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Q.1 what is Internet? What are various applications of Internet?

 Internet is an interconnection between several computers of different types belonging to


various networks across the world.
 It is a network of networks.
 Millions of people use the internet to search and share information and ideas, etc.
 Internet is an immensely complex combination of thousands of technologies and dozens
of services used by millions of people around the world each day.
 The internet links thousands of computers.
 Every network and every computer in these networks exchange information according to
certain rules called Protocols.
 These different computers n networks are united with the common thread of two
protocols, i.e., Internet protocol (I.P) & Transmission control protocol (T.C.P).
 Internet is computer based world-wide information network.

Application of internet
 E-mail: Sending & receiving electronic text messages over internet b/w users.
 www: An information space where documents and other web resources are identified by
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the
Internet.
 Remote access: internet allows computer user to connect other computers remotely and
access information from anywhere across the world.
 File sharing : A computer file can be e-mailed to anyone as an attachment. It can be
uploaded to a website or FTP server for easy download by others.
 Voice telephony(VoIP) : VoIP stands for Voice over IP, where IP refers to the Internet
Protocol that underlies all internet communication.
Q.2 what are the ways to find needed information on the internet? How can you find
information, when you know or don’t know its location URL?
Ans. A search engine is an information retrieval system used to find information stored
on WWW. It helps to minimize the time required to find information which must be
consulted. Search engine provides an interface to a group of items that enables users to
specify criteria about an item of interest and have the engine to find the matching items.
The criteria referred to as a search query. In case of text search engines, the search query
is typically expressed as a set of words that identify the desired concept that one or more
documents may contain.
 We can find the information when we know about its URL, by simply typing/pasting that
URL in search box and press enter.
 If we don’t know URL, we can type some words related to that topic about which we are
trying to search information.
Q.3 what are web browsers and what are they used for? What web browsers do you
know?
 A web browser is a program that helps the user to navigate through the WWW.
 I.e., it displays text, images, and multimedia data found on different web pages.
 Text and images on a web page may contain hyperlinks to the other web page at same or
different sites.
 Web browsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information provided on many
web pages at many websites by traversing these links.
 We can also bookmark our favourite web pages and access more quickly when needed to
visit that page again.
The commonly used web browsers are: Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator and Mozilla
Firefox, Safari and Opera.
Q.4 what is meant by HTML and HTTP? What are the 4 basic operations specified by a
browser that HTTP supports?
Ans. HTML
 HTML is a predominant mark-up language for web pages.
 It provides a mean to describe the structure of text-based information in a document- by
denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists and to supplement that text
with interactive forms, embedded images and other objects.
 HTML is written in the forms of labels (known as tags or elements), surrounded by angle
brackets.
 It can include embedded scripting language code which may affect the behaviour of web
browsers and HTML processors.

HTTP:
 HTTP is a communication protocol/rules for exchanging files (text, graphics, images and
other multimedia files) or information on the WWW.
 It is a method to access web pages on the internet.
 It generally works in combination with WWW.
 It is responsible for accessing hypertext documents on WWW.
 Our Web browser is an HTTP client, sending requests to server machines. When the user
enters a file request in the browser program by either opening a web file (typing in a URL)
or clicking on a hypertext link, the browser builds an HTTP request and sends it to an
HTTP program in the destination server machine, which receives the request and after
processing, returns the requested file to user.
Q.5 what is e-mail? What is mail-box? How does an email address look like? What are
protocols used for sending/receiving emails?
 E-mail is a way/method of sending electronic message or data from one computer to
another.
 Mail-box is the place where email messages are delivered. We can retrieve email
messages from mail box. The file or directory where client stores the messages is called
“local mail-box”.
 An e-mail address looks like this: abc@host.com
 SMTP or (simple mail transfer protocol) is mostly used for sending out email from and
email client (e.g. Microsoft Outlook).
 POP3: Post office protocol or POP is used to retrieve email messages from a mail server to
mail client. It usually eliminates messages from the server’s mail box.
 IMAP4: Internet Message Access Protocol is designed to retrieve message from different
hosts or clients. It usually keeps messages on the server.
Q.6 Explain, how does a client test a server using Telnet.
Ans. We can test the server by using an existing client to send & receive lines of text. The
telnet utility, which normally is a client of the telnetd service on port 23, and used to
control a remote connection, can be diverted from this role by passing a machine name
and a different port number. This utility exists on several systems.
An example to test server under Unix, we type:

