Rose. 12. Yercaud and Kodaikanal are being developed for production of anthurium. Gladiolus is largely cultivated and nearly 90 per cent of the area is under this crop. Tamil Nadu Government is giving utmost importance through policy support for the development of floriculture In the State to take advantage of the growing trade in the domestic market-as also to undertake exports from the State. celosia. The State Government is encouraging cultivation of gladiolus.seeds. Traditional flowers grown in the State include jasmine. The State has suitable agro-climatic conditions of tropical to alpine to develop cultivation of a wide range of floriculture 42 .340 hectares were under floriculture.000 tons of roses are produced mainly in the Pushkar area of Ajmer district and Haldighati area of Udaipur district. Nearly 50 hectares of land is under Damask rose cultivation and about 7.. The State has about 100 hectares of land under floriculture. gompherna and some species of scented foliage. The State has emerged as one of the major flower growing States in the country accounting for about 25% of All India production. Uttar Pradesh. alstromeria and lilies. Major crops grown in the State are gladiolus. cymbidium orchids and anthuriums on commercial scale. geraniums etc. The State has 45 hectares of land under floriculture. lilies. The hilly terrains of Nilgiris. Nearly thee-fourths of rose production is exported to Middle East countries. begonias. scented and red roses. Sikkim. The State has ideal climatic conditions for growing a variety of flowers particularly bulbs and several types of orchids. The area under flower production has been increasing and in 1993-94. Tamil Nadu. Many fanners have taken up production of cut flowers particularly gladiolus. anthuriums. tuberose. Bank finance is offered at subsidised terms.

Early Initiative for the export of flowers was taken by the scientists at lARI in 1969. Malaysia for orchids and Zimbabwe for roses. The first consignment of roses was exported to Europe with the assistance of the State Trading Corporatlon^^f India. Crops grown in the State include rose. ICAR made a survey of domestic market for flowers and found that flowers grown In 4. 9. gladiolus. In 1976. Thailand and Columbia were emerging as Important players of international trade In florlcultural products. cut-foliage and pot plants are the most important Items of world trade. A World Bank assisted scheme is In operation in the eight hill districts of the State. Around the same time. other developing countries like Israel.26 crore annually. Kenya.6. the activity.). Mauritius for anthurium. Singapore for orchids. Although this made the beginning of export of flowers. Kenya for carnation. jasmine and tuberose. Under another scheme. This policy has encouraged many investors to take to horticulture business mainly for exports. for a variety of reasons. Columbia became a leading exporter of carnation and roses. cuttings. The new seed policy of 1988 has liberalised the import of seeds and propagating materials.000 hectares in the country generated an income of Rs. The setting up of an Expert Group on Development of Floriculture by the Government of India on 14. fertilizers. marigold and jasmine. for the development of rose. The State is giving all assistance by providing Inputs like planting materials. In 1962.1988 reflected the concern of the Government of India at the slow pace and unplanned devel43 . The other products include dried flowers and foliage. roses. did not gain the necessary momentum. tissue cultured plants and starter and adult ornamental plants including house plants. Among the florlcultural products.. the National Commission on Agriculture identified floriculture as a significant sector of the national economy with great potential. pesticides etc. V. bulbs etc. marigold.crops. chsysanthemums and statice. Thailand for orchids. propagating materials (seeds. INDIA'S EXPORT EFFORTS India has long recognised the production and export potential of flowers and other florlcultural products (live plants and decorative cutfoliage). assistance Is given for the development of gladiolus and tuberose.

Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) etc. Most of these projects are to be set up as ExportOriented Units. Government of India included floriculture aiii»ng the extreme focus areas along with a number of products and h ^ provided subsidies. Guargaon (Haryana). duty concessions and other incentives through A^tauttural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority CAPEDA). Exports India's exports of floricultural products are growing steadily as more and more investors are evincing interest in the field supported by various policy measures and schemes launched by the Government of India through institutions such as National Horticulture Board. With liberalisation process initiated by the Government of India in 1991 to integrate the Indian economy with the global economy. Another 100 proposals have been approved for technical and financial foreign coUaborlation mainly with the companies from the Netherlands. Tflae Ministry of Commerce. Israel and Thailand. Hyderabad. investment opportunities became lucrative both for Indian investors and foreign investors. About 30 more units are expected to be completed during 1996. Panchkula (Punjab). Saharanpur (Uttar Pradesh) and a few otfier places. investment and exim policies are providing the fillip to the growth of production and exports. Joint venture projects have been set up in Pune (Maharashtra). Since then. Table 24 providers data on India's exports of floricultural products in detail: 44 . The economic. one would say that the Government's decision to set up a committee was a historic and a landmark decision and laid the foundation for an orderly development of floricufture industry in the country with focus on export markets. As per infomnation available with APEDA. However. floriculture came to be regarded as an item for new investments mainly for export business. Bangalore. looking back.opment of floriculture in the country. there are at present. about 30 units with export-oriented production of cut-flowers under poly houses ov6r an area of about 75 hectares.

31 mental purposes.53 (27. bleached. 45 . tuberous rools etc. 1966. These are as follows: Um& O^inQ P^ictos. USA.09 (7. (0.6) 262.2) 4648. Japan.32 (13. Among the floricultural products. lakhs Hem/Code BuH}S.4) 1^.80 (6.62 (73. dyed.69 (100. Major markets for oit-flowers are Netherlands. dried.0) Cut flowers & flowers buds suiteable for bouquets or orrta683. etc.2) 3073.01) Other live plants ind.1) 128.Table 24 India's Exports of Floricultural Products Value: Rs.75 (18. impregnated/othenA/ise prepared is the one that dominates as it accounted for over 77 one cent of the total in 1995-965. UAE.37 (56.2) 795.6. (06. fresh.58 (100.2) Foliage tranches & other plant parts.1) 1799. long-term lease of land has to be permitted to encourage large scale investments.0) 1993-84 51.3) %)5.86 (773) 377.0) 1994-95 108.6) 1490. etc.78 (100. the category consisting of cutflowers and flower buds suitable for bouquets/ornamental purposes..6) 1480.13 (100. for dried flowers the major maikets are USA. UK and New Zealand.34 (23. Germany.73 (18 9) 2^7. Constraints in ProduethMt and ExpcMl Marlceting A number of constraint are experienced in (iK-oduction as well £ @ ctomeste arKl expert maritetmg of horticutturat (^-oducts.15 (3.1) 401.18 (100.66 (20. roots.1) 1992-S3 78. As an immediate measure.32 (17. States have to take steps to exempt floriculture from land ceiling policies.» (3.99 (2.3) 6014. Land ceiling laws do not pennit purdiase of land for dev^ofmmnt of l^jncultureTaking into account the potential for employment.5) 579.08 (4.03) (46. incomes and exports.9) 430.50) 844.0) Soiree : International Industries Armual.34 (5.59 (8. Germany. fresh (06. (06. UK arKJ Hong Kong.04) Total 274.16 (66. tubers.9) 1189.0) 1985-96 192.02) 1991-82 120.

The establishment of wholesale-cum-market auction centres at major cities by APEDA would do a lot of good for the development of floriculture as an industry in the country. The industry has to adopt innovative techniques to encourage usage of flowers with the help of electronic and print media. Separate air cargo handling areas and facilities for export of flowers at international airports are still to be created. India is. There are serious shortages of air-freight capacity to target markets. The open skies policy allows charters. So far there is no legislation to provide security. Subsidies offered on airfreight will take care of the high freight cost. The cut-flowers and tissue culture products from India will attract 35% of the MFN Tariff. bound by WTO rules and discipline. The creation of additional capacity brooks no delay. Infrastructure at Airports. Generic promotion is essential at this stage to cultivate the domestic market which has ample potential for expansion. An institutional arrangement for promotion preferably by the trade and industry would give a fillip to domestPc demand. marketing is not well organised. India's floricultural products are subject to full tariff rate in the European Union countries which would cut down India's competitiveness. the freight costs are also very high. Bilateral negotiations between India and target market countries will be necessary. however. Floriculture development being at a very nascent stage. APEDA should expedite creation of such facilities. the life styles of certain segments of the population are changing and a new trend is emerging which supports usage of flowers round the year for various occasions. Shortage of Airfreight Capacity. The legislation is under consideration. Development of production units in cluster will make the operation of charters feasible. Plant Breeder Rights. India's floricultural products will become cost effective.Domestic Marketing. The consumer is yet not fully conscious of the varietal and quality aspects of various flowers and their usage pattern. Common Import Tariff for cut-flowers is applicable in all countries of the European Community which are as follows: 46 . As incomes are raising. If import tariff is brought down. In addition. EU Customs Duty.

