Turkey and Greece

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Istanbul Istanbul Archaeology Museums Ankara Museum of Anatolian Civilizations Hattusa Cappadocia Konya Antalya Aspendos Perga Aphrodisias Pamukkale Hierapolis Ephesus Kuşadası Patmos Rhodes Heraklion Santorini Piraeus Athens Corinth Canal Mycenae Epidaurus Olympia Patras Delphi Kalambaka Meteora Thermopylae 1 37 41 63 70 75 82 88 98 101 104 110 114 130 139 144 148 160 169 181 194 219 222 232 234 237 255 268 270 275

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Top: Topkapı Palace – Hagia Sophia – Blue Mosque Center: Beyoğlu; Galata Tower; Maiden's Tower Bottom: Bosphorus Bridge connecting Europe and Asia, with the skyline of Levent financial district.

Location of Istanbul on the Bosphorus, Turkey Coordinates: 41°01′N 28°58′E Country Region Province Established - Byzantium - Constantinople - Istanbul c. 660 BC 330 AD 1453 (Ottoman Turkish) 1923 (Modern Turkish) 1930 (internationally) 27 [1]  Turkey Marmara Istanbul

Districts Government - Mayor Area - Total Elevation Population (2009) [2] [3] [4]

Kadir Topbaş

1830.92 km2 (706.9 sq mi) 100 m (328 ft)


- Total - Density - Demonym Time zone - Summer (DST) Postal code 12,782,960 (4th) 6211/km2 (16086.4/sq mi) Istanbulite EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) 34010 to 34850 and 80000 to 81800 (+90) 212 (European side) (+90) 216 (Asian side) 34 Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality [6] Governorship of Istanbul [5]

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Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul, historically also known as Byzantium and Constantinople;[7] see the names of Istanbul) is the largest city in Turkey and fifth largest city proper in the world with a population of 12.8 million.[2] Istanbul is also a megacity, as well as the cultural, economic, and financial centre of Turkey. The city covers 39 districts of the Istanbul province.[8] It is located on the Bosphorus Strait and encompasses the natural harbour known as the Golden Horn, in the northwest of the country. It extends both on the European (Thrace) and on the Asian (Anatolia) sides of the Bosphorus, and is thereby the only metropolis in the world that is situated on two continents. In its long history, Istanbul has served as the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922). The city was chosen as joint European Capital of Culture for 2010. The historic areas of Istanbul were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.[9]

Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) is the first known name of the city. Around 660 BC,[] Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded a Doric colony on the present-day Istanbul, and named the new colony after their king, Byzas.[10] [11] After Constantine I (Constantine the Great) made the city the new eastern capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD, the city became widely known as Constantinopolis or Constantinople, which, as the Latinised form of "Κωνσταντινούπολις" (Kōnstantinoúpolis), means the "City of Constantine".[12] He also attempted to promote the name Nea Roma ("New Rome"), but this never caught on.[13] Constantinople remained the official name of the city throughout the Byzantine period, and the most common name used for it in the West until the establishment of the Republic of Turkey.
Constantine I is the source of the By the 19th century, the city had acquired a number of names used by either long-standing name Constantinople, foreigners or Turks. Europeans often used Stamboul alongside Constantinople to which means "City of Constantine" refer to the whole of the city, but Turks used the former name only to describe the historic peninsula between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara. Pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks also used the name Beyoğlu, which is still in use today.[14] However, with the Turkish Postal Service Law of 28 March 1930, the Turkish authorities formally requested foreigners to adopt İstanbul, a name in existence since the 10th century,[15] as the sole name of the city within their own languages.[16]

while in English the stress is on the first syllable ("Is"). but the Greeks recaptured it during the Greco-Persian Wars. on the Sarayburnu. near where Topkapı Palace now stands. established Byzantion (Latinised as Byzantium) on the European side of the Bosphorus. as the Turkish alphabet distinguishes between a dotted and dotless I.[18] Thracian tribes established two settlements—Lygos and Semistra—on the Sarayburnu. before the Bosphorus was even formed.[22] Still. before ultimately gaining independence in 355 BC. Also. the name is written "İstanbul". artifacts have been found in Fikirtepe (present-day Kadıköy) that date back to the Chalcolithic period. surpassed—its previous prosperity. By the end of the century. "εἰς τὰν Πόλιν" [is tan ˈpolin] (Modern Greek "στην Πόλη" Greek pronunciation: [stin ˈpoli]). Byzantium's decision to side with the usurper Pescennius Niger against Roman Emperor Severus of Antioch cost it dearly.[20] Byzantium then continued as part of the Athenian League and its successor. the discovery indicated that the peninsula was settled thousands of years earlier than previously thought.[21] Long protected by the Roman Republic. which means "in the city" or "to the city". the history of Istanbul generally begins around 660 BC. which was established by Greek settlers from Megara in 685 BC.[12] [15] In modern Turkish. On the Asian side.[] Remains of a column from Byzantium's acropolis. which now reside within the Topkapı Palace complex However.[10] The city experienced a brief period under Persian rule at the turn of the 5th century BC. between the 13th and 11th centuries BC. Istanbul has been called "The City of Seven Hills" because the oldest part of the city is supposedly built on seven hills.Istanbul Etymologically. in Turkish it is on the second syllable ("tan"). Dating back to the 7th millennium BC. an acropolis was established at the former locations of Lygos and Semistra. by the time it surrendered at the end of 195. the Second Athenian Empire.[17] 3 History First settlements Recent construction of the Marmaray tunnel unearthed a Neolithic settlement underneath Yenikapı on Istanbul's historic peninsula. with a dotted İ. Severus began to rebuild Byzantium. colloquially Turkish pronunciation: [ɯsˈtambuɫ]) derives from the Medieval Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν" [is tin ˈpolin] or. two years of siege had left the city devastated. Byzantium officially became a part of the Roman Empire in 73 AD. in the Aegean dialect. by some accounts. Like Rome. five years later. each of which bears a historic mosque. İstanbul (Turkish pronunciation: [isˈtanbuɫ].[] when the settlers from Megara.[19] The same location was the site of a Phoenician trading post at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC as well as the town of Chalcedon. and the city regained—and.[23] . under the command of King Byzas.

[34] Constantinople's churches. cutting off Constantinople's supply routes and strangling it slowly. was killed). for many centuries. after an eight-week siege (during which the last Byzantine emperor. largest cathedral for a thousand years.[28] The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople developed in the city. the Ottoman Turks began a strategy by which they took smaller towns and cities over time.[40] [41] Hours later. Constantinople was proclaimed the capital of an empire that eventually became known as the Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire. however. including the Hagia Sofia. the Latin Empire was short-lived. Christian city to replace Byzantium. this is the oldest surviving built across the city. a name that persisted into the 20th century. Constantine laid out the plans for a new.[26] [27] Numerous churches were Created in 1422.[27] [29] During most of the Middle Ages and the latter part of the Byzantine period. Constantine XI. during which it was sacked and pillaged. shifting Roman power eastward and becoming a center of Greek culture and Christianity.[36] [37] Various economic and military policies instituted by Andronikos II. weakened the empire and left it more vulnerable to attack. and its leader is still one of the foremost figures in the Greek Orthodox Church. its walls and seafront protected Europe against invaders from the east as well as from the advance of Islam. defenses. and basic services were in disrepair. Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror" captured Constantinople and declared it the new capital of the Ottoman Empire. weakened. created by Catholic crusaders to replace the Orthodox Byzantine Empire.[42] The Fall of Constantinople in 1453 signaled [31] the end of the Byzantine Empire . converting the grand cathedral into a mosque. on 29 May 1453.[33] However. on 11 May 330.[32] The city subsequently became the center of the Latin Empire. such as the reduction of forces.[25] Six years later. Intended to replace Nicomedia as the eastern capital of the empire.[39] Finally. and the Byzantine Empire was restored. which remained the world's map of Constantinople and the only one that predates the Ottoman conquest. the sultan rode to the Hagia Sofia and summoned an imam to proclaim the Islamic creed.[26] The establishment of Constantinople served as one of Constantine's most lasting accomplishments.Istanbul 4 Rise and fall of Constantinople When Constantine I defeated Licinius at the Battle of Chrysopolis in September 324.[30] Constantinople began to decline after the Fourth Crusade.[24] Just two months later. Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in the western world. in 1261. Constantinople's location also ensured its existence would stand the test of time. he effectively became the emperor of the whole of the Roman Empire. the city was named Nea Roma (New Rome).[35] and its population had dwindled to forty thousand from nearly half a million during the 9th century.[38] In the mid-14th century. most simply called it Constantinople ("the city of Constantine"). which was divided into splinter states.

The Tünel. the occupation of Istanbul ended with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne and the recognition of the Republic of Turkey. and The Süleymaniye Mosque (depicted [45] in a late-19th century photochrom public baths. sometimes at the expense of historical buildings. such a stable water network. which disposed of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Also constructed during this period was Topkapı Palace. Mehmed VI. chief architect chief architect for three sultans. and many previously outlying villages and forests became engulfed into the greater metropolitan area of Istanbul.[43] By the end of the century. Jews. the modernization efforts were not enough to forestall the decline of the Ottoman regime. one of the world's oldest subterranean urban rail lines. Istanbul underwent great structural change. departing the backdoor of Dolmabahçe Palace a year before the declaration of the Republic of Turkey In the early years of the republic. as people from Anatolia migrated to the city in order to find employment in the many new factories that were built on the outskirts of the sprawling metropolis. and avenues were constructed throughout the city. Mimar Sinan designed the Süleymaniye Mosque and other grand buildings in the city. were gradually introduced to Istanbul over the following decades. the following year. Istanbul was overlooked in favor of the country's new capital. boulevards. He invited and forcibly resettled many Muslims. street lamps. sharp rise in the city's population caused a large demand for housing development. The early 20th century saw the Young Turk Revolution. making it the second-largest city in Europe. The total population. and trams. hospitals. Suleiman the Magnificent's reign from 1520 to 1566 was a print) was designed by Mimar Sinan. which was declared by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on 29 October 1923. was exiled in November 1922.[46] Demonstrations at the start of the 19th century led to the rise of the progressive Sultan Mahmud II and the Tanzimat period. Ankara. and Christians from other parts of Anatolia into the city. telephones. which produced reforms that aligned the empire along Western European standards. Mehmed II repaired the city's damaged infrastructure and began to build the Grand Bazaar. while Ottoman arts of ceramics. and Istanbul was connected to the rest of the European railway network in the 1870s. This sudden. Still. Religious foundations were established to fund the construction of grand imperial mosques. starting from the late 1940s and early 1950s. period of especially great artistic and architectural achievements. creating a cosmopolitan society that persisted through much of the Ottoman period. . resulted in the British. The last of these.[45] The Ottomans quickly transformed Istanbul from a bastion of Christianity to a symbol of Islamic culture. now named Istanbul. calligraphy and miniature flourished. often adjoined by schools. World War I.000 in the late 18th century.[44] Meanwhile. Mehmed VI. The final Ottoman sultan. Istanbul had returned to a population of two hundred thousand. which served as the official residence of the sultan for four hundred years.Istanbul 5 Turkish rule Following the fall of Constantinople. Mehmed II immediately set out to revitalize the city. amounted to about 600. Bridges across the Golden Horn were constructed during this period. However. and a series of wars that plagued the ailing empire's capital. as new public squares (such as Taksim Square). opened in 1875. French. The final Ottoman sultan. and Italian occupation of Istanbul. and other modern facilities. including suburbs. The population of Istanbul began to rapidly increase in the 1970s.

93 square kilometres (707 sq mi). occurring before 2025. Smooth-leaved Elm. on both shores of the Bosphorus today. while the eastern portion is in Asia. The Alemdağ forest on the Asian side and the Belgrade forest on the European side. three species of which are the English Oak. Istanbul’s true and dominant biome is the humid temperate broadleaf and mixed forest and constitute the Balkan mixed forests which belongs to the Euro-Siberian ecoregion of the Palearctic ecozone. especially in the northern areas near the Black Sea coast. possibly measuring magnitude 7. The dominant tree species is the oak. The 1894 earthquake caused the collapse of many parts of the Grand Bazaar. The city boundaries cover a surface area of 1830. But due to Istanbul's geographical location and longitude. and Hungarian Oak are spread over a broad area. such as the United Kingdom in the shade. This fault zone has been responsible for several Bosporus strait which connects the Black Sea at north with the Sea of deadly earthquakes in the region throughout history. midway between that of the oceanic climate of the Black Sea. this means that Istanbul is home to approximately one-fourth of the . Goat Willow and Grey Willow. It encloses the southern Bosporus which places the city on two continents—the western portion of Istanbul is in Europe. An increase in mediterranean flora is observed in the warmer areas to the south of the city especially on the Princes' Islands. According to the Turkish General Directorate of Forestry. This is also reflected in its plant geography since flora of these three climate types flourish here. which runs from northern Anatolia to the Marmara Sea. Oriental Beech is observed in the northern areas near the Black Sea coast. it has a "transitional climate". destroying over 100 mosques and killing 10. Seismologists predict another earthquake. Sycamore Maple. Horse Chestnut. Sweet Chestnut.000 people. left 18. It is also possible to see examples of virgin forest in the heart of Istanbul. the humid continental climate of the Balkan peninsula and the mediterranean climate of the southwest. the devastating effects are a result of the building density and poor construction of buildings. Common Hazel. Istanbul is one of the provinces that best illustrates this aspect of the Marmara region.[47] In all of these earthquakes. humid mixed-leaf forests. White Poplar. Silver Linden. Black Alder.000 dead and many more homeless. covers 6220 square kilometres (2402 sq mi). while the metropolitan region. Norway Maple. Istanbul alone puts entire European countries. In 1766 the Eyüp Sultan Mosque was largely destroyed. Oriental Plane. Satellite view of Istanbul and the push against each other here. A devastating earthquake on 17 August 1999.0. the only place in Istanbul with a predominantly mediterranean vegetation. Geology Istanbul is situated near the North Anatolian fault. Other common tree species living in these humid mixed-leaf forests include Oriental Hornbeam. 44% of the Province of Istanbul is covered with forests. Thanks to the constantly very humid climate of Istanbul.[48] Flora Istanbul like the Marmara region it is situated in has a temperate climate. plants of the Euro-Siberian ecoregion are concentrated here. with its epicentre in nearby İzmit. or the Province of Istanbul. Grey Alder. earthquake caused a tsunami which broke over the sea-walls of the city.Istanbul 6 Geography Location Istanbul is located in the north-west Marmara Region of Turkey. Two tectonic plates. are large virgin. Even more importantly. Sessile Oak or Durmast Oak. With around 2500 different natural plant species. Field Elm. English Elm. which are regarded as the city's lungs. European White Elm. In 1509 a catastrophic Marmara at south. the African and the Eurasian. Field Maple.

However fog cover during the whole day is rare. In the forests the most common mammals are wild boar. and snow cover usually remains only for a few days after each snowfall. having an average wind speed of 18 km/h (11 mph). golden jackal. throughout the year.[53] [55] The highest recorded temperature was 40. but average winter snowfall often varies considerably from year to year. with an annual total of 22 days. and are particularly rare during the rest of the year and almost unheard of in winter. Summer is generally hot and humid. and both practically form a part of the cityscape. summer and early autumn. red deer. The red squirrel only inhabits the European part of Istanbul and Turkey. the temperature between July and August averaging 28 °C (82 °F).[50] The dominant bird species in the city are the common gull and the hooded crow. and roe deer.Istanbul more than ten thousand documented species of plants that grow naturally in Turkey. The humidity of the city is constantly high which makes the air feel Snow is common in winter.[52] [53] Average annual precipitation is 843. spring and autumn. with an annual total snow cover of 19 days. but precipitation does occur during that season and is irregular and often torrential. has an average annual humidity of 72%. which are not common.[53] Thunderstorms. and the Bosphorus marks the border of their habitat range.[56] Due to its size. and the lowest recorded temperature was −16. grey wolf. but it quickly dissipates before noon. much harsher than the actual temperatures. though the nights are chilly. Snowfall which occurs almost annually is common between the months of December and March.[49] 7 Fauna Istanbul has a relatively rich fauna.1 °C (3 °F) on 15 February 1927. usually occur in late spring. Istanbul exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates. they live only in Istanbul and nowhere else in the whole world. averaging 5 °C (41 °F). Some of these plants are endemic. The city being located in the second most humid region of the country.[54] Istanbul has an average annual of 152 days of precipitation. Istanbul has a particularly large population of stray cats and stray dogs. Climate Istanbul has a temperate climate but is located within a climatic transition zone [51] between oceanic and mediterranean climates. Spring and autumn are usually mild and wet but are erratic. Winter is cold. Eurasian collared dove and sparrow. red fox. the fauna is out of danger. The forests harbour 18 mammal species and over 71 bird species. and it usually occurs in winter. topography and maritime influences.[53] Summer is the driest season. and the weather can range from chilly to warm. .[53] Fog is prevalent. Other common bird species are the city pigeon.[53] The city is also quite windy. particularly during the mornings. wet and often snowy.5 °C (105 °F) on 12 July 2000.9 mm (33 in). and since a ban on hunting exists. in other words. fallow deer.

9 (91) 16.0 (16) 8 Feb 24.9 45.2 (94) 20.0 (61) 12. The historic peninsula ends with the City limits in 1922. administered by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (or Municipality of Metropolitan Istanbul) (Turkish: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi).9 (43) 2.4 (74) 18.8 (42) 2.3 (58) 10.4 (65) 14.53) (1.9 (1.4 (83) 23.4 80.87) (3.9 (39) -7.55 (46) 3.2 (70) 11.1 (52) 8. precipitation days Jan 18.5 (47) -2. which separates the old city centre from the northern and younger parts of the European side.6 (92) 25.22) 72 0 12 [57] 70 0 8 67 0 5 68 0 6 68 0 7 [58] 72 0 12 74 0 16 76 4 19 72 19 152 Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) and BBC Weather Centre 16 October 2009 Cityscape Istanbul Province has 39 districts (2009).1 (3) 98.34) (1.8 47.4 96.2 °C (90 °F): 5 [53] Climate data for Istanbul Month Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Daily mean °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) % Humidity Avg.3 (51) -16.5 (105) 18.7 123.0 (19) Apr 32.0 (54) 3.5 (65) 10.6 (74) 18.4 (71) 16.1 (68) 16.1 34 38.2 (47) Sep 33.42) (3.1 (54) 7.0 (75) 9.2 69.0 (79) 21.0 (77) 20.8) 77 6 20 75 6 17 74 3 16 71 0 14 36.2 (52) 7.0 (36) Nov 27. This area lies on the southern shores of the Golden Horn.7 (62) 12.7 (46) -0.0 (70) 16.8 61.42) (1.81) (4. of which 27 form the city proper of Istanbul.5 (60) 5.6 (38) Jun 40.0 (61) 8.0 (28) Dec 21.9 843.88) (33.0 (46) Jul 40.2 (47) 5.2 (68) 15.2 (79) 11.5 (105) 28.0 (91) 21.75) (1.Istanbul Weather statistics for Istanbul • • • • • • Total number of days with snow: 19 [53] Total number of days with lows (nights) below freezing: 21 [53] Total number of days with precipitation: 152 [53] Total number of days with thunderstorms: 22 [53] Total number of days with fog: 228 [53] Total number of days above 32.3 (60) 11. also called Greater Istanbul.9 (37) -9.8 (102) 28.7 (48) 5.2 (81) 15.9 110.16) (2.3 (42) -3.36) (4.5 (62) 12. snowy days Avg. Istanbul's districts are divided into three main areas: • The historic peninsula of old Istanbul corresponds approximately to the extent of Constantinople in the 15th century.6 (31) May 33.8 (3.7 (66) 8. .0 (54) 2.88) (2.2 (104) 26.5 (51) Aug 38.1 (3) Mar 26. it comprises the districts of Eminönü and Fatih.5 (83) 23.2 (41) Oct 34.4 (26) Year 40.1 (48) 5.9 (53) 8.3 (65) 8.8 (37) -16.

Istanbul 9 Theodosian Land Walls in the west. Asia Europe Black Sea Marmara Sea Adalar Avcılar Bağcılar Bahçelievler Bakırköy Bayrampaşa Beşiktaş . Today. the Asian side of the city has numerous modern residential areas and business districts. where the last Sultan's palace is located. looking south from Beyoğlu to the "historic peninsula" separated by the Golden Horn to the farther right and Kadıköy on the Asian side separated by the entrance of the Bosphorus to the left. wealthy Istanbulites built luxurious chalet mansions. followed by a chain of former villages such as Ortaköy and Bebek along the shores of the Bosphorus.) These cities have eventually been absorbed by Istanbul and have become its districts. On both the European and Asian sides of the Bosphorus. and is home to around one-third of Istanbul's population. • North of the Golden Horn are the historical Beyoğlu and Beşiktaş districts. which were used as summer residences. • The districts of Üsküdar (ancient Chrysopolis) and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) which are located on the Asian side were originally separate cities (like the district of Beyoğlu (medieval Pera) on the European side also used to be. called yalı. Three historic quarters of Istanbul. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Marmara on the south and the entrance of the Bosphorus on the east.

. Etiler and Maslak on the European side. and in the quarter of Kozyatağı on the Asian side.Istanbul Beyoğlu Büyükçekmece Beykoz Çatalca Eminönü Eyüp Esenler Fatih Gaziosmanpaşa Güngören Kadıköy Kağıthane Kartal Küçükçekmece Maltepe Pendik Sarıyer Silivri Sultanbeyli Şile Şişli Tuzla Ümraniye Üsküdar Zeytinburnu 10 To the west. to the east and to the north. Istanbul extends far beyond its historical quarters. The tallest office and residential towers rise particularly in the quarters of Levent.

Barbaros Boulevard in the Beşiktaş district. Akmerkez. Maslak. with the citadel of Galata (also called Sykae or Pera. These were all independent cities in antiquity. the Anatolian (Asian) side of Istanbul. of which only the Galata Tower and a small portion of the citadel walls around it stand today. a significant portion of the city's outskirts consist of gecekondus. were largely demolished in the early 1800s to give way for a northwards expansion of the city.Istanbul 11 Urbanism The urban landscape of Istanbul is constantly changing. These Genoese fortifications. At present. and Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) and Chalcedon (Kadıköy) at east. towards the neighbourhoods of Beşiktaş. Roman and Byzantine periods. some gecekondu areas are being gradually demolished and replaced by modern mass-housing compounds. like Kanyon. and expanding even further with the establishment of new neighbourhoods and districts since the 19th century. As a result of Istanbul's exponential growth during the second half of the 20th century. which is located to the north of Bağdat Avenue. Mayadrom and Mayadrom Uptown. used to stand. the medieval Genoese citadel. Surrounding towns were absorbed into Istanbul as the city rapidly expanded outwards. and Mecidiyeköy which are situated between the Bosphorus Bridge and Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. But the real expansion of the Asian side came with the opening of the Ankara Asfaltı. The construction of the long. the city walls of Galata. . numerous tall structures were built around the city to accommodate a rapid growth in population. which was originally a tranquil place full of seaside summer residences and elegant chalet mansions surrounded by lush and vast umbrella pine gardens. a Turkish word created in the 1940s meaning ‘built overnight’ and referring to the illegally constructed squatter buildings that comprise entire neighbourhoods and run rampant outside the historic centers of Turkey's largest cities. Nişantaşı. Levent and Etiler also have numerous upmarket shopping malls. The tallest highrise office and residential buildings are mostly located in the northern areas of the European side. with its rows of upscale shops and restaurants. and Bursa. The present-day City of Istanbul can be considered the metropolitan area of old Constantinople. Today. Starting from the second half of the 20th century. more than 1/3 of the city's residents live in the Asian side of Istanbul. parallel to the railway line. the Asian extension of the E5 highway. the city was largely made up of the historic peninsula of Constantinople. across the Bosphorus. İzmir. experienced a massive urban growth. especially in the business and shopping districts of Levent. The fact that these areas were largely empty until the 1960s also provided the chance for developing better infrastructure and a tidier urban planning when compared with most other residential areas in the city. Şişli. contributed much to the initial urban expansion in the area. present-day Beyoğlu) at north. Metrocity. The headquarters of Turkey's largest companies and banks are also located in this area. Ankara. and beyond. encompassing every single settlement around the original city. especially Istanbul. In the recent decades. Until the early 19th century. In the Greek. wide and elegant Bağdat Avenue. Another important factor in the recent growth of the Asian side of the city was migration from Anatolia.

Some of these historical structures. The Seraglio Point where the Topkapı Palace is located is seen at the left tip of the historic peninsula. the district of Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) on the Asian side of the city can be seen. the Column of the Goths at the Seraglio Point.[62] who enlarged the previously existing walls of Byzantium in order to defend the new Roman capital city which quickly grew following its . One of the most important monuments of Roman architecture in the city is the Column of Constantine (Turkish: Çemberlitaş). among others. Behind the Galata Bridge. The Sea of Marmara and the Princes' Islands are seen in the background. which draw millions to the city every year. with Levent financial district in the center.[60] Maiden's (Leander's) Tower. and the Hippodrome of Constantinople that was built following the model of the Circus Hippodrome of Constantinople. the Column of Constantine (which was surrounded by iron bars for restoration) rises. As a result. the Valens Aqueduct. on the horizon. towards the horizon. and the Süleymaniye Mosque at far right.[61] The other Roman era structures in the city include the Mazulkemer Aqueduct. as seen from the Galata Tower. there are many historical mosques. synagogues. Maximus in Rome. Istanbul has acquired a reputation for being a cultural and ethnic melting pot. one of the symbols of Istanbul. Ancient Greek and Roman The famous Maiden's (Leander's) Tower. the Yeni Mosque near the Galata Bridge. 12 Architecture Throughout its long history. and Maslak financial district at right. churches. the Beyazıt Tower rising high in the background. Construction of the Walls of Constantinople began under Constantine the Great. castles and towers to visit in the city.Istanbul Bosphorus Bridge and the skyline of Istanbul as seen from Çamlıca Hill.[59] Panoramic view of the Golden Horn in Istanbul. palaces. was originally built by the ancient Athenian general Alcibiades in 408 BC to monitor the movements of the Persian ships in the Bosphorus strait. followed by (left to right) the Hagia Sophia. The Galata Bridge can be seen in the centre of the picture. the Milion which served for calculating the distances between Constantinople and the other cities of the Roman Empire. the Sultan Ahmed Mosque. At the extreme left of the picture. the Great Palace of Constantinople originally built by Constantine as the primary residence of the Roman emperors. which was erected in 330 by Constantine the Great for marking the declaration of the new capital city of the Roman Empire. reflect the heart and soul of Istanbul.

and the 6th century churches of Saints Sergius and Bacchus and Hagia Sophia built by Justinian. enlarged by Theophilos in the 9th century. the Magnaura Tower of the Great Palace still stands and is another site of continuing archaeological excavations. until the completion of the Seville Cathedral in Spain. In a nearby location. as evidenced with the 4th century Hagia Irene built by Constantine as the first church in the new Roman capital city. but it was continuously enlarged by the following Byzantine emperors. which was the first church built by Justinian in Constantinople and edificed between 527 and 536.[67] which were incorporated into the city walls at the western suburb of Blachernae. The Palace of the Porphyrogenitus (Turkish: Tekfur Sarayı). The present-day Hagia Irene (which was originally built by Constantine in the 4th century. They form a huge castle-like structure with several towers and a network of underground Byzantine dungeons. but was later enlarged by Justinian in the 6th century) and the Basilica Cistern are also from this period. The most extant Byzantine structures that have survived from the reign of Heraclius (610–641) are the Prisons of Anemas. The Hagia Sophia was designed by Isidorus and Anthemius as the third church to rise on this location. . which was built in 462.[65] [66] 13 The 4th century Hagia Irene was the first church built by Constantine in the new Roman capital city.[64] The eastern tribune of the Hippodrome of Constantinople. the latter being the largest structure on Sultanahmet Square in the Eminönü district. The Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus (commonly known as the Little Hagia Sophia). Excavations at the substructures of the Great Palace of Constantinople. dates from the Originally a church. alternatively known as the Palace of Hormisdas. The Column of Marcian (Turkish: Kıztaşı) erected by Marcianus (reigned 450–457) dates from the same period as the triple land walls of Theodosius II. and the most important surviving example of Byzantine architecture in the world. the 6th century Hagia Sophia built by Justinian was the largest ever cathedral building in the world for a thousand years. between 532 and 537. later a mosque. though partially in ruins. the second church was inaugurated by Theodosius II in 405. had earlier signaled such an improvement in the design of domed buildings. but further improved these architectural concepts.[63] The Great Palace was originally built by Constantine. while its floor mosaics and wall decorations are displayed at the Great Palace Mosaic Museum. while the third and current one was inaugurated Justinian in 537). following the Nika riots (532) during which the second church was destroyed (the first church. The Boukoleon Palace. could also be directly accessed by the Byzantine emperors and members of the imperial family through a passage which connected it with the Great Palace. where the Kathisma (emperor's loge) was located. and rebuilt after an earthquake in 447 in their current shape. are still continuing. which require complex solutions for carrying the structure. and incorporated into the new walls of the Great Palace by Nikephoros II Phokas in the 10th century. in particular by Justinian.Istanbul proclamation as Nova Roma. known as the Megala Ekklessia ("Great Church") was inaugurated by Constantius II in 360. is the Stoudios (İmrahor) Monastery. was built by Theodosius II in the 5th century. and now a museum. Byzantine The early Byzantine architecture followed the classical Roman model of domes and arches. which is the only surviving part of the Blachernae Palace. The oldest surviving Byzantine church in Istanbul that has preserved its original form through the centuries. which is located right next to the Hagia Sophia. A new set of walls was built further west during the reign of Theodosius II.

Genoese Following the reconquest of Constantinople from the Latin Crusaders in 1261. the Dominican priests of the Catholic Church built the Church of Saint Paul in 1233. III. in 1348. Grand Bazaar and the Yedikule (Seven Towers) Castle which guarded the main entrance gate of the city. and Amasra. which still stands in ruins on Banker Sokağı (the historic Rue Camondo). Sinop. a parallel side street to the north of Bankalar (Voyvoda) Caddesi in Galata. II. in 1452. which included the construction of grand buildings such as the Topkapı Palace. The most important churches that were built after the Byzantines recovered Constantinople in 1261 include the Pammakaristos Church and Chora Church. near the triple land walls. Montano de Marinis. and the Rumelihisarı at the opposite (European) shore. The first grand mosque which was built in the city proper was the Eyüp Sultan Mosque in around 1459. Also in this period.[72] The first mosque on the European side of Istanbul was built inside the Rumeli Castle in 1452. a year before the conquest of Constantinople. The main purpose of these castles. from reaching Constantinople and helping the Byzantines during the Turkish siege of the city. such as Caffa. Sultan Mehmed II initiated a wide scale reconstruction plan. and moved to the Blachernae Palace in the west of the city. which they named as Christea Turris (Tower of Christ). In these years. Following the Ottoman conquest of the city. the Porta Aurea (Golden Gate). IV 356 [69] Europe and North America Inscription history Inscription 1985  (9th Session) [70] * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. together with its adjacent buildings and numerous Genoese houses from the early 1300s. the Genoese Podestà of Galata. [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO. armed with the long range Balyemez (Faule Metze) cannons. The Genoese also built the Galata Tower. at the highest point of the citadel of Galata.Istanbul period of the Fourth Crusade. The Genoese Castle at the Black Sea entrance of the Bosporus was originally built by the Byzantines. The Boukoleon Palace facing the Sea of Marmara was the primary residence of the Latin emperors of Constantinople between 1204 and 1261. was to block the sea traffic of the Bosphorus and prevent the support ships from the Genoese colonies on the Black Sea ports. Ottoman 14 Historic Areas of Istanbul* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Type Criteria Reference Region**  Turkey Cultural I. the Byzantine emperors almost completely abandoned the Great Palace and Boukoleon Palace. The Ottoman Turks built the Anadoluhisarı on the Asian side of the Bosphorus in 1394. built the Palazzo del Comune (1316). on the northern side of the Golden Horn. The mosque was built on the site of the .[68] an identical copy of the San Giorgio Palace in Genoa. Topkapı Palace was the home of the Ottoman emperors.

[78] The governor of Istanbul province is Muammer Güler.[73] during the early skirmishes which preluded the Arab siege (674–678) to take the city. The first imperial mosque inside the city walls was the Fatih Mosque (1470) which was built on the site of the Church of the Holy Apostles. also famous for its Baroque fountain). and the Botter House on İstiklal Avenue.Istanbul grave of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. . In the 18th and 19th centuries. Other important examples are the Khedive Palace[75] (Hıdiv Kasrı) on the Asian side of the Bosphorus. the areas around İstiklal Avenue were filled with grandiose embassy buildings belonging to prominent European states. serves as the prefect of the city. Beylerbeyi Palace and Ortaköy (Mecidiye) Mosque. such as the famous Süleymaniye Mosque (1557) which was ordered by Suleiman the Magnificent and designed by the great Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. and the 18th century Baroque additions to the Harem section of the Topkapı Palace. Following the Tanzimat reforms which effectively started Turkey's europeanisation process in 1839. with famous architects of this style such as Alexander Vallaury and Raimondo D'Aronco building many palaces and mansions in the city proper and on the Princes' Islands. Flora Han in Sirkeci. or an eclectic mix of all three. new palaces and mosques were built in Neoclassical. municipalities are gaining greater importance with the rise in urbanisation. The metropolitan council is responsible for all authority when it comes to making city decisions. (3) village administrations. many new important buildings. Many other imperial mosques were built in the following centuries. In the centuries following Mehmed II. Metropolitan Council (decision making body with the mayor. such as the Baroque style interiors of the Aynalıkavak Palace (1677–1679) and Nuruosmaniye Mosque (1748–1755. Yeni Mosque and numerous others were constructed.[77] 15 Administration The mayor of Istanbul.[80] The metropolitan government structure consists of three main organs: Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality City Hall (1) The Metropolitan Mayor (elected every five years). and rows of European (mostly Neoclassical and later Art Nouveau) style buildings started to appear on both flanks of the avenue. The metropolitan model of governance has been used with the establishment of metropolitan administration in 1930. The famous Camondo Stairs on Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Karaköy (Galata) is also a beautiful example of Art Nouveau architecture. (3) The metropolitan executive committee. currently Kadir Topbaş. Baroque and Rococo styles. such as the Süleymaniye Mosque. Traditional waterfront houses on the Bosphorus. traditional Ottoman architectural styles were gradually replaced by European styles. a companion of the Prophet Muhammad who had died outside the land walls of Constantinople (walls of Theodosius II) in 669. and one fifth of the district municipal councillors). D'Aronco's most important works in the city include several buildings of the Yıldız Palace complex. (2) The (1960) in the Fatih district. and the famous Sultan Ahmet Mosque (1616) which is also known as the Blue Mosque for the blue tiles that adorn its interior. an important Byzantine church originally edificed in the time of Constantine the Great. district Mayors.[79] Istanbul is a home rule city and municipal elections are mainly partisan. Istanbul was one of the major centers of the Art Nouveau (Liberty) movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. and Frej Apartmanı[76] in the Şişhane quarter of Beyoğlu. such as the Dolmabahçe Palace. Sultanahmet Mosque. (2) special provincial administrations.[74] Starting from the early 19th century. the first Baroque style mosque in the city. Among the local authorities. There are three types of local authorities: (1) municipalities.

[83] During the early Middle Ages. or Byzantine. Due to high unemployment in the southeast of Turkey.000 300.000 400. which are later developed into neighbourhoods and integrated into the greater metropolis. designed by Istanbul-based Arolat Architects.613 residents according to the latest count as of 2007. The numbers of 2005 and 2006 are based on computer simulation forecasts.45% a year on average. Istanbul's population density of 2. Population tallies up to 1914 are estimated with variations of up to 50% depending upon researcher.000 . The city has a population of 11. Roughly 70% of all Istanbulites live in the European section and around 30% in the Asian section.000 400. and has been one of the world's largest and most important cities during much of its history (excepting the period of collapse of the Eastern Roman.Istanbul The current Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality City Hall building in the Saraçhane quarter of the Fatih district. Its geopolitical significance since ancient times brought representatives of ethnic groups from all over Europe. the construction of which began on 17 December 1953 and was completed and inaugurated on 26 May 1960. where they established themselves in the outskirts of the city. predominantly from eastern Anatolia arrive in Istanbul expecting improved living conditions and employment. which usually end with little success.000 36.000 550. Historic population Year Population 330 400 530 545 715 950 1200 1453 40.742 people per square mile (1.000 350. The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants by year.700 per square km) far exceeds Turkey's 130 people per square mile (81 people per square km).372. The numbers from 1927 to 2000 are results of censuses. mainly due to the influx of people from the surrounding rural areas.[81] 16 Demographics The population of the metropolis more than tripled during the 25 years between 1980 and 2005. The rate of population growth in the city is currently at 3.000 150.[82] Most of the city’s population are ethnic Turks. Asia. and Africa.[3] and is one of the largest cities in the world today. Migrants. will soon be demolished and replaced by a new building. Throughout its history the ethnic Greek and then Turkish populations have assimilated these groups throughout the city's history. Istanbul was the largest city in the world. The doubling of the population of Istanbul between 1980 and 1985 is due to a natural increase in population as well as the expansion of municipal limits. Kurds now constitute the largest ethnic minority in the city. Empire before the Ottomans). many people from that region migrated to Istanbul. This results each year with new gecekondus at the outskirts of the city. There are several million Kurdish migrants from the countryside in Istanbul.

629.978 2.742.570 874.132.982 6.000 715.431 8.148 793.000 873.857 741.900 Year Population 1914 1927 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 909.475.613 .708 5.000 [84] 600.407 2.268.547.949 860.535 Year Population 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 2000 2007 1.000 942.772.000 500.041 1.468 11.466.372.978 680.059.Istanbul 17 Year Population 1477 1566 1817 1860 1885 1890 1897 1901 70.803.558 983.364 2.000 1.771 1.

there were 2. is located in the Fener (Phanar) district. spiritual leader of the Greek Orthodox Church and first patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox communion. Also based in Istanbul are the archbishop of the Turkish-Orthodox community. . as their activities were deemed incompatible with the characteristics of the secular democratic Republic of Turkey. and the Turkish Grand-Rabbi. The Sultan Ahmed Mosque. populations of these ethnic groups. while a number of the local Muslims are Alevis. as well as 109 Muslim cemeteries and View of the Ottoman Neo-Baroque style Ortaköy 57 non-Muslim cemeteries. an Armenian archbishop.944 active mosques in Istanbul. In some quarters. Catholic Levantines and Sephardic Jews. Very few remain in these aforementioned districts as they either emigrated or moved to other districts. According to the 2000 census.691 active mosques. such as Kuzguncuk. between 1517 and 1924. In 2007 there were 2. Armenian Christians.Istanbul | 18 Religion The urban landscape of Istanbul is shaped by many communities. the Sunnis form the most populous sect. an Armenian church sits next to a synagogue. when the Caliphate was dissolved and its powers were handed over to the Turkish Parliament. The Muslims are by far the largest religious group in Istanbul. On 2 September 1925. the Fener district which had a sizeable Greek population. the tekkes and tarikats were banned. most notably Arnavutköy (Albanian village). the Balat district which had a sizeable Jewish population.[85] Istanbul was the final seat of the Islamic Caliphate. and some neighbourhoods in the Nişantaşı and Beyoğlu districts which had sizeable Levantine populations. Religious minorities include Greek Orthodox Christians. Some districts used to have sizeable Mosque. The religion with the largest community of followers is Islam. and on the other side of the road a Greek Orthodox church is found beside a mosque. The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople. A number of places reflect past movements of different communities into Istanbul. Polonezköy (Polish village) and Yenibosna (New Bosnia). Among them. 123 active churches and 26 active synagogues in Istanbul. such as the Kumkapı district which had a sizeable Armenian population.