The IP address for boulmich is 132.227.89.6 and boulmich. ufr-info-p6. Jussieu. Fr is its
complete name which contains its domain name. The text displayed by telnet indicates a
successful connection to the server.
Q.7 what is MIME? How does it help in sending binary data via e-mail message?
 MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions.
 It is a supplementary protocol that allows non-ASCII data to be sent through email i.e., it
allows an e-mail message to contain non-ASCII file, such as a video image or sound and it
provides a mechanism to transfer non-text characters to text characters.
 It is a widely used internet standard for encoding binary files to send them as e-mail
attachments over internet.
 MIME header is added to the original e-mail header section to define transmission
parameters.
 MIME defines 5 additional extensions to SMTP message headers, supports multipart
message with more than two parts and allows the encoding of 8-bit binary data, such as
image files, so that they can be sent using SMTP.
 These extensions are:
 Content type
 Content transfer encoding method
 MIME version number
 Content ID (optional)
 Content description (optional)

Q.8 the DNS plays an integral part in the functionality of the internet. Describe the
functionality of DNS and its component parts.
DNS is a system that stores information associated with domain names. It associates
many types of information with domain name, but most importantly, it provides IP
address associated with domain names.
In providing a worldwide keyword base redirection service, DNS is an essential
component of now-days internet use.
DNS is useful for many reasons. Most well known, DNS make it possible to hard IP address
(such as 207.142.131.206) to easy to remember domain name (such as Wikipedia. Org)
Understanding the parts of Domain name: It usually consists of 2 or more parts (labels)
separated by dots. E.g., wikipidea.org
 Here rightmost label/part conveys the top level domain (here it is .org).
 Each label to the left specifies a sub-division or sub-domain of domain above it. Sub
domain express relative dependence, not absolute dependence. For example,
Wikipedia.org comprises a sub domain of org domain, and en.wikipedia.org is a
subdomain of the domain Wikipedia.org. Subdomain can go down to 127 levels deep and
each level can contain up to 63 characters. Domain name doesn’t exceed a total length of
255 characters.
 A domain name that has one more IP address is called “host name”.
Q.9 distinguish b/w LAN, WAN and MAN on the basis of architecture and geographical
area coverage.
LAN: Local area network is a computer network that interconnects computers within a
limited area such as residence, school, office buildings, etc. It is small in size as compare
to WAN & MAN.
 Most LANs connects workstations and Personal computers.
 Each individual computer in a LAN has its own CPU to execute programs.
 But it is also able to access data and devices anywhere on the LAN i.e., users can share
expensive devices, such as laser printers, as well as data.
 Users can also the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending e-mail or engaging in
chat sessions.
WAN: Wide Area Network is a computer network which spread over the globe and covers
entire world. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more local-area networks (LANs).
Computers connected to a WAN are often connected through public networks, such as
telephone system. They can also be connected through leased line or satellites. The
largest WAN in existence is the ‘Internet’.
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network, a data network designed for a town or city. In terms of
geographic breadth, MANs are larger than LANs, but smaller than WANs. MANs are
usually characterized by very high-speed connections using fibre optic cable or other
digital media.
Sometimes, large universities also use this term to describe to their networks.
Q.10 write HTML script to create the following web page.
LIST1.
1. Breakfast
2. Lunch
3. Dinner
LIST2.
* Cars
* Trucks
* Buses