June 1 to October 31 : Full Tariff ACP countries LDC countries 20% Free Free November 1 to May 31 : Full Tariff 15% ACP countries Free LDD countries Free ACP : African. tubers. Government Assislsffice and Support Policies Floriculture development is very high on the agenda of the Central Govemment A number of incentives and facilities are offered by the Government. roots and the like. Procedure Simplification. bulbs. 47 . The European Commission has fomiulated the new generalised system of preferences (GSP) for the developing countries in the agriculture sector v^ich is under consideration by the EEC Council. Caribbean & Pacific countries LDDC : Least Developed & Developing Countries. cut-flowers and ornamental foliage has been reduced from 55% to 10%. Phyto-sanltary Certificate and Certificate of Origin. Plant quarantine procedures have been streamlined and simplified for the import of seeds. Cuttings. Bulbs. tubers and cuttings. cuttings or saplings etc.1997 will allow some concessions to india. Tissue culture consignments are now cleared within six hours and other consignments requiring PEQ are cleared within two days.1. Customs duty has been exempted totally on seeds. bulbs. The import duty on live trees amd other plants. India comes in the category of countries attracting full tariff. The Plant Quarantine and other officers are authorised to issue phy to-sanitary certificate as also the certificate of origin in respect of horticulture exports including floriculture. for sowing\planting. plants. The new GSP policy which is likely to be effective by 1. These include: Zero Import Duty on Seeds.

Bangalore. raw materials. The facilities are available at Delhi. Bombay. 5 ( ^ of Sale in Domestic Market. APEDA is setting up bigger cold storages at Delhi and Bombay international airports with separate handling facilities for perishable products export cargo. Customs Boncftng. Import duties are reduced on seeds development machinery. In order to improve productivity of horticulture crops. 250 crore has been allocated in the Eighth Plan period (1992-97). technology and other inputs required duty free and could also sell 50% of their production in the domestic market. Of this.Rower Seed and Tissue Culture material on OGL. 10 per kg for export to Europe (other than CIS countries). Calcutta. Subsidy on air-freight is available for the export of cut-flowers and tissue culture plants. Rs. green houses and plastic mulches. if they wish. USA and Far East and Rs. ^iigim^ facturing or packing. The subsidy is subject to a maximum of 25% of the lATA freight rates or Rs. ECXJs in some of the a^m^u^M rdated activities including ftoricuftum have been grar^^ exei!K)|^ffi frcmt f i e requirement of custom boncBng with F^nnissK]«i for duty-fr^ m^mt M specified goods for being used RT coiH^eim with production. The earlier restriction of pemnitting assistance for 01% mm ttec^am p ^ liienefidary for drip iffigation has been re48 . Encouragement for the use of Pfastics. Units under EOU and EPZ Schemes are permitted to import capital goods. 6 per 1^ for export to West Asia and^ South East Asia and CIS countries. Lower Import Duties on Machinery. There is no need for any import licence for the import of flower seeds and tissue culture material of any plant origin as imports of these items are put on Open General Licence (OGL). the Government is encouraging the use of plastics in the fonn of drip-in'igation. An investment of Rs. 200 crore is eamriarked for drip irrigation alone. whichever is lower. machinery for soil preparation and specified goods for green houses. Cold Storage Facilities at International Airports. Walk-in-type cold storage facilities for export consignments have been created at the international airports. Madras and Trivandrum. Alr-frelght Subsidy.

Providing access to institutional credit for small and marginal farmers and other weaker sections to enable them to adopt modern technology and improved agricultural practices has been the major objective of the credit policy.000 crore in the next five yeaws. A budgetary provision of Rs. As envisaged in the budget for 1995-96. NABARD's paid-up share capital is being doubled to Rs. The share caprtat of National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) is being increased from the present level of Rs. Government has afready evolved an Inte^aNNt p^»i consistir^ of several elemertts for fulfilling this in^M^rtant oli^ectrve. Green houses are being encouraged for export-oriented floriculture projects. Loans are disbursed through a multi-agency network consisting of Commercial Banks. 2. 1827 crore could be sanctioned by NABARD to eighteen States.moved during 1995-96 and assistance is now provided for the entire holding of the beneficiary for growing horticultural crops. the Reserve Bank of hdia deregulated the interest rate structure for cooperatives for lending (sybject to a minimum of 12 per cent) and for raising deposits. In October 1994. Agricultural Credit Timely and adequate credit to farmers is vital for increasing agricultural and horticultural production and productivity. Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and Cooperatives. Reserve Bank of India has taken steps for setting up the Rural Infrastructural Development Fund (RIDF) at National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) with the Corpus of Rs. 2000 crore. 49 . w^in five y ^ s . 400 crore will be contributed by the Reserve Bank of India. 100 crore is being made towards Government of India's share and the balance of Rs. 1. as permitted under the State Land Ceiling laws. The Common MiJiiffimum Programme lays emphasis on broadbased agricU'ltuf^ development and calls for a doubting of the flow of credit to agriculture and agro-industries.000 crore in 199697. ps^icularty to smaff and liiitargoiai farinefs. 500 crore to Rs. With the establishment of RIDF 2247 projects with a loan amount of about Rs.

A large variety of flowers. to promote investment in commercial or tiigh technology agriculture and allied activities such as horticulture. Darjeeling.Jehangir broyght Intn^dyetmn/Researdi Damask rose from PersJa Chinar. parkia. NABARD is the chief promoter. lilies and tulips. seeds and bulbs 18th & 19th centuries British rulers introduced at Government gardens Lalbagh Botanic Garden Bangalore 1760 Botanical Garden.As a part of the Integrated plan. plants. Other national level financial institutions as well as State Governments concerned are being requested to participate in the equity. floriculture and agro-processing. 1779 Indian Botanic Garden. It was only in the early 60s ^Bt the Indian Council of Agricultural Research took up research throj^tn msnf projects in different parts of the country. 1787 Lloyd Botanic Garden. kigelia. magnolia. Calcutta. Research Efforts Most of the flowers and ornamental plants available in the country today were obtained and planted in the country from abroad from the 15th century onwards. The early introdycions of flowers and ornamental plants and the research efforts d i r o r r f c ^ r f f y were as follows: Petmd & C^gafiisafion Mighal Period . Saharanpur.roses carnation. weeping wiltow. 50 . State level agricultural development finance institutions are being set up.1526 Babar introduced 1619 . 1878 Amherstia. cypress trees. and flower seeds (1859 .1874) Canna and Jatropha in 1817. Sibpur.

Saharanpur. carnation and gladiolus Tuberose and jasmine 51 . Pune. Coimbatore Punjab Agricultural University. Coimbatore. Calcutta. New Delhi. anemone. hibiscus. scabious. kalanchoe. Bangalore Council of Scientific and Industrial Research at Lucknow Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. Ootacamund. tradescantia.A coordinated Research Scheme at Simla. 1884 Royal Agri-Horticultural Society. Amaryllis. gladiolus and bougainvillea at lARI Jasmine and tube rose Rose. Palampur (Himachal Pradesh) ICAR research Institutes and Agricultural Universities Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. cereus.buddleia in 1862. Mussoorie. dahilla. calceolaria and flower seeds in 1821 Bougainvillea in 1858. Indian Council of Agricultural Research 1960-65 . aloe. tecoma.Botanical Garden. Darjeeling. Indian Institute of Horticultural Research. Floriculture research and essential oils Damask rose for essential oils. cfalla. Ludhiana BCKVV. Hyderabad and Bangalore. Shillong. Ootacamund. chrysanthemum for cultivation State Rose. crossandra and chrysanthemum. Camellia. Gladiolus. croton. aster and orchid. Kalyani (West Bengal) Gladiolus. bougainvillea. tulip. stock. Orchids and various flowers including jasmine.