The İtalyan Sinagogu (Italian Synagogue) in Galata is mostly frequented by the descendants of these Italian Jews in Istanbul. Another large group of Sephardic Jews came from southern Italy which was under Spanish control. It employs approximately 20% of Turkey's industrial labour and contributes 38% of Turkey's industrial workspace.000 Sephardic Jews still remain today.000[87] (not including the nearly 40. silk. The Christian population declined from 450.000 to 240. The Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II (1481–1512) sent a sizable fleet to Spain under the command of Kemal Reis in order to save the Sephardic Jews. particularly the Greeks and Armenians living in Istanbul changed significantly following the bitter conflicts between these ethnic groups and the Turks during the fall of Inside the Church of St. The Sultan granted over 93.[89] currently amounts to approximately 4. which began in the 1820s and continued for a (Phanar) quarter. as at that point in the Caliphate's history it was a beacon of tolerance compared to much of Christendom. such as the Turkish Orthodox Church and the Armenian Patriarchate.000 citizens. during the Balkan Wars. Istanbul and its surrounding province produce cotton. glass. electronics. metal ware. century.000 fled first to Tangier. which amounted to 150. these organisations represent themselves as "cultural associations. where more than 20.000 Istanbulite Greeks who currently live in Greece but continue to retain their Turkish citizenship. rubber.000 citizens in 1924. The number of the local Turkish Armenians in Istanbul today amount to approximately 45.[87] The Sephardic Jews have lived in the city for over 500 years.Istanbul particularly with the secular education system and the laicist state's control over religious affairs through the Religious Affairs Directorate. textile production.000 Armenian workers in Turkey who came from Armenia after 1991 and mostly live and work in Istanbul). the First World War and the Turkish War of Independence. George in the Fener the Ottoman Empire.[87] There are also 60. oil products. Genova and Marseille. The city was formerly also the seat of the Bulgarian Exarchate. Most followers of Sufism and other forms of Islamic mysticism practiced clandestinely afterwards. later to Salonica and finally to Istanbul. Algiers." The city has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate since the 4th century AD. transport Levent financial district. Food processing. in the Beyoğlu quarter. most of Turkey's remaining Greek and Armenian minorities live in or near Istanbul. when they were forced to convert to Christianity after the fall of the Moorish Kingdom of Andalucia. Istanbul has always been the centre of Turkey's economic life because of its location as a junction of international land and sea trade routes. before its autocephaly was recognised by other Orthodox churches. More than 200. leather. the most important of them being the Neve Shalom Synagogue inaugurated in 1951. fruit.[88] while the Greek community. pharmaceuticals. machinery. automotive. . 19 Economy Apart from being the largest city and former political capital of the country.000 of these Spanish Jews to take refuge in the Ottoman Empire. and some of these sects still boast numerous followers. and continues to serve as the seat of some other Orthodox churches. They fled the Iberian Peninsula during the Spanish Inquisition of 1492. Istanbul is also Turkey's largest industrial centre. The everyday life of the Christians. In order to avoid the still valid prohibition. There are about 20 synagogues. chemicals.000 between 1914 and 1927. The conflicts reached their culmination in the decade between 1912 and 1922.[86] Today. and tobacco. olive oil.

respectively. including more than 20 public and private universities.148.000. and alcoholic drinks are among the city's major industrial products.[100] while Istanbul Technical University (1773) is the world's third-oldest technical university dedicated entirely to engineering sciences.5% of Turkey's national product. Istanbul is one of the most important tourism spots of Turkey.[93] Bankalar Caddesi continued to be Istanbul's main financial district until the 1990s. There are thousands of hotels and other tourist oriented industries in the city. Most of the reputable universities are public.2% of Turkey's exports and imports.000. Bahçeşehir University. Kadir Has University.883. and later reorganised as the Bank-ı Osmanî-i Şahane in 1863)[92] and the Ottoman Stock Exchange (1866) were located.[97] The total number of tourists who entered Turkey through Atatürk International Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport in Istanbul reached 5.6% and 60. Istanbul Commerce University. Istanbul contributes 40% of all taxes collected in Turkey and produces 27. is the oldest Turkish educational institution in the city.[99] Public services Education Istanbul holds some of the finest institutions of higher education in Turkey. in that year.Istanbul vehicles. Yildiz Technical University and Marmara University.[94] Today. founded in 1453. Bankalar Caddesi (Banks Street) in Galata was the financial centre of the Ottoman Empire.849.[93] In 1995. Almost all Turkish private high schools and universities in Istanbul teach in English.000. According to Forbes magazine. Galatasaray Lisesi. is seen in the background. In 2006 a total of 23.000 and imports worth $69. Yeditepe University.[91] During the 19th and early 20th centuries. most of whom entered the country through the airports and seaports of Istanbul and Antalya. established in .[98] Istanbul is also one of the world's major conference destinations and is an increasingly popular choice for the world's leading international associations.2% of Turkey's gross national product. Istanbul had a total of 35 billionaires as of March 2008. the city generates 55% of Turkey's trade and 45% of the country's wholesale trade. but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities. Main entrance gate of Istanbul University on Beyazıt Square. when most Turkish banks began moving their headquarters to the modern central business districts of Levent and Maslak. and generates 21.[96] 20 Maslak financial district. Istanbul University.658. ranking fourth in the world. Doğuş University and Bilgi University.[95] In 2005 companies based in Istanbul made exports worth $41.[101] Other prominent state universities in Istanbul include Boğaziçi University. which corresponded to 56. rising from 4.353 in 2005. Mimar Sinan University of Fine Arts.[90] Originally established as the Ottoman Stock Exchange (Dersaadet Tahvilat Borsası) in 1866. the Istanbul Stock Exchange moved to its current building in the Istinye quarter.397. Fatih University. Beyazıt Tower. The major private universities in the city include Koç University. German or French as the primary foreign language. Sabancı University. and reorganised to its current structure at the beginning of 1986.346. In 2005 the City of Istanbul had a GDP of $133 billion. catering to both vacationers and visiting professionals. paper and paper products.669 tourists visited Turkey. where the headquarters of the Ottoman Central Bank (established as the Bank-ı Osmanî in 1856. usually accompanied by a secondary foreign language. located within the campus. the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) is the sole securities market of Turkey. which was known as the Forum Tauri in the Roman period.

Many of these facilities have high technology equipment. Sultan Valens Aqueduct. but some of them still have considerable foreign administration. such as the Üsküdar Anadolu Lisesi with German as the primary foreign language and technical instruction in German. Istanbul has numerous libraries. Kuleli Military High School is the only military high school in Istanbul. 21 Healthcare The city has many public and private hospitals. These aqueducts were built in order to channel water from the Halkalı area in the western edge of the city to the Beyazıt district in the city centre. Atatürk Library and Çelik Gülersoy Library. is another foreign school in the city. Pollution-related health problems increase especially in the winter. (Özel İtalyan Lisesi) which is still regarded as an Italian state school by the government of Italy and continues to receive funding and teachers from Rome.[104] Istanbul has particularly become a global destination for laser eye surgery and plastic surgery. located in Çengelköy district. such as the famous Philoxenos (Binbirdirek) Cistern and the Basilica (Yerebatan) Cistern. which was known as the Forum Tauri in the Roman period. most of these schools went under the administration of the Turkish Ministry of Education. such as the Liceo Italiano Statale I. among numerous others. Istanbul University Library.[102] Robert College. İstanbul Lisesi. when the combustion of heating fuels increase.Istanbul 1481 as Galata Sarayı Enderun-u Hümayunu (Galata Palace Imperial School) and later known as Galatasaray Mekteb-i Sultanisi (Galatasaray School of the Sultans) is the oldest Turkish high school in Istanbul and the second oldest Turkish educational institution in the city. Nuruosmaniye Library. abbreviated İEL. Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey. many of which contain vast collections of historic documents from the Roman. also commonly known as İstanbul Erkek Lisesi (established in 1884). Kadıköy Anadolu Lisesi is one of the first six special Ministry of Education Colleges established in 1950s in big cities across Turkey. Mandatory use of unleaded gas was scheduled to begin only in January 2006. which has contributed to the recent upsurge in "medical tourism" to Istanbul. established in 1863.[103] particularly from West European countries like the United Kingdom and Germany where governments send patients with lower income to the city for the inexpensive service of high-tech medical treatment and operations. the water was later collected in the city's numerous cisterns. Library of the Archaeological Museum. most of which were established in the 19th century in order to give education to the foreigners residing in Istanbul. Byzantine and Ottoman periods. .[106] After reaching the city centre.M. clinics and laboratories within its bounds and numerous medical research centers. There are also many foreign high schools in Istanbul. Süleymaniye Library. Library of the Naval Museum.I. as well as from other civilisations of the past. The rising number of new cars in the city and the slow development of public transportation often cause urban smog conditions. Beyazıt State Library. The most important libraries in terms of historic document collections include the Topkapı Palace Library. is one of the oldest and internationally renowned high schools of Turkey located in İstanbul.[103] The city also has an Army Veterans Hospital in the military medical centre. Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Paşa Library. Two of the greatest aqueducts built in the Roman period are the Mazulkemer Aqueduct and the Valens Aqueduct.[105] Utilities The first water supply systems which were built in Istanbul date back to the foundation of the city. Those English-medium colleges were renamed as "Anadolu Lisesi" in subsequent decades. Anadolu Liseleri (Anatolian High Schools) were originally furnished for the Turkish children who returned home from foreign countries.

When it was first built.[109] In July 1881 the first telephone circuit in Istanbul was established between the Ministry of Post and Telegraph in Soğukçeşme and the Postahane-i Amire in Yenicami. Electricity distribution services are covered by the state-owned TEK.[109] Samuel Morse received his first ever patent for the telegraph in 1847.[109] The first post office was the Postahane-i Amire near the courtyard of Yeni Mosque. close to the Istanbul Park GP Racing Circuit. installation works of the first telegraph line between Istanbul and Edirne began on 9 August 1847. The smaller one is the Sabiha Gökçen International Airport located in the Kurtköy district on the Asian side.[111] In 1855 the Telegraph Administration was established. Sinan constructed the Kırkçeşme Water Supply System in 1555.[108] The Ottoman Ministry of Post and Telegraph was established in the city on 23 October 1840.[107] There are also several private sector organisations distributing clean Basilica Cistern. the airport was situated at the western edge of the metropolitan area but now lies within the city bounds. It is situated approximately 20 kilometres (12 mi) east of the Asian side and 45 kilometres (28 mi) east of the European city centre.[109] In 1876 the first international mailing network between Istanbul and the lands beyond the vast Ottoman Empire was established. about 24 kilometres (15 mi) west from the city centre. Today. see German Fountain. to improve the water needs of the city. Atatürk International Airport on the European side is the main airport of the city and one of the largest international hubs in the region. The first electricity production plant in the city. .[111] On 23 May 1909. water. the first manual telephone exchange with a 50 line capacity was established in the Büyük Postane (Grand Post Office) of Sirkeci. Istanbul has a chlorinated and filtered water supply and a sewage disposal system managed by the government agency İSKİ. Silahtarağa Termik Santrali. at the old Beylerbeyi Palace (the present Beylerbeyi Palace was built in 1861–1865 on the same location) in Istanbul.[111] Transportation Airports Istanbul has two international airports: The larger one is the Atatürk International Airport located in the Yeşilköy district on the European side. which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecid who personally tested the new invention. water from various springs was channeled to the public fountains by means of small supply lines. was established in 1914 and continued to supply electricity until 1983. with the aim of responding to the ever-increasing public demand.Istanbul 22 Suleiman the Magnificent commissioned Mimar Sinan.[110] Following this successful test.[106] In later years.[109] In 1901 the first money transfers were made through the post offices and the first cargo services became operational. his engineer and architect-in-chief.

also connecting the city with the Princes' Islands and other destinations in the Sea of Marmara. Istanbul's traditional commuter ferries are being operated by İstanbul Deniz Otobüsleri (Istanbul Sea Buses) which also operates the high speed catamaran Seabus. when they went under the direction of Türkiye Denizcilik İşletmeleri (Turkish State Maritime Lines). the largest of which are the Ataköy Marina on the European side and Kalamış Marina on the Asian side. The port of Istanbul is the most important one in the country.Istanbul 23 Navigation Sea transport is vital for Istanbul. also form the main connection between the city and the Princes' Islands. Motorways lead east to Ankara and west to Edirne. The car ferries which operate between Yenikapı (on the European side of Istanbul) and Bandırma reduce the driving time between Istanbul and İzmir and other major destinations on Turkey's Aegean coast by several hours. is mostly used by intercity or intercontinental traffic. and the Pendik High Speed Car Ferry Port on the Asian side. Istanbul's main cargo port is located in the Harem district on the Asian side of the city. Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. Many Istanbulites live on the Asian side of the city but work on the European side (or vice-versa) and the city's famous commuter ferries form the backbone of the daily transition between the two parts of the city – even more so than the two suspension bridges which span the Bosphorus. while those which operate between Yenikapı or Pendik (on the Asian side of Istanbul) and Yalova significantly reduce the driving time between Istanbul and Bursa or Antalya. The old port on the Golden Horn serves primarily for personal navigation. the Trans European Motorway (TEM) O-3 are the two main motorway connections between Europe and Turkey.100 and the European route E80. is mostly used for inner city traffic. Istanbul also has several marinas of varying size for personal navigation. the Şirket-i Hayriye (literally the Goodwill Company. [112] Commuter ferries have operated on the Bosphorus since 1837. The commuter ferries. the Bosphorus and the Black Sea. . the O-1.[112] Since March 2006. along with the high speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz Otobüsü). the O-2. The Yenikapı High Speed Car Ferry Port on the European side. as the city is practically surrounded by sea on all sides: the Sea of Marmara. the Golden Horn. The older one. as the Istanbul Ferry Company was originally called) was established by the Ottoman state. On 1 January 1851. while Karaköy port in Galata is used by the large cruise liners. are where the high speed catamaran "car ferries" are based.[112] İDO (İstanbul Deniz Otobüsleri – Istanbul Sea Buses) was established in 1987 and operates the high speed catamaran Seabus which run between the European and Asian parts of Istanbul. Motorways The State Road D. Regular services as well as cruises from both Karaköy and Eminönü exist to several port cities in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea.[112] The Şirket-i Hayriye continued to operate the city's landmark commuter ferries until the early years of the Republican period. The motorway network around Istanbul is well developed and is constantly being extended. while the more recent one. The first steam ferries appeared on the Bosphorus in 1837 and were operated by private sector companies. There are also two express highways circling the city.

A railway line runs between the main train station of the European part.000 passengers use the urban rail lines on the European side of the city every day. and the Bosphorus Express serving daily between Sirkeci and Bucharest. are connected through the Galata Bridge. Another suburban line runs on the Anatolian part from the main train station. from Eminönü in the south to Sarıyer in the north. A single trip takes 48 minutes. At the point Levent and Maslak.[113] Sirkeci Terminal was opened in 1890 as the final destination terminus of the Orient Express. the Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Asian side serves lines running several times daily to Ankara. to Gebze at the eastern end of the city. Beyond the Bosphorus. The southern and northern shores of the Golden Horn. is the terminus of all the lines on the European side and the main connection node of the Turkish railway network with the rest of Europe. with 18 stations along its 30 km length. scheduled for 2012. Railways In 1883. Budapest are established over the Bosphorus Express connection to Bucharest. Today. Büyükdere Avenue connects with Barbaros Boulevard. Romania. The railway networks on the European and Asian sides are currently connected by the train ferry across the Bosphorus. and less frequently to other destinations in Anatolia. which descends towards the ferry port of Beşiktaş. began a rail service between Paris and Constantinople. Marmaray (Bosphorus Rail Tunnel) will also connect the metro lines on the European and Asian parts of the city. The 44 km long line has 28 stations and the trip takes 65 minutes. where the O-1 motorway junctions and tunnels between the quarters of Gayrettepe and Zincirlikuyu come together. international connections are provided by the line running between Istanbul and Thessaloniki.[114] . and the Halkalı district towards the west of the city centre. There it connects with the coastal highway that runs along the European shore of the Bosphorus. made even more famous by the works of Agatha Christie and Graham Greene. the Haydarpaşa Terminal. Currently. 720. an inlet of the Bosphorus on the European side of the city. a rail line was completed going through Bucharest to Constantinople. Belgrade. Büyükdere Avenue is the main artery that runs through the central business districts of Levent and Maslak on the European side. Greece. The route was known as the Orient Express. Lines to Sofia. the latter also being a part of the O-1 motorway network.Istanbul 24 The Bosphorus Bridge on the O-1 and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge on theO-2 establish the motorway connection between the European and the Asian sides of the Bosphorus. making the whole journey via land possible. and is Büyükdere Avenue runs through the heart of also accessible through a number of subway stations. the Haydarpaşa Terminal was originally opened as the terminus of the Istanbul-Konya-Baghdad and Istanbul-Damascus-Medina railways. Inaugurated in 1908. a Belgian entrepreneur. Georges Nagelmackers. the Atatürk Bridge and the Haliç Bridge. In 1889. the Sirkeci Terminal. using a steamship to ferry passengers from Varna to Constantinople. which will be replaced by an underwater tunnel connection with the completion of the Marmaray project. the Sirkeci Terminal of the Turkish State Railways (TCDD). which was originally opened in 1890 as the terminus of the Orient Express.

6 km long route.[116] It has 10 stations on a 2.[118] It is about 600 meters long and climbs approximately 60 meters in 110 seconds. which is a single 1. running west from Zeytinburnu to Bağcılar. the Bayezid – Şehzadebaşı line.800 trips. An entire trip takes 42 minutes. if one counts Brooklyn.5 minutes. and the Eminönü – Bahçekapı line. the Fatih – Edirnekapı – Galatasaray – Tünel line. The older of these lines is the Tünel (1875). and a trip takes 1.[117] It has been continuously in service since 1875.000 passengers. while stations were provided with temporary high platforms. and Eminönü – Aksaray lines entered service. totaling 37. and on the other end from Sirkeci to Eminönü in April 1996.[116] The trip takes 21 minutes. of very different ages and styles. the historic red trams of Istanbul A modern tram running in the Galata quarter of were removed from the city's European side. Funiculars Istanbul is served by two underground funicular railways. carrying 9. now reassigned to other lines. the Tünel carries 15. The Tünel is 573 m (1879.[115] Since 1939 the trams of the city are operated by the İETT.[115] On 12 August 1961. The line has 24 stations on a length of 14 km. In September 2006. The line was extended on one end from Topkapı to Zeytinburnu in March 1994.[117] A second funicular line. The amount of investment totaled US$110 million.[115] Towards the end of 1990. New York's abandoned Atlantic Avenue Tunnel) and the first subterranean urban rail line in continental Europe. entered service on 29 June 2006.066 kilometres a year. Service was initially operated with 22 LRT vehicles built by ABB.[117] Two trains run on a single rail every 3. another nostalgic tram line (T3) was reopened on the Anatolian part of Istanbul between Kadıköy and Moda. they were removed from the city's Asian side.[115] In 1871 the Azapkapı – Galata. replicas of these historic red trams were put in service along the İstiklal Avenue between Taksim and Tünel. These vehicles were replaced by 55 low-floor Bombardier Flexity Swift trams in 2003. Aksaray – Yedikule. at the Tophane – Ortaköy line. though the first full subway line with multiple underground stations in continental Europe was the Line 1 of the Budapest Metro (1896). A final extension to Kabataş was opened in June 2006. and on 14 November Istanbul. 1966.[116] A fast tram (T1) was put in service in 1992 on standard gauge track with modern cars. Stations have high platforms at the level of the car floor. connecting Sirkeci with Topkapı.[115] On 1 November 2003. a second tram line (T2) was added.[115] Other lines which entered service in the late 19th century included the Voyvoda Caddesi – Kabristan Sokağı – Tepebaşı – Taksim – Pangaltı – Şişli line.92 ft) long The modern funicular line running between with an altitude difference of 60 m and no intermediate stations Kabataş and Taksim. crossing the Golden Horn through the Galata Bridge for the first time after 44 years. Inaugurated on 17 January 1875.[117] Making 64. The daily transport capacity is 155.[118] This system connects the Seabus station and the tram stop in Kabataş to the metro station at Taksim Square.000 . Service on this line is operated with 14 ABB LRT cars.[117] the Tünel is the second-oldest subterranean urban rail line in the world after the London Underground (1863) (arguably third in the world.5 minutes. the Kabataş-Taksim Funicular. connecting Kabataş and Taksim.Istanbul 25 Trams Trams first entered service in Istanbul on 3 September 1869.6 km-long (1640 m) line.000 passengers per day. between Karaköy and Tünel Square. On 30 January 2005 it was extended from Eminönü to Fındıklı. Aksaray – Topkapı.

a total of 34 train sets.[120] [121] As of 30 January 2009.[120] and the 13.66 km (13. across the Golden Horn on a bridge and underground through the historic peninsula.Istanbul passengers per day.[119] [120] [125] not including the 936 metres long Golden Horn metro bridge. A northern extension from 4.[119] In 2000.6 km long Yenikapı-Aksaray tunnel connection with the LRT network. Levent to Maslak was opened on 30 January 2009.[118] the 0. which ran every 5 minutes on average and transported 130. . Levent entered service on 16 September 2000. There are 36 stations.[122] The southern extension of the M2 line from Taksim to Yenikapı. The first line (M1) began service on 3 September 1989 between Aksaray and Kartaltepe. construction of the 21.4 mi) when all 16 stations from Hacıosman to Yenikapı will be completed. there were 8 Alstom-built 4-car train sets in service.36 km (11. The lines are totally segregated from other traffic.[128] The Marmaray tunnel (Bosporus undersea railway tunnel) will connect the metro lines of the Asian and European parts of the city. while 6 new stations on the European side and 16 new stations on the Asian side are currently under construction.4 km.6 km long Marmaray tunnel.6 km long Taksim-Kabataş tunnel connection with the Seabus port.[120] Eurotem will build a total of 92 new wagons for the M2 line. The line was further developed step-by-step and reached Atatürk Airport on 20 December 2002.5 mi) long M2 line from Kadıköy to Kartal continues. On 30 January 2009.7 mi) long and takes 21 minutes.65 km (9. the first train sets built by Eurotem entered service. without level crossings. has thus far been completed up to the Şişhane station in Beyoğlu. Service is operated with LRT vehicles built by ABB in 1988.[122] At Yenikapı the M2 network will intersect with the extended light metro and suburban train lines. and with the Marmaray tunnel. and run underground for 10. each with 4 cars. The other line (T4) was opened in 2007 between Edirnekapı and Mescid-i Selam.3 mi) long and has 6 stations.000 passengers daily. which also entered service on 30 January 2009. were being used on the M2 line. At present.[123] [124] The total length of the European side of the M2 line will reach 18.[119] This section of the line is 8.[121] Levent subway station.[126] the 0. which will have a total of 16 stations. The trip between the Şişhane station in Beyoğlu and the Atatürk Oto Sanayi station in Maslak is 15. on the line's 32 km length.[127] On the Asian side. Metro Construction works of the Istanbul Metro (M2) began in 1992 and the first completed section between Taksim and 4. the tunnel will enter service in 2013. According to the scheduled construction timeline. the M2 line has 10 stations in service on the European side of the city.5 km (5. including 12 underground and 3 viaduct stations.[118] 26 Light rail The Istanbul LRT is a light rail transit system consisting of 2 lines.

[130] Occasionally. Sadberk Hanım Museum contains a wide variety of artifacts. dating from the earliest Anatolian civilisations to the Ottomans. chorale ensembles.000. The Istanbul International Film Festival is one of the most important film festivals in Europe. aircraft. edificed between 1455–1461 by the order of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror also has numerous antiques shops. The museum contains more than 1. The nearby Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum displays a vast collection of items from various Islamic civilisations. and has continuously been active in the same location since the late Roman.Istanbul 27 Culture and contemporary life Fine and performing arts Istanbul is becoming increasingly colourful in terms of its rich social. The Rahmi M. is one of the largest museums of its kind in the world. It was a culture of leisure during the Ottoman period. which brings together rare pieces of antiques from the Orient and Occident. the Balkans. Istanbul Archaeology Museum is adjacent to the Istanbul Modern frequently hosts the exhibitions of renowned Turkish Topkapı Palace. Koç Museum on the Golden Horn is an industrial museum that exhibits historic industrial equipment such as cars and locomotives from the 1800s and early 1900s. and foreign artists. Istanbul Archaeology Museum. Middle East. along with shops selling jewels.[129] while the Istanbul Biennial is another major event of fine arts. and commercial activities. the finest example being the Çemberlitaş Hamamı (1584) in Istanbul. A significant culture has been developed around what is known as a Turkish Bath. and it is one of the oldest book markets in the world. ballet and theatre continue throughout the year. established in 1881. located on the Çemberlitaş (Column of Constantine) Square. concerts and jazz legends can be found often playing to a full house. Cemal Reşit Rey Concert Hall and other open air and modern theatre halls. Rumeli Fortress. While world famous pop stars fill stadiums. Historic and rare books are found in the Sahaflar Çarşısı near Beyazıt Square.[131] The multi-storey Mecidiyeköy Antikacılar Çarşısı (Mecidiyeköy Antiques Bazaar) in the Mecidiyeköy quarter of Şişli is the largest antiques market in the city. carpets and other items of art and artisanship. Byzantine and Ottoman periods. activities like opera. Pera Museum and Sakıp Sabancı Museum have hosted the exhibitions of world famous artists and are among the most important private museums in the city. the courtyard of Topkapı Palace. cultural. The Grand Bazaar. Live shows and concerts are hosted at a number of locations including historical sites such as the Hagia Irene. During seasonal festivals. as well as the Atatürk Cultural Center. The Doğançay Museum – Turkey’s first contemporary art museum – is dedicated almost exclusively to the work of its founder Burhan Doğançay. and Gülhane Park. Istanbul Mosaic Museum contains the late Roman and early Byzantine floor mosaics and wall ornaments of the Great Palace of Constantinople. in November. as well as boats. while the Çukurcuma neighbourhood of Beyoğlu has rows of antiques shops in its streets. the Silahhane (Armory Hall) of Yıldız Palace hosts the Istanbul Antiques Fair. Yedikule Castle. world famous orchestras. and other similar vintage machines from past epochs.000 archaeological pieces from the Mediterranean basin.[132] . submarines. North Africa and Central Asia.

as well as Kilyos and Şile on the Black Sea. was built by Hristaki Zoğrafos Efendi at the former site of the Naum Theatre and was inaugurated in 1876. Some historic neighbourhoods around İstiklal Avenue have recently been recreated. being particularly active in the summer with many night parties and live concerts on the beach. Küçükçekmece. İstinye Park (2007) and City's Nişantaşı (2008) are two new malls which target high-end consumers and are almost exclusively dedicated to world-famous fashion brands. is also in this area.Istanbul 28 Recreation Traditional beach resorts had gradually disappeared due to water pollution. summer mansions from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Pine and The Princes' Islands are located to the southeast stone-pine wooden neoclassical and art nouveau-style Ottoman era of Istanbul in the Sea of Marmara. which was followed by dozens of others in the later decades. such as the Grand Bazaar (1461). They can be reached by ferry boats or high-speed catamaran Seabus (Deniz otobüsü) from Eminönü and Bostancı. The famous Nevizâde Street. The 19th century Çiçek Pasajı (literally Flower Passage in Turkish. cafés and restaurants playing live music. such as Cezayir Sokağı near Galatasaray Lisesi. however. or Cité de Péra in French) on İstiklal Avenue. many European and Far Eastern The Grand Bazaar is one of the largest covered markets in the world. south of the quarters Kartal and Pendik. Other historic pubs are found in the areas around Tünel Pasajı and the nearby Asmalımescit Sokağı. Silivri and Tuzla. The Princes' Islands (Prens Adaları) are a group of islands in the Marmara Sea. Cevahir Mall (2005) which is the largest mall in Europe. Şile is a distant and well-known Turkish seaside resort on the Black Sea. Of the nine islands. Shopping Istanbul has numerous historic shopping centers. which has rows of historic meyhanes next to each other. Sarıyer and the Bosphorus. Mahmutpaşa Bazaar (1462) and the Egyptian Bazaar (1660). which became unofficially known as La Rue Française[133] and has rows of francophone pubs. The first modern shopping mall was Galleria Ataköy (1987). The most popular places for swimming in the city are in Bakırköy.[134] . Outside the city are the Marmara Sea's Princes' Islands. only five are settled. with differing levels of success. such as Akmerkez (1993) which is the only mall to win both "Europe's Best" and "World's Best" awards by the ICSC. horse-drawn carriages (motor vehicles are not permitted) and seafood restaurants make them a popular destination. Kilyos is a small calm seaside resort not far from the northern European entrance of the Bosphorus at the Black Sea. Most of the city's historic winehouses (meyhane in Turkish) and pubs are located in the areas around İstiklal Avenue in Beyoğlu. 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Istanbul. which has many historic meyhanes. pubs and restaurants. Kilyos offers a beach park with seafood restaurants and night clubs. old places have reopened in the city. Restaurants Along with the traditional Turkish restaurants. Metrocity (2003). restaurants and numerous other cuisines are also thriving in the city. Recently. and Kanyon Mall (2006) which won the 2006 Cityscape Architectural Review Award for its interesting design. where unspoiled white sand beaches can be found. The place has good swimming possibilities and has become popular in the recent years among the inhabitants of Istanbul as a place for excursions.

Bâbıâli became the main centre for print media. 29 İstiklal Avenue in Istanbul's cosmopolitan Beyoğlu district. Most nationwide newspapers are based in Istanbul. Yeni Şafak. Flash TV and many others. Takvim. pubs. Q Jazz Bar in Ortaköy offers live jazz music in a stylish environment. Bebek and Kadıköy offer all sorts of cafés. Tercüman. NTV. The stadium hosted the 2005 UEFA Champions League Final. Cine5. Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe. which is also a 5-star UEFA stadium. Babylon[137] and Nu Pera in Beyoğlu are popular night clubs both in the summer and in the winter. There are also numerous local and national TV and radio stations located in Istanbul. pubs and clubs as well as art galleries. is a 5-star UEFA stadium and a first-class venue for track and field. Vakit. Burgazada and Kınalıada) and Anadolu Kavağı near the northern entrance of the Bosphorus towards the Black Sea (close to Yoros Castle. In addition to Beşiktaş. Star. which was also known as the Genoese Castle due to Genoa's possession of it in the mid-15th century) also have many historic seafood restaurants. such as Efes Pilsen. Türkiye. such as Sortie. Akşam. The most popular open air summer time seaside night clubs are found on the Bosporus. Heybeliada. The Atatürk Olympic Stadium. Parkorman[144] in Maslak hosted the Isle of MTV Party in 2002 and is a popular venue for live concerts and rave parties in the summer. The night clubs. Kanal Türk. The areas around Istiklal Avenue. In the city of Istanbul.Istanbul Istanbul is also famous for its historic seafood restaurants. Kanal D. home of Fenerbahçe. sports like football. Vakıfbank and Fenerbahçe in volleyball.000 spectators. The most popular seafood restaurants are generally found along the shores of the Bosphorus and by the Marmara Sea shore towards the south of the city. The Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium. was printed on 1 August 1831 in the Bâbıâli (Bâb-ı Âli. meaning The Sublime Porte) district.[105] Major newspapers with their headquarters in Istanbul include Hürriyet. Güneş.Samanyolu TV. Venues such as Istanbul Arena in Maslak and Kuruçeşme Arena[143] on the Bosporus frequently host the live concerts of famous singers and bands from all corners of the world. theaters and cinemas. which had a capacity to accommodate more than 100. Cumhuriyet. SKY Türk.[135] [136] The largest of the Princes' Islands in the Sea of Marmara (namely Büyükada. Sabah. Istanbul is also the printing capital of Turkey with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views. Posta. which field teams in multiple sports. ATV. with simultaneous Ankara and İzmir editions. Galatasaray Cafe Crown and Beşiktaş Cola Turka in basketball. and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. Media The first Turkish newspaper. basketball and volleyball are very popular in the city. there are over a hundred FM-radio stations. Fox Sports Türkiye. Bugün. having reached the highest required standards set by the International Olympic Committee and sports federations such as the IAAF. Fenerbahçe Ülker. restaurants and taverns with live music in the city. MTV Türkiye. Zaman. several other clubs have also excelled in particular team sports. . Star TV.[138] [139] Reina[140] [141] and Anjelique[142] in the Ortaköy district. Nişantaşı. Fanatik and Turkish Daily News. TGRT Haber. Vatan. the most important sporting events were the quadriga chariot races that were held at the Hippodrome of Constantinople. Milliyet.[146] Today.[145] Sports During the Roman and Byzantine periods. restaurants. Radikal. restaurants and bars increase in number and move to open air spaces in the summer. FIFA and UEFA. Kanal 7. CNN Türk. Dünya. such as CNBC-e. or Eczacıbaşı. the largest multi-purpose stadium in Turkey. Show TV. Takvim-i Vekayi. Night life There are many night clubs. Fox Türkiye.

The Abdi İpekçi Arena hosted the Final of EuroBasket 2001. Air racing is new to the city. Istanbul hosted the 5th leg of the spectacular Red Bull Air Race World Series. Martial arts and other Eastern disciplines and practices such as Aikido and Yoga can be exercised in several centers across the city. Istanbul hosts several annual motorsports events.Istanbul hosted the 2009 UEFA Cup Final that went down to history as the last Final of the UEFA Cup football tournament.[147] [148] The Sinan Erdem Dome. in both cases above the Golden Horn. the GP2 and the Le Mans Series 1000 km (621 mi) races at the Istanbul Park GP Racing Circuit. Istanbul also hosts the annual MTB races in the nearby Belgrad Forest and Büyükada Island. where the rowing races take place. the MotoGP Grand Prix of Turkey. Personal sports like golf. and was also the venue for the 1992 Euroleague Final Four. The UEFA Cup will be replaced by the UEFA Europa League starting from the 2009-2010 season. From time to time Istanbul also hosts the Turkish leg of the F1 Powerboat Racing on the Bosphorus. and major universities such as the Bosphorus University have rowing teams. numerous fitness clubs are available. Several annual sailing and yacht races take place on the Bosphorus and the Sea of Marmara. Paintball is a sport which has recently gained popularity and is practiced by two large clubs in the proximity of Istanbul. and will also be the venue for the 2012 IAAF World Indoor Championships and the 2012 FINA Short Course World Championships. 30 See also • • • • • • • • Istanbul (Not Constantinople). The Golden Horn is Istanbul Park GP racing circuit. as well as the 4th leg on 2 June 2007. are from Istanbul. Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş. will host the Final of the 2010 FIBA World Basketball Championship. such as the Formula One Turkish Grand Prix. the largest multi-purpose indoor arena in Turkey. the FIA World Touring Car Championship. Two of the most prominent cycling teams of Turkey. horse riding and tennis are gaining popularity as the city hosts international tournaments such as the WTA Istanbul Cup. On 29 July 2006. Major clubs like Galatasaray. a song about the name of the city Large Cities Climate Leadership Group List of architectural structures in Istanbul List of columns and towers in Istanbul List of Istanbulites List of tallest buildings in Istanbul List of twin towns and sister cities in Turkey Metropolitan centers in Turkey . For aerobics and bodybuilding. namely the Scott/Marintek MTB Team and the Kron/Sektor Bikes/Efor Bisiklet MTB Team.

 222 [27] Gregory 2010. [8] "Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Districts of Istanbul" (http:/ / www. gov.. the precise year in which the city was founded has been disputed by historians since antiquity. . org/ en/ list/ 356). tuik. 78 [20] De Souza 2003. RDF& p_il1=34& p_kod=2& p_yil=2009& p_dil=1& desformat=html& ENVID=nufus2000db2Env). 242 pages. . However. Commonly cited is the work of [149] 5th-century-BC historian Herodotus. tr/ reports/ rwservlet?adnksdb2=& report=buyukbelediye. 4 [18] Rainsford. aspx). p. p. Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. [9] "UNESCO | Historic Areas of Istanbul" (http:/ / whc. 113 [37] Chandler & Fox 1974. ibb. 130 [30] Haldon 2002. tuik. p. Tauris. pp. . 324–9 [33] Gregory 2010. 62–3 [14] Wheatcroft 1995. p. [19] Alkım & Metzger 1969. gov. gov. pp. [5] http:/ / www. [17] Dwight 1915. 77 [25] Barnes 1981. gov. As such. p. "Istanbul's ancient past unearthed" (http:/ / news. tr/ reports/ rwservlet?adnksdb2=& report=turkiye_il_koy_sehir. Retrieved 11 February 2010. p. ibb. placed firmly in 667 BC. "Istanbul was only adopted as the city's official name in 1930. places [150] [151] Byzantion's establishment in 659 BC. Richard D. 2004). p. 374 . Retrieved 28 May 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2010. References [1] The foundation of Byzantion (Byzantium) is sometimes. 287 [22] Grant 1996. . 16 [11] Safran 1998. tuik. 8–10 [23] Limberis 1994. distributed by Palgrave Macmillan. BBC.". stm).B. bbc. 2008. 177 [13] Gregory 2010. which came into existence around 685 BC. p. tr/ en-US/ Organisation/ AuthorityArea/ Pages/ Districts. Retrieved on 19 March 2008. Further. 11–2 [24] Barnes 1981. while concurring with 685 BC as the year in which Chalcedon was founded. Carl Roebuck proposed the 640s BC while others have [152] suggested even later. tr/ en-US/ Pages/ Home. Retrieved 28 May 2009. 63 [28] Evans 2000. Pays particular attention to modernization under the Democratic Party government (1950–60) of Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. [2] "İllere göre merkez ve belde/köy nüfus toplamları" (http:/ / report. gov. unesco. the foundation date of Chalcedon is itself subject to some debate. ix [16] Robinson. especially in encyclopedic or other tertiary sources. 330–3 [34] Gregory 2010. 88 [21] Smith 1897. [10] Evans 2000. 9 [154] [31] The end of Byzantium Empire is universally regarded as 1453. Sarah (10 January 2009). p. istanbul. [153] [150] others put it in 675 BC or even 639 BC (with Byzantion's establishment placed in 619 BC). while many sources place it in 685 BC. [4] "Province Population" (http:/ / report. tr/ [7] Finkel. Murat. The First Turkish Republic: A Case Study in National Development.org. (1965). pp. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 7820924. Retrieved 16 July 2009. 217 [29] Winks 1993. Caroline. p. p. 341–2 [36] Madden 2004. p. RDF& p_il1=34& p_kod=2& p_yil=2009& p_dil=1& desformat=html& ENVID=nufus2000db2Env). p. . Eusebius of Caesarea. aspx [6] http:/ / english. despite the temporary survival of remnants in Morea and Trebizond.tr. p.gov. However. co. 17 [12] Room 2006. html) Address-based population survey 2007.Istanbul 31 Further reading • Gul. (Basic Books. tr/ jsp/ duyuru/ upload/ adnks_Harita_TR/ HaritaTR. 2010). gov. pp. p. some sources have opted to refer to Byzantium's foundation as simply located in the 7th century BC. 212 [26] Barnes 1981. 138–9 [15] Lewis 1963. [3] Türkiye istatistik kurumu (http:/ / www. pp. Ibb. 57. 340 [35] Gregory 2010. p. pp. p. Among more modern historians. Whc. [32] Gregory 2010. which says the city was founded seventeen years after Chalcedon. Osman's Dream. pp. The Emergence of Modern Istanbul: Transformation and Modernisation of a City (I.unesco. pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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İ.tr. istanbululasim. asp). . tr/ Default. . Ibb. Retrieved 20 July 2009. . asp?menu_id=3& sayfa_id=1).com. Department of Urban Transportation. html/ ). com/ default. net. babylon. parkorman. © 2009 Büyükdere Piyasa Cad. 34 . Istanbul" (http:/ / www. gov. Şişhane’den Maslak’a uzadı" (http:/ / www. tr/ tr-TR/ SubSites/ raylisistemler/ Pages/ taksim-4Levent. Retrieved 13 July 2009.eu. [141] "Formula 1 Party at Reina. asp?haber=41& sayfano=17). sortie. No: 27–29 Sarıyer. youtube. net). sirketihayriye. doi:10. Levent metro hattı" (http:/ / www. . Fashion TV. Retrieved 13 July 2009. . tr/ webtech/ eng_default. kurucesmearena.T.4. [126] "Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Golden Horn metro bridge" (http:/ / www.tr. php?sid=46). turktelekom. .gov. tr/ english/ main/ frame_corporate. [113] "Orient Express" (http:/ / www. La Rue Française. [121] "İstanbul Ulaşım: Metro Şişhane'den Maslak'a uzandı" (http:/ / www. istanbul.tr.000 Özel Aracın Trafiğe Çıkmasını Önlüyor" (http:/ / www. [144] "Official website of Parkorman" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 18 June 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009. tr/ istanbul_raylisistemler_nostaljiktramvay.com. com. September 2007. istanbul-ulasim. Retrieved 3 June 2009. tr/ tr-TR/ SubSites/ raylisistemler/ Pages/ taksimyenikapielektro. aspx). "En iyi balıkçılar" (http:/ / www. [122] "Metro. Retrieved 9 June 2009.T. org. Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. html). [115] "İstanbul'da ulaşımın miladı" (http:/ / www. Turkey" (http:/ / www. [129] Istanbul Film Festival history (http:/ / www. ibb. asp?ml_pn=1& menu_id=7& makale_tip=guncel& makale_id=00163. tr/ habergoster. istanbululasim. com/ index. asp?ml_pn=1& menu_id=7& makale_tip=guncel& makale_id=00163. . aspx).T. asp?sayfa_id=30) [112] "Şirket-i Hayriye" (http:/ / www. . [140] "Official website of Reina night club in Ortaköy. Brown (14 October 1999). Istanbul" (http:/ / www. asp?cid=3& ms=1|1). txt& modul_id=guncel). 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. • Madden. S. James A. ISBN 0752434721. Philip (2003).144. • Limberis. ISBN 0860330818. Baynes. 199 [151] Roebuck 1959. London: Routledge. (2002).. London: Penguin Books. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons. Stroud. uefa. ISBN 0415968542. Pennsylvania: Penn State Press. Linda (1998). "Fragmentation (1204-1453)". Richard P. Tertius. ISBN 0415127726..C. Ann Arbor. North Carolina: McFarland & Company. eds (1977). Cities. Timothy David (1981). p. • Barnes. U. Anatolia: From the Beginnings to the End of the 2nd Millennium B. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780195046526. uefa. ISBN 0198140983. com/ uefa/ keytopics/ kind=64/ newsid=754085. reprint ed. London: Barrie & Rockliff the Cresset Press. html). Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. (1979). (2000). John F. University Park. 344 35 Bibliography • Alkım. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. • Wheatcroft. uk/ sport1/ hi/ football/ europe/ 7637600.com. New York: Harper & Brothers. Byzantium: A History (2nd ed. L.. • Lister. Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6. p. Scribner's Sons.. Harrison G.Istanbul [147] "Uefa Cup gets new name in revamp" (http:/ / news. • Kazhdan.uk. Michael (1996). Lewis.). also as mentioned in Issac 1986. Territories. p. New York: Routledge. Timothy E. • Chandler.: University of Michigan. From the Earliest Times to the Roman Conquest. [148] "UEFA Cup to become UEFA Europa League" (http:/ / www.). Crusades: The Illustrated History. • Reinert. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Peter M.C. ISBN 0674165314. Norman H. Heaven on Earth: Art and the Church in Byzantium. Lambton. • Gregory. • Baynes. (2003). Vasiliki (1994).). ISBN 0786422483. Henri (1969). ISBN 0472114638. 114. Bernard. The Greek and Persian Wars. . The Severans: The Changed Roman Empire. 10 [154] Kazhdan 1991. reprint ed. Ann K. bbc. London: Gordon & Cremonesi. Natural Features.600 Countries. • Holt. London: Routledge. Alexander. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Thomas F. London: Routledge.).: Tempus. S. The Ottomans: Dissolving Images. Fox. • Smith. Cyril. (1915). 199 [152] Lister 1979. The Oxford History of Byzantium.. Moss. Constantine and Eusebius. . Stephen W. Constantinople: Old and New. C. London: Routledge. A History of Byzantium. Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire (illustrated. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. Byzantium at War. [149] Herodotus Histories 4. • Haldon. ISBN 0521291356. ISBN 140518471X. A Smaller History of Greece. p. ed (2004). Byzantium: An Introduction to East Roman Civilization.co. 499-386 B. Norman H. • Dwight. Adrian (2006). (2002). • Haldon. Andrew (1995). reprint ed. The Age of Justinian: The Circumstances of Imperial Power (illustrated. ISBN 0415237262.). ISBN 0140168796. co. bbc. The Travels of Herodotus. 1 (illustrated. Mich. ISBN 0271016701. Metzger. Norman. Retrieved 26 September 2008. ed (1991). • Evans. p. 288 [150] Issac 1986. William (1897). AD 600-1453 (illustrated ed. London: Academic Press. 35 [153] Freely 1998. B. 26 September 2008. stm). Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. • De Souza. eds. Eng. Bernard (1963). in Mango. Bahadır. • Lewis. • Room. • Grant. ISBN 0806110600. The Cambridge History of Islam. • Safran.: Harvard University Press. and Historic Sites (2nd ed. Retrieved 26 September 2008. Cambridge. Jefferson. (1949). ISBN 0415096774. Gerald (1974). Henry S. 3000 Years of Urban Growth. translated in De Sélincourt 2002. ISBN 0415968615. .). Mass. p. (2010). John F.

tr) Official website of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (http://www.gov. 1966. CNN. com) Istanbul's Sultry Groove (http://edition.com/2006/TRAVEL/DESTINATIONS/08/22/istanbul. 1982 and 2005 (http://sehirrehberi. nightlife/index. San Diego: Collegiate Press.gov.istanbul.tr/en-US/Pages/Home.ibb.gov.com/en/wm/ci/ ?id=istanbul-turkey) Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Interactive aerial photos (maps) of Istanbul from 1946. 22 August 2006 Emporis Buildings Database: Historic and modern buildings of Istanbul (http://www. 36 External links • • • • • • • • • Istanbul travel guide from Wikitravel Official website of Istanbul Governorship (http://english.Istanbul • Winks.). World Civilization: A Brief History (2nd.tr) Istanbul City Photos (http://gallery.html) by Laura MacNeil. (1993). illustrated ed.ibb. ISBN 0939693283.emporis.istanbul.aspx) Official website of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality Monthly Press Magazine (http://www.com/) Geographical coordinates: 41°00′44″N 28°58′34″E .aspx?&rw=1C2&cl=385&scl=6&cx=88710&cy=96187) İstanbul 2010: European Capital of Culture (http://www.tr/MapForm.gov.capital2010.cnn. Robin W.istanbulbulteni.