Ans.
Click here to see the web page .
Q.11 Give the HTML commands to achieve the following:
 Put the following in bold typeface “I am bold”
 Put the following in Italic typeface “this is italic”
Ans.
 <b> I am bold <b>
 <I> this is Italic </I>
Q.12 write short note on any three of the following:
Multimedia Applications:
 Multimedia has an enormous impact on education.
 Many schools in our country today use different types of computer-based teaching
software based on multimedia.
 Training/ classroom, multimedia popularly known as CBT (Computer Based Training/
Tutorials), Uses multimedia technology to teach academic curriculum.
 Entertainment and media industry are benifitted by multimedia technology.
 Entertainment CDs, games, comics and stories for children are used for the purpose
education and training.
 Images, animations and sound are widely used for making animation movies.

Multimedia can be used for sales and marketing in the following fields:

 Information directory
 Reservations
 Buyer’s guide
 Product/sales Promotions
 Advertising
 Interactive catalogs
 Merchandising – point of purchase.
JAVA& JAVAscript:
JAVA:
 JAVA is a high level programming language developed by Sun Microsoft and released in
1995.
 JAVA derives much of its syntax from C & C++ but has simpler object model and fewer
low-level facilities.
 It enables applications to turn on the internet in the same way as word processing and
spread sheet programs are run only for computer.
 It was the first to include sound and animation in web pages.
 The programs of JAVA can be run on any environment.
JAVAScript:
 It is one of the new breeds of Web languages called scripting languages.
 Scripting language make it easy for non programmers to improve a web page.
 JavaScript is originally developed by Netscape Corporation for in its browser called
Netscape navigator.
 It can run on browser without being compiled.
 The source code can be placed directly into web pages.
Search Engines: A search engine is an information retrieval system used to find
information stored on WWW. It helps to minimize the time required to find information
which must be consulted. Search engine provides an interface to a group of items that
enables users to specify criteria about an item of interest and have the engine to find the
matching items. The criteria referred to as a search query. In case of text search engines,
the search query is typically expressed as a set of words that identify the desired concept
that one or more documents may contain.

 We can find the information when we know about its URL, by simply typing/pasting that
URL in search box and press enter.
 If we don’t know URL, we can type some words related to that topic about which we are
trying to search information.
Firewall: it is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private
network. It monitors and control the incoming and outgoing network traffic based on
predetermined security rules.

A firewall protects your computer by acting as a gate through which all data must pass. By
blocking certain kinds of traffic, the firewall protects your computer or network from
unauthorized users and safeguards your data from attack.

How firewall works?

The data which we request to server, it divided into packets and each packet has IP and
network id. After processing from server, when our data comes to our PC, firewall scans
and identifies all the incoming packets by its IP. If packet resembles system’s IP then
firewall allow it, otherwise it blocks packet doesn’t have same IP as system have.

There are two types of firewall:

1) Software: We can protect our PCs by software firewall such as antivirus or system
firewall.
2) Hardware: these are firewalls which are applied to protect one or more computers such
as LANs. We can install firewall b/w computer network and internet connection via cable.
Q.13 what do you understand by the term “Hierarchy” of Newsgroups? How do you
identify a newsgroup?

Ans. There are thousands of Usenet Newsgroups. They are divided into hierarchies of topics to
make it easy for us to find the particular Newsgroups we want to participate in.

In the hierarchy of Usenet Newsgroups, the major topic (for example, rec for recreation) comes
first, followed by a subtopic (for example, rec.arts). That subtopic can be further divided (say
rec.arts.books). We can get a list of Newsgroups by using our Newsgroup client software and
asking for a complete up-to-date list.

Identification of Newsgroups: We can identify a Newsgroup by its name. Major Usenet


topics include “comp” for discussion of computer-related topics. The name “soc” is
used for discussion for social topics; “sci” is used for discussion of scientific topics. For
example, the rec.arts.books Newsgroup carries discussion about books on arts in
recreation.

Q.14 how is header output from a CGI program interpreted by the server?
Ans.