2 15 Gladiolus 9 9.6 12. gladiolus.8 75 65 11 10. Propagating materials (seeds.National Botanical Research Institute. No information is available on 52 . Research efforts Sire also limited or tacking for devetoping varieties for specific use.2 5 6. The Essence of information is a serious bottleneck in the development of florkjulture industry. where a large number of varieties were developed and released. bougainvillea. amaiillis and gladiolus. New Delhi. Indo-Ainerican Hybrid Seed. amaranths.7 to — Source : Floriculture Industry In Incfta. chryssmthemum.1 4. nymphaea and other ornamental aquatio plante. Lucknow Chrysanthemum. Post -harvest studies/research on flowers have been almost negligible except some studies on packaging of flowers by the Indian Institute of Packaging. Research resute of many institutes have not reached the grovter due to absence of extens'ton services in floriculture. a Paper by Dr. Research efforts have remained confined to only cut-flower crops like rose.7 Carna.6 9.7 4. Even with the cut-flower crops. rooted oittings or plants) are not available in most cases because of lack of multl|:^icalJon of the improved cultivars lin large quantities/numbers. bulbs. Vishnu Swarup. Table 25 Pre and Post-Harvest Losses in Selected Varieties of Ffowers Mode of Loss Plait mortalitj^ loss at growers'tevel Packing loss at growers'tevel Non-availability of cold storage f a d % at growers' level Trzmsportation Rose 9 4 4. In addition.9 7. most of these could not be commercialised. there is the problem of limited availability of the planting material of the improved varieties. mainly due to poor extension support. Information on production technology under protected environment which is essential for the production of quality produce is not easily available.Gtwysarittiernum tion 9. There is no welt documented information on the package of practices for production of major crops under different agro-climatic regions.S Ordild 15 8 5 Ttte rose 3. fotus. T ^ t ^ beiow shows pre and post harvest losses in selected varieties of Itowers.

post-harvest handling of the produce. — P t o i n g roateraii. equipments. grading. On an average these losses varied between 28-35 per cent depending upon the kind of flower. Information on investment/business opportunities and credit availability is not available. USA. France and the UK. Domestic marketing facilities are absent. Pre and post-harvest losses need to be curtailed to make India's floricultural products competitive particularly in the international markets where the competition is fierce. is insuffident and ^ ssmb-stMc^s^ m many cases. cold storage. Commercialisation of floriculture calls for cutting down costs at every stage from production through marketing. Infrastructural Deficiencies The nascent floriculture industry has to encounter many infrastructural deficiencies in the absence of organised coHection centres. wadutifog seaJs. Israel. low yielding and inferior in quality as compared to the modern culivars growi in ottier countries having advanced floriculture. pre-cooling. both agro-techniques and quality of flowers and other floricultural products are poor and inconsistent. like Holland. packing and storage and post-harvest handling facilities at major international airports. — Pm arad posl4ian/est losses at various levels in cultivation and marketing of flowers are high mainly due to lack of proper infrastructural facilities. like green houses. if available. Dissemination of information particularly from Government and Government aided organisation is extremely inadequate. Credit facilities need to be augmented to improve the export performance of the industry. packaging and transport. cuttings of desired vari©ites is @iher nc»t avattay@. — The varieties being grown presently are in many cases old and obsolete. imlbs. especially of traditional flowers. 53 . m ttie quantity. information on markets for floricultural products both within the country and abroad is not easily available. Weaknesses in Production In general. Equally.

Orissa. But this need not stand as an obstacle in the growth of the industry. particularly in potential areas of West Bengal. VI. to enlarge the community of investors and exporters. In order to develop the floriculture industry on sound footing. This is an industry which does not clash with local consumption needs. The process of economic reforms initiated in July 1991 is continuing with greater vigour and they are surely irreversible irrespective of the political philosophies of the Government in power. Floricultural industry in the country being at a nascent stage of 54 . Imparting training through specialised courses by establishing an Institute for horticulture including floriculture is vitally needed. The industry will generate employment opportunities. Domestic production needs to be encouraged apart from the existing areas. there will be no opposition from any quarter as the growth of the industry will be benefiting the farming community and contributes immensely to the rural development. Particularly in the case of floriculture industry development. In the absence of special training programmes at home. North East Himalayan belt etc. industry and trade today is much better than ever before. STRATEGY FOR TAPPING EXPORT POTENTIAL Export potential for India's floricultural products is immense. India is a late entrant into global floriculture business. there is no clash with environmental standards. the industry will earn net foreign exchange. the dependence on foreign technology and technicians will become a permanent feature which would not help achieve a quantum jump in India's exports of floricultural products. it is necessary to train people at all stages from production through export marketing. Mindset of the Government. Any delay in imparting training through specialised Diploma and Degree and short duration certificate courses would cost the country dearly. Floriculture industry enjoys certain special advantages. the first and foremost task is to organise estimates of area and production of floricultural products in the country so as to facilitate planning for future on a more systematic and scientific basis. eastern UP.Human Resource Development Since commercialisation of floriculture is relatively of recent origin.

— Exim-policies have to be modified to exploit the full potential of floriculture industry. With proper policy framework by the Government and initiatives by the industry and trade. — Credit facilities particularfy the rate of interest and the quantum of funds have to be investor-friendly. storage at airports. removing the constraints and creating an enabling atmosphere is an important pre-requisite. The 55 . — Research efforts are to be strengthened to produce varieties that are in liemand In overseas markets and to increase the shelf-life. European countries and Japan. However. — Domestic marketing has to be strengthened and facilitated by opening up. calls for a collective effort and cooperative endeavour of the Government.000. — Tediootogy has to be developed indigenously to make it easily accessible and to dispense with any imports. The steps required include the following: — Planting material needs to be augmented by stepping up the application of technology of tissue culture. Encouraging growers' cooperatives would help considerably. 1. auction centres. etc. reefer tran^ort facilities. Removal of the constraints. there are a number of constraints. India should make an endeavour to achieve an export target of Rs. is in the realm of possibility. — Human resources are to be developed by imparting specialised knowledge through training programmes right from production through export marketing. 800 crore to Rs.000 crore (US$300 million) by the year 2.development. however. NABARD has to give utmost importance to the floriculture industry. — Infrastructure has to be created by way of cold chains. it is opportune for India to harness the production potential and exploit the overseas market opportunities. — India need to strengthen her export efforts to tap markets such as USA. industry and trade. EOUs may be encouraged to market as much as 75 per cent of the output in the domestic market. By a proper blend of policy support and incentives and facilities. which by all means.

Liberalisation of industrial and trade policies has opened up several avenues for growing floricultural products for exports. — Information in respect of all facets of floriculture industry needs to be disseminated as widely as possible to encourage entrepreneurs to take advantage of the market opportunities. A combination of factors including infrastructure. — Seminars need to be conducted in all the potential States to encourage new investors to t&ke to floriculture business. ecology and Government policy would ultimately decide the competitiveness of India's floriculture industry. .effort should be to spread export culture and to create an enabling atmosphere. Combined with this. environment. India has vast potential for production and exports of floricultural products. the availability of credit and incentives for taking up floriculture business would help India to retain her competitiveness to emerge as an important supplier to global markets. — As a part of information dissemination. organisations such as National Horticulture Board (NHB) and Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) should jointly produce video film covering all facets of industry for greater exports. Growth in domestic consumption will help in boosting exports and provide greater employment opportunities and incomes.

ANNEXURES .

.

Puerto Rico Italy United Kingdom Netherlands Switzerland Japan Sweden Belgium.Puerto Rico Netherlands United Kingdom France Japan Switzerland Italy Austria Belgium-Luxembourg Sweden Canada Denmark Singapore Norway Spain Mexico Ireland Greece Finland Kuwait Argentina Portugal Australia Thailand Korea Rep. CUT-FLOWERS AND FOLIAGE SITC: 2926 Bulbs/Cuttings/Plants Germany France USA . PLANTS.Guiana Turkey Chile Indonesia Faeroe Islands Cyprus Romania India 59 .ANNEXURE I GLOBAL MARKETS FOR BULBS. Portugal Mexico Greece Singapore Ireland Turkey Australia Kuwait Argentina China Israel Cyprus New Zealand India Jordan Malaysia Tunisia Brazil Philippines Reunion Indonesia Thailand Iceland Martinique Chile Oman Faeroe Islands Guadeloupe Romania Mauritius Tunisia Venezuela Sri Lanka Pakistan SITC 2927: Cut-Flowers/Foliage Germany USA . Oman Martinique Iceland Guadeloupe Reunion Venezuela Malaysia Brazil New Zealand Israel China Sri Lanka Philippines Fr.Luxembourg Austria Canada Spain Denmark Finland Norway Korea Rep. CUTTINGS.