Museum of the Ancient Orient and the 3. It houses over one million objects that represent almost all of the eras and civilizations in world history. located in the Eminönü district of Istanbul.000 [1] Director Website İsmail Karamut Ministry of Culture and Tourism [2] The Istanbul Archaeology Museums (Turkish: İstanbul Arkeoloji Müzeleri) is an archeological museum. . near Gülhane Park and Topkapı Palace. Museum of Islamic Art (Tiled Kiosk).Istanbul Archaeology Museums 37 Istanbul Archaeology Museums Istanbul Archaeology Museums Established Location Type 13 June 1891 Osman Hamdi Bey Yokuşu Sokak. 2. Turkey. Archaeological Museum (main building). 1. The Istanbul Archaeology Museum consists of three museums. Istanbul. Gülhane. Turkey Archaeology museum Collection size 1+ million objects Visitor figures 200.

once believed to be prepared for Alexander the Great. Collection The ornate Alexander Sarcophagus. many governors from the different provinces would send in found artefacts to the capital city. It is one of the oldest structures in Istanbul featuring Ottoman civil architecture and was a part of the Topkapı Palace outer gardens. Then it was re-organised as a museum and opened in 1935. It was opened to public in 1953 as a museum of Turkish and Islamic art. The façade of the building was inspired by the Alexander Sarcophagus and Sarcophagus of the Mourning Women. Upon its 100th anniversary in 1991. also found in Sidon. The architect was Alexander Vallaury. signed between Ramesses II of Egypt and Hattusili III of the Hittite Empire. • The Lycian tomb. Bust and memorial plaque to Osman Hamdi Bey in the foyer of the main building The Museum of the Ancient Orient was commissioned by Osman Hamdi Bey in 1883 as a Fine Arts School. and reopened in 1974 after restoration works on the interior. The museum was founded by decree as the Imperial Museum (İmparatorluk Müzesi).[3] The Kadesh Peace Treaty (1258 BCE). It is the oldest known peace treaty in the world. and a giant poster of this tablet (treaty) is on the wall of the United Nations Headquarters in New York City. found in the necropolis of Sidon. it was the first one to feature Turkish art. The first curator was Osman Hamdi Bey. attaining its present neo-Greek form in 1908.Istanbul Archaeology Museums 38 History The site of the museums actually belonged to the Topkapı Palace outer gardens. both housed inside the Museum. and was later incorporated into the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. a monumental tomb. particularly for the renovations made to the lower floor halls in the main building and the new displays in the other buildings. Since the imperial decree protecting cultural goods in the Ottoman empire was enforced. The Alexander Sarcophagus. who was also the founder of the museum. • Sarcophagus of the Crying Women. The construction of the main building was started by Osman Hamdi Bey in 1881. When it opened to the public in 1891. is among the most famous pieces of ancient art in the museum. is another favourite of the visitors. Hellenistic and Roman artifacts. the Museum received the European Council Museum Award. It is one of the prominent structures built in the neoclassical style in Istanbul. • Sarcophagi of Tabnit and the Satrap. It was closed to visitors in 1963. The Tiled Kiosk was commissioned by Sultan Mehmed II in 1472. In that way the museum was able to amass a great collection. found at the Necropolis of Sidon . It was used as the Imperial Museum between 1875 and 1891 before the collection moved to the newly constructed main building. The museum has a large collection of Turkish. The most prominent artifacts exhibited in the museum include: • Alexander Sarcophagus. • Glazed tile images from the Ishtar Gate of Babylon.

decorations and medals. • The obelisk of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari III. • Snake's head from the Serpentine Column erected in the Hippodrome. • One of the three known tablets of the Treaty of Kadesh.Istanbul Archaeology Museum [5] • Very many pictures from the museum by a private photographer [6] • Istanbul Archaeological Museum pictures [7] Geographical coordinates: 41°00′42″N 28°58′53″E Porphyry sarcophagi of Byzantine emperors . from Aphrodisias. Ephesus and Miletus. • Tablet archive containing some 75. • Parts of statues from the Temple of Zeus found at Bergama. • The Troy exhibit. the only piece saved from the hands of British archaeologists in the Mausoleum of Maussollos. • Fragments from the temple of Athena at Assos. • Statue of an Ephebos. • Statue of a lion. • 800.000 Ottoman coins. • Artifacts from the early civilizations of Anatolia. • Siloam inscription. seals. Arabia and Egypt.Istanbul Archaeology Museums • Statues from ancient antiquity until the end of the Roman Era. which made the headlines in July 2007 [4] Treaty of Kadesh 39 See also • Istanbul Mosaic Museum • Museum of Anatolian Civilizations • Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum Ancient Greek exhibition of the museum External links • Media related to Istanbul Archaeological Museums at Wikimedia Commons • Museum's official website [2] • Museum of Architecture . • Mother-Goddess Cybele and votive stelai.000 documents with cuneiform inscriptions. • Busts of Alexander the Great and Zeus. Mesopotamia.

[2] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-07-13. Retrieved 2008-04-02.Istanbul Archaeology Museum (http:/ / travel. aspx?tabid=90& Aranan=ARKEOLOJİ+ MÜZE . Article:. asp?id=10073 [6] http:/ / www. asp?id=3219) (in Turkish). aspx?17A16AE30572D313679A66406202CCB01966176E3ABFFFF2 [3] The New York Times . istanbul. ""Eser zengini-ilgi fakiri müzeler. yahoo. nytimes. com/ travel/ guides/ europe/ turkey/ istanbul/ attraction-detail. tr/ detay. Yahoo News. tr/ EN/ BelgeGoster. com/ dosseman/ archaeological_museum_istanbul [7] http:/ / gallery. [5] http:/ / www. html?vid=1154654614207) [4] Article: "Jerusalem seeks return of ancient tablet" (http:/ / news. milliyet. kultur. pbase. . com/ s/ ap/ 20070713/ ap_on_re_mi_ea/ israel_ancient_tablet) (in English).Istanbul Archaeology Museums 40 References [1] Milliyet Newspaper Online (2007-02-28). gov. archmuseum. com. gov. org/ biyografi. tr/ Default."" (http:/ / sanat.

763.1/sq mi) EET (UTC+2) İ.Ankara 41 Ankara Ankara Logo Ankara Location of Ankara Coordinates: 39°52′N 32°52′E Country Region Province Government - Mayor - Governor Area - Total Elevation Population (2007) - Total - Density Time zone 2516.00/km2 (4017.4 sq mi) 850 m (2789 ft) [1] 3. Melih Gökçek (AKP) Kemal Önal Turkey Central Anatolia Ankara .00 km2 (971.591 1551.

which includes eight districts under the city's administration. which is 72 m2 per head. ankara.[3] [4] The Galatians and Romans called it Ancyra. Byzantine. Ankara has gone by several names over the ages: The Hittites gave it the name Ankuwash before 1200 BC. 32°52' East (39°52′30″N 32°50′00″E). Hellenistic. Roman and Byzantine architecture. Phrygian.[6] Ankara is a very old city with various Hittite. a tributary of the Sakarya (Sangarius) river. The hill which overlooks the city is crowned by the ruins of the old castle. strategically located at the centre of Turkey's highway and railway networks. The city was also known in the European languages as Angora after its conquest by the Seljuk Turks in 1073. which adds to the picturesqueness of the view. It is an important crossroads of trade.360. white rabbits and their prized wool (Angora wool). but only a few historic structures surrounding the old citadel have survived to our date. about 351 km (218 mi) to the southeast of Istanbul. The city is located at 39°52'30" North.[1] Ankara also serves as the capital of Ankara Province. and the region's muscat grapes. and serves as the marketing centre for the surrounding agricultural area. the most remarkable being the Temple of Augustus and Rome (20 BC) which is also known as the Monumentum Ancyranum. In the classical.Ankara 42 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Postal code Area code(s) Licence plate Website 06x xx 0312 06 http:/ / www. honey. the country's largest city. The city has a mean elevation of 850 metres (2790 ft). tr/ [2] Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. and as of 2007 the city had a population of 4. It is the center of the Turkish Government. bel. There are.[5] Centrally located in Anatolia. pears. and continued to be internationally called with this name until it was officially renamed Ankara with the Turkish Postal Service Law of 1930. Hellenistic.751. meaning Anchor) in Greek. The city was famous for its long-haired Angora goat and its prized wool (mohair). Although situated in one of the driest places of Turkey and surrounded mostly by steppe vegetation except for the forested areas on the southern periphery. Roman. however. and houses all foreign embassies. Ankara is an important commercial and industrial city. As with many ancient cities. a unique breed of cat (Angora cat). Ankara can be considered a green city in terms of green areas per inhabitant. and Byzantine periods it was known as Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra.[7] . many finely preserved remains of Hellenistic. The historical center of Ankara is situated upon a steep and rocky hill. which rises 150 m (492 ft) above the plain on the left bank of the Ankara Çayı. and Ottoman archaeological sites.

) Ancient history The oldest settlements in and around the city centre of Ankara belong to the Hatti civilization which existed during the Bronze Age. and Turks (the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.Ankara 43 History The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hatti civilization. but Pausanias mentions that the city was actually far older. meaning Anchor in Greek) which in slightly modified form provides the modern name of Ankara. Phrygian rule was succeeded first by Lydian and later by Persian rule. The city grew significantly in size and importance under the Phrygians starting around 1000 BC. By that time the city also took its name Áγκυρα (Ànkyra. Ankara and its environs fell into the share of Antigonus.[8] Hittite artifacts on display at the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Assyria. Cyprus. Byzantines. King Midas was venerated as the founder of Ancyra. after an earthquake which severely damaged that city around that time. the Ottoman Empire and Turkey. Romans. as evidenced by the gravestones of the much later Roman period. Galatians. Persian sovereignty lasted until the Persians' defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great who conquered the city in 333 BC. Armenia and Persia to the east. Another important expansion took place under the Greeks of Pontos who came there around 300 BC and developed the city as a trading centre for the commerce of goods between the Black Sea ports and Crimea to the north. and Georgia. In Phrygian tradition. which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites. Greeks. After his death at Babylon in 323 BC and the subsequent division of his empire amongst his generals. (the capital of Phrygia). which accords with present archaeological knowledge. Alexander came from Gordion to Ankara and stayed in the city for a short period. Ankara. and Lebanon to the south. and experienced a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion. and later by the Lydians. Persians. in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians. though the strongly Phrygian character of the peasantry remained. .

the Roman city extended until the area of the Gençlik Park and Railway Station. St. it may have extended downwards as far as the site presently occupied by Hacettepe University. Roman history The Dying Gaul was a famous statue commissioned in some time between 230 BC and 220 BC by King Attalos I of Pergamon to honor his victory over the Celtic Galatians in Anatolia. for the Tolstibogii tribe. However. Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late third century BCE. It was thus a sizeable city by any standards and much larger than the Roman towns of Gaul or Britannia. The city was subsequently conquered by Augustus in 25 BC and passed under the control of the Roman Empire. a warrior aristocracy which ruled over Phrygian-speaking peasants. Jerome. Two other Galatian tribal centres. The ruins of Ancyra still furnish today valuable bas-reliefs. It has now been covered over and diverted. An estimated 200. Ancyra was the center of a tribe known as the Tectosages. was occupied by the Celtic race of Galatians. The Celtic element was probably relatively small in numbers. a native of Galatia. observed that the language spoken around Ankara was very similar to that being spoken in the northwest of the Roman world near Trier. Ankara is also famous for the Monumentum Ancyranum (Temple of Augustus and Rome) which contains the official record of the Acts of Augustus. today's Balhisar. stood well outside the Roman city. and Augustus upgraded it into a major provincial capital for his empire. continued to be reasonably important settlements in the Roman period. Çankaya. Ancyra was the capital of the Celtic kingdom of Galatia. the rim of the majestic hill to the south of the present city center.Ankara 44 Celtic history In 278 BC. a far greater number than was to be the case from after the fall of the Roman Empire until the early twentieth century. . the Ankara Çayı. and the remains of at least one Roman villa or large house were later of the Roman province with the same name.000 people lived in Ancyra in good times during the Roman Empire. Capitoline Museums. ran through the centre of the Roman town. inscriptions and other architectural fragments. who were the first to make Ankara one of their main tribal centres. the headquarters of the Tectosages tribe. Rome. known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti. but it was Ancyra that grew into a grand metropolis. The city was then known as Ancyra. At the end of the 4th century AD. Ancyra continued to be a center of great commercial importance. In the 19th century. To the west. The town was then populated by Phrygians and Celts—the Galatians who spoke a language closely related to Welsh and Gaelic. the city. but it formed the northern boundary of the old town during the Roman. an inscription cut in marble on the walls of this temple. after its still standing not far from where the Çankaya Presidential conquest by Augustus in 25 BC. Other centres were Pessinos. and Pessinus (Balhisar) to the west. to the east of Ankara. Now the capital city of the Roman province of Galatia. Residence stands today. while on the southern side of the hill. for the Trocmi tribe. A small river. but may have been a summer resort. Tavium near Yozgat. Byzantine and Ottoman periods. the Celtic language continued to be spoken in Galatia for many centuries. and Tavium. near Sivrihisar. along with the rest of central Anatolia. Augustus decided to make Ancyra one of three main administrative centres in central Anatolia.

a large administrative palace or office. being captured and martyred in Ankara. and Eustathius. about whom little is known. Ankara was also undergoing Christianisation. Clement can be found today in a building just off Işıklar Caddesi in the Ulus district. like other cities of central Anatolia. whose name was Clement. The tetrarchy. and forced to undergo many interrogations and hardship before he. . life in Ancyra. which was equally convenient for invaders. where a high official ruled from the city's Praetorium. The great imperial road running east passed through Ankara and a succession of emperors and their armies came this way. In Ancyra. In its heyday. Theodotus of Ancyra is also venerated as a saint. For about a decade. During the 3rd century. near Ancyra. In the Temple of Augustus and Rome (commonly known as Monumentum Ancyranum) in Ulus. In 303. Clement's life describes how he was taken to Rome. who took advantage of a period of weakness and disorder in the Roman Empire to set up a short-lived state of her own. then sent back. the reign of Diocletian marked the culmination of the persecution of the Christians. In the 280s AD we hear of Philumenos. a system of multiple (up to four) emperors introduced by Diocletian (284-305). Roman Ankara was a large market and trading center but it also functioned as a major administrative capital. taking slaves and pillaging) and later by the Arabs. The remains of the church of St. and various companions were put to death. their first target was the 38-year-old Bishop of the town. Ancyra was one of the towns where the co-Emperors Diocletian and his deputy Galerius launched their anti-Christian persecution. included Proklos and Hilarios who were natives of the otherwise unknown village of Kallippi. a Christian corn merchant from southern Anatolia. Ancyra was invaded in rapid succession by the Goths coming from the west (who rode far into the heart of Cappadocia. the Arab empress Zenobia from Palmyra in the Syrian desert.Ankara Ancyra's importance rested on the fact was that it was the junction point where the roads in northern Anatolia running north-south and east-west intersected. a doctor of the town named Plato and his brother Antiochus also became celebrated martyrs under Galerius. and his brother. In this period. as in other Anatolian towns. seems to have become somewhat militarised in response to the invasions and instability of the town. In the second half of the 3rd century. As in other Roman towns. 45 Early martyrs. and suffered repression under the emperor Trajan (98-117). the primary intact copy of Res Gestae written by the first Roman Emperor Augustus survives. The town was reincorporated into the Roman Empire under the Emperor Aurelian in 272. Four years later. Quite possibly this marks the site where Clement was originally buried. seems to have engaged in a substantial programme of rebuilding and of road construction from Ankara westwards to Germe and Dorylaeum (now Eskişehir). the town was one of the western outposts of one of the most brilliant queens of the ancient world. They were not the only ones to use the Roman highway network.

Twenty years later. The Column of Julianus. the others. The synod of 358 was a Semi-Arian conciliabulum. built into the eastern side of the inner circuit of the walls of Ankara Castle. was erected in honor of the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate's visit to Ancyra in 362. and according to Christian sources. engaged in a persecution of various holy men. In the later 4th century Ancyra became something of an imperial holiday resort. Three councils were held in the former capital of Galatia in Asia Minor. suffragan of Laodicea. Eccl. etc. Gregory of Nyssa. After Constantinople became the East Roman capital. In 375. can still be seen. The town council or senate gave way to the bishop as the main local figurehead. The modern Ankara. also that of another Ancyra in Phrygia Pacatiana. and a form of Arianism seems to have originated there. In 362-363. Though paganism was probably tottering in Ancyra in Clement's day. Arian bishops met at Ancyra and deposed several bishops. with marriage. The first. also known in some Western texts as Angora. and in particular the treatment of 'lapsi'—Christians who had given in and conformed to paganism during these persecutions. It condemned the grosser Arian blasphemies. Nine of them deal with conditions for the reconciliation of the lapsi. The city's military as well as logistical significance lasted well into the long Byzantine rule. During the middle of the 4th century. Ancyra was involved in the complex theological disputes over the nature of Christ.Ankara 46 However. presided over by Basil of Ancyra. 750 of the Bucellarian Theme. remains a Roman Catholic titular see in the former Roman province of Galatia in Asia Minor. among them St. was held in 314. "Series episc. . Christianity and monotheism had taken its place. which considered ecclesiastical policy for the reconstruction of the Christian church after the persecutions. but set forth an equally heretical doctrine in the proposition that the Son was in all things similar to the Father. and its 25 disciplinary canons constitute one of the most important documents in the early history of the administration of the Sacrament of Penance. Theodosius II (408-450) kept his court in Ancyra in the summers. The Column of Julian which was erected in honor of the emperor's visit to the city in 362 still stands today.". an orthodox plenary synod. the persecution proved unsuccessful and in 314 Ancyra was the center of an important council of the early church. Ancyra quickly turned into a Christian city. during the 4th century. It was also the capital of the powerful Opsician Theme. with an inscription describing Julian as "Lord of the whole world from the British Ocean to the barbarian nations". Its episcopal list is given in Gams. Laws issued in Ancyra testify to the time they spent there. but not identical in substance. the Emperor Julian the Apostate passed through Ancyra on his way to an ill-fated campaign against the Persians. and after ca. The stone base for a statue. with a life dominated by monks and priests and theological disputes. Although Ancyra temporarily fell into the hands of several Arab Muslim armies numerous times after the seventh century. alienations of church property. it remained an important crossroads polis within the Byzantine Empire until the late 11th century. cath. it may still have been the majority religion. now in the Ulus district. emperors in the 4th and 5th centuries would retire from the humid summer weather on the Bosporus to the drier mountain atmosphere of Ancyra.

new development divided the city into an old section. Ankara has experienced a phenomenal growth since it was made Turkey's capital. leaving for the Turks the core piece of land in central Anatolia. most of Anatolia became dominion of Mongols. an important location for military transportation and natural resources. A view of Ankara. established the headquarters of his resistance movement in Ankara in 1920 (see the Treaty of Sèvres and the Turkish War of Independence. the Turkish nationalists replaced the Ottoman Empire with the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. now centered around Kızılay.000 residents. Orhan I. Following the Ottoman defeat at World War I. and a new section. Greece. He then annexed Ankara. a semi religious cast of craftsmen and trade people named Ahiler chose Ankara as their independent city state in 1290. the Ottoman capital Istanbul and much of Anatolia were occupied by the Allies. with Atakule Tower seen at left. France. Ankara had officially replaced Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) as the new Turkish capital city. who planned to share these lands between Armenia. In 1924. Government offices and foreign embassies are also located in the new section. the second Bey of the Ottoman Empire. It was "a small town of no importance"[9] when it was made the capital of Turkey. on 13 October 1923. Armada Tower in the center and Halkbank Tower in the background. but in 1403 Ankara was again under Ottoman control. Taking advantage of Seljuk decline. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Italy and the United Kingdom.553 residents and by 1950 the population had grown to 286. After Battle of Kösedağ in 1243 which Mongols defeated Seljuks. and high-rises. Dikmen Valley Towers. and Ottoman history and narrow winding streets mark the old section. theaters. shopping malls. After Ankara became the capital of the newly founded Republic of Turkey. captured the city in 1356. The new section. In response. hotels.781. Ankara had about 35. Ancient buildings reflecting Roman. A few days earlier. called Yenişehir. to his territory in 1073.Ankara 47 Turkish history In 1071. Byzantine. Timur defeated the Ottomans at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and took the city. the Turkish Seljuk Sultan Alparslan conquered much of eastern and central Anatolia after his victory at the Battle of Manzikert (Malazgirt). has the trappings of a more modern city: wide streets. called Ulus. . the leader of the Turkish nationalist movement. By 1927 there were 44. the year after the government had moved there.) After the War of Independence was won and the Treaty of Sèvres was superseded by the Treaty of Lausanne.

831 are men and 1.1 (-24) Feb 17.963 2.2 (99) 27. containing the central part of the city and the remaining balance of the 8 districts under its jurisdiction.533 1. precipitation days Jan 11. snowy days Avg.1 (21) Jun 38.6 (29) -27.763.5 (60) 3.3 (38) -7.1 (-24) Mar 27.000 646. Climate data for Ankara Month Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Sunshine hours Avg.5 (51) -1.201 3.251.0 (86) 18. Ankara features the rare Continental Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb) [10] due to its elevation.34) 81 13 16 112 10 15 174 6 15 192 1 17 267 0 17 312 0 13 [11] 353 0 7 338 0 5 282 0 5 205 0 10 132 3 12 74 9 16 2521 42 148 Source: Weatherbase Demographics Central Ankara has a population of 3.01) (2.591 (2007) of which 1.6 (20) -31.7 (82) 12. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring and autumn.1 (70) 10.892.2 (28) Oct 30.4 (76) 9. The metropolitan municipality.5 (33) Jul 37. had a total population of 3.3 (65) 3.0 (23) -31.3 (38) -31.4 (40) -5.7 (64) 4.2 (-17) Apr 27.1 (88) 20.1 (52) 1. Because of Ankara's high altitude and its dry summers.2 (1) Year 42.8 (39) -8.4 (49) 0. It borders on a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) due to the low 416.000 . snowy winters and hot.2 (63) 4.1 (30) -12.8 (39) Sep 33.8 (102) 24.703.3 (92) 24.2 (81) 10.0 (68) 6.201 the same year.57) (1.8 (39) Aug 42.000 453.42) (2.Ankara 48 Climate Ankara has a continental climate.3 (83) 12.2 (108) 28.1 (-24) 40 31 36 51 52 39 17 15 18 32 36 48 415 (1.3 (47) -2.22) (1. Precipitation levels are low.6 (35) -6.000 906.89) (16.05) (1.0 (50) -1.2 (19) May 31.[1] Population of Ankara Year 2007 2000 1990 1985 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 Population 3.7 mm (16 in) average annual precipitation.901.8 (16) Nov 21.6 (44) -6.000 287. but precipitation can be observed throughout the year.362 2. nightly temperatures in the summer months are cool.1 (61) 3.583.870.71) (1.760 are women. with cold.67) (0. the aforementioned cold.26) (1.7 (82) 15.7 (55) 3.2 (10) Dec 17.901.2 (108) 16.54) (0.209.7 (55) 3. snowy winters and hot dry summers and peaks of precipitation during the spring and autumn.3 (26) -17.4 (76) 8. dry summers. Under Köppen's climate classification.4 (40) -3.42) (1.59) (0.

• Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi) Situated at the entrance of Ankara Castle. the workshop of the Turkish National Railways. located on Ulus Square. where the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The museum holds periodic exhibitions of modern and contemporary art as well as hosting other contemporary arts events. • Cer Modern[13] is the modern-arts museum of Ankara inaugurated in 01 April 2010. while the adjacent museum is open every day except Mondays. Completed in 1953. Anıtkabir is open every day. wax figures of former presidents of the Republic of Turkey are on exhibit. • War of Independence Museum (Kurtuluş Savaşı Müzesi) This building.000 Attractions Museums • Anıtkabir is located on an imposing hill. and Roman works as well as a major section dedicated to Lydian treasures. Anıttepe quarter of the city. letters and personal items. The War of Independence was planned and directed here as recorded in various photographs and items presently on exhibition. Urartian. Atatürk's mausoleum. Phrygian. it is an impressive fusion of ancient and modern architectural styles. his writings.and Ottoman-era artifacts. Hittite. In another display. There is a fine collection of folkloric as well as Seljuk. in the Ulus district. It is situated in the renovated building of the historic TCDD Cer Atölyeleri. There are also galleries which host guest exhibitions. Anıtkabir. in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. [12] A Hattian artifact. The museum incorporates the largest exhibition hall in Turkey. as well as an exhibition of photographs recording important moments in his life and during the establishment of the Republic. An adjacent museum houses a wax statue of Atatürk. from the 3rd millennium BC. • Ankara Ethnography Museum (Etnoğrafya Müzesi) This museum is opposite the Opera House on Talat Paşa Boulevard. was originally the first Parliament building (TBMM) of the Republic of Turkey. founder of the Republic of Turkey. . it is an old "bedesten" (covered bazaar) that has been beautifully restored and now houses a unique collection of Paleolithic. stands.An open-air museum which traces the history of steam locomotives. • TCDD Open Air Steam Locomotive Museum . Neolithic. Hatti.Ankara 49 1927 75. • State Art and Sculpture Museum (Resim-Heykel Müzesi) This museum is close to the Ethnography Museum and houses a rich collection of Turkish art from the late 19th century to the present day.

avionics. The temple. and the rest was completed by the Romans. Many restored traditional Turkish houses inside the citadel area have found new life as restaurants. The exhibits include industrial/technological artifacts from 1850s onwards. F-100 Super Sabre. The Byzantines and Seljuks further made restorations and additions. an Ottoman Era caravanserai. also known as the Monumentum Ancyranum. with Ancyra (modern Ankara) as its administrative capital. There are also recreational areas to relax. Temple of Augustus and Rome The temple. F-104 Starfighter.g. contains many fine examples of traditional architecture. • METU Science and Technology Museum (ODTÜ Bilim ve Teknoloji Müzesi) is based in the Middle East Technical University campus.Ankara • Çengelhan Rahmi Koç Museum is a museum of industrial technology situated in Çengelhan. a Hungarian MiG-21. a Pakistani MiG-19.[14] Roman Theatre The remains. a copy of the text of Res Gestae Divi Augusti was inscribed on the interior of the pronaos in Latin.20 BC following the conquest of Central Anatolia by the Roman Empire and the formation of the Roman province of Galatia. was built between 25 BC . and a Bulgarian MiG-17 are on display in the museum. The citadel was depicted in various Turkish banknotes during 1927-1952 and 1983-1989. aviation materials and aircraft that have served in the Turkish Air Force (e. on the ancient Acropolis of Ancyra. Ankara Citadel walls. It is located in the Ulus quarter of the city. F-102 Delta Dagger. 50 Archeological sites Ankara Citadel The foundations of the citadel or castle were laid by the Galatians on a prominent lava outcrop (39°56′28″N 32°51′50″E). the stage. After the death of Augustus in 14 AD. It is home to various missiles.) Also. F-4 Phantom. The seating area is still under excavation. combat aircraft such as the F-86 Sabre. In the 5th century it was converted into a church by the Byzantines. and the backstage can be seen outside the castle. serving local cuisine. was enlarged by the Romans in the 2nd century. being the oldest part of Ankara. . Roman statues that were found here are exhibited in the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (see above). whereas a Greek translation is also present on an exterior wall of the cella. • Ankara Aviation Museum (Hava Kuvvetleri Müzesi Komutanliği) The museum is near the Istanbul Road in Etimesgut. The area around and inside the citadel. and cargo planes such as the Transall C-160. F-5 Freedom Fighter.

• Ahi Elvan Mosque The mosque was founded in the Ulus quarter near the Ankara Citadel and was constructed during the late 14th and early 15th centuries. It is situated in the Ulus quarter. Yeni Cami is on Ulucanlar Avenue. It was subsequently restored by architect Mimar Sinan in the 16th century. Mesut. popularly known among the locals as the Belkıs Minaresi (literally the "Queen of Sheba Column".D. only the basement and first floors remain. The Corinthian capital dates to the 6th century. was erected to commemorate a visit to Ancyra by the Roman emperor Julian in A. an example of very fine workmanship.Ankara Roman Bath This bath has all the typical features of a classical Roman bath: a frigidarium (cold room). for reasons unknown). with Kocatepe Mosque. two years before his death (1427-28). The usable space inside this mosque is 437 m2 (4704 sq ft) on the first floor and 263 m2 (2831 sq ft) on the second floor. . is of more recent vintage. The bath was built during the reign of Emperor Caracalla in the 3rd century AD to honour Asclepios. 362. Kütahya tiles being added in the 18th century. tepidarium (warm room) and caldarium (hot room). the stork's nest. Column of Julian The column. • Yeni (Cenab Ahmet) Mosque This the largest Ottoman mosque in Ankara and was built by the famous architect Sinan in the 16th century. the inscription on which records that the mosque was built in the 12th century by the Seljuk ruler. the God of Medicine. • Hacı Bayram Mosque[15] This mosque. • Kocatepe Mosque This is the largest and most notable mosque in the city. it was constructed between 1967 and 1987 in classical Ottoman style with four minarets. The mosque was built in honor of Hacı Bayram Veli. a permanent crowning feature. was built in the early 15th century in Seljuk style by an unknown architect. The mimber (pulpit) and mihrap (prayer niche) are of white marble. Its size and prominent location have made it a landmark for the city. in the Ulus quarter next to the Temple of Augustus. 51 Mosques • The Alaaddin Mosque It has a carved walnut mimber. Today. whose tomb is next to the mosque. Located in the Kocatepe quarter. and the mosque itself is of Ankara stone (red porphyry). The finely carved walnut mimber (pulpit) is of particular interest.

and believe in yourself. Parks Ankara has many parks and open spaces mainly established in the early years of the Republic and well maintained and expanded thereafter.Ankara 52 Historic buildings • Çankaya Köşkü . The most important of these parks are: Gençlik Park (houses an amusement park with a large pond for rowing). Confident Future This monument. Gençlik Park was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 100 lira banknotes of 1952-1976." The monument was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 5 lira banknote of 1937-1952[16] and of the 1000 lira banknotes of 1939-1946. was erected in 1935 and bears Atatürk's advice to his people: "Turk! Be proud.[17] Hatti Monument Built in the 1970s on Sıhhiye Square.[18] Atatürk Forest Farm and Zoo (Atatürk Orman Çiftliği) is an expansive recreational farming area which houses a zoo. Altınpark (also a prominent exposition/fair area). restaurants. It is a pleasant place to spend a day with family. The symbol derived from this monument has been used as the logo of the city for a long time. Güven Park (see above for the monument). the Botanical Garden.the residence of the President of Turkey • Pembe Köşk . Kurtuluş Park (has an ice-skating rink). be it for having picnics.the residence of Turkish President İsmet İnönü from 1925 to 1973 Modern monuments Victory Monument Erected in 1927 on Zafer Square in the Sıhhiye quarter. Seğmenler Park. hiking. several small agricultural farms. located in Güven Park near Kızılay Square. Kızılay Square is the heart of Ankara. Monument to a Secure. a dairy farm and a brewery. it depicts Atatürk in uniform. biking or simply enjoying good food and . Harikalar Diyarı (claimed to be Biggest Park of Europe inside city borders) and Göksu Park. Göksu Park in Eryaman. Kuğulu Park (famous for the swans received as a gift from the Chinese government). Abdi İpekçi Park. Anayasa Park. greenhouses. work hard. this impressive monument symbolizes the Hatti gods and commemorates Anatolia's earliest known civilization.

Ankara 53 nature. several modern. Shopping Foreign visitors to Ankara usually like to visit the old shops in Çıkrıkçılar Yokuşu (Weavers' Road) near Ulus. . the anchor is also related with the Spanish name of the mall. not just of copper. and many interesting items. Interior view of Karum Shopping & Business Center. Up the hill to the castle gate. at a traditional restaurant (Merkez Lokantası. cafés and other establishments scattered around the farm. the quarter with the highest elevation in the city. Ἄγκυρα (Ánkyra). Armada. and there's a large anchor monument at its entrance. the Galleria in Ümitköy. in Thessaloniki. Bakırcılar Çarşısı (Bazaar of Coppersmiths) is particularly popular. carpets. Greece. The Armada and CEPA malls on the highway. Central Restaurant). and in the Atakule Tower at Çankaya. becoming the second mall in Turkey after Akmerkez in Istanbul (Europe's Best 1995. can be found here like jewelry. can sample such famous products of the farm such as old-fashioned beer and ice cream. This mall is the largest throughout the Ankara region. on the Istanbul Highway. and other produce. as a reference to the ancient Greek name of the city. hand-woven carpets and leather products can be found at bargain prices. Real in Bilkent Center. there are many shops selling a huge and fresh collection of spices. Armada Shopping Center in Ankara was selected as "Europe's Best Shopping Mall" by the ICSC in 2003. which means naval fleet. where myriad things ranging from traditional fabrics. fresh dairy products and meat rolls/kebaps made on charcoal. Modern shopping areas are mostly found in Kızılay. costumes. also known as the Eskişehir Road. The symbol of the Armada Shopping Mall is an anchor. and a huge mall. including the modern mall of Karum (named after the ancient Assyrian merchant colonies (Karum) that were established in central Anatolia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC) which is located towards the end of the Avenue. World's Best 1996) to win this prestigious award. suburbia-style developments and mini-cities began to rise along the western highway. antiques and embroidery. nuts. or on Tunalı Hilmi Avenue. offer North American and European style shopping opportunities (these places can be reached through the Eskişehir Highway. which commands a magnificent view over the whole city and also has a revolving restaurant at the top where the complete panorama can be enjoyed in a more leisurely fashion. As Ankara started expanding westward in the 1970s. Visitors to the "Çiftlik" (farm) as it is affectionately called by Ankarans.) There is also the newly expanded Ankamall at the outskirts. Likewise. which houses most of the well-known international brands. There is also an exact replica of the house where Atatürk was born in 1881. which means anchor. dried fruits. Gençlik Park in central Ankara.

• Şinasi Sahnesi. • Mahir Canova Sahnesi. The historical Evkaf Apartmanı in which the Head Office of the Turkish State Theaters is situated. • Oda Tiyatrosu. music. • Altındağ Tiyatrosu. • İrfan Şahinbaş Atölye Sahnesi. Ankara Opera House of the Turkish State Opera and Ballet. and serves the city with three venues: • Ankara Opera House (Opera Sahnesi. The building also houses the Küçük Tiyatro and Oda Tiyatrosu. • Akün Sahnesi. Ankara is host to five classical music orchestras: • Cumhurbaşkanlığı Senfoni Orkestrası (Turkish Presidential Symphony Orchestra) • • • • Bilkent Senfoni Orkestrası Hacettepe Senfoni Orkestrası Orkestra Akademik Başkent Başkent Oda Orkestrası (Chamber Orchestra of the Capital)[19] There are four concert halls in the city: • • • • CSO Konser Salonu Bilkent Konser Salonu MEB Şura Salonu (also known as the Festival Hall) Çankaya Çağdaş Sanatlar Merkezi Konser Salonu The city has been host to several well-established. • Muhsin Ertuğrul Sahnesi. the national directorate of opera and ballet companies of Turkey. annual theatre. also known as Büyük Tiyatro) • Leyla Gencer Sahnesi (named after world-famous soprano Leyla Gencer) • Operet Sahnesi (also known as the Türkocağı Binası) The Turkish State Theatres also has its head office in Ankara and runs the following stages in the city: • 125. Yıl Çayyolu Sahnesi • Büyük Tiyatro (also doubling as the Ankara Opera House) • Küçük Tiyatro. has its headquarters in Ankara. film festivals: • Ankara Film Festivali (Ankara Film Festival) • Ankara Uluslararası Müzik Festivali (International Ankara Music Festival) • Ankara Tiyatro Festivali (Ankara Theatre Festival) • Ankara Caz Festivali (Ankara Jazz Festival) .Ankara 54 Culture and education Turkish State Opera and Ballet. In addition the city is served by several private theatre companies among which Ankara Sanat Tiyatrosu who have their own stage in the city centre is a notable example.