The price on i t e idral A Hhstt wei^ mometitt is <te price fiat he or she pays.. Interestingly.. thornless roses. It then runs back wards throi^h i t e llomer ^ioes uniil a tsajt^er pr^^ses vm ^isx^tmi\c button and stops the clock. colours and shapes from all over the worid are sold in minutes and leave for various destinations. And *>e Dutch floriculture industry knows that providing customers estacJIy what they want is the best t f ^ tor Sthe Industry's continued growth. straight stems and not a scratch or a bend or any damage. etc.in extremely modern way. whtdh is the largest business under one roof in the world. The huge hall osmteins . . A few venerable traditions are gradually changing. the size of several football fields. The pivotal role is played by the ingenious -and jjust^ tamcuiB Dutch auction cloaks systems.ANNEXURE II FLOWER AUCTION SYSTEM JN NETHERLANDS Flower auction in Aalsmeer in Netherlands takes place in a huge it^^scwse. New technology for flowers is constantly tieing evolved to create new colours. as its's a buyer's martlet. l t » <c)to>£K'£ IteaiMSl is ^ ai. after all.tn^ dhedlly/outside the auction systems.000 people work at tre Aalsmeer Flower Auction. perfect leaves. As the vivid and varied flowers are displayed by tllne ^tteis. JtaS putting increasing pressure on growers. too late and another buyer will have got in first. This is whei>e the thousands of bidders and flower sellers do traditional businesB . Millions and millions of flowers in different varieties.^ is of customers buy. There are high standards of quality-there must be uniformity and beautiful colours. The trick is to hit the button at the « ^ seoonid: too socn. the lot is not sold but destroyed. as is tiecomlng common In the c ^ e sif wi^^ables.fresh buds. The advent of modern coimmunidation methods in the form of tele-auctioning-which enables buyers to dioose tiUDnni %m iprodudts <im 'i^Her at seyeral auctions^ls giving buyers a competitive e d ^ . Virtually all the country's floriculture production is sold through the auction.looms and trolleys and clocks and computers. More than 1. Another possibili. 9xs highest price on the dial. stems over four feet long. the clock's hand falls below a pre-determined reserve price withi»t a buyer putting In a bid. wA fou pay too much. Swdlii Changes are iffevMae. increased vase life.

Plot 8. Bee House. 9. Ltd. Ltd. Complex 13th Masjld Moth New Delhl-110 048 M/s Ajaypartap Singh H. H-Block. Vaju Kotak Marg Bombay-400001 M/s D Baneriee & Co. Chandigarh. Jolly Maker Chamers-I Nariman Point Bombay-400 021 Tele: 022-2850383.160 023 Tele: 172-600624 M/s Andhra Seeds Corp. Ponnlor Chambers.K.O. Calcutta-700001 Tele: 033-366486 r » M/s Duncans Biotech 41. No. 213. B. Bhatpara House. Box 1685. 10. DDA Comml. Sector 36-A. New Delhi-110 002 Tele:011-3275670 Fax: 011-32481 M/s Becimpex International Pvt. Fax 022-2021040 M/s Asiatic Agencies 4850. Area. Calcutta-700017 Tele: 033-2477588 Fax : 0332471909 M/s East West Trade Links B-5/69 Safdarjung Enclave New Delhi-110029 Tele : 011-600840 FelX : 011-6882609 Tele: 022-2612627 Fax: 0225611700 M/s Durga Seeds 24/8. Panampilly Nagar Cochin -682015 Tele :0484-355312 M/s Akhshan Florltech 73. 131. Indl. New Alipur Calcutta-700 053 Tele.t)33-4781655 Fax :033-4788181 Tele:11-6445815 Fax: 011-6445819 M/s BharatI Glaxy 116. 66. Sajan Nagar Indore .No. Phase-ll Chandigarh-160002 Tele: 0172-604685 Fax : 0172-44388 61 . 24. 3-6-295. Gangandeep Rajendra Place New Delhi-110008 Tele: 011-5713928 Fcix 011-5754200 M/s DHK Kartik Export 1st FIR. Shakespeare Sarani.453 001 Tele:0731-400121 Fax: 0731-400125 M/s Bhargab & Co. Ansarl Road Darya Ganj. Park Avenue. P. Hyderguda Hyderabad -500 029 Tele:040-236312 M/s Batna Agro Industries Ltd.ANNEXURE III EXPORTERS OF FLORICULTURAL PRODUCTS M/s A V Thomas & Co.

N0.O. Swasti House 70. Teynampet. VakilwadI Nasik-422001.. Extn. Tele: 022-6423068 M/s Hansons ICE & Refrigeration Buland Est. Centenary Buikilng. Essar House. Calcutta-700013. Bombay-4000346 Tele 022-4950606 Fax : 022-4954793 M/s Feroze Noshir Masani Ycununa Nivas. Tele: 3427842. Tuticorin-628002.Mahalaxmi. Bandra Police Station St Martin's Road.M/s Empee Distilleries Limited 693/695. Tele: 080-5581145 '1 M/s H J Irani 8. M. Kalimpong Kali(npong-734%1. Tete: 0484-366270 Fax : 0484-351476 M/s H S Bajaj & Sons 391. Ltd. Chandigarh-160001. Metcalfe St. A-62(A). Madras-600018. Road Bangalore-560001. 305. I Dikshit Road P. Sipcot Industrial Complx. Anna Salai.No.28. Keshavrao Khadge Marg. Tele: 03552-651 Fax: 022-3420979 M/s Ganeshrajah Orgnisations Pvt Ltd. Mount Road Madras-600006 Tele: 044-8522510 Fax : 0448523412 M/s Fauna International R. 11. 558. Opp. 3rd Fkx>r. Tele: 022-3422002 Fax: 022-3400906 M/s Harrisons Universal Flowers Ltd. Road Cochin-682018. B. Mahesh Chamt)ers. Kazi Sayed Street Bombay-40003. Badaun Road Nekpur Barellly-243001 Tele: 0552-79296 Fax : 060-5589026 62 . Therku Veerapandia Puram P. M/& Essar Agrotech Ltd. Sector 4. 5.3435424 M/s Giripai IntematkjnaT PH. Tele: 044-450575 Fax : 044-459456 M/s Fragrance & Aroma (Eastland) Pvt. Narshi Natha St Bomt)ay-400009. Tele: 461-23507 Fax: 0461-23407 M/s Flownvood Nursery Dr. 2nd Fl.&-E & 34-A. Bandra Bombay-400050. Tele: 0172-540540 Fax : 0172 44388 Tele : 033-264366 Fax : 033-271697 M/s Floral Technology Ltd Plot No.G. Tele: 0K53-350515 Fax : 0253-78902 M/s Ftower India International H.O.

Tele 022-240239 Fax : 022-2873974 M/s Minex Agencies 71. Empire Infantry.7. Westend Colony New Oelht-110021 Tele: 011-6873230 Fax : 011-68732390 M/s Indrayani Biotech Ltd 12.Off S V Road Vile Parele (W) Bomt)ay-400056. PO Kalimpong Kalimpong (Distt Darjeeling) Kallmpong-734301. 2nd Flour. Calcufta-700013. Ezra Street Calcutta-700001. M/s Indo American Hylxld Seeds. Pitampura Delhi-110034. Strand Road Calcutta-700001. Gandhi Nagar Gudiljandi Street Tenali. Tele : 011-72744565 Fax : Oil 7276747 03552-55685 : 034552-55290 M/s B Vania & Sons Cusrow Baug [)-5.M/s Hem Enterprises 20.(Raj. 17th Cross 2nd A Main Banashankeri 2nd Stage. No. 0212-323241 Fax: 0212-326201 M/s Jayalakshmi Exports 2-34-14. ROeKJ Bangalore-560070. Panchsheel Park New DeIhi-110017.) Tele 0294-526965 Fax : 0294-523493 63 . PO Box 7099 K. 3rd Fkx>r. Tele: Fax 022-6121365 022-6104872 M/s Lotus & Co. Causeway Shahid Bhagat Singh Road. Tele: 033-257122 Fax 033-254953 M/s S Pun & Co.29. Chetak Maig Udaipur-313001. Tele 033-261178 Fax : 033-270162 M/s Mohanraj Enterprises 151. 48. Ltd. 160. Tele FelX Indo Bloom Ltd.R. Tele: 011-6442542 Fax : 011-6852133 M/s Jyoti Corp No. 080-6650479 Tele: 033-2205523 M/s Indo Australian Flora Pvt. Thubhe Park Shivajl Nagar Puf»-411005. Ganesh Chandra Avenue. Guntur-522201. Tele: 080-6650111 Fax . Tele: 08644-6338 Fax : 08644-2433 M/s L K Pradhan Nursery Chibo Busty. B-19. BombaY-400039. 1st Fkxw. D-5. Infantry Road Bangalore-560001 Tele: 080-572692 Fax : 080-557077 M/s International Garden Centre S-356.RamkrJshna BIdg. Pushpcinijali Enclave. Tele.