High-speed rail services are to be operated between Ankara and Istanbul. located in the north-east of the city. AŞTİ) is an important part of the bus network which covers every neighbourhood in the city. The central train station.Ankara 55 Universities Ankara is noted. TCDD). within Turkey. These include the following.000 total daily . Gas. Ankara rapid transit network. beginning in 2009. Ankara is currently served by suburban rail and two subway lines with about 300. • • • • • • • • • • • Ankara University Atılım University Başkent University Bilkent University Çankaya University Gazi University Hacettepe University Middle East Technical University TOBB University of Economics and Technology Ufuk University Turgut Özal University • • • Gülhane Military Academy of Medicine Turkish Military Academy Turkish National Police Academy Transportation Esenboğa International Airport. for the multitude of universities it is home to. Bus General Directorate (EGO)[21] operates the Ankara Metro and other forms of public transportation. Ankara Intercity Bus Terminal [20] (Turkish: Ankara Şehirlerarası Terminal İşletmesi. "Ankara Garı" of the Turkish State Railways (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları. The Electricity. several of them being among the most reputable in the country: Part of the METU campus. is an important hub connecting the western and eastern parts of the country. as seen from its MM Building. is the main airport of Ankara.

All these three teams have their home at the Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium in Ulus. silky. green. There are many popular spots for skateboarding which is active in the city since the 1980s. playing at regional levels: Bugsaşspor in Sincan.Ankara commuters. no undercoat and a fine bone structure. along with smoke varieties. and cinnamon (all of which would indicate breeding to an outcross. and the presence of a blue eye can indicate that . Gençler's B team. The city has four football clubs currently competing in the Turkcell Super League: Ankaragücü founded in 1910 is the oldest club in Ankara and associated with Ankara's military arsenal manufacturing company MKE. and are in every color other than pointed. which has a capacity of 21. Fauna Angora cat Ankara is home to a world famous cat breed — the Turkish Angora. whose home is the TOBB Sports Hall. outside the city center. lavender. Etimesgut Şekerspor in Etimesgut. whose home is the ASKI Sport Hall. Büyükşehir Belediye Ankaraspor who are nicknamed the Leopards. Ankara has a large number of minor teams. Türk Telekom owned by the phone company in Yenimahalle. Demirspor in Çankaya. Ankara Buz Pateni Sarayı is where the ice skating and ice hockey competitions take place in the city.[22] The fourth team is owned by the Municipality. 56 Sports As with all other cities of Turkey. They come in tabby and tabby-white. Although they are known for their shimmery white coat. They were the Turkish Cup winners in 1987 and 2001. There seems to be a connection between the Angora Cats and Persians. called Ankara kedisi (Ankara cat) in Turkish. In the Turkish Basketball League. or amber. and three additional subway lines are under construction. currently there are more than twenty varieties including black.250 (all-seater). It is a breed of domestic cat. football is the most popular sport in Ankara. Hacettepe SK (formerly known as Gençlerbirliği OFTAŞ) has been allowed to ascend to the Super League along with its A team as long as they have 2 different chairmen. Their rival is Gençlerbirliği founded in 1923 known as Ankara Wind or the Poppies because of their colours: red and black. Keçiörenspor. and the Turkish Angora is also a distant cousin of the Turkish Van. Ankara is represented by Türk Telekom. blue and reddish fur. and CASA TED Kolejliler. Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient. They mostly have a white. The W gene which is responsible for the white coat and blue eye is closely related to the hearing ability. They Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium. Bağlumspor in Keçiören. naturally-occurring cat breeds. Pursaklarspor. were the Turkish Cup winners in 1972 and 1981. Keçiörengücü.) Angora cat Eyes may be blue. having originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia. and Petrol Ofisi Spor. or even one blue and one amber or green. Skaters in Ankara usually meet in the park near the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Their home is the Yenikent Asaş Stadium in the Sincan district of Yenikent. medium to long length coat.

For a long period of time. which are shorn only once. and spread to other parts of Europe by the end of the century.) Angora rabbit Angoras are bred mainly for their wool because it is silky and soft. red (the color fades significantly as the goat gets older). Grooming is necessary to prevent the fiber from matting and felting on the rabbit. and South Africa are the top producers of mohair. or plucking (gently pulling loose wool. and even deaf cats lead a very normal life if kept indoors. Now Angora goats produce white. unlike sheep. Angora goats were first introduced in the United States in 1849 by Dr.Ankara the cat is deaf to the side the blue eye is located. Another characteristic is the tail. However. soft hair. Holy Roman Emperor.[24] The first Angora goats were brought to Europe by Charles V. a great many blue and odd-eyed white cats have normal hearing. Ears are pointed and large. and brownish fiber.[25] . as they oddly resemble a fur ball. Angora goats were bred for their white coat. The Angora is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit. Most are calm and docile but should be handled carefully. Angora goat The Angora goat (Turkish: Ankara keçisi) is a breed of domestic goat that originated in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia. A condition called "wool block" is common in Angora rabbits and should be treated quickly. Turkey. This breed was first mentioned in the time of Moses. roughly in 1500 BC. but. were not very successful. which is often kept parallel to the back. which may be removed by shearing. originating in Ankara and its surrounding region in central Anatolia. 57 Angora rabbit The Angora rabbit (Turkish: Ankara tavşanı) is a variety of domestic rabbit bred for its long. In 1998. A single goat produces between five and eight kilograms of hair per year. They first appeared in the United States in the early 1900s. Angora goats were depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 50 lira banknotes of 1938-1952. combing. the Colored Angora Goat Breeders Association was set up to promote breeding of colored Angoras. The rabbits were popular pets with French royalty in the mid 1700s. Angoras have high nutritional requirements due to their rapid hair growth. The United States. Seven adult goats were a gift from Sultan Abdülmecid I in appreciation for his services and advice on the raising of cotton. black (deep black to greys and silver). about 1554. Angora goat The fleece taken from an Angora goat is called mohair. Angoras are shorn twice a year.[23] Sometimes they are shorn in the summer as the long fur can cause the rabbits to overheat. They have a humorous appearance. Davis. James P. A poor quality diet will curtail mohair development. They are bred largely for their long Angora wool. eyes are almond shaped and the head is massive with a two plane profile. like later imports. along with the Angora cat and Angora goat.

Sheraton Hotel and Beymen Building. . formerly the Türkiye İş Bankası headquarters. Atakule Tower (1989). Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Esenboğa International Airport. View of central Ankara from the Botanical Garden. BDDK Building (1975). Botanik Park in central Ankara. Sheraton Hotel & Convention Center (1991).Ankara 58 Ankara image gallery View of the Atakule Tower and central Ankara. Akman Tower (1999). Buildings on Kızılay Square. Armada Tower & Shopping Center (2002). State Art and Sculpture Museum. View of central Ankara from the Atakule Tower. Cemre Park in Demetevler. Emek Business Center (1962) on Kızılay Square.

Bulgaria (1992) Tbilisi. International relations Twin towns — sister cities Ankara is twinned with:[26] of Ankara are listed below: Africa • • • • • Addis Ababa. Seğmenler Park in central Ankara. Egypt (2004) Khartoum. Kurtuluş Park in central Ankara. Chile (2000) [30] Tirana. Dikmen Valley Park. Russia (1997) . Ukraine (1993) [27] Minsk. Bashkortostan. Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994) Skopje. geese and ducks.Ankara 59 Kuğulu Park. Somalia (2000) Europe • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Baku. Sudan (1992) Kinshasa. Macedonia (1995) Sofia. Kosovo (2005) [28] Sarajevo. geese and ducks. Tatarstan. Kurtuluş Park in central Ankara. Ethiopia (2006) Cairo. Kuğulu Park. Evcil Hayvanlar Park in Keçiören. Seğmenler Park in central Ankara. Russia (1992) Pristina. Albania (1995) Ufa. Hungary (1992) Chişinău. Georgia (1996) [29] Americas • • Asia Havana. Russia (2005) Kiev. Cuba (1993) Santiago. Northern Cyprus (1986) Kazan. Romania (1998) Budapest. Belarus (2007) Moscow. famous for its swans. Azerbaijan Bucharest. Democratic Republic of the Congo (2005) Mogadishu. Moldova (2001) Dipkarpaz. famous for its swans.

composer. actor . free diver Vedat Dalokay. educator and curator Emre Araci. journalist Hande Dalkılıç. author. Bahrain (2000) Sana'a. artist. musician Fazil Say. Actress and founder of SAG Puppeteers' Caucus Yağmur Sarıgül. actress Mazhar Alanson. China(1990) Bishkek. Afghanistan (2003) Kuala Lumpur. Kazakhstan (2001) [31] Beijing. recording artist André Couteaux. Yemen (2006) Seoul. basketball coach Zerrin Özer. pioneer industrialist Yasemin Mori. physicist Can Dündar. journalist Moris Farhi. music historian. architect Ordal Demokan. Kyrgyzstan (1992) Dushanbe. lead singer. Tajikistan (2002) Hanoi. Pakistan (1982) Shiraz. Malaysia (1984) Kuwait City. tenor İdil Biret. archer Erdal İnönü. Vietnam (1998) Islamabad. concert pianist. writer. concert pianist. musician Eren Ozker. composer Joe Strummer. Turkmenistan (1994) Astana. writer and scenarist Emin Çölaşan. musician Bülent Atalay. guitarist and lyricist of the English band The Clash Özlem Tekin. Puppeteer (Jim Henson's Muppets). Kuwait (1994) Manama. Uzbekistan (2004) Ulan Bator. scientist and artist Bedri Baykam. musician Peter Murphy. artist Bülent Bezdüz. musician Aydın Örs. musician Vehbi Koç.Ankara 60 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ashgabat. musician Huseyin Bahri Alptekin. writer Gizem Girişmen. Iran Kabul. musician Yasemin Dalkılıç. conductor Funda Arar. musician Kartal Tibet. Mongolia (2003) Notable people from Ankara • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Filiz Akın. politician and physicist Nil Karaibrahimgil. South Korea (1971) Tashkent.

Penelope. Theodotus of Ancyra. humanist and philosopher St. bel. htm). [6] Municipality of Ankara: Green areas per head (http:/ / www. Meteorologische Zeitschrift.edu. uchicago. Retrieved 2010-01-25. Christian priest See also • • • • • Synod of Ancyra State Art and Sculpture Museum Museum of Anatolian Civilizations Ankara Ethnography Museum Turkish Angora References Bibliography 1. aspx) [7] "LacusCurtius • Monumentum Ancyranum" (http:/ / penelope. at/ pdf/ metz_15_3_0259_0263_kottek_wm. ankara. 15. pdf). Description of Greece. Nilus of Ancyra. Christian saint Clement of Ancyra. ISBN 978-9751721983.3. 1. . tr/ seyahat/ 4407373_p.Ankara • Buket Uzuner. ankara. o/ ankara. vu-wien. com. [2] http:/ / www. Islamic mystic. Retrieved 2009-05-05. . ac. . Ankara: "The association for the support and encouragement of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. htm) [4] Saffet Emre Tonguç: Ankara (Hürriyet Seyahat) (http:/ / www. tuik. bel. gov. Retrieved 2009-05-05.com.. "Members of Staff of the Museum" (2006). edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Augustus/ Res_Gestae/ home. 259-263 (June 2006)© Gebrüder Borntraeger 2006. [8] Pausanias. tr/ jsp/ duyuru/ upload/ adnks_Harita_TR/ HaritaTR. asp) [5] Tore Kjeilen (2004-09-03). hurriyet. External links • • • • • Governorship of Ankara [32] Municipality of Ankara [2] Ankara City Guide [33] Esenboğa International Airport [34] Ankara Introduction Video [35] source maxivideo. Christian martyr and saint St. writer 61 Religious figures • • • • • • • Hacı Bektaş Veli. . No. tjc. Guide book to The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. Christian saint and bishop Marcellus of Ancyra. "Ankara" (http:/ / i-cias." Dönmez offset (Printer). html).4. Vol. Christian hieromartyr and bishop Theodotus of Ancyra. tr/ AbbSayfalari/ hizmet_birimleri/ Cevre/ kisi_basina_dusen_yesil_alan. Christian bishop Basil of Ancyra. com/ e." [9] Columbia Lippincott Gazeteer [10] World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated (http:/ / koeppen-geiger.1. tr/ [3] Judy Turman: Early Christianity in Turkey (http:/ / socialscience. Retrieved on 2008-10-09. edu/ mkho/ fulbright/ 1998/ turkey/ turman3. I-cias.uchicago.net [36] References [1] Türkiye istatistik kurumu (http:/ / www. html) Address-based population survey 2007. "Ancyra was actually older even than that.

htm). gov. Emission Group . gov. V.ba. Emission Group . ankara. Series (http:/ / www. gov. Emission Group . . Banknote Museum. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E7/ 258. [32] http:/ / www. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E5/ 170. htm). tcmb. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E2/ 56. [17] Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (http:/ / www. Sarajevo.How to Care for Your Angora Rabbit" (http:/ / www. gov. Retrieved 2008-12-08. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E5/ 168. Series (http:/ / www. gov. Series (http:/ / www. htm)). p.I. php?kat=160).I.I. . gov. Retrieved 2009-06-23. Cer Modern. Banknote Museum: 5.Tbilisi City Hall. gov. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009. tcmb. Turkey" (http:/ / www. Municipality of Tirana. tcmb. Weatherbase. com/ angora-care.gov. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E5/ 176. shtml). php?lang_id=ENG& sec_id=4571). tcmb. tcmb.Sister Cities" (http:/ / www. php3?s=82171& refer=& units=us). hayatı. . tcmb. . IV. gov. pl?k_org=3604& mode=doc& doc=3604_2_a& lang=eng). [27] "Twin towns of Minsk" (http:/ / minsk. [12] Ceremonial standard. Emission Group . html). . [19] "Index of /" (http:/ / www. gov. [18] Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (http:/ / www. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009. com. gov. htm). Series (http:/ / www. htm)). [26] "Ankara Metropolitan Municipality: Sister Cities of Ankara" (http:/ / www. Hacibayramiveli. joyofhandspinning. III. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009. gov. cn/ Sister_Cities/ Sister_City/ ). [30] "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (http:/ / www. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E1/ 6. Retrieved 2010-03-30. [16] Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (http:/ / www. html [36] http:/ / www. tcmb. maxivideo. Retrieved 2009-01-29. weatherbase.I. [24] Angora Goats history (http:/ / daisyshillfarm. htm). htm) & II. Ego. htm) & VI. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E5/ 174. gov. Series (http:/ / www. sarajevo. htm)). gov. [14] The citadel was depicted in the following Turkish banknotes: On the obverse of the 1 lira banknote of 1927-1939 (1.tirana. tcmb.One Thousand Turkish Lira . [22] World Stadiums: Ankara 19 Mayıs Stadium (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-06-16. Beijing Municipal Government. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009. Series (http:/ / www. tcmb. Series (http:/ / www. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E2/ 72. . Series (http:/ / www. tcmb. II. com/ [35] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-05-05. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E5/ 172. • On the obverse of the 5 lira banknote of 1927-1937 (1. tcmb. Emission Group . al/ common/ images/ International Relations. com/ stadium_pictures/ middle_east/ turkey/ central_anatolia/ ankara_19_mayis.Ten Turkish Lira . Alacahöyük.o. shtml) [23] "Angora Rabbit Breeds .Ankara [11] "Historical Weather for Ankara. gov. ego. Series (http:/ / www. tcmb. aspx). gov. gov. www. © 2008 The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk City Executive Committee. [31] "Sister Cities" (http:/ / www. tirana. gov.Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. ba/ en/ stream. Retrieved 2009-05-22. tcmb. htm). tcmb. Retrieved 2009-06-23. htm). tcmb. Emission Group . tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E3/ 88. Retrieved 2010-04-27. [28] daenet d. gov. haci bayrami veli. Kullanım Koşulları & Gizlilik. Series (http:/ / www. gov. [20] http:/ / www. htm). Series (http:/ / www.com.I. 3. Height 24 cm (9 in). Banknote Museum: 2. tr/ [21] "EGO Genel Müdürlüğü" (http:/ / www. [29] "Tbilisi Municipal Portal . gov. "Sarajevo Official Web Site : Sister cities" (http:/ / www. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E2/ 52..One Turkish Lira . net • 62 . tr/ yeni/ eng/ ). – Links retrieved on 20 April 2009. • On the reverse of the 10 lira banknote of 1927-1938 (1. second half of the third millenium BC.. tr/ yeni/ eng/ ).Fifty Turkish Lira . html) [25] Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (http:/ / www.Five Turkish Lira . ankara-bel. Series (http:/ / www. htm). com). tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E1/ 14.I. . © 2007 Ankara Büyükşehir Belediyesi . tr/ yeni/ eng/ ). gov. htm)). tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E5/ 179. Banknote Museum: 2. htm) & II. Series (http:/ / www. ankara. . esenbogaairport. hacıbayramveli.One Hundred Turkish Lira . tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E2/ 48. tcmb. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E1/ 10. tbilisi. tcmb.One Hundred Turkish Lira . Emission Group . ebeijing. worldstadiums. . tr/ AbbSayfalari/ hizmet_birimleri/ dis_dairesi_baskanligi/ avrupa_gunu_kutlamasi. [15] SonTech Yazılım. asti. HaciBayramiVeli. gov. tr/ yeni/ eng/ ). Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (http:/ / www. Series (http:/ / www. boorkestrasi. Emission Group . by/ cgi-bin/ org_ps. tcmb.Fifty Turkish Lira . tcmb. htm).71 [13] "Cer Centre of Modern Arts" (http:/ / www. tcmb.I. gov.I. . tcmb. Series (http:/ / www. com/ [34] http:/ / www. gov. gov.tr.Five Turkish Lira . nasihatleri. Series (http:/ / www. hacıbayram-ı veli" (http:/ / www.I. Retrieved 2008-12-08. com/ weather/ weatherall. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E3/ 86. gov.com. net/ video-izle-2454-ankara-tanitim-videosu-. bronze. hacıbayram. Retrieved 2009-05-05. Series (http:/ / www. The Guide Book to the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 2006. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E7/ 256. com/ My_Homepage_Files/ Page2. tcmb. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E2/ 70. htm) & II. ": Hacı Bayram-ı Veli :. com/ ). hacı bayramveli. tcmb. Retrieved 2009-05-06. Emission Group . Boorkestrasi. gov. . ge/ index.Ten Turkish Lira . gov. Emission Group . • On the reverse of the 100 lira banknotes of 1983-1989 (7. Banknote Museum: 2. cermodern. tr). .I. hacı bayram cami.o. gov. Series (http:/ / www. • On the reverse of the 10 lira banknote of 1938-1952 (2.al. pdf) (PDF). org/ english/ Cer_Modern. © 2009 . gov. htm)). tr/ [33] http:/ / www.gov. tr/ yeni/ eng/ ). maxivideo.

to the National Education Minister. the building was opened to the public as the Ankara Archaeological Museum. Adilcevaz and Patnos as well as examples of several periods. marble and bronze works date back as far as the second half of the first millennium BC. conference hall. houses the work rooms. Çatalhöyük. Alacahöyük. Hellenistic. Because of Atatürk's desire to establish a Hittite museum. silver. Kurşunlu Han. who was then Culture Minister. Saffet Arıkan. the museum has a number of exhibits of Anatolian archeology. It consists of the old Ottoman Mahmut Paşa bazaar storage building. Today. It is one of the richest museums in the world. Turkey Visitor figures 450. Roman. Kültepe. There is also an extensive collection of artifacts from the excavations at Karain. and the Kurşunlu Han. Early Bronze. 1997. Altıntepe. Greek. Hittite. Assyrian trading colonies. the buildings were bought upon the suggestion of Hamit Zübeyir Koşay. and continue chronologically through the Neolithic. used as an administrative building. After the remodelling and repairs were completed (1938 -1968). . Pazarlı. library. Beyce Sultan. Canhasan. with examples ranging from the first minted money to modern times. Acemhöyük.Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 63 Museum of Anatolian Civilizations Museum of Anatolian Civilizations Established Location 1921 Gözcü Sokak No:2 06240 Ulus. Hacılar. Seljuk and Ottoman periods. glass. Ankara. Boğazköy (Gordion). The old bazaar building houses the exhibits. Museum of Anatolian Civilizations reaching the present time with its historical buildings and its deeply rooted history was elected as the first "European Museum of the Year" in Switzerland on April 19. Within this Ottoman building. Turkey. Byzantine. Urartian. represent the museum's rare cultural treasures. The exhibits of gold. The coin collections. They start with the Paleolithic era.000 [1] Website Museum's official website [2] The Museum of Anatolian Civilizations (Turkish: Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi) is located on the south side of Ankara Castle in the Atpazarı area in Ankara. laboratory and workshop. Phrygian.

The Director of Culture at that time. This recommendation was accepted and restoration continued from 1938 to 1968. Five shops were left in their original form. a library. where the domed structure is.[3] In 1943. Upon recommendation of Atatürk and from the view of establishing an "Eti Museum" in the center . has research rooms. the Hittite artifacts from the region were sent to Ankara and therefore a larger museum was needed. artifacts from the Augustus Temple and the Byzantine Baths were also collected. the middle section was opened for visitors. Minister of Education recommended that the Mahmut Paşa Bazaar and the Inn be repaired and Open square in front of the museum entrance converted into a museum. History of buildings . and the museum was in four rooms of Kurşunlu Han the repairs of which were completed. In addition to this museum. a laboratory and workshops. Restoration and exhibition projects of the part around the domed structure were prepared and applied by Architect İhsan Kıygı. Hamit Zübeyir Koşay and Saffet Arıkan. which has been used as an administration building. Guterbock arranged the museum. and the Mahmut Pasha Vaulted Bazaar has been used as the exhibition hall. in the section of the Castle of Ankara called Akkale. while the repairs of the building were still in progress. a conference hall. in 1940. in 1921. Directorate of Culture. Upon the completion of repairs of the bazaar. and the walls between the shops were destroyed and thus a large location was provided for exhibition.Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 64 The history of the museum The first museum in Ankara was established by Mübarek Galip Bey. Repair projects of this part were carried out by Architect Macit Kural and repair work upon tender was performed by Architect Zühtü Bey. The museum building reached its present structure in 1968. In 1948 the museum administration left Akkale as a storage house. a committee chaired by German Archaeologist H. Kurşunlu Han. G.

The artifacts recovered in Hacılar. copper was processed and used in everyday life during this age. 5500-3000): In addition to stone tools.. The stone tools are displayed under three categories. caravanserai). the Kurşunlu Han was built as a foundation (vakıf) to finance Mehmet Pasha's (Mehmet the Conqueror's vizier) alms giving in Üsküdar. one of ministers (viziers) of Mehmed II the Conqueror during 1464-1471. obsidian tools. Alacahöyük and Alişar are exhibited in the museum. a reproduction of a Catalhoyuk room with bull heads mounted onto walls. The collection includes the Mother Goddess sculptures. The Mahmut Paşa Bedesteni was built by Mahmut Pasha. Middle Paleolithic Age and Upper and Late Upper Paleolithic Age. Upon orders by Mahmut Pasha the vaulted bazaar was built. Tilkitepe. • Neolithic Age (8000-5500) : During this age first villages appeared and agriculture began.C. Lower Paleolithic Age. and bone made agricultural tools. These two buildings constituting the museum today were abandoned after the fire in 1881. which are the most important sites of Neolithic Age. There is a courtyard and an arcade in the middle and they are surrounded by two-storey rooms. The Han has the typical design of Ottoman Period hans.. The design of the building is of the classical type. 30 rooms on the first floor. In some sources. and decorative jewelry. He had his mosque. and there are 102 shops facing each other. wall paintings of erupting Hasan Mountain and the town – may be the world’s first city map and the wall paintings of leopard. Exhibited artifacts • Palaeolithic Age (. goddess figurines. There are 10 domes covering a rectangle designed to enclose the location. coins of the Murat II period were discovered. soup kitchen and madrasa in Üsküdar. On the north side of the han there are 11 shops and 9 shops on east side and 4 shops facing each other within the garden. in the historical Atpazarı district of Ankara. earthenware containers. There are 28 rooms on the ground floor. During the repairs of 1946.. He kept his position until 1470. seals.8000): The Age is represented by the finds uncovered in the Antalya Karain Cave. . Mother Goddess Kybele (later Cybele). are exhibited in the museum. stamps. and his body is buried there. It also does not have an inscriptions. According to historical records and registry books. here. The artifacts from Çatalhöyük and Hacılar. The rooms have furnaces. Canhasan. Istanbul. now the main museum building. it is recorded that pure Angora garments were distributed A historical view of Kurşunlu Han. The building does not have any inscriptions. The findings indicate that the Han existed in the fifteenth century. There is a barn with an "L" type on the ground floor on west and south directions of the rooms. The inn (han) was built by Mehmet Pasha and in 1467 Mehmet Pasha was promoted to Prime Minister (Grand Vizier). clay figurines. The collection includes a large collection of stone and metal tools.Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 65 The Anatolian Civilizations Museum is in two Ottoman buildings located near Ankara Castle. • Chalcolithic Age (Copper-Stone) (B. People of Palaeolithic Age were hunter gatherers using stone and bone tools. wall paintings. One of the buildings is Mahmut Paşa Bedesteni and the other is Kurşunlu Han (inn. The most impressive parts of this exhibit are hunting scene on plaster from 7th millennium BC..

spearheaded by Assyrians and with them they brought in their languages and cylinder and stamp seals which later was developed into a writing system.000 clay tablets. Alisar and Bogazkoy. which were used in religious ceremonies. gold. from a grave in Horoztepe. a special group of ceramic art which constitutes the basis of the Hittite culture. The Hatti tribes dominate the Bronze Age display. Most of the written documents are concerned with trade. drinking vessels in the shape of sacred animals like bull. Karaoğlan. thinner version of female figurines and gold jewelry. boar. 1950-1750): In this period. rabbit. lion. Mahmatlar.Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 66 • Early Bronze Age (B.C. In addition to valuable metal artifacts buried as grave goods in royal tombs in Alacahöyük. Since Akkadian times. Acemhoyuk. shed light to this period. stone. Eskiyapar. silver. eagle. economy. Bolu. There is also a reconstruction of a burial ceremony which emphasizes the religious practices of this ancient people. all kinds of weapons and metal cups of artistic value made of clay.C.C. and law. artifacts from Hasanoğlan. As a result. Another interesting class of finds related to this 200 year period is rhytons of Kultepe. inscribed in Assyrian cuneiform. Kültepe was the center of the trade network. lead. copper. and clothes Bronze figurine of a naked woman breast-feeding were brought by the Assyrian donkey caravans for the local people a baby. Over 20. Cuneiform tablets. Merzifon. Karaz-Tilkitepe are represented in the Old Bronze Age section of the museum. 3000-1950): People of Anatolia amalgamated copper and tin and invented bronze at the beginning of the 3000 B. As a result we witness an explosion in the diversity of the finds. The collection includes solar discs. bronze. Horoztepe. and these goods were exchanged for silver and gold. cylinder and stamp seals and their impressions. Beycesultan Semahöyük. . Etiyokuşu. textiles. deer-shaped statuettes. writing emerged in Anatolia for the first time. precious stones and tiles from the Assyrian trade colonies were discovered at Kültepe. Ahlatlıbel. Karayavşan. Tin. they engaged in broad trade relations. They also processed the known metals with casting and hammering techniques. cult objects. Mesopotamians were aware of Anatolian resources and riches. • Assyrian Trade Colonies (B.

The exhibit also includes pictures from Bogazkoy. The tumulus measured 300m (984 ft. The highlight of the Great Hittite Empire section is the relief of the God of War taken from the King's Gate at Boğazköy (Hattusa).C. Patnos. The theme of war is emphasized in the reliefs with soldiers and chariots. some of the Hittites moved to south and south-east Anatolia and established states. Ferzant. tablets of government archives as well as the seals of the kings.C.Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 67 • Hittite Period (B.C. 1750-1200): The ancient Hittite’s first political union was established near the crescent of the Kizilirmak River in Anatolia around 2000 B. Embossed bull figure containers. • Lydian Period (B. various fruit bowls and vases with animal shapes. • Classical Period and Ankara through the ages: The collection includes Greek. Roman and Byzantine Period artifacts such as statues.C. depictions of animals such as lions.) . The reproduction of the tomb of King Midas. • Phrygian Period (B. and bronze as well as coins with examples ranging from the first minted money to modern times. marble. rock-cut reliefs portraying the Hittite rulers and the gods of the Hittite pantheon.the first peace treaty in the world history. They acquired control over Central Anatolia and made Gordion their capital city. Alacahöyük. rams and eagles. hinged dress pins. found at Boğazköy. jewelry and decorative vessels made of gold. glass. Van. statues of powerful animals such as lion and bull are represented. reconstruction of a religious ceremony. found in the ancient tumulus. silver. The exhibited artifacts mostly date from the 6th century BC. 1200-600) : The Urartuans lived in East Anatolia during the same period as the Phrygians.C. The finds from the royal tumulus at Gordion form the majority of the section.) in diameter and 50m (164 ft. friendly or hostile. bronze statues of fertility gods. • Urartian Period (B. and deer are other interesting displays. the reconstruction of a burial ceremony and the statue of the Mother Goddess Kybele to whom the Phrygians worshipped as their main deity are represented in this section. In addition. Eskiyapar.C. Adilcevaz. Hellenistic. Urartians made new advances in architecture and mining. The most important sites of this period are Malatya-Arslantepe. One of the most important artifacts is the tablet in Akkadian scripts (1275-1220 B. Çavuştepe. dated 1275-1220 B. infamous İnandik vase that depicts a wedding ceremony. reconstruction of King’s Gate at Boğazköy and pictures from the excavation at Boğazköy. Also. İnandık.C. is also displayed here. bulls. ritual vessels. Karkamış (Carchemish) and Sakçagözü. 1200-546) : The origin of Lydian art comes from the Bronze Age in which there were relations.C. Kayalıdere. came to Anatolia via Balkans in 1200 B. .C. Alişar. The most important Urartian sites are Altıntepe. Carved and inlaid wooden furniture (Figure 25). there is a section displaying the finds uncovered recently from Ankara’s surroundings. 1200-700) : After the fall of the Hittite Empire as a result of the invasion of the Phrygians. • Late Hittite Period (B. The 10-domed old bazaar forming the center hall of the museum.a correspondence from Egyptian Queen Nefertari (wife of Ramses II) to Hittite Queen Puduhepa (wife of Hattusili Bronze tablet from Çorum-Boğazköy dating from 1235 BC III) written after Kadesh Peace Treaty . so-called Sea People. between their ancestors and the Hittites.) in height . houses the reliefs and statues from Neo-Hittites period. 1200-700) : The Phrygians. The important sites are Boğazköy (Hattusa). Lydians made spectacular progress in Iron Age especially from Gyges period to Croesus (685 BC to 547 BC).

lateral view Hittite monument. used by Hittite priests Stag statuette. an exact replica of monument from Fasıllar A statue in the courtyard Bronze religious standard symbolizing the universe. symbol of a Hittite male god Bronze ceremonial standard of the Hittites Chimera with a human head and a lion's head. • Ancient jewellery. Late Hittite period . 68 Galleries Building Entrance gate of the museum Courtyard of the museum Museum Galleries Mother Goddess Cybele.Museum of Anatolian Civilizations • Coins represent exceptional cultural assets. frontal view Mother Goddess Cybele.

pbase. transanatolie. com/ English/ Turkey/ In%20Brief/ Museums/ AMM/ anatolian_civilisations_museum. [4] http:/ / www. a bracelet Piece of jewelry. htm [6] http:/ / www. planetware. a necklace Piece of jewelry.Museum of Anatolian Civilizations 69 Phrygian Cybele stauette Reconstruction of the tomb of King Midas Bull heads from Çatalhöyük Perspective of a gallery Marble head of a Roman woman Piece of jewelry. anadolumedeniyetlerimuzesi. gov. gov. anadolumedeniyetlerimuzesi.Museum of Anatolian Civilizations [4] TransAnatolie.com . com/ dosseman/ ankara_museum_turkey/ . see Turkey's Modernization: Refugees from Nazism and Atatürk's Vision by Arnold Reisman. tr/ [3] For a more extensive discussion of Hans Guterbock's exile in Turkey and his saga in coming to the US from Turkey.Anatolian Civilizations Museum [5] very large private website [6] Geographical coordinates: 39°56′18″N 32°51′43″E References [1] Museum's official website (http:/ / www. com/ ankara/ museum-of-anatolian-civilizations-tr-an-ahm. tr/ ) [2] http:/ / www. a mirror See also • Ankara • State Art and Sculpture Museum • Ankara Ethnography Museum External links • • • • Museum's official website [2] PlanetWare . htm [5] http:/ / www.

iv 377 [1] Europe and North America 40°01′11″N 34°36′55″E Inscription history Inscription 1986  (10th Session) [70] * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. but their primary source for clothing was wool from sheep. The fields provided the people with a subsistence crop of wheat. Turkey) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age. [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO. ii. There were several other settlements in the vicinity. The source for meat was domesticated animals. such as the rock shrine at Yazılıkaya and the town at Alacahöyük. Since the rivers in the area are too small and unsuitable for major ships. The region is set in the great loop of the Kızıl River (Marashantiya in Hittite sources and Halys in Classical Antiquity) in central Anatolia. iii. Linen was also harvested. all transport to and from Hattusa had to go by land. as well as woods. but this was probably only a luxury reserved for the nobility. hill lands for pasture. barley and lentils.Hattusa 70 Hattusa Hattusha: the Hittite Capital* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Type Criteria Reference Region** Coordinates  Turkey Cultural i. They also hunted deer in the forest. This meant the inhabitants had an excellent supply for timber when building their houses and other structures. The surroundings The landscape surrounding the city included rich agricultural fields. Ḫattuša. near modern Boğazkale (formerly Boğazköy). Hattusa was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1986. Smaller woods are still found outside the city but in ancient times they were far more widespread. . Hattusa (URUḪa-at-tu-ša ሳሒሁሰሪ.

The center of their trade network was located in Kanesh (Neša) (modern Kültepe). who took credit for the act and erected an inscribed curse for good measure: Yenicekale. between the Lion Gate and the outer city “ At night I took the city by force. a settlement of the apparently indigenous Hatti people was established on sites that had been occupied even earlier.Hattusa 71 Early history of the city Before 2000 BC. a sanctuary of Hattusa writing to Hattusa. may the Weathergod of Heaven strike him down. in the form of cuneiform. Business dealings required record-keeping: the trade network from Assur introduced Twelve Hittite Gods of the Underworld in the nearby Yazılıkaya. I have sown weeds in its place. setting up in their own separate quarter of the city. The responsible party appears to have been King Anitta from Kussara (a city possibly to be identified with Alişar). A carbonized layer apparent in excavations attests to the burning and ruin of the city of Hattusa around 1700 BC. In the 19th and 18th centuries BC. merchants from Assur in Assyria established a trading post here.[2] The earliest traces of settlement on the site are from the sixth millennium BC. ” . Should any king after me attempt to resettle Hattush.

lions.000 at the peak. To the south lay an outer city of about 1 km². when a modest Phrygian settlement appeared in the area. they twice attacked the city to the point where the kings had to move the royal seat to another city. with elaborate gateways decorated with reliefs showing warriors. Mursili III returned the seat to Hattusa. and of a royal line of Hittite Great Kings — 27 of whom are now known by name. each set around a porticoed courtyard. both surrounded by a massive and still visible course of walls erected during the reign of Suppiluliuma I (circa 1344–1322 BC (short chronology)). At its peak. Under Tudhaliya I.8 km² and comprised an inner and outer portion.000 and 50. they moved south to Tarhuntassa but assigned Hattusili III as governor over Hattusa. where the kings remained until the end of the Hittite kingdom in the 12th century BC. and the king took the name of Hattusili I. the "one from Hattusa". the Hittites moved north to Sapinuwa. Outside the walls are cemeteries. a Hittite-speaking king had chosen the site as his residence and capital.8 km² and was occupied by a citadel with large administrative buildings and temples. leaving only the stone-built walls of temples and palaces. the city covered 1.Hattusa 72 The Hittite imperial city Only a generation later. and sphinxes. The site was subsequently abandoned until 800 BC. Four temples were located here. The Hattic "Hattus" now became Hittite "Hattusa". Hattusili marked the beginning of a non-Hattic-speaking "Hittite" state. most of which contain cremation The Great Temple in the inner city burials. The Hittite Language had been gaining speakers at Hattic's expense for some time. together with secular buildings and residential structures. Under Muwatalli II. Modern estimates put the population of the city between 40. . In the early period the inner city housed a third that number. as part of the Bronze Age collapse. around 1200 BC. After the Kaskas arrived to the kingdom's north. The dwelling houses which were built with timber and mud bricks have vanished from the site. together with the Hittite state itself. returning later. The city was destroyed. The inner city covered an area of some 0.

000 or so clay tablets recovered from Hattusa form the main corpus of Hittite literature. the German Oriental Society has been excavating at Hattusa (with breaks during the two World Wars and the Depression.[3] Since 1906. such as Tabigga (Maşat Höyük) and at Sapinuwa (Ortaköy). consisting of official correspondence and contracts. as well as legal codes. in 1893-94. which were resumed in 1931 under Kurt Bittel. procedures for cult ceremony. It was recently at the centre of a Turkish move to apply restrictions on German archaeologists working in the country. Hugo Winckler and Theodor Makridi Bey conducted the first excavations 1906. currently on display at the Istanbul Archaeology Museum. They are now divided between the archaeological museums of Ankara and Istanbul. followed by Peter Neve (site director 1963. One particularly important tablet. It is currently on display in Berlin's Pergamon Museum. 1907. oracular prophecies and literature of the ancient Near East.Hattusa 73 Discovery of the city Ernest Chantre opened some trial trenches at the village then called Boğazköy. details the terms of a peace settlement reached years after the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittites and the Egyptians under Ramesses II. The sphinx A sphinx from Hattusa was taken for restoration out of Turkey to Germany in 1917 and has not been returned. A copy is on display in the United Nations in New York City as an example of the earliest known international peace treaties. 1913-31 and 1940-51). and 1911–13. archives have since appeared at other centers in Anatolia.[4] One of the most important discoveries at the site has been the cuneiform royal archives of clay tablets. general director 1978–94). The Yerkapi rampart in the south Although the 30. Archaeological work is still carried out by the German Archaeological Institute (Deutsches Archäologische Institut).[5] See also • • • • • Hittites Yazılıkaya List of megalithic sites Cities of the Ancient Near East Short chronology timeline . in 1259 or 1258 BC.

org. tr/ gundem/ 7022023. 63-67. Neue Ausgrabungen in der Hauptstadt der Hethiter. reshafim. ISSN 0342-118X References [1] http:/ / whc. visitturkeynow. "Anatolian Archaeology: A Tribute to Peter Neve" (June 1995). MDOG Berlin 132.a project of the German Institute of Archaeology": Discovery (http:/ / www. com/ dosseman/ bogazkale [9] http:/ / www. Reuters.2. de/ English/ cityhistory1. 2007-08-02. Article: "Almanya ile arkeolojik kriz" (http:/ / www. hattuscha. pp. Dörfler u. 2000. [6] http:/ / www. (2. il/ ad/ egypt/ ramses-hattusili-treaty. pbase. htm [7] http:/ / www. gulfinthemedia. com. von Zabern. "Forty Years in the Capital of the Hittites: Peter Neve Retires from His Position as Director of the Ḫattuša-Boğazköy Excavations" The Biblical Archaeologist 58. Article:. Ph. erw. htm) [3] " The Excavations at Hattusha . [5] Article: "Turkey targets German archaeologists in sphinx row" (http:/ / www. unesco. de/ English/ english1. 367-381. php?m=reuters& 20id=740365& lang=en& PHPSESSID=e56a50579a36bb3c766d29).Stadt der Götter und Tempel. htm [10] http:/ / www. com/ cities/ c_hattusas. de/ English/ english1. htm) [4] Jürgen Seeher. hurriyet. org& hl=en& domains=unesco. googlesyndicatedsearch. 2007-08-04.) ISBN 3-8053-1478-7 • W. Mainz 1996. htm [8] http:/ / www.a. Article:.: Untersuchungen zur Kulturgeschichte und Agrarökonomie im Einzugsbereich hethitischer Städte. hattuscha. Aufl. org . Hürriyet. com/ u/ unesco?q=hattusas& search2=GO& sitesearch=unesco. asp?gid=180& a=239840) (in Turkish).Hattusa 74 External links • • • • • Excavations at Hattusha: a project of the German Institute of Archaeology [6] Hittite version of the Peace treaty with Ramses II of 1283 BC [7] Pictures of the old Hittite capital with links to other sites [8] Hattusas [9] UNESCO nomination [10] Bibliography • Peter Neve: Hattusa . com/ index. org/ en/ list/ 377 [2] The Excavations at Hattusha: "A Brief History" (http:/ / www. hattuscha.

vii 357 [1] Europe and North America Inscription history Inscription 1985  (9th Session) [70] * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. iii. v. .Cappadocia 75 Cappadocia Ancient Region of Anatolia Cappadocia Above: Mount Aktepe near Göreme and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia (UNESCO World Heritage Site) Location State existed: Historical capitals Roman province Eastern Anatolia 38°39′30″N 34°51′13″E Quasi-independent in various forms until 17 AD Hattusa Cappadocia Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Type Criteria Reference Region**  Turkey Mixed i. [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO.

In the time of Herodotus. As after the fall of the Persian government the two provinces continued to be separate. The Cappadocians were named as one group hearing the Gospel account from Galileans in their own language on the day of Pentecost shortly after the resurrection of Jesus Christ. and the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the inland province (sometimes called Great Cappadocia). in particular characterized by fairy chimneys and a unique historical and cultural heritage. the capital of the whole country.[2] 76 Etymology The earliest record of the name of Cappadocia dates from the late 6th century BC. and to the west by Lycaonia and eastern Galatia. was bounded in the south by the chain of the Taurus Mountains that separate it from Cilicia. associated by Flavius Josephus with the biblical figure Meshech. the distinction was perpetuated. Cilicia was the name given to the district in which Caesarea. not far from the foot of the Taurus. AotJ I:6. as one of the countries (Old Persian dahyu-) of the Persian Empire. the Old Persian name is Katpatuka. clearly not a native Persian name. Tuka. Turkish Kapadokya. to the north by Pontus. Cappadocia is also mentioned in the biblical account given in the book of Acts  2:9.[3] Herodotus tells us that the name of the Cappadocians was applied to them by the Persians. The name was traditionally used in Christian sources throughout history and is still widely used as an international tourism concept to define a region of exceptional natural wonders. to which the name of Cappadocia continued to be applied by Greek geographers. or governments. now they are Cappadocians". which alone will be the focus of this article. One of the Cappadocian tribes he mentions is the Moschoi. Under the later kings of the Persian Empire. roughly corresponds to present-day Nevşehir Province. to the east by the upper Euphrates and the Armenian Highland.Cappadocia Cappadocia (pronounced /kæpəˈdoʊʃə/. Heb katef) and a chief or ancestor's name. was situated. The Elamite and Akkadian language versions of the inscriptions contain a similar name from Akkadian katpa "side" (cf. Cappadocia. Also see Ketubot 13:11 in the Mishna. with one comprising the central and inland portion. when it appears in the trilingual inscriptions of two early Achaemenid kings. son of Japheth: "and the Mosocheni were founded by Mosoch. largely in Nevşehir Province. The kingdom of Cappadocia was still in existence in the time of Strabo as a nominally independent state. from Greek: Καππαδοκία / Kappadokía) is a region in central Turkey. See Acts of the Apostles. while the other was called Pontus. . in this sense. the Cappadocians were divided into two satrapies. as used in tourism. Acts  2:5 seems to suggest that the Cappadocians in this account were "God-fearing Jews". This division had already come about before the time of Xenophon. The term. also Capadocia. the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine (Black Sea). Darius I and Xerxes. The only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that appellation were Caesarea (originally known as Mazaca) and Tyana. In these lists of countries. while they were termed by the Greeks as "Syrians" or "White Syrians" (Leucosyri).

Cappadocia was ruled by a sort of feudal aristocracy. To the south.Cappadocia 77 Geography and climate Cappadocia lies in eastern Anatolia. before that river bends to the southeast to flow into Mesopotamia. the son of Ariarathes recovered his inheritance and left it to a line of successors. Pontus and the Black Sea. a Persian aristocrat. Alexander the Great tried to rule the area through one of his military commanders. and Cappadocia fell to Eumenes. somehow became king of the Cappadocians. The boundaries of historical Cappadocia are vague. and Galatia to the Mt. the highest mountain in northwest. The kingdom of Cappadocia lived in peace until the death of Alexander. Kingdom of Cappadocia After bringing the Persian Empire to an end. Cappadocia has a markedly continental climate. particularly towards the west. but continued to be governed by rulers of its own. but in the dissensions which brought about Eumenes's death. and he extended the borders of the Cappadocian Kingdom as far as to the Black Sea. His claims were A Hot air balloon over Cappadocia made good in 322 BC by the regent Perdiccas. while to the east Cappadocia is bounded by the upper Euphrates. with hot dry summers and cold snowy winters. The Black Sea coastal ranges separate Cappadocia from Cappadocia.[4] This results in an area approximately 400 km (250 mi) east–west and 250 km (160 mi) north–south. with the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians (Mushki) after their defeat by the Lydian king Croesus in the 6th century. Ariarthes I (332—322 BC) was a successful ruler. which later made them apt for foreign slavery. Due to its inland location and high altitude. After the fall of the Hittite Empire. who crucified Ariarathes. in the center of what is now Turkey. the Taurus Mountains form the boundary with Cilicia and separate Cappadocia from the Mediterranean Sea. The previous empire was then divided into many parts. It was included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by Darius. dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a servile condition. none apparently supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributaries of the Great King. Cappadocia is bounded by the historical regions of Lycaonia to the southwest. and the Armenian Highland. with Mount Erciyes (ancient Argaeus) near Kayseri (ancient Caesarea) being the tallest at 3916 m. The relief consists of a high plateau over 1000m in altitude that is pierced by volcanic peaks. who mostly bore the name of the founder of the dynasty. The town Göreme with rock houses in front of the spectacularly coloured valleys nearby . History Cappadocia was known as Hatti in the late Bronze Age. To the west. But Ariarathes. and was the homeland of the Hittite power centred at Hattusa. Erciyes (3916 m).[5] Rainfall is sparse and the region is largely semi-arid to arid.

The Ariobarzanes dynasty came to an end and a certain Archelaus reigned in its stead. Cappadocia formed part of the Armeniac Theme and later of the themes of Charsianon and Cappadocia. The Cappadocian Fathers of the 4th century were integral to much of early Christian philosophy. among other people. The Cappadocians. now against him. by favour first of Antony and then of Octavian. who held office 517—520. dethroned king Ariobarzanes and crowned Gordios as the new client-king of Cappadocia. on Archelaus' death in disgrace. and their forces were annihilated (130 BC). The imbroglio which followed his death ultimately led to interference by the rising power of Pontus and the intrigues and wars which ended in the failure of the dynasty. John of Cappadocia. a claimant to the throne of Pergamon. It was not until Rome had deposed the Pontic and Armenian kings that the rule of Ariobarzanes was established (63 BC). first as a foe espousing the cause of Antiochus the Great. during the 10th century: "Sivas. and maintained tributary independence until AD 17. to succeed (93 BC). in Cappadocia. Ariarathes V marched with the Roman proconsul Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus against Aristonicus. Cappadocia shared an always changing relation with the neighbouring Armenia. to whom they had been from time to time tributary. another A house in Cappadocia Patriarch of Constantinople. Ariobarzanes. For most of the Byzantine era it remained relatively undisturbed by the conflicts in the area with the Sassanid Empire. The Arab historian Abu Al Faraj purports the following about Armenian settlers in Sivas. The kings henceforward threw in their lot with the Republic as against the Seleucids. supported by Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus. largely used by early Christians as hiding places before they became an accepted religion. elected a native lord. by that time a region of the Empire. but in the same year Armenian troops under Tigranes the Great (Tigran) entered Cappadocia. In the civil wars Cappadocia was now for Pompey. was dominated by the Armenians and their numbers became so many that they became vital members of the imperial . when the emperor Tiberius.Cappadocia 78 Under Ariarathes IV. Much later it was a region of the Byzantine Empire. now for Antony. then as an ally against Perseus of Macedon. but was a vital frontier zone later against the Muslim conquests. thus creating a buffer zone against the encroaching Romans. It also produced. Cappadocia came into relations with Rome. Fairy chimneys in Cappadocia Photo of a 15th-century map showing "Capadocia" Cappadocia contains several underground cities (see Kaymaklı Underground City). now for Caesar. reduced Cappadocia at last to a Roman province.

is in the triangle between the cities of Nevşehir. Cappadocia slowly became a tributary to the Turkish states that were established to the east and to the west. Nevşehir. These Armenians were used as watch-posts in strong fortresses. Anatolian Seljuks had established their sole dominance over the region. A rock-cut temple in Cappadocia In the meantime many former Cappadocians had shifted to a Turkish dialect (written in Greek alphabet.Cappadocia 79 armies. to serve as regional capital." the land of the Armenians. Cappadocia remained part of the Ottoman Empire for the centuries to come. who themselves were gradually succeeded by the Ottoman Empire over the course of the 15th century. Following the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey. they were gradually replaced by the Karaman-based Beylik of Karamanoğlu. A fundamental change occurred in between when a new urban center. Ürgüp and Avanos. They distinguished themselves as experienced infantry soldiers in the imperial army and were constantly fighting with outstanding courage and success by the side of the Romans in other words Byzantine". Uçhisar Hill and Castle. the Armenians spread into Cappadocia and eastward from Cilicia into the mountainous areas of northern Syria and Mesopotamia. Pharasa town and other nearby villages). a role the city continues to assume to this day. it became heavily influenced by the surrounding Turkish. and where the Greek language was maintained (Sille. and some of the population converted to Islam. This dialect of Greek is known as Cappadocian Greek. .[7] Following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. By the end of the early 12th century. Karamanlıca). and the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia was eventually formed. various Turkish clans under the leadership of the Seljuks began settling in Anatolia. and remains now part of the modern state of Turkey. villages near Kayseri. To the crusaders. Cappadocia was "terra Hermeniorum. the language is now only spoken by a handful of the former population's descendants in modern Greece.[6] As a result of the Byzantine military campaigns and the Seljuk invasion of Armenia. the highest point in Cappadocia. This immigration was increased further after the decline of the local imperial power and the establishment of the Crusader States following the Fourth Crusade. With the rise of Turkish power in Anatolia. taken from the Arabs. With the decline and the fall of the Konya-based Seljuks in the second half of the 13th century. was founded in the early 18th century by a grand vizier who was a native of the locality (Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha). due to the large number of Armenians settled there.

The Göreme Open Air Museum is the most visited site of the monastic communities in Cappadocia (see Churches of Göreme. Turkish model and actress Azra Akin recently was in a commercial for a chewing gum called 'First Ice'. The Cappadocia region is largely underlain by sedimentary rocks formed in lakes and streams. this was attributed to erionite. dating from the 9th to the 11th centuries. churches and monasteries. The region is located southwest of the major city Kayseri. which has airline and railroad (railway) service to Ankara and Istanbul. The Yusuf Koç. Turkey) and is one of the most famous sites in central Turkey. The rocks of Cappadocia near Göreme eroded into hundreds of spectacular pillars and minaret-like forms.Cappadocia 80 Modern tourism The area is a famous and popular tourist destination. Durmus Kadir and Bezirhane churches in Göreme. Mesothelioma In 1975 a study of three small villages in central Cappadocia—Tuzköy. as it has many areas with unique geological. Initially. historic and cultural features.youtube. The complex contains more than 30 rock-carved churches and chapels. a zeolite mineral with similar properties to asbestos. houses and churches carved into rocks in the Uzundere. and ignimbrite deposits erupted from ancient volcanoes approximately 9 to 3 million years ago. Ortahane. but detailed epidemiological investigation demonstrated that the substance causes the disease mostly in families with a genetic predisposition to mineral fiber carcinogenesis. which shows some of the area's features. The studies are being extended to other parts of the region. The volcanic deposits are soft rocks that the people of the villages at the heart of the Cappadocia Region carved out to form houses. Bağıldere and Zemi Valleys are all carriers of history that we can see today.com/watch?v=D_JeFWyq0SM Gallery Early Christian cave art with graffiti The town of Ortahisar Places of touristic relevance Rocks . some of them have superb frescoes inside.[8] [9] Media The area now sees a lot of movie activity due to the region's topography. during the late Miocene to Pliocene epochs. The first period of settlement in Göreme goes back to the Roman period. http:/ / www. Karain and Sarıhıdır—found that mesothelioma was causing 50 % of all deaths. Göreme became a monastic center between 300—1200 AD.



See also
• • • • • • • Ürgüp Mokissos Tourism in Turkey Cappadocia under the Achaemenids List of traditional Greek place names Cappadocian Fathers List Of Colossal Sculpture In Situ

External links
• Pictures of Cappadocia [10] • Aksaray Governor's Office [11] • A recent photo tour of Cappadocia [12] Geographical coordinates: 38°40′14″N 34°50′21″E

[1] http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ 357 [2] Van Dam, R. Kingdom of Snow: Roman rule and Greek culture in Cappadocia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002, p.13. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Iskwzsz51KMC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_v2_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q=& f=false) [3] Room, Adrian. (1997). Placenames of the World. London: MacFarland and Company. [4] Van Dam, R. Kingdon of Snow: Roman rule and Greek culture in Cappadocia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002, p.13. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Iskwzsz51KMC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_v2_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q=& f=false) [5] Van Dam, R. Kingdom of Snow: Roman rule and Greek culture in Cappadocia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002, p.14. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=Iskwzsz51KMC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_v2_summary_r& cad=0#v=onepage& q=& f=false) [6] Schlumberger, Un Emperor byzantin au X siècle, Paris, Nicéphore Phocas, Paris, 1890, p. 251 [7] MacEvitt, Christopher (2008). The Crusades and the Christian World of the East: Rough Tolerance. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 56. [8] Dogan, Umran (2003). "Mesothelioma in Cappadocian villages" (http:/ / www. cababstractsplus. org/ google/ abstract. asp?AcNo=20033214031). Indoor and Built Environment (Ankara: Sage) 12 (6): 367–375. doi:10.1177/1420326X03039065. ISSN: 1420-326X. . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [9] Carbone, Michelle; et al. (2007). "A mesothelioma epidemic in Cappadocia: scientific developments and unexpected social outcomes" (http:/ / www. nature. com/ nrc/ journal/ v7/ n2/ abs/ nrc2068. html). Nature Reviews Cancer 7 (2): 147–54. doi:10.1038/nrc2068. ISSN 1474-175X. . Retrieved 2008-03-04. [10] http:/ / www. cappadociapictures. com [11] http:/ / www. aksaray. gov. tr/ eng/ index. html [12] http:/ / www. pvv. org/ ~bct/ ataturk/ kappa. html




Konya Collage

Location of Konya, Turkey Coordinates: 37°52′N 32°29′E Country Region Province Government - Mayor Area - Total Elevation Population (2007) - Total - Density Time zone - Summer (DST) Postal code Area code(s) Licence plate Website 1,412,343 50/km2 (129.5/sq mi) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) 42XXX (+90) 332 42 www.konya.bel.tr [1] 39000 km2 (15058 sq mi) 1200 m (3937 ft) Tahir Akyürek  Turkey Central Anatolia Konya



Konya is a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. It is the capital of the Konya Province, and had a city population of 1,003,373 in 2009[2] while the provincial population (including the other urban centers in the Konya Province) was 1,959,082 in the same year.[3]

Mevlana Museum Konya, also spelled in some historic English texts as Konia or Koniah, was known in classical antiquity and during the medieval period as Iconium in Latin, and Ἰκόνιον (Ikónion) in Greek. The name Konya is a cognate of icon, as an ancient Greek legend ascribed its name to the "eikon" (image), or the "gorgon's (Medusa's) head", with which Perseus vanquished the native population before founding the city.[4]

Ancient history
Excavations have shown that the region was inhabited during the Late Copper Age, around 3000 BC.[4] The city came under the influence of the Hittites around 1500 BC. These were overtaken by the Sea Peoples around 1200 BC. The Phrygians established their kingdom in central Anatolia in the 8th century BC. Xenophon describes Iconium, as the city was called, as the last city of Phrygia. The region was overwhelmed by Cimmerian invaders c. 690 BC. It was later part of the Persian Empire, until Darius III was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC. Alexander's empire broke up shortly after his death and the town came under the rule of Seleucus I Nicator. During the Hellenistic period the town was ruled by the kings of Pergamon. As Attalus III, the last king of Pergamon, was about to die without an heir, he bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Under the rule of emperor Claudius, the city's name was changed to Claudioconium, and during the rule of emperor Hadrianus to Colonia Aelia Hadriana. Saint Paul and Barnabas preached in Iconium during the First Missionary Journey in about 47-48 AD (see Acts  14:1-5 and Acts  14:21), and Paul and Silas probably visited it again during the Second Missionary Journey in about 50 (see Acts  16:2).[5] In Christian legend, it was also the birthplace of Saint Thecla. During the Byzantine Empire the town was destroyed several times by Arab invaders in the 7th-9th centuries.

Seljuk era
The city was conquered by the Seljuk Turks following the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, and from 1097 to 1243 it was the capital of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, though very briefly occupied by the Crusaders Godfrey of Bouillon (August 1097) and Frederick Barbarossa (May 18, 1190). The name of the town was changed to Konya by Rukn al-Dīn Mas'ūd in 1134. Konya reached the height of its wealth and influence as of the second half of the 12th century when Anatolian Seljuk sultans also subdued the Turkish Beyliks to their east, especially that of the Danishmends, thus establishing their rule over virtually all of eastern Anatolia, as well as acquiring several port towns along the Mediterranean (including Alanya) and the Black Sea (including Sinop) and even gaining a momentary foothold in Sudak, Crimea. This golden age lasted until the first decades of the 13th century. By the 1220s, the city was filled with refugees from the Khwarezmid Empire, fleeing the advance of the Mongol Empire. Sultan Alā al-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykā'ūs fortified the town and built a palace on top of the citadel. In 1228 he invited Bahaeddin Veled and his son Mevlana, the founder of the Mevlevi order, to settle in Konya.

Konya In 1243, following the Seljuk defeat in the Battle of Köse Dag, Konya was captured by the Mongols as well. The city remained the capital of the Seljuk sultans, vassalized to the Ilkhanate until the end of the century. Following the fall of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Konya was made an emirate in 1307 which lasted until 1322 when the city was captured by the Beylik of Karamanoğlu. In 1420, Karamanoğlu fell to the Ottoman Empire and, in 1453, Konya was made the provincial capital of the Ottoman Province of Karaman.


Ottoman era
Under the Ottoman Empire, in the vilayet system established after 1864, Konya was the seat of the Vilayet of Konya. According to the 1895 census, Konya had a population of nearly forty-five thousand, of which 42,318 were Muslims, 1,566 were Christian Armenians and 899 were Christian Greeks. There were also 21 mosques and 5 Churches in the town.[6] A still-standing Catholic church was built for the Italian railroad workers in the 1910s. By 1927, after the Greco-Turkish population exchange accord of 1923, the city's population became almost exclusively Muslim.

Konya is home to Selçuk University, one of the largest universities in Turkey.

Notable residents and visitors
• Ibn Arabi, the Sufi, visited Konya in 1207 at the invitation of the Seljuk governor of that time and married the mother of his disciple Sadreddin Konevi. • The tomb of Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi, the Persian Sufi poet commonly known as "Mevlâna" and who is the founder of the Sufi Mevlevi order (known for the Whirling Dervishes), is located in Konya where he spent the last fifty years of his life.

Selçuk University Library

• Hazrat Shah Jalal was born in 1271 in Konya. • Nasreddin died in Konya in the 13th century. • Orkut Büyükkökten, a software engineer who developed the social networking service Orkut, was born in 1975 in Konya.[7]



Notable structures
• • • • Alaeddin Mosque Ince Minaret Medrese-- Museum Karatay Medrese -- Museum Mevlana Museum, formerly the tekke of Mevlana

Konya has the reputation of being one of the more religiously conservative metropolitan centers in Turkey. It was once known as the "citadel of Islam" and is still more devout than other cities.[8] Konya was the final home of Rumi, whose followers established in 1273 the Mevlevi Sufi order of Islam in this city and became known as the whirling dervishes.

Mevlana Cultural Center

A Turkish folk song is named "Konyalım" (making reference to a loved one from Konya).[9] Konya produced Turkish carpets that were exported to Europe during the Renaissance.[10] [11] These expensive, richly-patterned textiles were draped over tables, beds, or chests to proclaim the wealth and status of their owners, and were often included in the contemporary oil paintings as symbols of the wealth of the painter's clients.[12]

Image gallery

Selçuklu Tower at night

Selçuklu Tower and the Monument of the Fallen Soldiers in Konya

Selçuklu Tower at Kule Site in Konya

Kombassan Tower

Rixos Konya

Mevlana Museum

İnce Minareli Medrese

Alaeddin Mosque

Ottoman Empire Anatolian Tigers Konya Carpets and Rugs . Republic of Macedonia[14] Multan. Pakistan[15] See also • • • • Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate Konya Province. Bosnia and Herzegovina[13] Tetovo.Konya 86 City Council of Konya Governorship of Konya Governorship of Konya Konya Train Station Central Post Office Central Post Office Dedeman Konya Real Shopping Mall Alaeddin Hill Park Alaeddin Hill Park Picnic area in Meram Meram Brook International relations Twin towns — Sister cities Konya is twinned with: • • • Sarajevo.

ISBN 0728703629. "Carpet. co. Sarajevo. com/ books?id=JryEbmKool0C& pg=PA315& dq=cities+ of+ asia+ minor+ ramsay& lr=& as_brr=1& output=html . pp. RDF& p_il1=42& p_kod=2& p_yil=2009& p_dil=1& desformat=html& ENVID=nufus2000db2Env) [3] Konya Chamber of Commerce: The socio-economic structure of Konya (http:/ / www. mofa. pk/ Press_Releases/ 2008/ Oct/ statement_31. php?kat=160). F.ba. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ europe/ 4062603. com/ pic. 1983. uk/ books?id=jGsVHV098K0C& pg=PA189& lpg=PA189& dq=Bellini+ carpets& source=bl& ots=kPJNB9cTFV& sig=7ipYrlB2k-YNSNCmoHUMqqkQ8KE& hl=en& ei=mLL0SayaD8SfjAepveC3DA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=8). co. Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free Grand Rapids. By Jonny Dymond . . 316-384 [20] References [1] http:/ / www. 189. 475. google. Paul. asp?id=8318& Konyalım) [10] King. p. MI: Eerdmans. php?view=turkey-konya-history-alaeddin-mosque-mevlana-whirling-dervish-sultan-rumi-sights-and-attractions-things-to-do) [7] Programmer World: Orkut Büyükkökten (http:/ / programmerworld.. including Mevlana Museum and several Seljuk buildings [19] William M. Gordon. britannica. From the 15th to the 17th century. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 321948/ Konya) [5] see William Ramsay. Bruce. stm) [9] Song Lyrics (http:/ / www. gov. S 2. tr [2] (http:/ / report. [11] Campbell.o. David. Donald and Sylvester. bbc. com/ index. ISBN 0195189485. tr/ tr/ dergi/ dergiyazioku. com/ pic. asp?cmd=1& cid=19 [20] http:/ / books.BBC (http:/ / news. 26-27. asp?yno=1567& ano=91) [4] Encyclopædia Britannica: Konya (http:/ / www. [12] Old Ottoman "Holbein" carpets in Renaissance painting (http:/ / www. The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts. Ramsay. org. Paul. Arts Council of Great Britain. com/ turku/ turku. Cities of St. google. emporis. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 321948/ Konya [17] http:/ / www. tulpart. tuik. html) [13] daenet d. com/ carpets-ottoman-period. ba/ en/ stream. F. bel. p. Oxford University Press US. The Eastern Carpet in the Western World. konya. php) [8] 'Islam problem' baffles Turkey. google. Retrieved 2009-05-06. "Sarajevo Official Web Site : Sister cities" (http:/ / www. Volume 1. utrinski. com/ books?id=JryEbmKool0C& pg=PA315& dq=cities+ of+ asia+ minor+ ramsay& lr=& as_brr=1& output=html).o. tulpart. asp?cmd=6& cid=2155 [19] http:/ / www. tr/ reports/ rwservlet?adnksdb2=& report=buyukbelediye. com. net/ articles/ orkut/ orkut_introduction. [6] Alaturka Turkey: Konya (http:/ / www. 2006. 187–193). 52-57. alaturkaturkey. kto. sarajevo. bekirhoca.Konya 87 External links • • • • • Encyclopædia Britannica: Konya [16] Emporis: Database of highrises and other structures in Konya [17] Detailed Pictures of Mevlana Museum [18] Pictures of the city. com/ en/ wm/ ci/ bu/ ?id=100462 [18] http:/ / www. mk/ ?ItemID=2C9B19D61C085B4EB61CC8EA95077C95) -Утрински весник [15] http:/ / www. html [16] http:/ / www. 1977. 9780195189483 Google books (http:/ / books. oldturkishcarpets. [14] Тетово се збратимува со турскиот град Коња (http:/ / www. gov. Cities of St. -384 (http:/ / books. britannica. London. History (pp.

Antalya 88 Antalya Antalya Seal of Antalya Metropolitan Municipality Antalya Location of Antalya Coordinates: 36°54′N 30°41′E Country Region Province Government - Type - Mayor Area - Total Elevation Population (2007) - Total - Density 1417 km2 (547.1 sq mi) 30 m (98 ft) [1] 775157 478/km2 (1238/sq mi) Metropolitan municipality Mustafa Akaydın (Republican People's Party)  Turkey Mediterranean Antalya .

Attalos II. and though of vast bulk is one of the most attractive towns to be seen anywhere. which occupied the southern coasts of Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands. Hıdırlık Tower dating back to Hellenistic era History It is uncertain when the site of the current city was first inhabited. naming it Attalia and selecting it as a naval base for his powerful fleet. and the capital city of Antalya Province. However. excavations in 2008 in the Doğu Garajı district of Antalya have uncovered remains dating to the 3rd century BC. as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles: "From Perga. the gates of which are shut upon them from . Christianity started to spread in the region after 2nd century. have transformed the city into an international resort. Paul and Barnabas went down to Attalia and sailed from there to Antioch after preaching in Pisidia and Pamphylia" (Acts 14:25-26). and are surrounded by a wall.Attaleia) is a city on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey.Antalya 89 Time zone EET (UTC+2) - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3) Postal code Area code(s) Licence plate Website 07x xx 0242 07 [3] [2] Antalya (from Greek "Αττάλεια" . Thema Karavēsianōn). a most beautiful city. It was the capital of the Byzantine Theme of Carabisiani (Θέμα Kαραβησιάνων. with the aid of his commander-in-chief John Axuch. Each section of the inhabitants lives in a separate quarter. The city grew and prospered during the Ancient Roman period. king of Pergamon. Situated on coastal cliffs. The Arabic traveler Ibn Battuta who came to the city in between 1335-1340 noted: From Alanya I went to Antaliya [Adalia]. Antalya is surrounded by mountains.[4] The following year. Statue of Attalos II in the city center Antalya was a major city in the Byzantine Empire. Antalya was the capital of the Turkish beylik of Teke (1321–1423) until its conquest by the Ottomans. Antalya became part of the Roman Republic in 133 BC when King Attalos III of Pergamum willed his kingdom to Rome at his death. besides being exceedingly populous and well laid out. began in the 1970s. suggesting that the city was founded earlier than previously supposed. The Christian merchants live in a quarter of the town known as the Mina [the Port]. The city. At the time of the accession of John II Comnenus (1118) it was an isolated outpost against the Turks. Antalya was visited by Paul of Tarsus. was conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the early 13th century. It covers an immense area. along with the surrounding region. was believed to have founded the city around 150 BC. John II drove the Turks from the land routes to Antalya and reconnected the city with the rest of the empire. accessible only by sea. Development and investment.

continued Hadrian's Gate to be a rival power to the Ottoman governor until within the present generation. domiciled near Perge. each of these quarters being walled off likewise. where it is regarded as a great luxury. including an admirable kind of apricot. and the king and his court and Mamluks in another. The port was served by coast steamers of local companies.000 people. documented the local dere beys. still living in separate quarters around the walled mina or port. including many Christians and Jews. The town had grown beyond the city walls and the port was reported to hold up to 200 boats. This fruit is dried and exported to Egypt.[6] The city was briefly occupied by the Italians from the end of the First World War until the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1923. called by them Qamar ad-Din. In the 20th century the population of Antalya increased as Turks from the Caucasus and the Balkans moved into Anatolia.[5] In the second half of the 17th century Evliya Çelebi wrote of a city of narrow streets containing 3. in common with most of Anatolia. The government offices and the houses of the higher classes were all outside of the walls. By 1911 it was a city of about 25. its sovereign was a "dere bey" (land lord or landowner).000 houses in twenty Turkish and four Greek neighborhoods. 90 . The records of the Levant (Turkey) Company. though reduced to submission in 1812 by Mahmud II.Antalya without at night and during the Friday service. and outside a promenade -a portion of which survives to the present. but ill-built and backward. who were its former inhabitants. the Jews in another. In the 19th century. Antalya (then Adalia) was picturesque. Round the whole town and all the quarters mentioned there is another great wall. The Greeks. live by themselves in another quarter. The family of Tekke Oglu. The rest of the Muslims live in the main city. The chief attraction for visitors was the city wall. which has a sweet almond in its kernel. The town contains orchards and produces fine fruits. which maintained an agency in Antalya until 1825. surviving by many years the fall of the other great beys of Anatolia.

After an extensive search. in the 2nd century BC. Antalya had a population of 1.Antalya 91 Etymology According to tradition. they discovered the region of Antalya. The greater metropolitan area totals more than a million in winter. Port of Antalya and the coastal town of Kemer on the Kitab-ı Bahriye (Book of Navigation) of Piri Reis from 1525 Historic map of Antalya. Manavgat and Side by Piri Reis .133 men.024 women).157 (558.095. giving it the name "Attaleia" (Greek: Αττάλεια) which later mutated in Turkish as Adalia and then Antalya. Attaleia was also the name of a festival at Delphi[7] and Attalis (Greek: Ἀτταλίς) was the name of an ancient Greek tribe at Athens[8] . Demographics As of the 2009 census. 537. the Pergamum king Attalos II ordered his men to find "heaven on earth". King Attalos rebuilt the city.

with the low-to-mid 30 °C (86 °F) typical.098.157 603. 255 kilometres (158 mi) from Adana. on the Mediterranean Gulf of Antalya.000 28.000 Geography Antalya is in south-west Anatolia.000 36.000 23.507 775. dry summers and moderately warm and rainy winters. .Antalya 92 Population Years 2009 2007 2000 1990 1985 1970 1965 1960 1955 1950 1945 1940 1935 1927 City 1. sea temperature range between 15 °C (59 °F) and 28 °C (82 °F). approximately 244 kilometres (152 mi) from Ankara.000 25. Some parts of the coast feature mountains plunging sharply into the sea.000 17. and 300 kilometres (186 mi) from Istanbul.190 378. forming small natural bays and peninsulas. The Taurus mountain range of southern Anatolia runs parallel to the Mediterranean in an east-west direction.000 72.000 26.139 95. with urban sprawl extending to the Kepezüstü Plain further inland. Antalya is situated on one such plain where the mountains recede from Lower Düden Fall and Lara in the background the shore. air temperature can climb as high as the 40 °C (104 °F) range in July and August. Around 300 days of the year are sunny. resulting in the formation of narrow coastal plains surrounded by mountains on three sides and the sea on the fourth. having a characteristically Mediterranean climate -with hot.208 258. 222 kilometres (138 mi) from Izmir. Climate The area is shielded from the cold northerly winds by the Taurus Mountain range.000 51. The sea breeze and the northeasterly winds help to make high temperatures more bearable. consisting of two flat areas formed of travertine rock at a mean height of 35 metres (115 ft). the town center is located on the rocky plain closest the coast.

the restored historical center of the city -with its hotels.38) (0.6 (46) Year 21.9 (88) 19. The city includes sites with traces of Lycian.7 (62) 7.2 30. and shopping.33) (3. clubs.67) (5.7 (51) Dec 16. New hotels.8 (46) Apr 21. Antalya city .6 2.8 46.82) (1. the main square of the city.Antalya Climate data for Antalya Month Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Avg.15) (6.4 (60) 6. on occasion features temporary open air exhibitions and performances. is the old center of Antalya.2 (70) 10.7 (93) 22.4 (80) 15.2 (70) 11. cotton. Cumhuriyet Square.0 (59) Nov 21. Kaleiçi.3 1055.6 (0.9 263.7 96. bars. with some light industry.09) 13 11 9 6 5 3 1 [9] 12. its restoration won the Golden Apple Tourism Prize. Seljuk and Ottomanarchitecture and cultures.3 67. olives.4 (72) Aug 33.5 (56) 232. such as the Sheraton.1 (66) Oct 26. stand along the coast above the Konyaalti and Lara beaches.retains much of its historical character.9 (71) 13.[10] The Roman era clock tower and the 18th century Tekeli Mehmet Paşa Mosque in the city center Tourism Kaleiçi.1) 1 Sep 30.2 (43) Mar 17.9 (59) 5. and Hellenistic -but mainly Roman.0 (59) Jun 30. and bars. gift shops. precipitation days Jan 14. agriculture.7 131.2 (9.5 (0.37) (41. and commerce.8 (93) 22. with its narrow cobbled streets of historic Turkish and Greek houses.1 (52) May 25.4 160. Antalya Metropolitan Municipality’s covered wholesale food market complex meets 65% of the fresh fruit and vegetable demand of Turkey.3 (72) 2. Agricultural production includes citrus fruits.56) 2 6 8 12 77 Source: World Weather Information Service 2009-01-01 Economy The economy of Antalya depends on a mixture of tourism.4 (78) 15.7 (64) 7. restaurants.now mainly hotels.4 (67) Jul 33. Pamphylian.0 9. Byzantine.18) (0. cut flowers.9 (43) 93 Feb 15.81) (1.48) (2.19) (10. olive oil and bananas.5 (87) 19.

Scene around Kaleiçi. şiş köfte. and various cold Mediterranean dishes with olive oil. churches. Kaleiçi. masjids. walnuts. tandır kebap.Antalya 94 Education There are a total of 12. Hıdırlık Tower. Antalya at dusk. which the city walls enclose. Culture Cuisine Antalya’s signature cuisine includes Piyaz (made with tahini. Lara and Karpuzkaldıran. boiled seeds of the lupin. For winter sports. hans and hamams in the city. Historic Sites in the city center • Kaleici: the historical center of the city.000 students. • Ancient monuments include the City Walls. and the Clock Tower. One local speciality is tirmis. • Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival: Turkey's largest national film festival. the symbol of the city. eaten as a snack. Lara district of Antalya. Beydağları and Saklikent are both natural beauties of the city. the harbor. . şakşuka. is the oldest part of the city. last week of September • International Eurasia Film Festival: International film festival held annually • Antalya Festival: September • Mediterranean International Music Festival: October. Akdeniz University is located here. and boiled beans). garlic. domates civesi. Festivals and events • A number of sports championships including motor rallies.000 teachers serving 275. "Grida" (also known as Lagos or Mediterrenean white grouper) is a fish common in local dishes. Kaleiçi features many historic houses with traditional Turkish and local Greek architecture. There are a large number of mosques. 6 days • Antalya International Folk Music and Dance Festival Competition: Last week of August • Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival: June and July • Flower festival May The Yivli Minare. Hadrian's Gate (also known as Triple Gate). Main sights Antalya has beaches including Konyaaltı. spicy hibeş with mixed cumin and tahini. • Hadrian's Gate: constructed in the 2nd century by the Romans in honour of the Emperor Hadrian. madrasahs.

in late 2007. there is a network of Dolmuşes (municipal minibuses). Murat Paşa. this minaret eventually became the symbol of the city. Sea routes are still under development. The city has a main port at the south of the Konyaaltı. A local bus system serving the greater municipality is operated by a private corporation. • Kaleiçi Museum[11] : Opened in 2007 by the Mediterranean Civilizations Research Center (Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Araştırma Merkezi) see also their annual journal [12]. In addition. The card system met with criticism and was subsequently canceled in June 2009. In 2007. • Karatay Medresesi. Ahi Yusuf Mescidi. Seyh Sinan Efendi.Antalya • Kesik Minare (Broken Minaret): Once a Byzantine Panaglia church. the airport added a new terminal. Antkart. Rail . Tekeli Mehmet Paşa. 95 Museums • Antalya Museum: Prize winning archaeology museum. and the Iskele. returning to a cash system. later converted into a mosque. and Osman Efendi Mosques are other Islamic buildings in the city. Buses Kenan Evren Caddesi (mosltly called "Konyaaltı Caddesi" by People) with tramline. It is planning to launch local routes to Kemer. • Yivli Minare (Fluted Minaret): Built by Seljuks and decorated with dark blue and turquoise tiles. Musellim. Sites of interest • • • • Karpuzkaldıran Tünek Hill Karaalioglu Park Arapsu Bridge Transportation Main transportation to the city is by air and land. Payment for public transportation was made in cash until the launch of a public transportation card. Balibey.

Antalya 96 A rail connection is in the planning stages since the late Ottoman period. a 11.[14] [15] International relations Twin towns — Sister cities Antalya is twinned with: • • • • • • • • Bat Yam. Transit Map shows the rail projects of the city In December 2009. Germany Muskegon. Michigan. Karaalioglu Park. Airports In 2007.9 mi) light rail line Antray was opened from one of the main city public bus hub northwest to the Zoo and beyond to suburban areas. Russia Nuremberg. Trams depart on the hour and half-hour from the terminal (east and west). Antalya Airport's number of passengers on international flights surpassed the total number at Istanbul Ataturk Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport for the first time. along the main boulevard to the city center at Kalekapisi. and reach Kalekapisi between 10 and 15 minutes later. Russia Taldykorgan. Russia Famagusta. Kazakhstan . United States Rostov-Na-Donu.[13] The tram system runs from Antalya Museum and the Sheraton Voyager and Falez hotels. officially earning the title of "the capital of Turkish tourism". Israel Cheboksary. Major routes The infrastructure such as roads and drains are struggling to catch up with the increase in population and tourists.1 kilometres (6. Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Kazan. and ending at Talya Oteli. Hadrian's Gate.

04. Retrieved 2008-08-25. External links • • • • Antalya travel guide from Wikitravel WikiSatellite view of Antalya [16]." [6] s:EB1911:Adalia [7] Ἀττάλεια (http:/ / www. akmedadalya. Paul (1998-09-05). bel. antalya. Knopf. antalya. [2] http:/ / www. Vahide (2007-09-17). edu/ halsall/ sbook. bel. php?id=10777). writer • Yağmur Sarıgül. [11] Kaleiçi Museum (http:/ / www. php [13] "New Ankara train station to upstage Ankamall" (http:/ / www. football player • Coşkun Göğen. tr/ en/ bel_kurumsal/ yetki_alani_haritasi. . . A Greek-English Lexicon. . Byzantium: The Decline and Fall. . . kaleicimuzesi. 1996) p. "Türkiye uçtu. composer of maNga Sunset at Antalya. html). actor • Tarık Akıltopu. historian. football player • Cafercan Aksu. antalya-bld. Henry George Liddell. World Weather Information Service. Robert Scott. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. [10] "Covered Wholesale Food Market" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-08-25. hurriyet. fordham. tufts. John Julius. actor • Onat Kutlar. football player • Sümer Tilmaç. . tr/ arsivnews. "Medieval Sourcebook" (http:/ / www. 2007-09-16. Retrieved 2008-08-25. antalya. football player • Rüştü Reçber. A Greek-English Lexicon. Turkish Meteorology Service Antalya Yacht Harbour [18] References [1] "Yetki Alanı Haritası" (http:/ / www. musician. org/ 014/ c00051. htm). com. Antalya Metropolitan Municipality Official Web Site. musician. tr/ en/ [3] http:/ / www. 0057:entry=*)attalei=on). [5] Halsall. com/ ) [12] http:/ / www. worldweather. perseus. poet. [14] "NUMBER OF PASSENGERS IN ANTALYA'S INTERNATIONAL FLIGHTS HIGHER THAN ISTANBUL" (http:/ / www. leader of Turkish Republican People's Party (CHP) • Deniz Seki. on Perseus project [9] "Weather Information for Antalya" (http:/ / www. [15] Yanik. edu/ hopper/ text?doc=Perseus:text:1999. on Perseus project [8] Ἀτταλίς (http:/ / www. bel. . pop musician • Levent Yüksel. 0057:entry=*)attali/ s).Antalya 97 Notable people from Antalya • Burak Yilmaz. WikiMapia Weather forecast [17]. cfm). Retrieved 2008-08-25. 04. "The lemon is still called Addaliya in Egypt. DHA (Hürriyet). writer • Ozan Tügen. tr/ en/ bel_kurumsal/ mekanlar/ toptanci_hali. film actor • Deniz Baykal. Retrieved 1 January 2009. composer • Michael Attaliates Byzantine lawyer of 11th Century AD. • Musa Uzunlar. Antalya Metropolitan Municipality Official Web Site. turkishdailynews. 2008-01-12. php?enewsid=93340). architect. net/ news_print. . com. aspx?id=7295382) (in Turkish). 68. (New York: Alfred A. Retrieved 2008-08-25. Henry George Liddell. tufts. Referans (Turkish Daily News). dünya rekoru kırdı" (http:/ / arama. Retrieved 2008-08-25. keyboard player of Şebnem Ferah • Özgürcan Özcan. gov. tr/ en [4] Norwhich. 2007. com/ index_en. Robert Scott. perseus. World Bulletin. worldbulletin. cfm) (in Turkish). tr/ article.