Ambika Soc. 5. Bombay-400038.O. Near Sholapur Bazar Pune-411040. Turkx}rin-628002. 53-A. Pune-411037.. Subhas Nagar Shukrawar PeSi Pune-4110521. Tele 0172-565221 Fax : 0172-565221 M/s Rainnow lnternatk>nat . Sector-10 Panchkula-134109. Laxml Niwass. Calcutta-700025. Kasturi Est. Tele Fax 0461-23507 0461-23407 M/s Pocha Exports P. 46.Subhash Road Anand-388001. M/s Natural Syneigies Ltd 3. Ltd. 5th Floor. Ltd. Darjeeling) Assam-734301. A 62(A). Madras-600086 Tele 044-4997747 Fax : 044-452546 M/s Nurseryman's Haven RIshi Road Kallmpong (DIstt. 0212-672987 M/s Radharam Sotranlial 3. 36/E-2. Tele : 011-4631999 M/s Roseland S-366. Centur Court. Panchsheel Park New Delhi-110017. Box 55. Tele : 03552-55435 M/s Paresh & Co. Tele Fcix Tele Fax 022-2610021 022-2623729 033-4750372 033-Z82314 M/s Photon Biotech Ltd 554. Sipcot Indl. Tele : 0212-441105 M/s Oriental Floratech India Pvt Ltd Darabshaw House Ballard Est. Tele 0212-652520 Fax : 0212-671686 M/s Punjab Bkjssoms Ltd House No.2384781 Fax : 033-2384781 M/s RadhanI Nursery Kert>ala Jor Bagh New Delhi-110003. 8th 2nd St. Tele : 33. Girlsh Mukherjee Road Bhawanipore. Tele : 0212-671978 Fax . Tele 02692-24140 Fax : 02692-26546 M/s Ramesh Fknvers Pvt. Plot No. Tele Fax 011-6442542 011-6852133 64 . MaRck St Calcutta-7d0007. Market Yard.M/s Natural Products Export Corp. ^«rza Ghalib St Calcutta-700016. Complx. Tele: 033-299150 Fax : 033-291583 M/s NItin Govind Sable 1196.

A.M/s Rose Garden Nayavyard. Annie Besant Road WorIi Bombay-440018. Tele 022-3447415 Fax : 0223447415 M/s Shangrila-Gardens Dr. Alappatt Cross Rd. 011-6892581 M/s Sahara International 12.O.S. Tele 022-3441039 Fax : 022-3432476 M/s sanghvi International tSS'SO. Chhani Road. B. Tele 022-4920300 Fax : 022-4950574 04853-60285 : 0484-370405 65 .BIk. Narayan Dhuru St. Prem Nagar Dehra Dun-248007. S. Ravipuram Cochin. BIT Chawl Chandanwadi. New Alipore Calcutta-700053. Shivasagar Est. Tele : 0265-481336 Fax : 0265-481080 M/s Sagar Enterprise No..S. F. Lajpat Nagar New Delhi-110024. Bonibay-400002. PO Box 2344. C.5/88. Tele Fax 03552-552993 03552-55290 M/s Shivallk Seeds Corp 47.C. Apts. Synthite Valley Koadoyiruppu Kolencherry-682311. Bombay-400003. Tele 4780030 Fax : 033-2486871 M/s Saral Exports Pvt Ltd Sopari Bhuvan. Tele 022-2080447 Fax : 022-2089731 M/s Samak Farms & Nurseries 5. Tele 011-6837190 Fax : 011-6847269 M/s Synthite Industrial Chemicals Ltd. Tele FelX M/s Tata Exports Ltd. Tele 0135-83348 Fax : 0135-29944 M/s Sterling Farm Research & Services Pvt Ltd. Annexe Bdg. Sterling House. Dikshit Road Kalimpong-734301. Bombay-4K»03.5th Fl. 83/85. Tele: 084-365618 Fax : 0484-371308 M/s Sivaskti Enterpprises 1st Fl. Dr. BIk. 2nd Fl. Tele 033-2200666 Fax : 033-2483724 M/s San-lnd International P. 8 B D Bag (E) Calcutta-700001. Tele 663442 Fax . M-1. Tele : 03552-55850 M/s Shcinti Kunz -Nursery Bong Road KalimpQng-734301.F.108. Hauz Khas New Delhi-110016.682 016. 39/3209. Kazi Sayed t.L. Baroda-39CXX>2.. Panditwari P.

Madhu Indl. Tele : (040)-618820 Fax : (040)-618820 M/s Bommidala Florex Ltd. M-1. 11. M/s Arun Europe Floriculture Ltd. n Tele (022)-2031744 Fax : (022)-2084018 66 . M/s Annagi^a Flor Exports Limited 202. Hyderabad-500482. Tele : (040)-233981 Fax : (040)-240198 M/s Bubna Major Biotech Ltd. Marine Chambers. (040)-841697 M/s Brother Floratech India Ltd. Samrat Complex Saifabad. Worti Bombay-400013. Tele Fax 033-2477167 033^429044 M/s United Exports Triveni Warfiam Road Cochin-682016. Shakuntia. Dharam Karam Road. D-4. 201. Punjagutta Hyderabad-500082. Arunodaya Apartments. Tele :(040)-313421 Fax :(040)-248993 M/s Blooming Meadows Ltd 7-1-70. Tele (040-391602 Fax : (040)-391602 M/s Asian Flowers Ltd. Pradhikaran. Nigdi Pune-411001. Shakespeeire Sarani Calcutta-700017. Tele (040)-291608 Fax . Dwarakapuri Colony. Nehru Place New Delhi-110019. Tele : 0212-628876 Fax : 0212-620225 M/s Aditya Agrifiora Ltd 6-3-655/2/2. 12-11-1373 Boudha Nagar Secundrabad-5003621. Tele 022-4941936 Fax : 022 4928814 M/s Andrew Yule & Co. Ameerpet Hyderabad-500016.24. New Delhi-110024. Tele Fax 03552-55387 03552-55290 M/s Vikram Greentech (India) Pvt Ltd.Panjagutta. Tele (011)-6444008 Fax : (011)-6444007 M/s Blooming Dales Floriculture Ltd. Lajpat Nagar-slll. Ltd 8. Kalimpong. Tele 0484-352628 Fax : 0484-370498 Mffs V G Agro Industries Pvt Ltd.M/s Tropicana Exports 58-A. Teile : 6821406 Fax : 011^847269 M/s Yuppa Internationa] 26. P B Marg. Nungambakkam Madras-600034. 59. Tele : (044)-8253823 M/s Universal Bulb & Plant Nurseries 8th Mile. Somajiguda Hyderabad-500482. Rajendra Prasad Sarani Calcutta-700001. Darjeeling-734301. 411. 302. New Marine Lines Bombay-400020. Sector No.Topaz Building. Serling Road. Plot No.Sandhya Enclave. Est. 99. 146. Dr. Hyderabad.

Banjara Hills. Tele (080)-2239648 Fax : (080)-3311109 M/s Euro Asia Flowers Ltd.Rd. Ltd. Kundll Industrial Estate Delhi Border.B. M/s Contitental Floriculture Pvt. Road.Green Dale. 5 & 6. Shiv Sagar State Dr.M/s C. 3-6-781/2 Street No. (040)-313181 M/s Dhannyalakshmi Florihouse Ltd.Rowers Ltd.Nagarjuna Ngr.I. Tele (040)-313181 Fax . Bhavan M-3. G.Am. Bangalore-560071. Tele :(040)-220753 M/S Flodaie 27. Road Fax:(0 ) -7011 M/s Farmtech Agro Exports Ltd.G. Tele (0212)-624113 Fax : (0212)-623241 M/s Cosco Blossoms LTD. Omega Apartments. Colony Road 12. 7-1-24/2/D.S. Ltd.C. 14 Hyderabad-500029.. i\. Tele (04563)-20054 Fax : (04563)-22850 M/s Eurotech Flora Ltd. Ameerpet Hyderabad-500016.T. 301. 49-E.A.Sector-1 Nerul New Bombay-400706. Tele : (080)-608310 Fax . 8-3-903/A/3. Tele (040)-292455 Fax : (040)-292499 M/s Camson Agrltech Ltd. Jorbag New Delhi M/s Crystal Agritech Ltd Ameerpet Hyderabad-500016. 26.DC.S.I. 352-A. 223 1st Main Oomlur II Stage.A.L. Connaught Circus. Hyderabad-500034. Tele (080)-5260232 Fax : (08Q)-5260232 M/s C. 131.B. New Delhi-110001.llnd Floor NarangI Bagh Road P. Hyderabad-500873.Drowpathiamman Koil Street Rajapafayam-626117. 261 Pune-411001. (080 608310 67 . Tele (040)-638720 Fax : (S)40)-638720 M/s Cefrtwy trrternational NiD. Agros Ltd.V. M. Lai Bagh Road Bangalore-560027. 201-204.No. B5 llnd Floor. Market Complex. Bull Temple Road Bangalore.Worli Bombay-400018. M/s Das Flowers Pvt. Tele : (022)-7670076 Fax : (022)-7632606 M/s Fermenta Pharma Biodil Ltd F/5. 28 Adhchini Sri Aurobindo Marg New Delhi-110017. Tele : 022-4927190 Fax : 022 4936940 M/s Flora Continental Ltd 131 H. Tele (040)-315176 Fax : (040)-394885 M/s Farm Specialities India Ltd.1st Floor.

I. Kailash Colony New Delhi. No. Tele (080)5262424 Fax . 806 Meghdoot. Relief Palika Salapose Road Ahemadabad-380001 Tele :(0272)-354092 M/s Harrisons Universal Flowers Limited Centenary Building. (022)-4303143 M/s Indo-Holland Agro Exports LTD. 805 Barton Centre. 40-3-2/E. (0212)-323241 Fax : (0212)-326201 M/s Hindustan Agrigentetics Ltd..(011)-688665 :(011)-6872515 68 . 2-Radha Krishnan Street T. Tele .Mahim Bombay-16. Tele . Bhaskar Mansion. Tele : (044)44256971 Fax : (044)-448256971 M/s Indryani Biotech Ltd. Parklane Secundrabad-500003. 3-4 South End Lane New Delhi-110011. M. Race Course.G. Bhikaji Cama Place New Delhi-110066. Tele :(080)-5581158 Fax :(080)-5589026 M/s I.IJ. (080)-5262424 M/s Green Hquse Agri India Ltd. Tele Fax •. M/ Gujarat Agrigenetics Ltd. B-17. 5. Road.M/s German Gardens Ltd. Road Bangalore-56000'1. Vijayawada-520010. Chet^als Ltd Chinoy Trade C6ntrte. Tele .M.Som Datt Chamber-I. 31 Sitta Devi Temple Road. M/s Global Blooms (India) Ltd.D. . 116. Coimbatore-641018. Bangalore-560001. Ltd. 7.(080)-5594775 M/s Golden Sash Agroexport Pvt. Tele : (040)-844100 Fax : (040)841933 M/s Indo Holland Agritech Ltd.G. Kempapma Yamalur Post Bangalore-500037. A-24/A. 1. IVth Floor. Tele : (022)-4226819 Fax . Krishna Nagar Cabbi-pet. Nagar Madras-600017.d Floor 28.(011)-3013423 Fax :(011)-3011168 M/s Grand leas Florex Ltd. Tele (0422)-212750 Fax : (0422)-211104 M/s Global Industries Ltd 10 Gauri Apartments. 94 Nehru Place New Delhi-110019. 12 Thube Park Shivaji Nagar Pune-411005. Tele : (011)-6665442 Fax : (011)-6864547 M/s Indo-French Biotech Entgerprises Ltd 5.

Indo Holland Ltd. Greater Kailash-I. Hyderabad-500034. Ltd. 92 Nehru Place. 170. 303 Ashiyana. Tele :(011)-6229297 Fax :(011)-6229298 M/s Karisma Flolculture Ltd. S 48..Crescent Road tengakMe-560001. New Delhi-110019. 11. Tele (011)-6430884 Fax : (011)-6430884 M/s Kanishka Agrotech Ind. Tele :(04O)-227436 Fax :(040)-393559 69 . Banjara Hills. 6th Cross Rajmahal Vilas Extension Bangalore-560080. 204.New DEH Colony. New Delhi-110048. llnd Cross. Tele: (080)-2257470 Fax : (080)-2260396 M/s Kuber Rantation Ltd S-32. Panjagutta Hyderabad-500482. 12.M/s Indus Rortitech Ltd 8-2-703/4/1 Road No. 707 Deepak Building. Jaya Ram House 129 Thombu Chetty SIreetl Madras-600001. 10th Main. Sayag Floriculture Pvt. 41 Nagarijuna Hills. 6-3-1089/A-3-I Gulmohar Avenue Raibhawan Road Hyderabad-500482. Tele : (011)-6372685 • Fax : (011)-6420378 Tele : (011^6446525 Fax : (011)-6446525 M/S Kora Roses Ltd. New Delhi-110048. Sayajj Hotels Kalaghoda Baroda-390005.llnd Floor Embassy Centre. M. M/s Kamson Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. G-14 Mansrovar 90 Nehru Place New Delhi-110019.K. Tele : (040)-393109 Fax : (040)224314 M/s Jzigadamabe Agrlgenetics Ltd I. West Marrapally Secundrabad-500026. Rajmahal Vilas Extension Bangeilaore-560080. Tele : (04)-5224487 Fax : (044)-5224487 Tele (011)-607994 Fax : (011)-6885919 M/s Jeevan Flora Ltd. Tele : (080)-3341271 Fax : (080)-8394936 M/s Inovative Export Flowers LTD.1st Floor Greater Kailash Colony. Tele : 330088 Fax : 330284 M/s Karuturi Floritech Ltd. Tele : {040)-316145 Fax : (040)392820 M/s J. West End New Delhi-110021. M/s Kanoria Reurs & Naturals Ltd. Tele (040)-800402 Fax : (040)-501716 M/s Jaya Ram Floriculture M/s Jain Floriculture Ltd A-12.

(080)-5589587 Fax :(080)-5588179 M/s Mali Florex Ltd. 306.R. 70 . Kailash. Somajiguda Hyderabad-500482. Road Bangetlore. Jubilee Buiteling. New Delhi-110016. Raheja Tower. Tele : (080)-5594808 Fax : (080)-5596065 M/s Maheshwari Floritech Limited 86 Radha Krishna Salai 26 Aarthj Arcade Madras-600004. Tele (0 )-400759 Fax : (0 )-425876 M/s Malav Agrotech Ltd. Tele :(011)-6479105 Fax :(011)6447347 M/s Naisargik Agritech (India) Ltd.G.M.Hauz Khas Enclave.O. Tele : (011)-6217040 Fax : (011)6858494 M/s Mahyco Ltd. Bangalore-560025. Tele. DIspur Guwhati-781006. Tele : (011)-3316722 Fax : {011)-3317947 M/s Multi Hue Flora Ltd.6-3-652. Tele (040)224445 Fax : (040)-225189 M/s Natural Synergies Ltd 3. 2 A. Ltd. Tele :(011)-6114986. 8B. Nehru Place New Delhi-110019. Bhadur Shah Zafar Marg New Delhi-110002.Behind Medinova. 64-65. IVth Floor (West Wing). Madras-600086. C-3 Local Shopping Centre. Tele : (080)-S58559 Fax : (080)-5588589 M/s Mishan Flora ln<fia Limited K-30 A. Tele :(011)-6858802 Fax :(011)-6473378 M/s Nagarjuna Agrtech Ltd 62 Nagarjuna Hills Punjagutta. M/s Manjushree Plantations Ltd. D-36. Road Bangalore-560001. 14th Floor. Tele (040)-392501 Fax : (040)-392501 M/s Megha Orchids (I) Pvt. 1st Floor NDSE Part-ll New Delhi-110049. Ahemadabad-380009. Tele :(044)-8281418 Fax :(044)-8281840 M/s L.M/s Lakshml Mactiine Works Ud. Navrangpura P. Tele : (044)-4991490 Fax : (044)-452546 M/s Navneet Aggarwal NECEM Cements Ltd Housing Colony Road Rukmani Nagar.G. Agro Division).Century Court Kashturl Estate II Street Poes Garden. A Wfaig Mittal Tower. Vasanth Vihar New Delhi-110057.M. 1-5. G-9 Harsh Bhavan.45 Museum Rd. Hyderabad-500482. Brothers Indo Flor Ltd.161 Floor Dhru Tara.

Banjara Hills Hyderabad-500043.Worli Bombay-400018.B.S. Hi-Line Complex Road No. Tele (040)-393038 Fax : (040)399309 M/s Olympic Agro Industries Ltd 419 Hind Rajasthan Building D.FIoriculture Limited Mittal Towers 'A' Wing llrd Floor Nariman Point Bombay-400021.P. Tele :(022)-6264573 Fax : (022)-6318496 M/s Oriental Floritech India Ltd. F/5 Shivsagar State Dr. Tele (022)-4917190 Fax : (022)-4936040 M/s Rosette India Ltd 137 Mandakini Enclave Kalkaji New Delhi-110019.Banjara Hills Hyderabad-500034.TK. A. VJjaya Hill Apartments A. Tele (0461)-23507 Feix : (0461)-23407 M/s Rosette Agritech Ltd C 309. M/s Noel AgrtJtech Ltd. Tuticorin-628002. A-629A) Sipcot Ind.C. Tele (022)-2851636 Fax : (022)2853007 M/s Pochiraju Floritech Limited 121 A.M/s Nexgen Rorltech Ltd No. Eldarrs Fload Madr^B-9^918. Tele (0172)565221 Fax : (0172)547664 M/s Rermenta Pharma Blodil Ltd.llnd Floor Road No. 221 Amrutha Village. l2. T. Tele :(080)-3347987 Fax :(080)-3347987(Bangalore) M/s Ramesh Flowers Pvt. Estate Off. New Link Road Andherl (W) Bombay-400053. Tele : (022)-4113225 Fax : (022)-4147537 M/s P. llird Floor. M/s NIrmal Floratech Ltd. M/s Punjab Blossoms Ltd. H No. Tele :(022)-2623729 Fax :(022)-26213729 M/s Parinika Harvest Floratech Lti 308. Rajbhavan Road. Ltd. Guards Hyderabad -500004.Dadar Bonibay-400014.O. 46. Sector 10. Panchkula Haryana-134109.PhaIke Road.L. Complex Therku Veerapandiya Puram P. 71 . Somajiguda Hyderabad. Road. 12. HoS^ A. Darabshaw House Ballard Estate Bombay -400038. 8-2-629/1/A. Dalia Ind. C-10. Tele Fax :(040)-312677 :(040)-397512 M/s Pristine Booms Ud. 151. Road Alwarpet Madras-600018.