Turkey.. meteor.C. Aspendus had become the most important city in Pamphylia. in the 5th century B.Antalya [16] http:/ / www. It was situated on the Eurymedon River about 10 miles (16 km) inland from the Mediterranean Sea. the (originally non-Greek) city was founded around 1000 B. org/ #y=36873304& x=30710735& z=13& l=1& m=a [17] http:/ / web.C. Toward the end of the Roman period the city began a decline that continued throughout Byzantine times. oil. wikimapia. It is located 7 kilometres (4. The Roman [1] theatre in Aspendos In 333 B. it shared a border with. the city surrendered to the Romans. archive.[2] According to later tradition. Asia Minor. and the city derived great wealth from a trade in salt. aspx?secimNo=8 [18] http:/ / www. Side. .C. located about 25 miles (40 km) east of the modern city of Antalya. and wool. org/ web/ 20070909081106/ http:/ / www.3 mi) northeast of central Serik. History Aspendus was an ancient city in Pamphylia.C. com/ 2010/ 05/ antalya-yacht-harbour. The wide range of its coinage throughout the ancient world indicates that. who later pillaged it of its artistic treasures. and was hostile to. turkeygo. html 98 Aspendos Aspendos or Aspendus (Greek Άσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. tr/ 2006/ english/ eng-cities. by Greeks who may have come from Argos. At that time the Eurymedon River was navigable as far as Aspendus. gov. but it ignored its agreements with him and later was occupied. Aspendus paid Alexander the Great a levy to avoid being garrisoned. In 190 B.

the adjective from ΕΣΤϜΕΔΥΣ (Estwedus). The city's numismatic history extends from archaic Greek to late Roman times.[4] In order to keep with Hellenistic traditions. Due to some damage caused by fitting modern theatrical equipment during these events the Turkish authorities have suspended further shows.000. the local name of the city. first staters and later drachmas. who used it as a caravansary. nymphaeum and 15 kilometres (9. the theatre provided seating for 7. It was periodically repaired by the Seljuks. "the hoplite on the obverse represents the soldiery for which Aspendus was famous in antiquity. is also in the vicinity. The 8. agora. Post holes for 58 masts are found in the upper level of the theatre. It began issuing coinage around 500 B. has remained intact. These masts supported a velarium or awning that could be pulled over the audience to provide shade. The high stage served to seemingly isolate the audience from the rest of the world.1 metre (27 ft) sloping reflective wooden ceiling over the stage has been lost over time..[3] Until recently the theatre was still in use for concerts. Coinage Aspendos was one of the earliest cities to mint coins.Aspendos 99 Roman structures Aspendos is known for having the best-preserved theatre of antiquity. and in the 13th century the stage building was converted into a palace by the Seljuqs of Rum. later coinage has ΕΣΤϜΕΔΙΙΥΣ."[5] the reverse frequently depicts a triskelion. The Roman Eurymedon Bridge. With a diametre of 96 metres (315 ft). festivals and events. The scaenae frons or backdrop. Nearby stand the remains of a basilica.C. a small part of the theatre was built so that it leaned against the hill where the Citadel (Acropolis) stood. during the rule of Marcus Aurelius.[6] . while the remainder was built on vaulted arches. A new modern facility known as Aspendos Arena has been constructed nearby to continue the tradition of open air theatre in Aspendos. reconstructed in the 13th century.3 mi) of a Roman aqueduct. The legend appears on early coins as the abbreviation ΕΣ or ΕΣΤϜΕ.[3] The theatre was built in 155[3] by the Greek architect Zenon. a native of the city.

p. turkeyinphotos. Essays in Honor of Oleg Grabar. intro1.a solid single unified structure . lxxii. Turkey/ Aspendos/ index. (1993). msu. edu/ theatre/ theatretour/ aspendos/ introduction/ aspendso. [4] Scott Redford. Leland M. 10. wowturkey. The Art of Rome. with international participation of opera and ballet companies and an audience of about 10. History and Meaning (First ed. turkeyodyssey. p." [2] Barbara Burrell. Vol. anatolia. php?t=14057 [10] http:/ / crydee. com/ photos/ aspendos/ [13] http:/ / www. ISBN 0-8109-0626-0. whitman..php?cat=294 Geographical coordinates: 36°56′20″N 31°10′20″E References [1] Andreae.org: Aspendus [14] • Photos from Aspendos : http://www. com/ forum/ viewtopic. php [12] http:/ / www. be/ Aspendos. p.. html . Dept. php?album=264) [7] http:/ / www.Aspendos 100 Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival The theatre hosts the annual Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival organized by Turkish State Opera and Ballet since 1994. com/ gallery/ thumbnails. 189. [3] Roth. Bernard (1977).com/english/index. Abrams. Boulder. 2004: ISBN 9004125787). The Ancient Theatre Archive. htm [9] http:/ / www. org/ aspendos. 06.differed from the Greek theater. 1897). adiyamanli. pp. "The Seljuqs of Rum and the Antique.000. livius. N. scarcely another surviving theater gives a better impression of just how the Roman theater . html [11] http:/ / maps. [5] A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum (British Museum.cevatzade. Neokoroi: Greek Cities and Roman Emperors (Brill." Muqarnas. ISBN 0-06-430158-3. "The Roman theater survives virtually intact.Greek and Roman coins of Aspendos (http:/ / www. [6] Asia Minor Coins . which was made up of separate structures juxtaposed but each isolated and complete in itself. asiaminorcoins. Theatre specifications and virtual reality tour of theatre [13] • Livius. org/ a/ turkey/ aspendus/ aspendus01. luwo.). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements. com/ city/ maps_of_aspendos. ru/ album/ trips/ 2006. htm [14] http:/ / www. CO: Westview Press. 151. 567. html [8] http:/ / www. sai. of Coins and Medals. New York: H. External links • • • • • • • History of Aspendos [7] Aspendos Guide and Photo Album [8] More photos from Aspendos [9] Aspendos photos folder [10] Maps of Aspendos [11] Plan of the Aspendos Antic Theater [12] The Theatre at Aspendos. (1993).

Two hundred years later. Apollonius was a pupil of Archimedes and wrote a series of eight books describing a family of curves known as conic sections. the Achaemenid Persians defeated the local powers and gained control of the region. under whom Perga's most celebrated ancient inhabitant. . Four great cities eventually rose to prominence in Pamphylia: Perga. Turkish: Perge) was an ancient Greek city in Anatolia and the capital of Pamphylia.190 BC). famous for its temple of Artemis. It was sited inland as a defensive measure in order to avoid the pirate bands that terrorized this stretch of the Mediterranean. History In the twelfth century BC. the mathematician Apollonius (c. Located there is an acropolis dating back to the Bronze Age. there was a large wave of Greek migration from northern Anatolia to the Mediterranean coast. Perga was one of the richest and most beautiful cities in the ancient world. before being gradually abandoned. Today it is a large site of ancient ruins 15 kilometres (9. The citizens of Perga sent out guides to lead his army into the city. Aspendos and Side. and most of the surviving ruins today date from this period. comprising the circle.Perga 101 Perga Perga (Greek: Πέργη Perge. ellipse. Roman rule began in 188 BC. It also is notable for being the home of the renowned ancient Greek mathematician Apollonius of Perga. Perga remained inhabited until Seljuk times. In 546 BC. parabola and hyperbola. Sillyon. lived and worked. Perga itself was founded in around 1000 BC and is nearly 20 km inland. Many settled in the area immediately east of the area of modern-day Antalya. in 333 BC. which came to be known as Pamphylia. meaning "land of all tribes". Alexander's was followed by the diadoch empire of the Seleucids.[1] During the Hellenistic period. the armies of Alexander the Great arrived in Perga during his war of conquest against the Persians.3 mi) east of Antalya on the coastal plain.262 BC – c. After the collapse of the Roman Empire. now in Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

and do not seem to have preached there. a publication now in the public domain. at the Trullan council in 692. at the First Council of Chalcedon (451). the Acts of the Apostles. to Antioch. one of the chief cities of Pamphylia. but recent finds of Pharaonic beer predate the city by far. and signer of the letter from the bishops of the province to Emperor Leo (458).3 mi) to the southwest. Perge remains a Roman Catholic titular metropolitan see in the former Roman province of Pamphylia Secunda. at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553. Callicles at the First Council of Nicæa in 325.[5] The Greek Notitiae episcopatuum mentions the city as metropolis of Pamphylia Secunda until the thirteenth century. Saints Paul and Barnabas came to Perge during their first missionary journey. allegedly discovered by accident. the site is in the modern Turkish village of Murtana on the Suridjik sou. Its ruins include a theatre. Catholic Encyclopedia. as recorded in the biblical book. condemned at the Second Council of Nicæa in 787. John.[2] during their first missionary journey. at the Fourth Council of Constantinople in 869-70. present at the Council of Ancyra (modern Ankara) in 312. at Constantinople (426). Epiphanius at the Second Council of Ephesus (449). New York: Robert Appleton Company. • Perge Guide and Photo Album [8] • Perge photo [9] Geographical coordinates: 36°57′39″N 30°51′12″E This article incorporates text from the entry Perge in Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. Berenianus. 15 kilometres (9.1 kilometres (6. Barnabas. Paul the Apostle and his companion St. Tour guides tell the story that Perga is the birthplace of beer. at the same Council of Nicæa (787). condemned as a Monothelite at the Third Council of Constantinople in 680. and Iconoclast. Le Quien[6] gives 11 bishops: Epidaurus. a temple of Artemis and two churches. Paul to return to Jerusalem. a palæstra. Sisinnius Pastillas about 754. "Perge" [7]. where they "preached the word"[3] before heading for and sailing from Attalia (modern-day Antalya city). Hilarianus. On his return from Pisidia St.[4] it was there that John Mark left St.Perga 102 Remains Perga is today an archaeological site and a major tourist attraction. • This article incorporates text from Easton's Bible Dictionary (1897).). but probably stayed there only a short time. was situated between the Rivers Catarrhactes (Duden sou) and Cestrus (Ak sou). . at the First Council of Constantinople in 536. Constans. Paul preached at Perge. Ancient Perge. a publication now in the public domain. • | (1913). Apergius. formerly in the Ottoman vilayet of Koniah. Ecclesiastical history Another notable historical figure who twice visited Perga was St. Eulogius.9 mi)) from the mouth of the latter. The very famous temple of Artemis was located outside the town. a tributary of the Cestrus. External links  "Perga". 60 stadia (about 11. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. John. 1911.

htm . I. . htm http:/ / www. htm). luwo. anatolia. Retrieved 2006-10-30. com/ gallery/ Middle_East/ Turkey/ Mediterranean/ Antalya/ photo494664. be/ Perge.Perga 103 References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] "Perge" (http:/ / www. trekearth. 1013. Acts 14:24. newadvent. http:/ / www. Oriens christ. com/ gallery/ Middle_East/ Turkey/ Mediterranean/ Antalya/ photo494664. htm http:/ / www.. Acts  14:25 Acts 13:13. Acts 13:13-14 and 14:25. Le Quien. org/ cathen/ 11667a. trekearth.

and Ninóē (Νινόη). the city has therefore been visited and its inscriptions recorded repeatedly in modern times. The most recent. for the goddess see Aphrodite Aphrodisias Ἀφροδισιάς (Geyre) The Temple of Aphrodite Aphrodisias (Greek: Ἀφροδισιάς. Its site is located near the modern village of Geyre.[1] Megálē Pólis (Μεγάλη Πόλις. According to the Byzantine encyclopedic compilation called the Suda. Paul Augustin Gaudin. The city was built near a marble quarry that was extensively exploited in the Hellenistic and Roman periods. and sculpture in marble from Aphrodisias became famous in the Roman world. by a French Aphrodisias railroad engineer. the Aphrodite of Aphrodisias. Aphrodisias was named after Aphrodite.R. a . "City of the Leleges"). the city had held three previous names: Lelégōn Pólis (Λελέγων πόλις. The first formal excavations were undertaken in 1904-5. starting from the early eighteenth century. Smith (at Oxford University). and some representations of the Aphrodite of Aphrodisias also survive from other parts of the Roman world. Many examples of statuary have been unearthed in Aphrodisias.Aphrodisias 104 Aphrodisias This is the article about the town in Caria. Turkey. the Greek goddess of love. before being known as Aphrodisias. who had here her unique cult image. "Great City").R. "City of the Cross") in around 640. many inscriptions could and can be easily read without any excavation.[3] Archaeology As many pieces of monumental quarried stone were reused in the Late Antique city walls. ongoing excavations were begun by Kenan Erim under the aegis of New York University in 1962 and are currently led by Professor Christopher Ratté (at NYU) and Professor R. Aphrodisiás) was a small city in Caria. about 230 km from İzmir. The findings reveal that the lavish building programme in the city's civic center was initiated and largely funded by one Gaius Julius Zoilus.[2] The city was renamed Stauroúpolis (Σταυρούπολις. as far afield as Pax Julia in Lusitania. on the southwest coast of Asia Minor.

[8] Like the Lady of Ephesus. A new Geyre has been built a short distance away. Aphrodisias never fully recovered from the 7th century earthquake. birds and animals entwined in acanthus leaves. the marine Aphrodite. the Aphrodite of Aphrodisias. doubtless was once housed in the Temple of Aphrodite. Part of the town was covered by the modern village of Geyre. identified by Lisa Brody as Gaia and Uranos. Many full-length statues were discovered in the region of the agora. form-disguising tunic. evoke the Goddess's cosmic powers: the Charites. Temple of Aphrodite The Temple of Aphrodite was a focal point of the town. Aphrodite of Aphrodisias The cult image that is particular to Aphrodisias. identified with the Greek Aphrodite. to receive and to give. The Aphrodisian sculptors became renowned and benefited from a plentiful supply of marble close at hand. the "Aphrodite" of Aphrodisia wears a thick. but the character of the building was altered when it became a Christian basilica. rendered in bas-relief. and fell into disrepair. Earth and the Heavens. her forearms stretched forward. some of the cottages were removed in the 20th century to reveal the older city. heads of a married pair (the woman is veiled). 105 Geologic history The site is in an earthquake zone and has suffered a great deal of damage at various times. and trial and unfinished pieces The double tetrapylon. Helios and Selene separated by a pillar. She is adorned with necklaces and wears a mural crown[9] together with a diadem and a wreath of myrtle. . The bands of decoration on the tunic. or monumental gate pointing to a true school are in evidence. in Hellenistic and Roman times. The school of sculpture was very productive.Aphrodisias local who was a slave of Gaius Julius Caesar. by interpretatio graeca. Evidence can be seen of emergency plumbing installed to combat this problem. most frequently decorated with designs consisting of garland and columns. An added complication was that one of the 4th century earthquakes altered the water table. This ensured Octavian Augustus's lasting favor in the form of financial privileges that allowed the city to prosper. he shrewdly directed it to align with Octavian in his power struggle against Mark Antony. Her feet are of necessity close together.[6] She was a distinctive local goddess who became. encasing her as if in a columnar box. Beneath her overtunic she wears a floor-length chiton. the Three Graces that are the closest attendants of Aphrodite. draped with a long veil that frames her face and extends to the ground. and at the base a group of Erotes performing cult rituals. making parts of the town prone to flooding.[10] riding a sea-goat.[7] widely venerated in the Greco-Roman world as Artemis of Ephesus. rather than as Zeus and Hera. are without exception from the late phase of the cult. which gave the local goddess more universal appeal. endowed with prestige and rich rewards for his service. shows that she is related to the Lady of Ephesus. over which this goddess reigns. set free by Octavian. always with four registers of standardized imagery. typical of Anatolian cult images. Her canonical image. Sarcophagi were recovered in various locations. especially in severe tremblors of the 4th and 7th centuries. from contexts where they must have been more civic than ritual. The surviving images.[4] When Zoilus returned as a freedman to his native city.[5] much of their work can be seen around the site and in the museum. Pilasters have been found showing what are described as "peopled scrolls" with figures of people. They are rendered in the naturalistic style common to their culture.

according to a first century inscription on its propylon. venerated as promētōr. "foremother" or "ancestral mother". dated by inscription to the mid-second century. As it stands today. and two inscribed bases placed symmetrically against the exterior facade held statues of Aphrodisian benefactors. recording his achievement in an inscription on the upper molding of the pulpitum (stage). arched windows in the curved outer wall. has collapsed together with its supporting vaults. The available evidence indicates a construction date in the Antonine or early Severan period (late second or early third century AD).[14] This connection between the goddess and the imperial house was also a particularly politic one at the time.the family of Julius Caesar.[12] Sebasteion The Sebasteion[13] . The seating of the upper part. reused. and their immediate successors . Octavian Augustus. but in the fifth century it could be used to describe a hall for lectures. from the earlier phase. Numerous additional cuttings in the surviving seats. with nine rows of marble seats divided into five wedges by radial stairways. are due to some initiative on her part. performances. A system of massive parallel buttresses shows that the building was originally vaulted. perhaps. and various kinds of competitive displays.Aphrodisias 106 Bouleuterion The Bouleuterion (Council House) is centered on the north side of the North Agora. . as the Gens Julia . The plan is an extremely open one. The lower part of the auditorium survives intact. was jointly dedicated. Seating capacity can be estimated at about 1750. The scaenae frons (stage front) was certainly put up at this time. suggest that by this time the building had lost its roof. with numerous entrances at ground level and several stairways giving access to the upper rows of seats. A relief found in the ruins of the south portico represented a personification of the polis making sacrifice to the cult image of Aphrodite of Aphrodisias. as suggested by a number of factional inscriptions carved on the seats. We do not know what stood here before the second century AD. or Augusteum. "To Aphrodite. "Aphrodite represents the cosmic force that integrates imperial power with the power of local elites. who were active at the end of the second The stadium century. The auditorium would have been lighted by a series of tall.claimed divine descent from Venus/Aphrodite. Claudia Antonia Tatiana and her uncle Lucius Antonius Dometinus." a reader of Chariton romance has noted. probably for poles supporting awnings. senators in the early Severan period. Palaestra usually refers to a wrestling ground. and it is possible that the striking similarities between this building and the Bouleuterion on the Civic Agora there. it consists of a semicircular auditorium fronted by a shallow stage structure about 46 m wide. when a municipal official had it adapted as a palaestra. the Divine Augusti and the People". as the style of both sculpture and architectural ornament suggest.[11] Tatiana is known to have had close ties with Ephesus. Statue bases terminating the retaining walls of the auditorium bore the names of two brothers. but it is likely that the present building replaced a smaller one contemporary with the laying out of the Agora in the late first century BC. The orchestra was lowered and provided with a marble pavement. amounting to an additional twelve rows. The Bouleuterion at Aphrodisias remained in this form until the early fifth century.

Late Antique In the Late Antique period the city was renamed Stauropolis 'City of the Cross' sometime before 640. of whom several are classed as 'theosebeis'. in Greek. perhaps. Excavations in Aphrodisias uncovered an important Jewish inscription whose context is unclear. is mentioned by an inscription (Revue des études grecques. 899-904) mentions twenty bishops of this see. Another bishop. Between 1356 and 1361 the see must have been abandoned by the metropolitan.[17] Isaias of Stauropolis attended the Council of Florence (1439) and fled to avoid signing the decree of union. or Godfearers. etc. supporting and perhaps frequenting the synagogue. Upwards of 2000 inscriptions have been recorded by the New York excavators. Theopropios. but there are a handful of texts from all periods from the Hellenistic to Byzantine.[16] Ecclesiastical history Le Quien (Oriens christianus. but the title was long retained and he was given the revenues of other churches. among whom were: • • • • • • Ammonius at the First Council of Nicæa in 325 Eumenius at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 Cyrus at the First Council of Ephesus in 431 Critonianus at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 Severianus at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553 Ephraem of Caria. I. 298). In the seventh century Stauropolis had twenty-eight suffragan bishops and twenty-six at the beginning of the tenth century. The inscription. which is said to be probably the best preserved of its kind in the Mediterranean except. many of them re-used in the city walls. Most inscriptions are from the Imperial period. It measured 262 by 59 m and was used for athletic events until the theatre was badly damaged by a 7th century earthquake. Inscriptions of Aphrodisias The quality of the marble in Aphrodisias has also resulted in an unusually large number of inscribed items surviving in the city. with funerary and honorary texts being particularly well-represented. lists donations made by numerous individuals. Stauropolis remains a Roman Catholic titular metropolitan see of the former Roman province of Caria.Aphrodisias 107 Other buildings and discoveries There are many other notable buildings. requiring part of the stadium to be converted for events previously staged in the theatre. XIX. The geographical spread of the evidence suggests this was a widespread phenomenon in Asia Minor during the Roman period. including the stadium. for the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi.[15] It seems clear through comparative evidence from the inscriptions in the Sardis synagogue and from the New Testament that such Godfearers were probably interested gentiles who attached themselves to the Jewish community. a liturgical poet.[18] .

edu/projects/aphrodisias/ home. 1972. David (1992) The Coinage of Aphrodisias (London: Royal Numismatic Society) • New York University. [22] (Late Antique and Ecclesiastical History) Bibliography • Foss. available: http://pleiades. Summer 1998.. ISBN 1-897747-17-9 • Roueche. Pleiades. C.ac.stoa. whose novel Chaereas and Callirhoe reflects the power structure of Aphrodisias in the first-second century. 'Aphrodisias/Ninoe'. 1986 (New York: Facts on File) • MacDonald.ti. Kenan T. Net Turistik Yayinlar A. a publication now in the public domain. Geographical coordinates: 37°42′32″N 28°43′20″E . • Pleiades • Reynolds. Aphrodisias: City of Venus Aphrodite. Kenan T. Inscriptions of Aphrodisias. "Aphrodisias. Charlotte (2004). June. Christopher.nyu.ac. Aphrodisias Papers: Recent Work on Architecture and Sculpture.htm • Ratté. Humanities Computing. available: http://insaph.. Charlotte Roueché and Gabriel Bodard (2007).. New York University. Aphrodisias Excavations website. "Aphrodisias". "Archaeological Computing at Aphrodisias. available: http://www. Kenan T.kcl. National Geographic Magazine. Joyce. ISBN 975-479-063-9. (2007). Connect. • Erim. (edd. 1990. ISBN 978-1-897747-19-3 • Roueché.. et al. • Godfearers in the City of Love [19] Biblical Archaeology Review • Charles Fellows in Aphrodisia [20] Biblical Archaeology Society • Karacasu • Caria • Aphrodisias [21] Source • This article incorporates text from the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913. Kenan T.Aphrodisias 108 See also • Alexander of Aphrodisias • Chariton.uk/ala2004. Awakened City Of Ancient Art". available: http://www. Aphrodisias in Late Antiquity: The Late Roman and Byzantine Inscriptions. Charlotte.uk/iaph2007.kcl.org/places/ 638753/ • Erim.edu/its/pubs/connect/archives/98summer/ rattearchaeological. Erim. S. revised second edition.html. • Erim.) (1991). Mitchell.nyu. available http:// insaph. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series.S.. Turkey"].

Ninoe. artists began to place a mural crown on images of the goddess Cybele. e. F. kcl. Erim. Tannenbaum. ac. known to Greeks as Aphrodite Pelagia. catholic-hierarchy. who had been represented since Hittite times with a cylindrical polos. asp?PubID=BSBA& Volume=36& Issue=3& ArticleID=2 [20] http:/ / www. info/ english/ [22] http:/ / www.48 (http:/ / insaph. and Jupiter Heliopolitanus of Baalbek. to Romans as Venus Marina.R.R.R. "The Monument of C. Brody. the eponymous founder also of Nineveh. [10] The marine Aphrodite. bib-arch. htm). uk/ ala2004/ inscription/ eAla022.Aphrodisias 109 References [1] For Greeks.. html [19] http:/ / www.3 (Autumn 1994:699-718) p 711. 48) [17] Catholic Encyclopedia. (Cambridge. [7] Lisa Brody notes other images of similar formula: the Artemis of Perge. such a substitution is likely also for the reinterpretation of the Lady of Aphrodisias.cit. "Defining the Web of Power in Asia Minor: The Novelist Chariton and His City Aphrodisias" Journal of the American Academy of Religion 62. [2] See Suda Online s. Cambridge Philological Society Supplementary Volume 12. Ungedruckte . Smith. newadvent. is not elsewhere represented riding the sea-goat. geocities.v. stoa. the elite of Aphrodisias linked their founding to the Assyrian ruler called in Greek Ninus. her upcoming book will present a catalogue of all surviving images. org/ bar/ article.T. Julius Zoilos"‎ Aphrodisias Papers 2 R. [6] This section follows the dissertation by Lisa R. Jews and Godfearers at Aphrodisias. "The Iconography and Cult of the Aphrodite of Aphrodisias" (http:/ / www. Zeus Labraundeus. Erim (eds) 1993. org/ sol-bin/ search. " Archaeology 20. [9] In the third century BCE. Edwards notes in.. html#VI. 1912 full text (http:/ / www. [11] Sculptures of the Bouleuterion. op. Texte der Notitiæ episcopatuum. the error 'Tauropolis' derives from inscription IAph 42 (http:/ / insaph. Revue des études grecques 19:228-30. "Der Verfall des Griechentums in Kleinasien im XIV. the Artemis of Claros.R. 34-7 [18] http:/ / www. [15] Published by J.g. [12] The architecture of the Bouleuterion is examined by Lionel Bier. [4] R. "Stauropolis" The Catholic Encyclopedia. under the direction of Christopher Ratté. citing Waechter. pl?searchstr=nu+ 416) (accessed 25-12-2006). kcl. The name Tauropolis. asp [21] http:/ / www. org/ cathen/ 14283b. htm . uk/ ala2004/ narrative/ sec-VI. org/ diocese/ d3s58.1:107-31. [3] Peter Noelke. K. ac. citing Heinrich Gelzer. "The school of Aphrodisias. (http:/ / www." Aphrodisias Papers 4 [13] Sebastós is the Greek equivalent of Latin Augustus. org/ cathen/ 14283b. "Leleges" denoted an ancient pre-Greek people. aphrodisias. com/ lisa_brody/ diss.1:18-27. 1903. said to have been borne by the town prior to that of Stauropolis. M. Jahrhundert". Leipzig. bib-arch. the Kore of Sardis. is an error of several scholars. "Zwei unbekännte Repliken der Aphrodite von Aphrosias in Köln" Arkäologischer Anzeiger 98. Smith. html): see discussion by Roueché at ALA VI. newadvent. [8] Lisa Brody suggests the refounding of Artemisias as a Greek polis about the second century BCE as a possible context for the recreation in Hellenistic terms of a postulated archaic image. The Artemis of Ephesus also wears a mural crown in Hellenistic-Roman images. "The Bouleuterion at Aphrodisias. org/ e-features/ fellows-in-aphrodisias. Reynolds and R. 1987) [16] Siméon Vailhé. [5] Kenan T. [14] Douglas R. 534. htm).

and motor bikes were allowed to go up and down the slopes. The city contains hot springs and travertines. The water that emerges from the spring is transported 320 metres (1050 ft) to the head of the travertine terraces and deposits calcium carbonate on a section 60 to 70 metres (200 to 230 ft) long covering an expanse of 240 metres (790 ft) to 300 metres (980 ft).Pamukkale 110 Pamukkale Hierapolis-Pamukkale* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Type Criteria Reference Region**  Turkey Mixed iii. 20 km away. As recently as the mid 20th century. causing considerable damage. vii 485 [1] Europe and North America Inscription history Inscription 1988  (12th Session) [70] * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. reaches the surface. carbon dioxide . [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO. When the area was declared a world heritage site. 600 m (1970 ft) wide and 160 m (525 ft) high. In this area. Tourism is and has been a major industry. a sedimentary rock deposited by water from the hot springs. is a natural site in Denizli Province in south-western Turkey. It is located in Turkey's Inner Aegean region. The ancient city of Hierapolis was built on top of the white "castle" which is in total about 2700 metres (8860 ft) long. there are 17 hot water springs in which the temperature ranges from 35 °C Panoramic view of travertine terraces at Pamukkale (95 °F) to 100 °C (212 °F). Wearing shoes in the water is prohibited to protect the deposits. People have bathed in its pools for thousands of years. Pamukkale. When the water. which has a temperate climate for most of the year. meaning "cotton castle" in Turkish. Geology Pamukkale's terraces are made of travertine. An approach road was built from the valley over the terraces. in the River Menderes valley. It can be seen from the hills on the opposite side of the valley in the town of Denizli. hotels were built over the ruins of Heropolis. supersaturated with calcium carbonate. iv. the hotels were demolished and the road removed and replaced with artificial pools. terraces of carbonate minerals left by the flowing water.

Given that the average flow of the water is 465. ambient temperature. From these results it is calculated that 499. Tripolis. Measurements made at the source of the springs find atmospheric levels of 725 mg/l carbon dioxide. Colossae. alongside historical artifacts from Hierapolis.8 mg/l to 376. It is recognized as a World Heritage Sites together with Hierapolis.48 g/cm3 implying a deposit of 29. In addition to these. In this museum. Tadpoles can be found in the pools.[2] The underground volcanic activity which causes the hot springs also forced carbon dioxide into a cave.2 dm3.9 km2 it can be covered with a white deposit of 1 mm thickness. Calcium carbonate is deposited by the water as a soft jelly.9 mg of CaCO3 is deposited on the travertine for every liter of water. Tourist attraction Pamukkale is a tourist attraction. Attuda and other towns of the Lycos (Çürüksu) valley. Hierapolis-Pamukkale was made a World Heritage Site in 1988. but this eventually hardens into travertine. Pisidia and Lydia regions are also on display in this museum. Precipitation continues until the carbon dioxide in the thermal water reaches equilibrium with the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. and calcium carbonate is deposited. including the Mammoth Hot Springs in the USA and Huanglong in Sichuan Province of China (another UNESCO World Heritage Site).[3] . Likewise calcium carbonate falls from 1200 mg/l to 400 mg/l and calcium 576. The museum’s exhibition space consists of three closed areas of the Hierapolis Bath and the open areas in the eastern side which are known to have been used as the library and gymnasium. The artifacts in open exhibition space are mostly marble and stone. A few other places in the world resemble it. which was called the Plutonium meaning place of the god. This means that for a flow rate of 1 ı/s of water 43191 grams are deposited daily. The average density of a travertine is 1. These theoretical calculations indicate that up to. who found ways to appear immune to the suffocating gas. 111 Archeology Museum The former Roman Bath of the ancient city of Hierapolis has been used as the site of the Hierapolis Archaeology Museum since 1984. This cave was used for religious purposes by priests of Cybele. by the time this water flows across the travertines. This reaction is affected by the weather conditions. and the flow duration. The depositing continues until the carbon dioxide in the water balances the carbon dioxide in the air. the museum has a large section devoted to artifacts found at Beycesultan Hüyük that includes some of the most beautiful examples of Bronze Age craft. there are also artifacts from Laodiceia. Artifacts from the Caria. but in practice this areal coverage is difficult to attain. 4.2 l/s this implies that it can whiten 13584 m2 a day.6 mg/l. this figure falls to 145 mg/l.Pamukkale degases from it. Pluto.




Hot springs of Pamukkale

The reflection of the limestone in a hot spring at Pamukkale

The town of Pamukkale, at the foot of the hot springs

A hanging limestone wall at Pamukkale

Limestone wall

Sister cities
The village of Pamukkale has two sister cities: • • Eger in Hungary Las Vegas, United States

Similar places
• Geothermal areas of Yellowstone in the USA • Pink and White Terraces in New Zealand (destroyed in 1886 by volcano eruption) • Hierve el Agua in Mexico

External links
Government Of Denizli Pamukkale official site [4] Pamukkale official site [5] Pamukkale travel guide from Wikitravel Film of Pamukkale - Introduction Films of Turkey - TOURISM Pamukkale Videos [6] Photos of Pamukkale & Hierapolis [7] Pamukkale's 'white heaven' in danger [8] recent newspaper article from Turkish Daily News about the danger threatening Pamukkale • Pamukkale & Hierapolis images [9] • Environmental protection of geothermal waters and travertines at Pamukkale, Turkey [10] • Pamukkale - spherical panorama 360 degree [11] • • • • • • • Photos from Pamukkale [12] Geographical coordinates: 37°55.23′N 29°07.26′E



[1] http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ 485 [2] "Hierapolis-Pamukkale World Heritage Site" (http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ list/ 485). UNESCO World Heritage Centre. . Retrieved 2007-06-23. [3] "Pamukkale Turkey Hotel And Hostel Redesigned" (http:/ / www. prlog. org/ 10165623). PRLog. 2009-01-10. . Retrieved 2009-09-02. [4] http:/ / www. pamukkale. org. tr/ [5] http:/ / www. pamukkale. gov. tr/ [6] http:/ / www. turkey. vg/ common/ icerik. asp?profile=& konu=icerik_goster& icerik_id=1186& baslik=Introduction [7] http:/ / www. lycie. fr/ photos/ egee/ pamukkale/ index. html [8] http:/ / www. turkishdailynews. com. tr/ article. php?enewsid=111846 [9] http:/ / www. picturechoice. org/ aegean/ pamukkale. html [10] http:/ / www. sciencedirect. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6VCN-40J1FV6-9& _user=10& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _sort=d& _docanchor=& view=c& _searchStrId=996146833& _rerunOrigin=google& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=abad7ae9b56334db615ce733fd46ee4c/ [11] http:/ / www. strana360. net/ panorama/ 3476 [12] http:/ / www. cevatzade. com/ english/ index. php?cat=249



UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party Type Criteria Reference Region**


Mixed iii, iv, vii 485

Europe and Asia

Inscription history
Inscription 1988  (12th Session)

* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Hierapolis (Pamukkale)

Hierapolis (Greek: Ἱεράπολις 'holy city') was the ancient Greek city on top of hot springs located in south western Turkey near Denizli. Hierapolis is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The hot springs there have been used as a spa since the 2nd century BCE, and people came to soothe their ailments, with many of them retiring or dying here. The large necropolis is filled with sarcophagi, including the Sarcophagus of Marcus Aurelius Ammianos. The great baths were constructed with huge stone blocks without the use of cement, and consisted of various closed or open sections linked together. There are deep niches in the inner section of the bath, library, gymnasium and other closed or open locations. The complex, which was constructed in the 2nd century BCE, constitutes a good example of vault type architecture. The complex is now an archaeological museum.



Hierapolis is located adjacent to Pamukkale.

For the Geologic history, see Pamukkale#Origin. There are only a few historical facts known about the origin of the city. No traces of the presence of Hittites or Persians have been found. The Phrygians built a temple dedicated to Hieron, probably in the first half of the third century BCE. This temple would later form the centre of Hierapolis. It was already used by the citizens of the nearby town Laodiceia, a city built by Antiochus II Theos in 261-253 BCE. Hierapolis was founded as a thermal spa early in the second century BCE and given by the Romans to Eumenes II, king of Pergamon in 190 BCE. The city was named after the existing temple, or possibly to honour Hiera, wife of Telephos — son of Heracles by a Mysian princess Auge - the mythical founder of the Attalid dynasty. The city was expanded with proceeds from the booty from the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BCE, where Antiochus the Great was defeated by Eumenes II, who had sided with the Romans. Thus Hierapolis became part of the Pergamon kingdom. Hierapolis became a healing centre where doctors used the hot thermal springs as a treatment for their patients. The city began issuing bronze coins in the second century BCE. These coins give the name Hieropolis (town of the temple Hieron). This name eventually changed into Hierapolis (Holy city).[1] In 133 BCE, when Attalus III (the last Attalid king of Pergamon) died, he bequeathed his kingdom to Rome. Hierapolis thus became part of the Roman province of Asia. The Hellenistic city was slowly transformed into a Roman town.

Coin of Eumenes II

In the year 17 CE, during the rule of emperor Tiberius, an earthquake destroyed the city. In 60 CE, during the rule of emperor Nero, an even more severe earthquake left the city completely in ruins. Afterwards the city was rebuilt in Roman style with the financial support of the emperor. It was during this period that the city attained its present form. The theatre was built in 129 CE when the emperor Hadrian visited the town. It was renovated under Septimus Severus (193-211 CE). When emperor Caracalla visited the town in 215 CE he bestowed on the city the much coveted title of Neocoros, according the city certain privileges and the right of sanctuary. This was the golden age of Hierapolis. Thousands of people came to benefit from the medicinal properties of the hot springs. New building projects were started; two Roman baths, a gymnasium, several temples, a main street with a colonnade and a fountain at the hot spring. Hierapolis became one of the most prominent cities in the Roman empire in the fields of the arts, philosophy and trade. The town grew to 100,000 inhabitants and became wealthy. According to the geographer Stephanus of Byzantium, the city was given its name because of the large number of temples it contained (again a sign of wealth). Antiochus the Great had sent 2,000 Jewish families to Lydia and Phrygia from Babylon and Mesopotamia, later joined by Jews from Palestine. A Jewish congregation grew in Hierapolis with their own more or less independent organizations. It is estimated that the Jewish population in the region was as high as 50,000 in 62 BCE.[2] Several sarcophagi in the necropolis attest to their presence.

Hierapolis Through the influence of the Christian apostle Paul, a church was founded here while he was at Ephesus.[3] The Christian apostle Philip spent the last years of his life here.[4] In 80 AD he was martyred by crucifixion and was buried here. His daughters remained active as prophetesses in the region. The Martyrium was built on the spot where Philip was crucified. During his campaign in 370 BCE against the Sassanid king Shapur II the Roman emperor Valens made the last ever imperial visit to the city. During the 4th century CE the Christians filled the Plutonium (a sacred cave, see below) with stones, suggesting that Christianity had become the dominant religion and that earlier religions were suppressed. In 531 CE the Byzantine emperor Justinian raised the bishop of Hierapolis to the rank of metropolitan. The town was made a see of Phrygia Pacatiana.[5] The Roman baths were transformed to a Christian basilica. During the Byzantine period the city continued to flourish and also remained an important centre for Christianity. In the early 7th century CE, the town was devastated by Persian armies and again by a destructive earthquake, from which it took a long time to recover. In the 12th century CE, the area came under the control of the Seljuk sultanate of Konya. In the year 1190 CE crusaders under Frederick Barbarossa fought with the Byzantines and conquered the town. About thirty years later, the town was abandoned and the Seljuks built a castle in the 13th century CE. The city was abandoned in the late 14th century CE. In the year 1534 CE, another earthquake toppled the remains of the ancient city. The ruins were slowly covered with a thick layer of limestone. Hierapolis was first excavated by the German archaeologist Carl Humann (1839–1896) during the months June to July 1887. His excavation notes were published in his 1889 book "Altertümer von Hierapolis".[6] His excavations were rather general and included a number of drilling holes. He would gain fame for his discovery in Pergamon of the Pergamon Altar which was reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. Excavations began in earnest in 1957 when Italian scientists, led by Paolo Verzone, began working on the site. These studies continued into 2008 when a restoration of the site began. For example, large columns along the main street near the gate named after Domitian, that had been toppled by earthquakes, were erected again. A number of houses from the Byzantine period were unearthed, including an eleventh century courtyard house. Many statues and friezes were transported to museums in London, Berlin and Rome. In 1970 the Hierapolis Museum was built on the site of the former Roman baths. After the large white limestone formations of the hot springs became famous again in the 20th century it was turned into a tourist attraction named Cotton Castle (Pamukkale). The ancient city was rediscovered by travelers, but also partially destroyed by hotels that were built there. The new buildings were removed in recent years; however the hot water pool of one hotel was retained, and, for a fee, it is possible to swim amongst ancient stone remains.


The lower part originally had twenty rows. consists of three arches and was built by proconsul Frontinius. Emperor Septimius Severus also had a number of new buildings constructed in Hierapolis in gratitude for the sophist Antipater of Hierapolis. 13.8 ft) wide. The auditorium is segmented into nine aisles by means of eight vertical passageways with steps. each with six statues in niches. Domitian gate Theatre The first theatre was constructed to the northeast above the northern gate. and his two sons. Dionysios and Artemis) and decorative elements have been excavated by the Italian archaeological team and can be seen in the local museum. This triumphal arch. This main street ran from north to south close to a cliff with the travertine terraces. The theatre is now under restoration. The were four entrances (vomitoria) to the theatre. Several statues. when the ancient city was destroyed by earthquake in 17 CE. In 352 CE it underwent a thorough restoration and was adapted for water shows.5 metres (44 ft) wide and was bordered on both sides by an arcade. The side streets were about 3 metres (9. The proscenium consisted of two stories with ornately decorated niches off to the sides. Emperor Septimius Severus is portrayed.000 and is divided in two by a horizontal corridor (diazoma) and featured an imperial box. his private secretary and the tutor of his two sons. the Domitian gate. and the upper part twenty five rows. There is an inscription in the theatre that relates to the emperor Hadrian. Theatre . close to the northern city gate. in a relief on the scene of the god Jupiter. The auditorium (cavea) consists of stacked seating with a capacity of 15. There were alterations during the reign of emperors Hadrian and Septimius Severus. using the remains and the seats of the old theatre. have been excavated from the site. Caracalla and Geta. After the earthquake of 60 CE and during the reign of emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus a new theatre was hollowed out of the slope of the hill further to the east. There is another gate. together with his wife. But only thirty rows altogether have survived. flanked by square towers built of massive blocks of stone. flanked by circular towers. At both ends of the main street there was a monumental gate. who is shown seated on his throne. Julia Domna. flanked by marble columns. reliefs (depicting Apollo. It was about 1500 metres (4900 ft) long. Many reliefs and statues.Hierapolis 117 Significant structures The Hellenistic city was built with streets running parallel or perpendicular to the main street. depicting mythological figures.