M/s S.P. UAS Layout Snajay NagcU' Bangalore-560094.A. Tele :(080)-6335462 M/s Southern Greenfields Limited 318 Raheja Arcade. 6-3-109Q/1/A. Agros Ltd. 6-3-1085. 1383 64. NO. Nagar Andheri (East) Bombay-59.P.Connaught Circus New Delhi-IIOOOt. Fax Fax (080)-339730 (040)-315946 72 . (044)-S64575 Suffiangal Properties LUI H-108-D. Tele : (022)-83910117 Fax : (080]H5534652 Tele : (080)-5534965 M/s South India Bromide & Allied Chemicals PvtLtd.Rajbhavan Road Hyderat>ad-500082. Tele : (08518)-22098 Tele : (044)-583025 Fax . M/s Shakti Sai Flowers & Tissue Ltd. Pancom Chambers. M/s Suravanshi Florex Ltd 2A.Opposite Gold Spot Hyderabad-500016. Tele : (080)-333395 Tele : (040)-315945 M/s Syveirna Florex Ltd. Bose Road Calcutta-700020.M/s Fiozendia Limited C-3/3010.3-5-874/4 1st Floor Hyderguda Hyderabad-500029. Ilnd Main J. Ltd.P.2 4 2 7 5 8 1 Fax : ( 0 3 3 ) . Tele (040)-311237 Fax : (040)-355968 Mfe Sun Floriculture BiotBch Ud. 1/1. Tele ( 0 3 3 ) . 40/304 Bhagya Nagar Kumool-518004. Armanlum Street Madras-60001. Guard Hyderatiad Tele :(080)-6640751 M/s Siddarlh Paradise Floriculture Ltd.Kurla Road J. 58/59 Andheri. 1 Acharya J. Badan Soohana Apartments. Koreimangala Bangalaore-560095. Post Box No. Nagar. 34.lll Phase Bangalore-560078. M/& Sree Royyal Seema Dutch Kassembouw Ltd.C. Tele : {040)-231075 Fax : (040)-596314 Tele : (040)-310267 Fax : (040)-397162 M/s Scarlet Flowrs & Agritech Ltd 284. 6-3-788/29/32 Vidhya Bharati College Building. Tele :(011)-6899417 Fax : (011)-6899417 M/s Sachin Floritech Ltd 23. 6-2-39/B AC.Vasanth Gunj New Delhi-110070.4th Cross. Rajbhawan Road Hyderat>ad.2 4 8 5 8 4 M/s Sajjala Agritech Pvt.

Tele (011)-5742053 Fax : (011)-5730699 M/s Valplus Biotech Ltd. Mardia Plaza. Beuna Mote Opp. 73 .Banjara Avenue Banjara Hills Hyderabad-500034.Near Century Bazar.I. Nagar Main Road M. Chandigarh. Tele .L.G. Kalian Das Udyog Bhawan. Frontier Chambers Sector 17/C. Vatsa House.C. Tele Fax (040)-396163 (040)-395703 M/s Zenith Floriculture India Ltd. Navrangpura AhemeHJabad. Vasavi Florex Ltd. Divya Sakti Complex. Tele (022)-2835051 Fax : (022)-2833668 M/s Venus Floriculture Exports 29. 5th Floor Janam Bhumi Marg Bombay-400001. M/s Vatsa Exim Ltd. Centre Janal<puri New Delhi. C.M/s T. R. 86. Tele (Oil)-7274565 Fax : (Oil)-7276747 M/S Vishwa Flora Limited J-1/35. Hyderabad-500016. 18. Tele Fax :(079)-404953 :(079)-462831 M/s Versatile Biotechnologies Limited 3/21. Layout Bangalore-560032. 131 Mittal Chambers Nariman Point Bombay.A.(0172)-542444 Fax :(0172)-542444 M/s Trozen Agro Comples Limited 205-206 Vishwadeep Dist. 1-206. Tele :(022)-43377378 Fax :(022)-4229721 M/s Varlak Agrotech Pvt Ltd 156. Main Gate Pune-411018. Tele :(0522)-245728 Fax :(0522)-258386 M/s Worldwide Horticulture Ltd. Tele Fax (0 )-349015 : (0 )-331737 M/s Unity Agrotech Industries Ltd 430.MT. Nam pally Hyderabad. Pushpanjali Enclave New Delhi-110034.J. l\/1/s Toubro Industries Ltd SCO 94-95.DLF Qutub Enclave Phase-ll Gurgaon-12002. Patrakar Puram Gomd Nagar Lucknow-226010. N. D-5. 11th Floor 21st Century Complex. Tele (0124)-351901 Fax : (0124)-351161 Ws Yaturi Gardens Ltd Yathuri.Industries Ltd 5-8-113. Bombay-400025. Road.

4 M/s Farmer Nursery Guirim. Railway Station Gwalior-474006. J3Qdballapur-561203. M/s Argosy 97. Nursery 20-C. Kalimpong Distt. M/s B.21. Dixit Road P. M/s Ajanta Seeds & Plants Shop NO. Seed Store Panditwari P.L.O. B. Maude Road Delhi Cantt-110010. Sukdevpur BIshnupur South. lARI New Delhi-110012. Thiruvangad Thalassery-3 DIstt. M/s Beena Nursery (P) Ltd Vellayambalam Tri vandrum-695010.O. M/s Division of Floriculture & Landscaping. M/s Edward Nursery Andul Road P. Near Indian Coffee House. M/s Agri-Hortict/ltural Society Hyderabad-500004.Alipore Road Calcutta-700021.K. (Kerala) M/s Flowerwood Nursery Dr. Chintamani Road George Town Allahabad-211002.24 Parganas (West Bengal)-743503. Botanic Garden Howrah-711103. M/s Anurag Nursery & Agricultural Farm Indira Nagar Dehra Dun-248006(UP).koieer Village Anthrahalli P. Tele Fax :(O8O)-84S2310 :(080)-8460955 M/s Aahaar Uphaar Nelson Mandela Road Munirka Vihar Shoping Complex New Delhi.O. M/s Everest Nursery & Co. Bardez Goa M/s Fredi Surti Co. 11. Kalimpong Darjeellng-734301 (WB). M/s Agri-Horticultural Society 1.O. Daneeling(WB) Kalimpong-734301. Tele : (0471)-604336 M/s Bonanza Decorators 50. M/s Evergreen Nursery P. 65. Boseck & Co. Yashwant Place Chanakyapuri New Delhi-110021. Tele . Saklat Place Calcutta-700013.M/s Zygo Flowers Ltd. Kannur. M/s Aggarweil iMur^ay i .Borechanpur. M/s Branching Out 21. M/s A. Golf Club Roc^ Calcutta-700033(WB). Sy.Y. 2.P.O. Prem Nagar Dehra Dun-2480O7(UP). 74 . M/s Basant Farm and Nursery Ram Baugh Jamuna Bridge Agra-282006.Naveen Market Kanpur-208001.O. 3292926 M/s Deb Narayein Nursery Vill.