The temple stood within a peribolos (15 by 20 metres (49 by 66 ft)) in Doric style. the temple at Delphi[9] When the Christian faith was introduced as the official religion in the fourth century CE. This provided a considerable source of income for the temple. giving rise to the cave of the Plutonium. As the back of the temple was built against the hill. Now only the foundations of the Hellenistic temple remain. The new temple was reconstructed in the 3rd century in Roman fashion. Cassius Dio. and Damascius. so that they could try out how deadly this enclosed area was.Hierapolis 118 Temple of Apollo A temple was raised to Apollo Lairbenos. the peribolos was surrounded on three sides by marble Doric order columns. people thought that the gas was sent by Pluto. Behind the 3 square metres (32 sq ft) roofed chamber is a deep cleft in the rock. crawled over the floor to pockets of oxygen or held their breath. Part of the peribolos was dismantled to make room for a large Nympheum. It has a smaller area. During the early years of the town castrated priests of Cybele descended into the Plutonium.[10] Because people died in the gas. It was covered by a thick layer of suffocating gas. They then came up to show that they were immune to the gas.[12] [13] [14] [15] . but also by recycling the stone blocks from the older temple. a shrine to the god of the underworld. But pagan worship also centered on Cybele.[7] Apollo was linked to the ancient Anatolian sungod Lairbenos and the god of oracles Kareios. The priests sold birds and other animals to the visitors. Pluto and Poseidon. The Plutonium was described by several ancient writers including Strabo. and from which emerges suffocating carbon dioxide gas caused by underground geologic activity. and now only its marble floor remains. as shown by seismological investigations[8] Temples dedicated to Apollo were often built over sites with geological activity. The entrance to the Plutonium was closed off during the Christian times. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air and so tends to settle in hollows. this temple underwent a number of desicartions. killing everyone who dared to enter this area. through which fast flowing hot water passes releasing a sharp smelling gas. such as his most famous temple. just large enough for one person to enter through a fenced entrance. called the Plutonium (in Greek Πλουτωνειον = "the place of Pluto") or Chronion (named after Cronus). during the Hellenistic period (as can be seen on coins from Hierapolis). It is a small cave.[11] An enclosed area of 2000 square metres (22000 sq ft) stood in front of the entrance. god of the underworld. within the sacred area. People believed a miracle had happened and that therefore the priests were infused with superior powers and had divine protection. Visitors could (for a fee) ask questions of the oracle of Pluto. or Charonion (named after Charon). is the oldest local sanctuary. the principal god of Hierapolis. The temple of Apollo has deliberately been built over an active fault passing underneath. Artemis. beyond which stairs go down. Plutonium Next to this temple.

showing the name and profession of the deceased and extolling their good deeds. The Byzantine gate was constructed in the 6th century CE. Circular tumuli. The walls and the niches in the walls were decorated with statues. The Nymphaeum was repaired in the fifth century CE during the Byzantine era. which now on display at the local museum. The retaining wall was built with elements from the peribolos of the Apollonian temple.Hierapolis 119 Nymphaeum The Nymphaeum is located inside the sacred area. underneath which passed canals. Most tombs date from the late Hellenic period. Necropolis . The Italian archaeological team has excavated two statues of priestesses. People who came for medical treatment to Hierapolis in ancient times and the native people of the city buried their dead in tombs of several types according to their traditions and reflecting the social-economic status of the people. 3. Sarcophagi: some raised on a substructure. Many are covered with a double-pitched roof. Most are constructed in marble and are decorated with reliefs and covered with epitaphs. It dates from the second century CE. and the early Christian period. The road had a base covered with stone blocks. The Nymphaeum has a U-shaped plan and sits on the continuation of the main colonnaded road. Most sarcophagi have been plundered. the early Christians cut off the view of the pagan temple. These epitaphs have revealed much information about the population. Most of about the 1200 tombs were constructed with local varieties of limestone. The extent of this necropolis attests again to the importance Hierapolis had in the Antiquity. By doing so. but there are also a considerable number from the Roman period. and passing the Thermae extra muros. The tombs and funeral monuments can be divided into four types: 1. Most of the tombs have been excavated. an extensive necropolis extends for over two kilometers on either side of the old road to Tripolis and Sardis. sometimes hard to discern. others hollowed out in the rocky bottom. in front of the Apollo temple. a monumental fountain distributing water to the houses of the city via an ingenious network of pipes. There are two huge doors which were constructed at the end of the 1st century CE which were left outside the city walls. Necropolis Following the main colonnaded road. The stone pavement columns and The Nymphaeum other architectural remains mark a great part of the colonnaded road which ran through in a north-south direction. These mounds have a narrow passageway leading to a vaulted chamber inside. Simple graves for the common people 2. now under the pool of the Private Administration. The necropolis extends from the northern to the eastern and southern sections of the old city. It has statues and shops around it. Now only the back wall and the two side walls remain. It was a shrine of the nymphs. This necropolis is one of the best preserved in Turkey.

the museum has a large section devoted to artifacts found at Beycesultan Hüyük and which includes some of the most beautiful examples of Bronze Age craft. Since early times there has been confusion about which Philip of Hierapolis was meant. The space between the eight rooms was filled with heptagonal chapels with a triangular apse. In addition to these. This was surrounded with eight rectangular rooms. Four were used as entrances to the church. 3. alongside the historical artifacts which were found in Hierapolis.. It has a central octagonal structure (with a diameter of 20 metres (66 ft)) under a wooden dome which is covered with lead. Philip is said to have been martyred in Hierapolis by being crucified upside-down.[17] This confusion started with a report by Polycrates of Ephesus in his book "Church History" (Hist. The whole structure was surrounded with an arcade with marble columns. It dates from the fifth century CE. III. each accessible via three arches. has been used as the site of the Hierapolis Archaeology Museum since 1984. who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin. Attuda and other towns of the Lycos (Çürüksu) valley. prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7. there are some artifacts from Laodiceia. V. Early traditions say this Philip was martyred by hanging in Phrygia. The Martyrium burned down at the end of the 5th or early 6th century CE. probably executed by an architect of the Byzantine emperor.Hierapolis 4. Museum The Roman Bath. xxxi. the other four as chapels. 21:8-9). one of the biggest buildings of Hierapolis antique city. Tripolis. In this museum. Colossae.[16] or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree. . The dome above the apse was decorated with mosaics. Artifacts which have come from the Caria. a later disciple. eccl. The museum’s exhibition space consists of three closed areas of the Hierapolis Bath and open areas in the eastern side. xxiv. The artifacts in the open exhibition space are mostly marble and stone. which are known to have been used as the library and the gymnasium. 120 Martyrium The St. Martyrium The Martyrium had a special design. sometimes monumental and resembling small temples.. The larger family graves.[17] He is confusingly also called "Philip the Apostle". Philip is buried in the center of the building. Pisidia and Lydia regions are also on display in this museum. 2)[18] On the other hand Philip could designate Philip the Evangelist. Philip Martyrium was named after the Christian apostle Philip and stands on top of the hill outside the northeastern section of the city walls. as attested to by fire marks on the columns. It is said that St. but his grave has not been discovered. All the walls were covered with marble panels..

This room also contains an important sequence of ancient coins arranged in chronological order. Hellenistic.66 m). which was under construction during the Hadrianus period (117-138 AD). The most beautiful examples of baked earth sarcophagi are specific to this area. were inspired by the Hellenistic tradition. The earliest of these coins were minted in the sixth century AD and the display proceeds through the Hellenistic. Dionysus. are multistage friezes in relief. The first Anatolian occurrence of this kind of relief is in the Lycia in the 5th century BC. which are displayed in chronological order include works from many archaeological sites in and around Denizli. libation cups. Small Artifacts Gallery In this room. in Greek style. gemstones (in the from of rings. although executed by the Romans. earrings and so on) and earthenware lamps. in 62 AD after the earthquake of 60 AD. and Hades and sculpted sphinxes. which were found in the excavation conducted by the British Institute of Archaeology include idols. the delights of Dionysos and the coronotion of the Roman Emperor Septimus Severus. Inscriptions describing the coronation of the goddess Hierapolis and decisions of the assembly concerning the theater may be seen. silver and bronze. Apollo. Excavations revealed that a large number of statues had embellished the columns. which is 12 ft high (3. was entered by two vaulted passages (vomitoria). Isis. Pan. The columns on the front row do not have grooves and stood on octagonal bases. decorative works from the theater of Hierapolis. which divided the cavea into two. The diazome. baked earth bowls. decorated with alterne rectilinear and curved segments. gravestones. The wall behind the scene was decorated with three rows of columns one behind another. These works. Sculpted relief reminiscent of Attalos and Eumenes are on display. These works.83 m) wall surrounding the orchestra are particularly impressive. bracelets. The theater. statues. The facade is 300-foot long (92 m) the full extent of which remains standing. Some of the reliefs of the scenery building remain in site but parts of them have been replaced by copies. The Imperial lodge at the middle of cavea and the 6-foot-high (1. Among these artifacts there are statues of Tyche. The representations of local customs on family tombs are particularly interesting. most of which have been restored. 121 Archeology The Theatre The theatre. Demeter and Trion which. was built on a hill slope. which had become fashionable. Leto. probably during the Flavian Period. In the works that are found in the room there are reliefs devoted to the myth of Apollo and Artemis. seals and other stone artifacts. are displayed. . Roman. there are small findings from several civilizations of the last 4. On it is an inscription to Maximilian. pillars and inscriptions. A special importance is given to the findings from Beycesultan Höyük. of the ‘Sidemare’ type. These discoveries are an example of an ancient civilization. In front of these there were 10 marble columns. and it is the finest work to emerge from the ancient towns of Lahdi and Laodicia. One of the most valuable works of art in this room is the sarcophagus belonging to a certain Arhom. was finished in 206 AD during the Severian Period. pedestals. Artemis. necklaces. Asklepios. Selçuk and Ottoman periods with coins of gold. The scene-building. had 5 doors and 6 niches. Theater's Ruins Gallery In this room.000 years. In other parts of the room are displayed objects from the Frigan. Roman and Byzantine period such as glass cups. There are depictions of the abduction of Persephone by Hades. Byzantine. In 352 AD the orchestra was probably transformed into a colimbetra for aquatic shows. In the cavea there are 50 rows of seats divided into 7 parts by 8 intermediate stairways. Behind these columns.Hierapolis Tombs and Statues Gallery This room contains finds from the excavations in Hierepolis and Laodiceia. including sarcophagi.

The original of the work was executed between the first and the relief depicting the aftermath of Apollo’s victory is bordered by Delphinios accompanied by two nymphs. the palm of victory in his hand. Young women with posies of lavender and poppy flowers are following the sacred birth of Artemis while Leto recumbent on a couch prepares to give birth to Apollo. Marsyas holds his arms up. Apollo. because of their supposed origins in Anatolia and their support of the Anatolian side in the Turuva wars.[20] The Struggle between Heracles and Antaeus Antaeus was a giant. Antios joined battle with the Macedonian giants. Hellenistic influence is particularly obvious in the detailed friezes depicting mythological friezes clearly show the influence of the Pergamum school of art (e. Nereid and Harrpy Monuments. Niobe was born in Sipylos (Manisa) where her father was king. the Atlar of the Temple of Athena Polias in Priene and that of the Temple of Artemis in Magnesia. On the architrave of the main entrance the Imperial family attending the coronation of Septimus Severus is shown. Heracles took Antios on his back. According to the myth. Satyr and Menad. These two gods. the disports of Dionysos. bore him to another land and killed him there. gave birth on the island of Delos. pregnant by Zeus and afraid of his wife Hera. However.[20] The Birth of Artemis and Apollo Apollo and Artemis are the children of Leto and Zeus. for wherever he fell he drew strength from his mother earth. and killed all her children. the birth of Apollon and Artemis and the religious ceremonies held in honour of them. Because of her grief.g. Niobe was so proud of having fourteen children that she thought herself superior to Leto. The best 3rd century examples are on the Atlar of Zeus in Pergamum. And so. Leto. Then she married Amphion. son of the sea-god Poseidon and the mother figure Gaia. Opposite the bound Marsyas a skeleton on its knees is sharpening a knife on a large stone. The row of figures look at the bound figure of Marsyas opposite them. and they became friends. According to the myth it was impossible to lay Antios out. She grew up with the goddess Leto. Side and Nysa theaters. they became angry with Niobe. the musical contest between Marsyas and Apollo. drinks to his triumph. in Roman style. which indicates that these are two works that have been made into one. were particularly worshiped in that region. the figures of Marsyas. the king of Thebes.Hierapolis for example the Gölbaşı. The different styles of the friezes suggets that they were carved in a variety of periods by adherents of different artistic traditions. Attendants are on hand to assist with the delivery. his hands tied to a pine tree. When Apollo and Artemis saw that their mother was unhappy because of this. Gaia and rose again.[19] 122 . The decoration of the scene building resembles that of the Perge. In the relief. fights between Gods and giants (Giganthomochi). The god Apollo watches from behind. Niobe then turned to stone. the reliefs of the Zeus Atlar).[20] The Niobe Legend The legend of Niobe is special to Anatolia. During the 4th century BC the form developed to be incorporated into mausolea. the abduction of Persephone by Hades and daily scenes such as the athletic competitions.[19] The Apolle Marsyas Group Originally this work was of the Hellenistic period. Theatre friezes The theatre friezes depict mythological scenes.

[21] On the pediment a waterwheel fed by a mill race is shown powering via a gear train two frame saws cutting rectangular blocks by the way of connecting rods and. the graves made as the 2’nd and the 3’rd.(You see Soros suffix written in Greek which are more than two thousand year old. through mechanical necessity. and home kind graves which has two or more lahids on it.(The grave monuments made for celebrating are for the heroes’ and important persons’ who are believed to become gods after they die. in all directions you can see necropol areas. Tumuluses are reached by going through the way and they are located on east side of foothill. a local miller. 1’st and 2’nd centuries) which are the Tumulus graves. The 3rd century mill is the [21] bonds the top of the burial chamber. You earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod mechanism. shows different types. cranks (see diagram). This event was important because it supposedly led to the creation of seasons. Grave monuments which are completely made of travertine.) A raised relief on the Sarcophagus of a certain Marcus Aurelius Ammianos. These are situated in two sides of the north way. That these tombs belong to rich families is quite prominent. like simple lahids.Hierapolis Hades Abducts Persephone While Persephone was picking a flower.[22] . make its scene affective.) There are so many architectural grave monuments in Hierapolis and they have different architectural techniques. On the North side of the city. are generally surrounded by walls and they have gardens decorated with flowers and trees (especially cypress). These monuments have the same functions with heroon. Bomas is used as symbol which stresses that with the connection of a dead body of a person in high position. The accompanying inscription is in Greek. one goes from Tripolis to Sardes and the other goes in South way from Laodikya to Closae. suddenly Hades emerged from underground in his chariot and abducted her. together with so many travertine lahids. Limestone and marble had been used for the graves. generally in the epigraphs on lahids. depicts the earliest known machine to incorporate a crank and connecting rod. The oldest graves are the ones in the Hellenistic Period (B.C. there is an inscription written in Greek (“bomas” (altar)). These graves’ stone is cut Scheme of the water-driven Roman sawmill. his/her remembrance will be exalted. 123 Necropolis Beyond the city walls and meadow. Northern Necropolis The monuments situated in the large area. reach the grave room with the corridor dramos. depicted on the Sarcophagus of properly limited to the drum cylinder which Marcus Aurelius Ammianos on the north necropolis. Because poor families’ tombs are the ones which are carved into the rock and which are simple. On the sarcophagus that holds the lahid.

on the decorated below with a row of astragali and beads and which. The remains of the superstructure of the Temple of Apollo date from the 3rd century AD while the foundations are late Hellenistic. atherosclerosis.8 and radon value is 1480 pCi/l. Epigraphic marble blocks had been founded which are dated to Young Helenistic Period. attracts attention and its front rebounds home architecture. Cleopatra’s Pool The water in the thermal pool is 36-57 C°. which may be recognised by its marble staircase. lies within a sacred area. marble lahids had been founded. experts in Denizli Museum. attracts attention. And also.Hierapolis Southern Necropolis On the right side. the Antique Pool's water is good for heart diseases. It was said that only the priest of the Great Mother could enter the cave without being overpowered by the noxious underground fumes. Spa water has its inside bicarbonate. by a marble portico which has been only partially excavated. The grave of Tiberius Cladius Talamos. On the North side of the area. Byzantine ramparts. Temple of Apollo The new Temple of Apollo was established above the ancient and holy chasm called Plutonium was the oldest religious centre of the native community. whose name was written in the long epigraph. nervous and physical exhaustion circulatory problems and furthermore when it has been drank it is good for digestive maladies. On the way of Laodikeia and Colossea. An elegant marble portico may be seen. blood pressure. and they found their remedy in those baths. fascinating signs of the earthquake can be seen. on the echinus. This lahids are staying on a stone base. rheumatism. found a grave with long inscriptions. According to research. The structures of the Temple are later. with pilasters bearing fluted Doric semi-columns supporting capitals that are decorated below with a row of astragali and beads and which. 124 Antique Pool Especially in The Roman Empire period. eye and skin diseases. which was surrounded by an enclosure wall (temenos). you can see another grave which are related to Necropolis. While digging. 2430 MG/liter melt metal value. western and northern sides. partly with iron and radioactive combination. nervous disorders. on the grave builds. In those years. Close to it. Hierapolis and its side was exactly a health centre. Large travertine area is completely demolished. of which there are more than 15. The marble portico with Ionic arrangement fell into the spring during the earthquake in the 7th century. the place where Apollo met with Cibele. thousands of people used to come to the baths. The roof that builded with cob brick is covered with tiles. as well as of a Corinthian capital of the first century AD and other architectural fragments lead us to suppose the existence of an earlier temple on the site. carbon dioxide. . at least on its southern. rickets. The Temple. digging works are going on. the water in this spring is suitable for taking shower and drinking cures. sulphate. On the hillside. Today’s Antique Pool was shaped by the earthquake which happened in the 7th century AD. which may be simpler and older than the necropolis. The rectangle and hallow graves. This was a new style in this period. though the presence of two beautiful Ionic capitals in the Museum (see under Museum). The enclosure was in turn surrounded. and inside the grave it is decorated with coloured wall paintings. about 70 metres long. And all this benefits shows why so many health centers had been founded sides the Antique Pool from Roman Empire times on. bear a series of ovolos. pH value is 5.

which crosses the whole settlement. Philip and Andrew alone are mentioned by name in connection with the feeding of the five thousand.D. along with Andrew. flanked by two round towers that recall Hellenistic city Gates such as that of the Pamphilian city of Perge. in carefully squared travertine blocks. when convinced of the path of duty. it would seem. whilst belonging to antique buildings. mentioned fifth in all the lists. exiting a gate at the opposite side. Four large marble brackets with heads of lions. It became an important sanctuary when Christianity was adopted as an official religion. The roof of the cloister which is about 20 metres (66 ft) in diameter is formed by a dome constructed from lead tiles supported on a wooden frame. with elegant arches decorated with a simple cornice moulding. matched by a symmetrical gate to the south of the city. Philippe Martyrion The Martyrion was built at the end of the fourth or at beginning of the fifth century on an area measuring 20 by 20 metres (66 by 66 ft). thoroughly loyal in following it. all agree in presenting Philip as of an inquiring and calculating character. but a figure of some prominence in the Fourth Gospel. North Byzantine Gate The north gate forms part of a fortification system built at Hierapolis in Theodosian times (end of the fourth century AD) and is its monumental entrance. The surviving remains demonstrate that it was flanked by rooms on four sides and by porticos on two sides. The Baths Another set of baths was constructed outside the north gate at the beginning of the 3rd century A. one of the twelve apostles. and of his two aged virgin daughters were in (the Phrygian) Hierapolis.). a third . a disciple of the John the Baptist. They are quti expressive and. St. near Antalya. It is worth admiring the well preserved structure with three openings. this building was converted into a church in the Early Christian Era (c.Hierapolis 125 The Main Street and the gates Frontinus Gate This is the monumental entrance to the Roman city and leads onto the large plateia.D. and Philip is also one of the few interlocutors in John 14. There he is said to have been "of Bethsaida. and at a later date he. but he does not again appear in the New Testament history. it is flanked by two square towers. He is a mere name in the Synoptists.. Accordingly the construction resembles two crosses. the city of Andrew and Peter". carried the request of the inquiring Greeks to the Master. 14m wide. to connect with the road that goes to Laodicea on the Lykos and then Colossae. bishop of Ephesus. A central chapel and octagonal cloister are entered through the surrounding rooms. After the resurrection he was present at the election of Matthias as successor to Judas. vaulted ceilings and that the halls were decorated with marble slabs. and to have received his call to follow Jesus at Bethany. It is apparent that the building had stuccoed. According to Polycrates. owing to the evident confusion that had arisen between him and the evangelist of the same name. as in other nearby cities such as Blaundus. Philip. the graves of Philip "of the twelve apostles".5th century A. of panther and of a Gorgon were found collapsed in front of the gate. implied that he still continued in Jerusalem after the outbreak of the first persecution. it is. were evidently reused as apotropaic elements on the two sides of the gate so as to ward off evil influence. The presence of the Martyrion and the many churches indicate the importance of the city in Cristian history. having previously been. however. Slight though these references are. It was erected in honour of Saint Philip who was killed in Hierapolis. slow to take the initiative. The sides are formed by a mixture of brick arches and wooden roofs. who appears in the book of Acts. in his controversial letter written to Victor of Rome towards the end of the 2nd century. There were eight chapels separated from each other by polygonal rooms. Little reliance can be placed on the traditional accounts of Philip. but. Built of reused material from the demolition of the Agora. Philip was at that time the means of bringing Nathanael to Jesus.

exercised a widespread missionary activity. and that of James the Less 23 October. in the Eastern Church Philip's day is 14 November. According to the Acta Philippi. but also in Hellas the city of the Athenians. Proclus. head downwards. Philip. on 1 May. which describes the progress of the soul through the next world. Colossians (2) note 3. The reasons for setting aside this latter identification.. With this may be compared the testimony of Clement of Alexandria. According to one account he died a natural death. An apocryphal gospel.Hierapolis daughter. with Bartholomew and his own sister Mariamne. etc. James the Less. and in his Apocalypses apocryphae. showing that the church there was dedicated to the memory "of the holy and glorious apostle and theologian Philip. according to another he was hanged or crucified. Since the 6th century Philip has been commemorated in the West. 126 Gallery . where the mention of the daughters prophesying identifies the person meant with the Philip of Acts (cf." A later stage of the tradition regarding Philip appears in various late apocryphal writings which have been edited by Tischendorf in his Acta apostolorum apocrypha. Acts 21:8). bears his name. mentions "four prophetesses. was buried at Ephesus. their relics being deposited in the same church in Rome. who incidentally speaks of "Philip the Apostle" as having begotten children and as having given daughters in marriage. and fresh confirmation of his view was afforded by the discovery of an inscription at Hierapolis. a work belonging at the earliest to the close of the 4th century. along with St. one of the interlocutors in the "Dialogue of Caius". and in Gaul. whose tomb and that of their father are to be seen there". p. a writing of somewhat later date than the letter of Polycrates. in Scythia. 45 seq. preaching not only throughout Asia Minor. "who had lived in the Holy Ghost". On the other hand. the daughters of Philip at Hierapolis in Asia. and for holding that the Philip who lived at Hierapolis was the Apostle are clearly stated by Lightfoot.

Hierapolis 127 .

and Hierapolis) [25] The Theatre at Hierapolis [26] Paul Arthur . ISBN 978-975-807-223-1 • Ritti. gnosis. "A Relief of a Water-powered Stone Saw Mill on a Sarcophagus at Hierapolis and its Implications". jstor. ISBN 975-807-134-3 (online book review [27]) Geographical coordinates: 37°56′N 29°08′E References [1] Kevin M. Berlin: Jahrbuch des kaiserlich deutschen Archäologischen Instituts. padfield. Hierapolis [24] Lycos Valley (Colossae.2-Z& size=LARGE& origin=JSTOR-enlargePage). php3) [14] (http:/ / www. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. 04. tufts. 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-29. Turkey)" (http:/ / www. [7] Coins of Hierapolis (http:/ / www. istanbulhotelsonline. Grewe.2006. "Geophysical investigation of the Temple of Apollo (Hierapolis.−16.Pamukkale & Hierapolis. Richard Stillwell. html) RAMSAY. Istanbul: Ege Yayınları/Zero Prod. . com/ turkey-information/ iho-pamukkale. 9. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. Scientific American. . tufts. com/ birgul/ general/ loadpage. earlychristianwritings. [9] Questioning the Delphic Oracle. Denizli. CO. Istanbul.003. doi:10. Carl. 1895-1897) Humann. atamanhotel. htm).jas. Conrad Cichorius. Ege Yayinlari. 0137& query=head=#98) [12] (http:/ / www. pdf) Colossians 4:13 Early Christian Writings: Papias (http:/ / www.. sciam. pp. "Apollo Lairbenos" (http:/ / links.1016/j. MacDonald. an archaeological guide.02. perseus. Walther Judeich. . 0006:id=hierapolis) [11] Pliny the Elder . August 2003 (http:/ / www. com/ article. Miller (July 1985). Martin. petentour. Bautechnik im antiken und vorantiken Kleinasien. com/ text/ papias. Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia (Oxford. William L. Byzas. Altertümer von Hierapolis. com/ turkey-information/ iho-aquaduct-fontains. com/ acrobat/ history/ laodicea. 429–454. and Franz Winter. org/ sici?sici=0029-5973(198507)32:1<46:AL>2. 1995. com/ gallery/ thumbnails.Naturalis Historia Book II Ch. org/ library/ actphil. Paul (2007). [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Jewish congregation in Hierapolis (http:/ / www. Journal of Roman Archaeology 20: 138–163 External links • • • • • Dr. Eriṣ Turizm Tic Pazarlama. Journal of Archaeological Science 33 (11): 1505–1513. sciencedirect.Hierapolis 128 References • Grewe. (1898). Laodicea. php?album=174) [8] Sergio Negria and Giovanni Leucc (November 2006). perseus. Klaus. in Bachmann. com/ whc-pamukkale. Tullia. asiaminorcoins. Internationale Konferenz 13. Ltd. htm) [16] "Acts of Philip" (http:/ / www. Klaus (2009). php3) [15] (http:/ / www. 0. Oxford: Clarendon Press. cfm?chanID=sa027& articleID=0009BD34-398C-1F0A-97AE80A84189EEDF& pageNumber=3& catID=2) [10] Hierapolis in The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds. 02. html) [13] (http:/ / www. com/ science?_ob=ArticleURL& _udi=B6WH8-4JKYWKN-1& _user=10& _coverDate=11/ 30/ 2006& _rdoc=1& _fmt=& _orig=search& _sort=d& view=c& _acct=C000050221& _version=1& _urlVersion=0& _userid=10& md5=0cc1fca69872fac2b741e671a38a80bd). 95 : OF VENTS IN THE EARTH (http:/ / www. Kessener. Cemil Toksöz . istanbulhotelsonline. Juni 2007 in Istanbul" [23]. . Numen 32 (1): 46–70.Byzantine and Turkish Hierapolis. asp?id=pamukkale. Marian Holland McAllister) (http:/ / www. "Die Reliefdarstellung einer antiken Steinsägemaschine aus Hierapolis in Phrygien und ihre Bedeutung für die Technikgeschichte. 1924.

org/ pdfs/ book_reviews/ 111. philipharland. 139–141 [23] http:/ / www. Grewe & Kessener 2007. htm). Christian Classics Ethereal Library. pamukkale. "Chapter XXXI. ccel. Retrieved 2007-09-29. turizm. iii. freundeskreis-roemerkanal. pp. pdf [24] http:/ / www. web. pamukkale. html [26] http:/ / www. whitman. edu/ theatre/ theatretour/ hierapolis/ introduction/ hierapolis. Historia Ecclesiae. ccel. asp?id=635) [20] (http:/ / www. org/ ccel/ schaff/ npnf201. intro2. gov. net/ cities/ hierapolis/ [25] http:/ / www. html) [21] Ritti. 161 [22] Ritti." (http:/ / www. ajaonline. [18] Polycrates of Ephesus. xxxv. htm [27] http:/ / www. com/ associations/ lycos. 3/ AJA1113Online_14Curta. p. viii. Retrieved 2007-09-29. [19] (http:/ / www. org/ s/ schaff/ encyc/ encyc09/ htm/ ii. Grewe & Kessener 2007.Hierapolis [17] "Philip the Evangelist" (http:/ / www. . xxxi.—The Death of John and Philip. tr/ legends. tr/ EN/ Content. pdf 129 . de/ Text/ BAUTECHNIK%20IM%20ANTIKEN%20UND. html). .

John Chrysostom.[4] The Gospel of John may have been written here. The ruins of Ephesus are a favorite international and local tourist attraction.[1] [2] Ephesus had a population of more than 250. The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614. near present-day Selçuk. Turkey. the empire's capital. it was for many years the second largest city of the Roman Empire. which also made it the second largest city in the world.[2] The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (completed around 550 BCE). Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation. one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.000 in the 1st century BC. The city's importance as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes). . in the Selçuk district of İzmir Province. In the Roman period. Today's archaeological site lies 3 kilometers southwest of the town of Selçuk. partly owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport and via the port of Kuşadası.[3] Emperor Constantine I rebuilt much of the city and erected new public baths.[5] It is also the site of a large gladiators' graveyard. Turkey. Turkish Efes) was an ancient Greek city on the west coast of Asia Minor. ranking behind Rome.Ephesus 130 Ephesus Ephesus (Ἔφεσος) Ancient City of Anatolia (Efes) Library of Celsus Ephesus Ephesus (Efes) Ephesus (Ancient Greek Ἔφεσος. The temple was destroyed in 401 CE by a mob led by St. It was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League during the Classical Greek era. Izmir Province.

the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus. The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus". The city prospered again. who had to leave his country after the death of his father. The mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos. was venerated in the Temple of Artemis. He treated the inhabitants with respect. despite ruling harshly. and as a king he was able Selçuk. Strabo. a Bronze Age-city noted in 14th-century BCE Hittite sources as the land of Ahhiyawa. son of the river god Caystrus[11] before the arrival of the Ionians.[6] [7] Bronze age Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at the Ayasuluk Hill. Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians. King Kadros. Scholars believe that Ephesus was founded on the settlement of Apasa (or Abasa). another city of the Ionian League. the philosopher Heraclitus. three kilometers from the center of antique Ephesus (as attested by excavations at the Seljuk castle during the 1990s). According to the legend. he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality ("A fish and a boar will show you the way"). During his reign the city began to prosper. Later. identified with Artemis. When the Cimmerians had been driven away. producing a number of important historical figures. the poet Kallinos. near Ephesus. Pausanius mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus.[13] His . and the historian Herodotos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos.31. queen of the Amazons. scarcely a trace remains. About 560 BCE Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus. Greek historians such as Pausanias. one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building of the ancient world according to Pausanias (4. Archaic period About 650 BCE. In 1954 a burial ground from the Mycenaean era (1500-1400 BCE) with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St.[8] This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi/Ἀχαιοί (as they were called by Homer) settled in Ahhiyawa during the 14th and 13th centuries BCE. and even became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis. dating from the second century.[10] Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze. to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. [9] Dark ages Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BCE on the Ayasuluk Hill. Ephesus was ruled by a council called the Kuretes. Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with Site of the Temple of Artemis in the town of the remainder. the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. such as the iambic poet Callinus [12] and the satirist Hipponax.8). including the temple of Artemis. Of this structure. He died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene. as was revealed by the excavations at the nearby hoyuk (artificial mounds known as tells) of Arvalya and Cukurici. After a revolt by the people. who razed the city. He was a successful warrior. The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus.Ephesus 131 History Neolithic age The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age (about 6000 BCE). John.

he proposed to finance it and have his name inscribed on the front. Ephesus even had female artists.Ephesus signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple (now on display in the British Museum). Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period. The Ephesians were surprisingly modern in their social relations. the daughter of a painter. Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup (synoikismos) in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis. together with Athens and Sparta. After the Persians defeated Croesus the Ionians offered to make peace. Education was much valued. the Ionian cities entered with Athens and Sparta into the Delian League against the Persians. the Greek cities of Asia Minor were liberated. and Alexander was greeted warmly when he entered Ephesus in triumph. rule over the cities of Ionia was ceded again to Persia. the Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. called the Decelean War. When Alexander saw that the temple of Artemis was not yet finished. In 479 BCE. During the Peloponnesian War. the Ionians. In 356 BCE the temple of Artemis was burned down. enlarging the city. or the Ionian War. Those cities were then ruled by satraps. They allowed strangers to integrate. The pro-Persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death. After Alexander's death in 323 BC. The inhabitants of Ephesus at once set about restoring the temple and even planned a larger and grander one than the original.[14] They were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BCE. 132 Classical period Ephesus continued to prosper. But the inhabitants of Ephesus demurred. Ephesus did not contribute ships but gave financial support by offering the treasure of Apollo to the goddess Athena. protectress of Athens. Historical map of Ephesus. Ephesus in 290 BC came under the rule of one of Alexander's generals. In 478 BCE. the Ephesians participated in the Ionian Revolt against Persian rule in the Battle of Ephesus (498 BCE). As a result. The Ionians refused a peace offer from Cyrus the Great. Through the cult of Artemis. These wars did not much affect daily life in Ephesus. by a lunatic called Herostratus. Later in the same century. the city also became a bastion of women's rights. siding with the Lydians instead. but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire. according to legend. Hellenistic period When Alexander the Great defeated the Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus in 334 BC. Ephesus was first allied to Athens but sided in a later phase. which also had received the support of the Persians. 1888 . The Persians then incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire. but the silting up of the natural harbors as well as the movement of the Kayster River meant that the location never remained the same. In later times. Lysimachus. were able to oust the Persians from the shores of Asia Minor. an event which instigated the Greco-Persian wars. Pliny the Elder mentioned having seen at Ephesus a representation of the goddess Diana by Timarata. with Sparta. But when taxes continued to be raised under Cambyses II and Darius. from Meyers Konversationslexikon. claiming that it was not fitting for one god to build a temple to another.

a general of Mithridates the Great. When his grandson Attalus III died without male children of his own. the resulting marshes caused malaria and many deaths among the inhabitants. for a short time. at the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BCE. Ephesus came back under the Roman rule in 86 BC. the slaughter of 80. and the treasures of the city were systematically plundered. along with five years of back taxes. he made Ephesus instead of Pergamum the capital of proconsular Asia. After the death of Lysimachus the town again was named Ephesus. self-governing. The city felt at once the Roman influence. 133 Roman period Ephesus became subject of the Roman Republic.000 inhabitants in the year 100. Temple of Hadrian. a general of Mithridates. Theater. After the murder of king Antiochus II Theos and his Egyptian wife. But when they saw how badly the people of Chios had been treated by Zenobius. when the king flooded the old city by blocking the sewers.000 Roman citizens in Asia. In 88 BC Ephesus welcome Archelaus. . his last rival. When the Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia Minor. giving the Hellenistic king of Syria and Mesopotamia Seleucus I Nicator an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus. Sulla imposed a huge indemnity. which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time to come.[16] When Augustus became emperor in 27 BC. pharaoh Ptolemy III invaded the Seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the coast of Asia Minor. making it the largest city in Roman Asia and of the day. the favorite wife of Mithridates) and the overseer of Ephesus. When Mithridates was defeated in the First Mithridatic War by the Roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla.[17] Ephesus has been estimated to be in the range of 400. Ephesus entered an era of prosperity. It was second in importance and size only to Rome. king of Pontus. Thus Ephesus became part of the Seleucid Empire. Ephesus came under Egyptian rule between 263-197 BC. Many had lived in Ephesus. After a series of battles. Taxes rose considerably. Ephesus became. Ephesus was at its peak during the first and second century CE. they refused entry to his army.Ephesus As the river Cayster (Grk. when he conquered Asia (the Roman name for western Asia Minor). However. name Κάϋστρος) silted up the harbor. he was defeated by Scipio Asiaticus at the Battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. As a result. After Lysimachus had destroyed the nearby cities of Lebedos and Colophon in 292 BC. the Greek cities were given freedom and several substantial rights. Arsinoe II of Egypt. As the people expected nothing good of him. which covered western Asia Minor. he came in conflict with Rome. It became the seat of the governor. The people of Ephesus were forced to move to a new settlement two kilometers further on.000 to 500. Mithridates took revenge and inflicted terrible punishments. Ephesus came under the rule of the Attalid king of Pergamon Eumenes II (197-133 BC). This led to the Asiatic Vespers.[15] This settlement was called after the king's second wife. or any person who spoke with a Latin accent. Zenobius was invited into the city to visit Philopoemen (the father of Monima. they threw him into prison and murdered him. growing into a metropolis and a major center of commerce. he relocated their inhabitants to the new city. Ephesus revolted after the treacherous death of Agathocles. he left his kingdom to the Roman Republic.

The city had one of the most advanced aqueduct systems in the ancient world.[21] Emperor Flavius Arcadius raised the level of the street between the theatre and the harbour. with multiple aqueducts of various sizes to supply different areas of the city. İsa Bey Mosque. it was ceded to the Aydınoğulları principality that stationed a powerful navy in the harbour of Ayasuluğ (the present-day Selçuk. Even the temple of Artemis was completely forgotten by the local population. The basilica of St. ordered the destruction of the Temple of Artemis. Sackings by the Arabs first in the year 654-655 by caliph Muawiyah I. built at various points while the city was under Roman rule. When the Seljuk Turks conquered Ephesus in 1090. but during later Roman times gladiatorial combats were also held on its stage. next to Ephesus). The importance of the city as a commercial center declined as the harbor was slowly silted up by the river (today. the Library of Celsus. The Byzantines resumed control in 1100 and changed the name of the town to Hagios Theologos. Ephesus was eventually completely abandoned in the 15th century and lost her former glory. Turkish era The town was conquered in 1304 by Sasa Bey. They kept control of the region until 1308. Küçük Menderes) despite repeated dredging during the city's history.Ephesus The city was famed for the Temple of Artemis (Diana). 134 Byzantine era (395-1071) Ephesus remained the most important city of the Byzantine Empire in Asia after Constantinople in the 5th and 6th centuries.000 spectators. The emperor Constantine I rebuilt much of the city and erected a new public bath. and its theatre. Crusaders passing through were surprised that there was only a small village. The region was restored to the Anatolian Turkish Beyliks. which was capable of holding 25. The town was again partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614. which was important for trade.[20] The population of Ephesus also had several major bath complexes. where they had expected a bustling city with a large seaport. John was built during the reign of emperor Justinian I in the sixth century. The loss of its harbor caused Ephesus to lose its access to the Aegean Sea. The town knew again a short period of flourishing during the 14th century under these new Seljuk rulers. Marble sculptures were ground to powder to make lime for plaster. and later in 700 and 716 hastened the decline further. .[18] who had her chief shrine there. In 406 John Chrysostom. caravansaries and Turkish bathhouses (hamam). archbishop of Constantinople. the harbor is 5 kilometers inland). They were incorporated as vassals into the Ottoman Empire for the first time in 1390. Ayasoluk became an important harbour. called Ayasalouk. The ruins of the temples were used as building blocks for new homes. with the first archaeological evidence of a gladiator graveyard found in May 2007. They added important architectural works such as the İsa Bey Mosque. The Central Asian warlord Tamerlane defeated the Ottomans in Anatolia in 1402. from whence the navy organised raids to the surrounding regions. This marked the decline of the city's splendor. an army commander of the Menteşoğulları principality. the region was again incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1425. including 4 major aqueducts.[22] (Today. Nearby Ayasuluğ was renamed Selçuk in 1914. Shortly afterwards. The city and temple were destroyed by the Goths in 263. After a period of unrest. People started leaving the lowland of the city for the surrounding hills.[23] it was a small village.[19] This open-air theater was used initially for drama. and the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I died in captivity.