Road Banashankari 2nd Stage Bangalaore-560070. Fifth Main Road Chamarajpet Bangalore-560018! M/s Imperial Nursery 9. 17th Cros 2nd 'A' Main K.P. fy/l/s Krishi Kranti Kendra DhanwatI Ashram. Near Humayun Tomb New Delhi-110013.O. M/s Habib Nursery Malihabad Luctaoitf (UP) Ws Hidustan Nursery Diamond Harbour Road P. Mahanagar Lucknow-226006.Sandra Bombay-400050. Sunder Nursery NIzamuddin.O. Lalbagh Siddapur. Tele : 621674 75 . M/s K. 1. Jayanagar 1st Block Bangalore-560011. M/s Indian Institute of Horticulture Research Hessaraghatta Bangalore-560089. Darjeeling (WB) Kalimpong-734301. R a n Ohans Matter Lar« Shyam Bazar Calcutta-700004.S. Shirakole Shirakole-743513 (WB).Publi Road Junagadh-362001 (Guj). Shah Vilayat Street Saharanpur(UP). M/s Krishnendra Nursery 69. M/s Gaya Nursery & Strawberry Farm A/P-S^tii» Tail Koregaon (Dt.R.. Near Maidan Sholapur Bazar Pune-141001. M/s Gulmarg Nursery Golibarl 3/272. M/s Globe Nursery 25. M/s G Q M S &SS. Gole Market Near Bank of India Mahanagar Lucknow-226006.Sitabuldi Nagpur-440012. Kalimpong Distt. M/s Govt. M/s Indo-American Hybrid 42/1. Rai Charan Pal Lane Calcutta-700046.) Satara Maharashtea4-4t!5Sl. Peter Apartments Dr.. Quixtev Nagar Lw*>iana--t4tOOt(PB).M/s Frieds Rosary B-110.O. Gopalaswarnlengar Son. M/s Itmadpur Nursery P. M/s Greenwoods Nurseries 71. M/s Gulshan Nursery 1-A Phyare Road. M/s Hallem Nursery Malihabad Lucknow (UP) M/s Ikebana M-1/1. Saket Meerut-250001. M/s Green Cross Horticulture Service G-1. Peter Dias Road. M/s Indian Horticulture Co. Amarnagar Faridabad-121003. M/s Garden Firnar Gate.

New Delhi-110017. M/s Pradhan Brothers Relli Road Distt. M/s N. M/s Pocha Seed Pvt. Darjeeling(WB) Kalimpong-734301. M/s P.. Road. Ltd. Sarojini Nagar Lucknow-22008. Darjeeling Kalimpong-734301. Paul & Sons 19. M/s L. M/s National Botanical Research institute Rana Pratap Marg Lucknow-226001. 76 . Pocha & Co. Jorbagh Road New Delhi-11003. M/s Plants and Seeds 19. Darjeeling Kaiimpong-734301.K.O. M/s Model Nursery 5/1. K.B. Sarvodaya Enclave Main Mehrauli Road M/s Meen Nursery Thallyal. Dikshit Road Distt. Darjeeling (WB) Kalimpong-734301. M/s Osmania University Nersery Hyderabad-500001. Near Sholapur Bazar Pune-411040. Karamane.S. M/s Ratna Nursery Kalimpong Distt. 55. Hapur Road Ghaziabad (UP) M/s Laxman Nursery Gauri Kanpur Road. Outta (Florists) C/o M/s B. M/s Rajdhani Nursery Karbala. Pandjtwarl P.I. M/s Obalappa Nursery Yediyur Post Bangalore-560011. Post Box No. Lake Terrace Calcutta-700029. Queen Garden Pune-411001.G. Prem Nagar Dehra Dun-248007.K. Cooper and Co. DDA Apartments SFS Hauz Khas New Delhi-110016. Kasturi Ranga Road Alwarpet Madras ^600018. M/S R.44-A. M/s Prabha Floriculture K. Pradhan & Sons Kalimpong Distt.M/s K. M/s Parivartan 217. M/s Pratap Nursery & Seed Store. Flower Range New Market Caicutta-700013.L. M/s Rishi Farm and Nursery Dr. Near Sholaapur Bazar Pune-411001. Thruvanthapuram-695002. New Delhi-11001. M/s Manak Nursery Ingraham Instl. M/s Parliament Street Nursery Purana Quila Road. M/s Maheshwarl Farms and Nurseries A-1. 3.'s Farm & Nursery. Tiljala Road Calcutta-700046(WB) M/s NImin Rose Farm Usgaon Goa. Near Chinhat Lucknow-226019.

O. Calcutta-700071.S. Kallmpong Kalimpong-734301.Siddapur. Ltd. Mallhabad Distt.) 13-D. Barkatpura Hyderabad-500001.O.V. M/s Shanthi Nursery Lalbagh Siddapur Bangalore-560011. Parekh Nagar Opp. Road. Shrl P. Margao GOA.SFS. P. Belgaum (Karnataka) M/s Srinlvasa 237/46 Fifth Main Road Chamrajpet Bangalore-560018.Seedsmen & Florist 24/4. Palamau-822101. (Bihar) M/s Vasundhra Farms & Plantations Pvt. 1654. Russell Street. Kallmpong(WB) M/s Janak Nursery P. M/s VatJka Nursery 47.IGH. M/s Suraj Nursery Neasr Ranmukteshwar Mahadev Hansol Ahmedabad-382475.B. Maharana Pratap Nagar Bhopal-462011 (Bihar). Darjeeling Kalimpong-734301.Centenary General Hospltal. Jai Appts. Kallmpong \ Distt.P. Kanpur Road Sarojini Nagar Lucknow-226008. 265. M/s Venkatesh Nursery.O. Bangalore-560011. M/s Shyam Nursery Gaurl. M/s Triveni Nursery Sonpura House Abadganj.M/s Rodney Rose Farm Near Seraullm Railway Station Salclte. Prem Nagar Dehra Dun-248CX)7. Mandir Marg Mahanagar Extension Lucknow-226006. M/s Sanjay Kumar M^hla 102.East Main Road P. P. Darjeeling Siliguri-734403.O. Sindhi Society Chembur. M/s Venus Trading Co. Kandivili (W) Bombay-400067. M/s Standard Nursery P.O. RTI. Bombay-400071. M/s Samak Farms & Nurseries 52. Laxmi Bhuvan Compound Palgar. M/s Shadab Nursery P. Sakchi Jamshedpur. M/s Himalaaayan Nursery Bagaicha Kothi. Hauz Khas New Delhi-110016. M/s Sutton & Sons (India Pvt. Kallmpong Kalimpong-734301. Shrl Kadumba Nurseries Nurserymen. Kuisi Road. DIstt Prasad Nursery Road Koganoll-591229. Ltd.O. Lucknow Ijjcknow (UP) M/s Shanti Van Agriculture Farm 93. DDA. Zone II. Pradhan Nagar Mallaguri Distt. M/s Twin Borthers Nurseries 8th Mile Post P. M/s Sikrupa Farm & Nursery 7.O. M/s Tara Pradhan C/o T. 77 . Daltonganj.O.Distt Thane-401404. Panditwari.Munclpai. Lai Bagh.831001. (Nteharashtra) Sandeep Nursery B-69.

Chabattia (Ranikhet). Bhubaneshwar-751015.I^s Y. 78 . M/s BIdhan Chandra Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Mohanpur (Kalyani. Punjab University Chandigarh. Bangalore-560089. GKVK Bahgalore-560065. Division of Floriculture & Landscaping. P. UP.O. f«1/s Unversity of Agrlcultutal Sciences. The Orchid Society of India. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry.) M/s Tamil Nadu Agricultural University Coimbatore (TN). M/s Mahatma Phule Agriculture University. Y. M/s Horticultural Experiments & Training Centre. Department of Botany. Division of Floriculture & Landscaping Indian Agricultural Research Institute. M/s Indian Agricultural Research Institute New Delhi-110012. M/s Kerala Agricultural University Vellanlkkara (Thrishoor) I M/s Punjab Agricultural University. M/s Regional Plant Resource Centre. M/s ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region BarapanI Shillong. Indian Agricultural Rsearch Instt. Katrain Kullu Valley (HP) Himachal Pradesh Dr. Ganeshkhind Pune-411005. lARI Regional Research Station. Nauni. Rajendra Nagar Hyderabad-500030. Ludhiana (Pub. Lalt>agh Siddapur Bangalore-560011. M/s Sher-E-Kashmir University of Agriculture & Technology. Munivenkatappa & Sons. Palampur Himachal Pradesh. M/s National Botanical Research Institute Lucknow. New Delhi-110012. M/s Indian Institute of Horticulture Research Hessaraghatta. (WB). 4 The Bougainvillea Society of India. M/s Indian Society of Ornamental Horticulture. Shalimar Campus Srinagar (J & K) M/s Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University. New Delhi-110001. t^s CSIR Complex. NARP (Plains Zone) Station. 69.S. Solan Himachal Pradesh.

12.Chysanthemum Society of India C-48.Gulmohar Park New Delhl-110049. Bhattacharjee Para Road Plot-5. Jorl»agh New Delhi-11003. Calcutta-700063. Pitampura Delhi-110034. The Dahlia Society of India. Kapll Vlhar. PanjabI Bagh New Delhl-110026. M/s Indian Society of Cactil & Succulents. i i I 79 . M/s Indian Bonsai Association. 22. M/s All India Kitchen Garden Association 162. 20/78.

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