Only an estimated 15% has been excavated. Designed with an exaggerated entrance — so as to enhance its perceived size. which leads to the silted-up harbor. Two decades later. The Church of Mary close to the harbor of Ephesus was the setting for the Third Ecumenical Council in 431. about 7 km (4 mi) from Selçuk. the façade of which has been carefully reconstructed from all original pieces.[25] one of the chief apostles. It is a popular place of pilgrimage which has been visited by three recent popes. The Library of Celsus. deservedly most happy. mother of Jesus. under emperor Justinian I over the supposed site of the apostle's tomb.[26] Ephesus was one of the seven cities addressed in Revelation (2:1–7). John. Roman Asia was associated with John. Later Paul wrote the Epistle to Ephesians while he was in prison in Rome (around 62 AD). Basilica of St. and the names associated with the ruins are evocative of its former life. . "Ignatius. c 90-100. The theater dominates the view down Harbour Street.000 scrolls. indicating that the church at Ephesus was strong. the church at Ephesus was still important enough to be addressed by a letter written by Bishop Ignatius of Antioch to the Ephesians in the early 2nd century AD. working with the congregation and apparently organizing missionary activity into the hinterlands. where he was imprisoned for a short time). was built ca. House of the Virgin Mary. The church at Ephesus had given their support for Ignatius. but its controversial acts were never approved by the Catholics. that it should be always for an enduring and unchangeable glory" (Letter to the Ephesians). is believed to have been the last home of Mary. in Asia. He wrote between 53 and 57 AD the letter 1 Corinthians from Ephesus (possibly from the "Paul tower" close to the harbour. 125 CE by Gaius Julius Aquila in memory of his father and once held nearly 12. A part of the site. and the Gospel of John might have been written in Ephesus. which resulted in the condemnation of Nestorius. who was taken to Rome for execution. that begins with. Roman Library of Celsus. Main sites Ephesus contains the largest collection of Roman ruins in the eastern Mediterranean. whose livelihood depended on selling the statuettes of Artemis in the Temple of Artemis (Acts 19:23–41). The house of the Virgin Mary.Ephesus 135 Ephesus and Christianity Ephesus was an important center for Early Christianity from the AD 50s. It is now surrounded by Selçuk. It came to be called the Robber Council of Ephesus or Robber Synod of Latrocinium by its opponents.[24] He became embroiled in a dispute with artisans. who is also called Theophorus. A Second Council of Ephesus was held in 449. being blessed in the greatness and fullness of God the Father. From AD 52-54. speculate many historians — the building faces east so that the reading rooms could make best use of the morning light. to the Church which is at Ephesus. was built in the 6th century CE. The ruins that are visible give some idea of the city's original splendor. Paul lived in Ephesus. and predestinated before the beginning of time.

In 1869 he discovered the pavement of the temple. but since further expected discoveries were not made the excavations stopped in 1874. Tomb of John the Apostle at the Basilica of St.[28] The Temple of Hadrian dates from the 2nd century but underwent repairs in the 4th century and has been reerected from the surviving architectural fragments. A number of figures are depicted in the reliefs. when British architect John Turtle Wood. The Temple of Domitian was one of the largest temples on the city. sponsored by the British Museum. It has a concave facade. tells that they were persecuted because of their belief in God and that they slept in a cave near Ephesus for centuries. by Offilius Proculus. Orthodox Christians and Muslims. revealed during an archaeological excavation by the British Museum in the 1870s. the originals being now exhibited in the Selçuk Archaeological Museum. The upper part of the theater was decorated with red granite pillars in the Corinthian style. Archaeology The history of archaeological research in Ephesus stretches back to 1863. The entrances were at both sides of the stage and reached by a few steps. seating about 1. the Theater is believed to be the largest outdoor theater in the ancient world. Some fragments of the frieze (which are insufficient to suggest the form of the original) and other small finds were removed – some to London and some to the Archaeological Museum. The temple and its statue are some of the few remains connected with Domitian. In 1895 German archaeologist Otto Benndorf. The reliefs in the upper sections are casts. including the emperor Theodosius I with his wife and eldest son. Istanbul. The story of the Seven Sleepers. It was erected on a pseudodipteral plan with 8 x 13 columns.[29] The temple was depicted on the reverse of the Turkish 20 million lira banknote of 2001-2005[30] and of the 20 new lira banknote of 2005-2009. Sextilius Pollio. one for commercial and one for state business.[33] [34] Seven sleepers Ephesus is believed to be the city of the Seven Sleepers.500 people.[28] [29] There were two agoras. began to search for the Artemision. is represented only by one inconspicuous column. who constructed the Marnas aqueduct. who are considered saints by Catholics. one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.[32] The Tomb/Fountain of Pollio was erected in 97 CE in honor of C.000 seating capacity. Image of Ephesus on the reverse of the 20 new lira banknote (2005-2008) .[31] Gate of Augustus. It was a small salon for plays and concerts. There were 22 stairs in the theater. John.Ephesus 136 The Temple of Artemis.[29] At an estimated 44. The Odeon was a small roofed theater[27] constructed by Vedius Antonius and his wife around 150 CE.

The Western Shores of Turkey: Discovering the Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts.edu/maps [38]. be/ books?hl=nl& lr=& id=cABi5Pt7FgQC& oi=fnd& pg=PR7& dq=Ephesus+ + "poetess"& ots=T730ospusU& sig=EMrKry8YitSs5MXiO0zHzmVi3s4#PPP1.[35] 137 Notable persons • • • • • Heraclitus Presocratic philosopher Zeuxis (5th century BCE) painter Parrhasius (5th century BCE) painter Agasias (2nd century BCE) Greek sculptors Manuel Philes (c. pp.Cukurici Hoyuk sayi 92 ] Adil Evren 1998 Coskun Özgünel (1996). • whitman. Aedeen (2007). Wien. • online. 1275-1345) Byzantine poet See also • Ionia • Ionian League External links • lib. org/ ap-ark/ appian/ appian_mithridatic_10. • Vienna Ephesos Museum [43].8–9. Richmond Hill.Ephesus financed by a 10. The Theater at Ephesus. Understanding the Bible. [14] Herodotus i. [VIII. .au [39].000 guilder donation made by Austrian Karl Mautner Ritter von Markhof. com/ 7401) Oklahoma Christian University: Ephesus (http:/ / www. 21. Ontario: Firefly Books.1. Description of Greece. com/ smith-bio/ 1133.large Flickr Gallery Geographical coordinates: 37°56′23″N 27°20′27″E References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Quezi: Ephesus (http:/ / quezi. Australia. Muze Kurtrma Kazilari Semineri ] Adil Evren .Cengiz Icten.utexas.. pp.pp 111-133 1997 [Arkeoloji ve Sanat Dergisi . [12] translation by M. • fotopedia.com.. p. West (1999). google. The World Encyclopedia of Archaeology. Publications of the Republic of Turkey.Greek and Roman coins from ancient Ephesos. Map of the eastern half of the Roman Empire. [16] Appian of Alexandria (c. aspx) John Freely. oc. 14. p. Ministry of Culture.M1). • lib. Coinage of Ephesus. 141 [15] Strabo (1923-1932).165). 111.L. Mayfield. ISBN 975-17-2756-1. html). Theater specifications and virtual reality tour of theater. New York: Loeb Classical Library. Harvard University Press. Ephesos Museum . Retrieved 2009-04-20. html). Palo Alto. Map of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) which shows Ephesus in the province of Lydia close to the Aegean Sea. 2:1–7 Harris. 1985. edu/ president/ greece_turkey_tour/ Ephesus. [10] Pausanius (1965). Geography (volume 1-7). Map of the Roman Empire at the end of the second century. • unc. Oxford University Press. [11] "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology" (http:/ / www. ISBN 1554073111. "History of Rome: The Mithridatic Wars §§46-50" (http:/ / www. [13] Cremin. .95-c. Akurgal. 2004.edu/theatre [40]. In 1898 Benndorf founded the Austrian Archaeological Institute which plays a leading role in Ephesus today.edu.mq. . Asia Minor Studien 23. ISBN 0192836781. 148. Retrieved 2007-10-02. Ekrem (2001). ancientlibrary.21.edu/maps [36]. Selected photos of Ephesus. Greek Lyric Poetry (http:/ / books. p. livius. Vienna. "Mykenische Keramik in Anatolien".com [42]. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library. Stephen L. Asia Minor Coins . 7.utexas. The Ancient Theater Archive. Macquarie University. 173. • asiaminorcoins.com [41].2. Ancientlibrary. . p.edu [37]. The Hattian and Hittite Civilizations. resumed excavations.

2007" (http:/ / www. [32] "accessed September 21. New York: Simon and Schuster. [30] Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (http:/ / www. jpg [38] http:/ / www. o/ ephesus.com. php?type=english& f=lovestories). . Austrian Archaeological Institute. BBC News.Twenty Million Turkish Lira . iexplore. Altan Erguvan (1982) Ephesus. bbc. [35] "Ephesos . Gökovalı. Robert (1995). Retrieved 2009-04-20. ephesus. Salkin. "Ephesus". ISBN 975-7559-48-2 [29] Ephesus. . htm). 2005 [25] Durant. Harvard University Press [18] "accessed September 14.uchicago. htm). Community. edu/ awmc/ downloads/ rve_12_1Med. Retrieved 2009-04-20. 2007" (http:/ / lexicorient. International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe. htm [41] http:/ / www. Ysee. com/ en/ Ephesus [43] http:/ / www. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 2009-04-20. ed. Ephesus. 1985. Series (http:/ / www. Will.. Cambridge University Press. utexas. Emission Group . com/ books?id=i6Q8AAAAIAAJ& dq=Ephesus+ after+ antiquity:+ a+ late+ antique. . tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E7/ 20m. Caesar and Christ. Emission Group . co. Ephesus. com/ e. [19] Ring. and Revak publishers. php?album=121 [42] http:/ / www. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Gazetteer/ Places/ Europe/ Turkey/ _Periods/ Greek/ _Texts/ LETGKB/ Ephesus*. html). 2007" (http:/ / www. flickr. . 1972 [26] Harris. . "State Agora. mq. tcmb. home. fotopedia. jpg [37] http:/ / www. p. October 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-20.An Ancient Metropolis: Exploration and History" (http:/ / www. Ticaret Matbaacılık. Biblestudy. [36] http:/ / www. "The Gospels" p.I.us. edu/ maps/ historical/ eastern_roman_empire.24.us. jpg [39] http:/ / online. and Turkish city (http:/ / books. L. ISBN 975-8212-11-7. gov. . Announcement on the Withdrawal of E8 New Turkish Lira Banknotes from Circulation (http:/ / www. html). [24] "Paul. lib. London: Fitzroy Dearborn. edu/ theatre/ theatretour/ ephesus/ ephesus. edu/ maps/ historical/ shepherd/ asia_minor_p20. Retrieved 2009-04-20. Distributed by Rehber Basım Yayın Dağıtım Reklamcılık ve Tic.gr. gov. gov. unc. Retrieved 2009-04-20. oeai. [31] Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey (http:/ / www. [22] Tore Kjeilen (2007-02-20). Banknote Museum: 7. htm). Retrieved 2009-04-20. htm). utexas.7.1. com/ photos/ lineae/ sets/ 72157623272611601/ 138 . A.us. uchicago. Monika (2007-05-02). ysee. "accessed September 24. p. Palo Alto: Mayfield.org. . 266-268 [27] "accessed September 24. com/ gallery/ thumbnails. "accessed September 21. stm). 217. [21] "Christian Persecutions against the Hellenes" (http:/ / www. html). gov. New York: Oxford University Press. Ephesus.. Lexicorient. google. htm). asp?JournalID=7393& EntryID=13307& n=The+ Theater+ and+ The+ Odeum). tcmb. Banknote Museum: 8.+ and+ Turkish+ city). The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church." Cross. 2007" (http:/ / community. Ephesus Turkey" (http:/ / www. [20] Kupper. gr/ index-eng. uk/ 1/ hi/ sci/ tech/ 6614479. ISBN 9781884964022. ephesus. Clive (1979) Ephesus after antiquity: a late antique. tcmb. [28] Keskin. "" (http:/ / news.I. Naci. com/ planning/ journalEntryActivity. . tcmb. tr/ yeni/ mevzuat/ EMISYON/ KARARTEBLIGVEGENELGELER/ duyuruytl-ing. whitman. at/ eng/ ausland/ geschichte. tcmb.Ephesus [17] Strabo . us/ ephesus/ stateagora. Stephen L. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009.edu. asiaminorcoins. [33] Ephesus. . Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library.com. lib. tr/ yeni/ eng/ ). Penelope.+ Byzantine. biblestudy. edu. Retrieved 2009-11-01. Trudy. Retrieved 2009-04-20. htm). Geography (volume 1-7) 14. au/ pub/ ACANSCAE/ [40] http:/ / www. Byzantine. 2007" (http:/ / penelope. [23] Foss. us/ ephesus/ agora. – Retrieved on 20 April 2009. p. org/ biblepic/ picture-of-largest-outdoor-theatre-in-ancient-world.iexplore. tr/ yeni/ eng/ ). Şadan. Series (http:/ / www. gov. St. [34] Ephesus. tr/ yeni/ banknote/ E8/ 18.us.Ş. F. 121. Understanding the Bible.Twenty New Turkish Lira .

blue) along the western sea coast of Turkey.kusadasi.bel. Country Region Province Government - Mayor Area - Total Elevation Population (2000) - Total Time zone - Summer (DST) Postal code Area code(s) Licence plate Website 65764 EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) 09400 256 09 www.9 sq mi) 11 m (36 ft) Mehmet Esat Altungün (CHP)  Turkey Aegean Aydın .Kuşadası 139 Kuşadası Kuşadası —  Town  — Ladies' Beach in Kuşadası Location of Kuşadası district (upper left.tr [1] 264 km2 (101.

Kuşadası. and the mountain of Kaz Dağı behind. An outpost of Ephesus in ancient Ionia known as Pygela (Πύγελα). northern Europe and the Balkans).000 rising to over half a million during the summer when the large resort fills with tourists (from Turkey itself. It is 95 km (59 mi) south of İzmir. In addition to the visitors from overseas there is a substantial community of foreigners resident in the area. Originally seamen and traders the Ionians built a number of settlements on this coast including Neopolis. construction workers. the original Neopolis is thought to have been founded on the nearby point of Yılancı Burnu.[3] becoming Kush-Adasi at the beginning of the 20th century. Since Byzantine times it has been known as Ephesus Neopolis. The Yavansu Fault Line passes near Kuşadası and there have been earthquakes here throughout history. Kuşadası was a minor port frequented by vessels trading along the Aegean coast. Citizens of Kuşadası shorten the name to Ada. the area between the Büyük Menderes and Gediz rivers. plus the hotel staff. holiday villages. In antiquity it was overshadowed by Ephesus until Ephesus' harbor silted up. Scala Nuova. Later settlers include the Aeolians in the 11th century BC and Ionians in the 9th century. Later settlements were probably built on the hillside of Pilavtepe. Her neighbours are Germencik district from northeast. the region's largest metropolitan center. History Antiquity The area has been a centre of art and culture since the earliest times and has been settled by many civilizations since being founded by the Leleges people in 3000 BC. Demographics Kuşadası has a residential population of 50. and 71 km (44 mi) from the provincial seat of Aydın situated inland. 140 Geography The city stands on a bay in the Aegean with the peninsula of Guvercin Ada sticking out into the sea at one end. Kuşadası lies at a distance of 95 km (59 mi) to the south from the region's largest metropolitan center of İzmir. in the district called Andızkulesi today.Kuşadası Kuşadası is a resort town on Turkey's Aegean coast[2] and the center of the seaside district of the same name in Aydın Province. aquaparks. and drivers who are needed to work in the restaurants. bar staff. Aegean Sea from west and Selçuk district from north. Söke one from southeast. beach clubs and hotels servicing all these visitors. rock bars. From the 7th century BC onwards the coast was ruled by Lydians from their capital at Sardis. then from 546 BC the Persians. It is 71 km (44 mi) from the provincial seat of Aydın situated inland. and from 334 BC along with all of Anatolia the coast was conquered by Alexander the . Its primary industry is tourism. Etymology The name comes from 'kuş' (bird) and 'ada' (island) as the peninsula has the shape of a bird's head (as seen from the sea).

Izmir. From then onwards the coastal cities were the centre of the mixed Greek and Anatolian culture called Hellenistic. trade declined in favor of İzmir with the opening of the İzmir-Aydın railway. 141 Rome and Christianity The Roman Empire took possession of the coast in the 2nd century BC and in the early years of Christianity. From the mid 1980s Kuşadası grew again into the centre of mass tourism that we have today.[4] During the Turkish War of Independence Kuşadası was occupied from 1919-1922 first by Italian (till 1921). These were built as housing co-operatives. In 1834 the castle and garrison on the island was rebuilt and expanded.Kuşadası Great. district in Izmir Province until 1954 and become the district of Aydın Province. Until the first holiday apartments were built here in the 1970s Kuşadası was a fruit-growing rural district. British citizen Helen Bennett and the Irish student Tara Whelan. as Kuşadası had no rail connection. Mary (mother of Jesus) and St John the Evangelist both came to live in the area. Denizli and other Turkish cities. three Turkish nationals. The Kuşadası Caravanserai. The Ottomans built the city walls and the caravanserai that still stand today. to the extent that people began to refer to the whole town as Kuşadası (bird island). It was a The Atatürk Statue in Kuşadası. Under the Turkish Republic the Greek population was exchanged for Turkish people as part of the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1922. Venetian and Genoese traders began to work the coast the port was founded (as Scala Nuova "new port"). then by Greek troops. although the spirituality was clearly not ingrained as during the Middle Ages the port was a haven for pirates. Later as Byzantine. becoming the focus of the town. the town was the location of a bomb attack causing five casualties. The Turkish era From 1086 the area came under Turkish control and the Aegean ports became the final destination of caravan routes to the Orient. membership sold to families in Ankara. and the town centre moved from the hillside to the coast. it then grew into a small resort town with holiday flats. Kuşadası was brought into the Ottoman Empire by Mehmet I in 1413. . which in the Christian era became known as "Ania". However this arrangement was overthrown by the Crusades and the coast again came under Byzantine control until 1280 when first the Menteşe and then the Aydınoğlu Anatolian Turkish Beyliks took control. It was eventually captured on September 7 1922. a garrison was placed on the island. However in the 19th century. In 2005.

• Kaleiçi Camii . Places of interest In the town • The city walls . • Kirazli Village . There are bus and taxi services to the nearest airports. It was built in 1618 as a strong-room for the goods of seamen.5 mi) from Kuşadası. towards the open sea. Russian and other languages. including a Guvercin Ada. the peninsula of Kuşadası private beach and cafe with a view back across the bay to the harbour of Kuşadası. and as the port for cruise ship passengers heading to Ephesus. In a controversial deal in 2003 the previously public-owned port was leased to a private company and renovated to attract luxury cruise liners. carpets. Buses connect to various parts of the country. Real estate agents sell holiday flats and villas. There are beaches. in İzmir and Bodrum. and software. The port is linked by a six-lane highway to İzmir's Adnan Menderes Airport There are daily ferry services to the nearby Greek island of Samos. which has become a modern-European looking town.Kuşadası 142 Economy Industry Kuşadası caters to tourists. • The Öküz Mehmet Pasha caravanserai is near the docks.There were once three gates. . The hills behind are built up with big hotels and blocks of holiday flats. German. Kuşadası's bus station (outogar) acts as a transport hub. One remains today. The city is a port of call for cruise ships.the peninsula at the end of the bay. Among all the ice-cream. has a castle and swimming beaches. Transportation Transport around the town is by dolmuş (minibus). The building boom in the late 80s and onwards has been continued into the hinterland of Kuşadası. some of them converted to bars and cafes. • Guvercin Ada . there are bookshops selling books in English. Old houses near the seafront. leather.traditional Turkish koy 12 kilometres (7. arriving by land. These range from the huge Grand Princess to smallers tours. are the remnants of old Kuşadası.the mosque built in 1618 for Grand Vizier Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha. Day trips are available by boat from Kuşadası and Güzelçamlı. There are public beaches at the back of the peninsula.

143 Culture • An annual song contest has been held. begins at the town of Güzelçamlı. USA Gjorče Petrov. on the Davutlar-Güzelçamlı road.9 mi) north. • Several aqua-parks with wave-pools. kusadasi.php?id=0008 Encyclopedia Britannica Eleventh Edition Geographical coordinates: 37°51′36″N 27°15′36″E . There are beaches and beach clubs here. Romania Monterey. Germany Sinaia.near town. Greece Marl.3 kilometres (1.a second peninsula beyond Güvercin Ada. Now open to all. kusadasi. including the bay of Kalamaki. Some walls are visible.artofilo. htm) www. The ruins are in poor condition and their authenticity is disputed. bel. It was once won by Cem Karaca. • Panionium . tr (http:/ / www. Macedonia See also • • • • • Turkish Riviera Blue Cruise Marinas in Turkey Foreign purchases of real estate in Turkey Güzelçamlı References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. 10 kilometres (6. California. net/ info/ aegean.Kuşadası • Yılancı Burnu . Bays and beaches. Once the central meeting place of the Ionian League. Once the refuge of Agamemnon. • Dilek Peninsula National Park.info/filecat/filecat_downloader. • Ladies Beach . Possibly the location of the original settlement of Neopolis. Twin Cities • • • • • Vathy. South of Kuşadası. • Pygale .2 mi)along the Kuşadası-Davutlar road. • Kadıkalesi . Not yet excavated.Venetian/Byzantine castle. Named because it was once segregated for female bathers. white-water slides are located near the town.25 km (16 mi) south of Kuşadası.

05 km (13 square miles). which includes the offshore islands .) Highest mountain: Mt. ΡΟ. 269 meters above sea level.mi. Πάτμος. Profitis Ilias (269 m (883 ft)) Government Greece Periphery: Prefecture: Capital: South Aegean Dodecanese Patmos (city) Statistics Population: Density: Postal code: Area code: License code: 3044 (as of 2001 [1] ) 89 /km² (232 /sq.patmos. PK Website www.gr [2] Patmos (Greek. One of the northernmost islands of the Dodecanese complex. Italian: Patmo) is a small Greek island in the Aegean Sea.mi.Patmos 144 Patmos Patmos Πάτμος Castle of Patmos Geography Coordinates: Island chain: Area: 37°19′N 26°30′E Dodecanese 34.) 855 xx 22470 ΚΧ. The highest point is Profitis Ilias.05 km² (13 sq. The Municipality of Patmos.984 and an area of 34. it has a population of 2.

further mingling with people of Ionian ancestry. During the 3rd century BC. Patmos is seldom mentioned by ancient writers. 145 History The earliest remains of human settlements date to the Middle Bronze Age (ca 2000 BC). John the Apostle on Patmos by Jacopo Vignali. the island's historic center Chora. however. Judging from archaeological finds. Kastelli continued to play an important role on the island throughout the Ancient Greek period (ca 750 BC-323 BC). They consist of pottery shards from Kastelli. possibly around 100 AD. The churches and communities on Patmos are of the Eastern Orthodox tradition.039 km². a number of Early Christian basilicas were erected on Patmos.[5] After the death of John of Patmos. In the Classical period. the only commercial port. Therefore very little can be conjectured about the earliest inhabitants. Other settlements are Grikou and Kampos. The current mayor of Patmos is Grigoris Kamposos. has a total population of 3. John. The book's introduction states that its author.[4] Patmos is also home to the Patmian School. 54). In 1999. in the Hellenistic period.[3] The monastery was founded by Saint Christodulos. Patmos' main communities are Chora (the capital city). Patmos is mentioned in the Christian scriptural Book of Revelation. built ca 300-350 at the location where the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian stands today. and several uninhabited islets. and several monasteries on the island are dedicated to Saint John. 6). was on Patmos when he was given (and recorded) a vision from Jesus. Patmos is a destination for Christian pilgrimage. Marathi (pop. were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. the Patmians prefer to identify themselves as Dorians descending from the families of Argos. and Skala. Earliest Christian tradition identifies this writer as John the Apostle. barely survived Muslim raids from the 6th to the 9th . Among these was a Grand Royal Basilica in honour of Saint John.Patmos of Arkoi (pop. a notable Greek seminary. along with the Monastery of Saint John the Theologian and the Cave of the Apocalypse. the settlement of Patmos acquired the form of an acropolis with an improved defence through a fortification wall and towers. Early Christian life on Patmos. Sparta and Epidaurus.044 (2001 census) and a combined land area of 45. As such. the most important archaeological site so far identified. Visitors can see the cave where John is said to have received his Revelation (the Cave of the Apocalypse).

as well as the permission to build a monastery on the island. the island's original name was "Letois. hence. elicited her brother Apollo's help. About half of the refugees were infants and minors. who cast her light on the ocean. Mythology tells of how Patmos existed as an island at the bottom of the sea. to life. the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos gave Reverend Father Christodoulos the complete authority over the island of Patmos. and the island emerged from the water. Deer-huntress Artemis frequently paid visits to Caria. the Grand Basilica was destroyed. including Mount Latmos. in order to persuade Zeus to allow the island to arise from the sea. During this period. inhabitants from the surrounding areas. about 133 refugees were rescued. Gradually. and Cretan immigrants fleeing the fall of Candia in 1669. when it.[10] . including Patmos.Patmos 146 century. There. The construction of the monastery started in 1101. In 1945. In the 11th century. mostly related to tax-free trade by the monastery as certified by Ottoman imperial documents held in the Library. The Sun dried up the land and brought life to it. when Nazi Germany took over the island. who. Selene finally convinced Artemis. 2008. The Italians remained there until 1943.[6] The birth of Patmos according to Greek mythology According to a legend within the Greek mythology. daughter of Leto. in turn. the mainland across the shore from Patmos. together with the rest of the Dodecanese Islands." after the goddess Artemis.[5] [6] Population was expanded by infusions of Byzantine immigrants fleeing the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. the Italians occupied all the islands of the Dodecanese. in connection with the Turco-Italian War. revealing the sunken island of Patmos. The administration refused them permission to land. In 1912. the nearest municipality. joined the independent Greece. settled on the island and named it "Letois" in honour of Artemis. The beach at Meloi. Eventually they were sent to the island of Leros where they were processed and offered basic humanitarian services. The refugees were taken to Patmos. but it enjoyed certain privileges. local leaders claimed. she used to meet up with the moon goddess Selene. within walking distance of Skala The island was controlled by the Ottoman Empire for many years. Zeus agreed. On the weekend of September 19. the municipality of Patmos refused landing to a group of undocumented refugees from Afghanistan and Iraq. for processing and care. where she had a shrine on Mount Latmos. It was believed that Patmos came into existence thanks to her divine intervention. the Germans left and the island of Patmos remained autonomous until 1948.[8] [9] Local authorities justified their action by contrasting it to alleged practices elsewhere in the EU: "Malta sinks their boats and Italy lets them drown".[7] Illegal immigration In September 2008. Selene was always trying to get Artemis to bring the sunken island to the surface and.

2008-09-23. gr/ index. gr/ index. gr/ 4dcgi/ _w_articles_ell_2_23/ 09/ 2008_285771) (in Greek). UNESCO World Heritage Site "I was in the isle that is called Patmos". Greeka. . 1. . New York NY 2003. | (1913). asp) Legendary folk tales and mythology. Nylou Editorial (http:/ / www. ISBN 074324771X (Stone brings readers into the tiny Greek island world of Patmos) External links • Official website [2] (English) (Greek) Geographical coordinates: 37°19′N 26°33′E References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] http:/ / www. htm) . 1:9 See also • Icaria . webpage: WHC-UNESCO-942 (http:/ / whc. com/ dodecanese/ patmos/ patmos-history. Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2008-11-25. unesco. patmos. Retrieved on 2008-09-04. Simon & Schuster. Arkansas External material Books • Tom Stone: The Summer of My Greek Taverna: A Memoir. 45319.com (http:/ / www. com/ html/ ent/ 319/ ent. kathimerini. org/ en/ list/ 942). asp) Interpress Agency: Refugees Kept At Sea (http:/ / ipsnews. Retrieved on 2008-09-04. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Patmos . . statistics. patmos.Patmos 147 Picture gallery The Port (Skala) of Patmos Island The inner yard Roof Inside the Old Library Agriolivadi bay Cape Yenoupa Entrance to the Apocalypse Complex. Rev.island to the northwest • Patmos.Patmos history. gr/ UNESCO. asp) History.official website (http:/ / www. org/ wiki/ Wikisource:catholic_encyclopedia_(1913)/ patmos). asp?idnews=44017) [10] "Η Πάτμος δεν δέχτηκε τους 133 αλλοδαπούς" (http:/ / news. nylou. greeka. World Heritage Site #942. patmos. Patmos . wikipedia. Retrieved on 2008-09-04. net/ news.official website (http:/ / www. Kathimerini. "Patmos" (http:/ / en. gr http:/ / www.

Ottoman Turkish: ‫ سودر‬Rodos.) Highest mountain: Mount Attavyros (1216 m (3990 ft)) Government Greece Periphery: Prefecture: Capital: South Aegean Dodecanese Rhodes Statistics Population: Density: Postal code: Area code: License code: 117007 (as of 2001 [1] ) 84 /km² (216 /sq.mi. Ladino: Rodi or Rodes) is a Greek island approximately 18 kilometres (11 mi) southwest of Turkey in eastern Aegean Sea. one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The medieval Old Town of the City of Rhodes has been declared a World Heritage Site. Historically.709 resided in the homonymous capital city of the island. Italian: Rodi. Ródos. IPA: [ˈro̞ðo̞s].684 km² (541 sq. It is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population. The major industry is tourism.007[3] of which 53.Rhodes 148 Rhodes Rhodes Ρόδος Palace of the Grand Master in the city of Rhodes Geography Coordinates: Island chain: Area: 36°10′N 28°00′E Dodecanese 1400. Rhodes was famous worldwide for the Colossus of Rhodes. with a population of 117.) 85x xx 2241-2247 ΡΟ Website Rhodes City [1] Dodecanese Prefecture [2] Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος. .mi.

The road network radiates from the city along the east and west coasts. The interior of the island is mountainous. is the island's highest point of elevation. Rhodes is closer to Asia Minor than to the rest of Greece. Kremasti. as well as the site of the ancient and modern commercial harbours. Pefkos. Afantou. and Trianta (Ialysos). IATA code: RHO) is located 14 km (9 mi) to the southwest of the city in Paradisi. In Petaludes Valley (Greek for "Valley of the Butterflies"). Haraki. at 1216 metres (3990 ft). Archangelos. Mount Attavyros. Outside of the city of Rhodes. In terms of flora and fauna. Embona (Attavyros). 79. While the shores are rocky. The city of Rhodes is located at the northern tip of the island. among them Faliraki. vegetables. Lindos.Rhodes 149 Geography The island of Rhodes is shaped like a spearhead.5 mi) long and 38 km (24 mi) wide. the island has arable strips of land where citrus fruit. olives and other crops are grown.7 km (49. . with a total area of approximately 1400 square kilometres (541 sq mi) and a coastline of approximately 220 km (137 mi). wine grapes. the island is dotted with small villages and beach resorts. The island is home to the Rhodian deer. Tourism is the island's primary source of income. The main air gateway (Diagoras International Airport. large numbers of tiger moths gather during the summer months. Paradisi. Koskinou. sparsely Topography of Rhodes inhabited and covered with forests of pine (Pinus brutia) and cypress (Cupressus sempervirens).

Later Greek mythology recalled a Rhodian race called the Telchines. At Kameiros on the northwest coast. although little remains of this culture. He built the city of Heliopolis and taught the Egyptians the science of astrology. but were in turn defeated by forces from Athens in 478 BC. which together with Kos.3 magnitude earthquake causing minor damage to a few old buildings. one of the sons of Helios and Rhode. One woman lost her life when she fell down stairs while trying to flee her home. with the coming of the Dorians. The cities joined the Athenian League. and the cities were named for their three sons. Before archaeology.[6] History Ancient times The island was inhabited in the Neolithic period. When the Peloponnesian War broke out in 431 BC. In the 16th century BC the Minoans came to Rhodes. the island was said to be born of the union of Helios the sun god and the nymph Rhode. travelled to Egypt. Mycenaean Greeks invaded. Diodorus Siculus added that Actis. The rhoda is a pink hibiscus native to the island. where the Colossus of Rhodes may have stood In the second half of the eighth century the sanctuary of Athena received votive gifts that are markers for cultural contacts: small ivories from the Near East and bronze objects from Syria. although it remained a member of the League. Ialyssos and Kameiros. The war lasted until 404 BC. there is another notable contemporaneous sequence of carved ivory figurines. who built the three important cities of Lindos. In the 15th century BC. After the Bronze Age collapse the first renewed outside contacts are with Cyprus. The Persians invaded and overran the island. Notable are the 226 BC earthquake that destroyed the Colossus of Rhodes.[8] Modern bronze deer statues in Mandraki harbor. Rhodes remained largely neutral. Cnidus and Halicarnassus (on the mainland) made up the so-called Dorian Hexapolis.[7] In the 8th century BC the island's settlements started to form. myth stood in for blanks in the historical record/ In Pindar's ode. where the temple was founded in the eighth century. and associated the island of Rhodes with Danaus.Rhodes 150 Earthquakes Rhodes has experienced severe earthquakes. . it was sometimes nicknamed Telchinis. the one on 3 May 1481 which destroyed much of the city of Rhodes. a former Bronze Age site.[5] On 15 July 2008. Phoenician presence on the island at Ialysos is attested in traditions recorded much later by Rhodian historians. Rhodes was struck by a 6.[4] and the one on 26 June 1926. but by this time Rhodes had withdrawn entirely from the conflict and decided to go her own way.

science. In 395. Rhodes formed strong commercial and cultural ties with the Ptolemies in Alexandria. succeeded in dividing the kingdom among themselves. Their rule was also short. Rhodes was occupied by the Muslim forces of Muawiyah I in 672. Antigonus directed his son. Woodcut engraving depicting the Byzantine city of Rhodes by Hartmann Schedel (1493) Medieval period Further information: Siege of Rhodes (1480). At first the state was an important ally of Rome and enjoyed numerous privileges. Siege of Rhodes (1522) . after he defeated the Persians. They built the city of Rhodes. Rhodes became a part of the growing empire of Alexander the Great in 332 BC. then it fell to the Persians in 340 BC. To the great relief of its citizens. In the first century AD. Demetrius created huge siege engines. and was especially noted for its teachers of rhetoric. the Emperor Tiberius spent a brief term of exile on Rhodes. but these were later lost in various machinations of Roman politics. In circa 1090 it was occupied by the Muslim forces of the Seljuk Turks. In 305 BC. not long after the Battle of Manzikert. the statue since called the Colossus of Rhodes. leaving behind a huge store of military equipment. and together formed the Rhodo-Egyptian alliance that controlled trade throughout the Aegean in the 3rd century BC. In 164 BC. and Antigonus. Its school of sculptors developed a rich. dramatic style that can be characterized as "Hellenistic Baroque". Despite this engagement. a new capital on the northern end of the island. its coins circulated nearly everywhere in the Mediterranean. Rhodes signed a treaty with Rome. including a 180 ft (55 m) battering ram and a siege tower named Helepolis that weighed 360000 pounds (163293 kg).[10] Rhodes was recaptured by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Comnenus during the First Crusade. Three: Ptolemy. In 357 BC the island was conquered by the king Mausolus of Caria. Helios. The Acropolis of Lindos Following the death of Alexander his generals vied for control of the kingdom. who formed a school at Rhodes. Seleucus. the observations and works of the astronomers Hipparchus and Geminus. The city developed into a maritime. Cassius eventually invaded the island and sacked the city. he relented and signed a peace agreement. such as Hermagoras and the author of the Rhetorica ad Herennium. The Rhodians sold the equipment and used the money to erect a statue of their sun god. commercial and cultural center. the long Byzantine Empire-period began for Rhodes. literature and rhetoric shared masters with Alexandria: the Ruins of Kameiros Athenian rhetorician Aeschines. to besiege Rhodes in an attempt to break its alliance with Egypt. Apollonius of Rhodes. Demetrius. Its famous schools of philosophy. Its regular plan was superintended by the Athenian architect Hippodamus. It became an educational center for Roman noble families. in 304 BC after only one year. The Peloponnesian War had so weakened the entire Greek culture that it lay open to invasion.Rhodes 151 In 408 BC the cities united to form one territory.[9] Rhodes reached her zenith in the third century. when the eastern half of the Roman empire became gradually more Greek. Saint Paul brought Christianity to people on the island. the rhetorician Dionysios Trax.

. It became the core of their possession of the Isole Italiane dell'Egeo.Rhodes 152 In 1309 the Byzantine era came to an end when the island was occupied by forces of the Knights Hospitaller. The Knights would later move their base of operations to Malta. 1480–1500. but discrimination and bigotry occasionally arose. Under the Ottoman Empire rule. was officially assigned to Italy. Historic map of Rhodes by Piri Reis Modern history The island was populated by ethnic groups from the surrounding nations. Due to the Treaty of Lausanne. including the Palace of the Grand Master. they generally did fairly well. the Jews of Rhodes were falsely accused of ritually murdering a Christian boy. This became known as the Rhodes blood libel. fired 260 lb (118 kg) cannon balls. the island. The island's population thus bypassed many of the events associated with the "exchange of the minorities" between Greece and Turkey. who had Turkish citizenship or were family members of Turkish citizens. concluding with the 1949 Armistice Agreements. however. In 1948. In great measure. the British attempted to get the Italian garrison on Rhodes to change sides. Many of the city's famous monuments. Ultimately. Jordan. the city was rebuilt into a model of the European medieval ideal. The Turkish Consul Selahattin Ülkümen succeeded. Rhodes fell to the large army of Suleiman the Magnificent in December 1522. Mortar of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem (Knights Hospitaller). About 160 of the island's more than 600 Greek Jews survived. the German occupation caused the British failure in the subsequent Dodecanese Campaign. Rhodes was the venue for negotiations between Israel and Egypt. together with the other islands of the Dodecanese. at considerable risk to himself and his family. to send them to extermination camps. In 1949. The strong walls which the Knights had built withstood the attacks of the Sultan of Egypt in 1444. about 200 persons in total. and Syria. which succeeded in occupying the island. Rhodes. This was anticipated by the German Army. In 1912. and of Mehmed II in 1480. in saving 42 Jewish families. In February 1840. Under the rule of the newly named "Knights of Rhodes". Rhodes was united with Greece. long after the rest of the Byzantine empire had been lost. Italy seized Rhodes from the Turks. The island was thereafter a possession of the Ottoman Empire for nearly four centuries. including Jews. The few surviving Knights were permitted to retire to the Kingdom of Sicily. Following the Italian Armistice of 8 September 1943. together with the Dodecanese. On 19 July 1944 the Gestapo rounded up the island’s nearly 2000 Jewish inhabitants. Lebanon. were built during this period.

Administrative divisions The island is divided into 10 municipalities: . the Governor's Palace. the Archeological Museum. TEDKD. The Jewish community of Rhodes[12] goes back to the 1st century AD. so services are not held on a regular basis. a remnant from Ottoman Turkish times. Rhodes has a Muslim minority. Rhodes Old Town (walled medieval city). many of whom are descendants of Italians who remained after the end of the Italian occupation. Historical sites on the island of Rhodes include the Acropolis of Lindos. the castle of Kritinia and St. The Germans deported and killed most of the community during the Holocaust. Kahal Shalom has been renovated with the help of foreign donors but few Jews live year-round in Rhodes today. Kahal Shalom. the Acropolis of Rhodes. This giant bronze statue was documented as once standing at the harbour.Rhodes 153 Archaeology In ancient times. the ruins of the castle of Monolithos. the Jewish community was one-third of the total population.[14] Palace of the (Prince) Grand Master—Rhodes Government Rhodes is the capital of the Dodecanese Prefecture and the most populated island of the South Aegean Region. Catherine Hospice. the Palace of the Grand Masters. ancient Kamiros. the Jews actively defended the walled city against the Turks. established in 1557. There is a significant Roman Catholic[11] minority on the island. It was completed in 280 BC but was destroyed in an earthquake in 224 BC. In 1480. is the oldest synagogue in Greece and still stands in the Jewish quarter of the Old Town of Rhodes. the Temple of Apollo.[15] is responsible for the administration of the island and the prefecture as a whole. ancient Ialysos. Kahal Shalom Synagogue in the Jewish Quarter.[13] In the 1940s. At its peak in the 1920s. Rhodes was home to one of the Seven Wonders of the World—the Colossus of Rhodes. The local association of municipalities and communities of the Dodecanese. Ruins of Apollo Temple at the Acropolis of Rhodes Religion The predominant religion is Greek Orthodox. No trace of the statue remains today. there were about 2000 Jews of various ethnic backgrounds.

133 54. Ag. Fanes Lindos.635 10. Lardos. Charaki. Theologos. Koskinou. Mesanagros.633 12.145 3. Pylona Kremasti. Laerma. Apollona. Malona.107 10. Massari Empona Ialysos Kalythies Soroni Lindos Kremasti Empona. Kolympia. Vati.712 7. Archipoli Archangelos Archangelos. Paradeisi. Kritinia. Salakos. Kalathos. Profylia Towns and villages Rhodes has 43 towns and villages: The castle of Monolithos Panorama of Lindos .251 5. Arnitha. Apolakkia. Platania. Dimylia. Damatria Rhodes City Rhodes City Gennadi Gennadi.Rhodes 154 Municipality Population Seat Municipal Departments Postal code 851 03 851 02 851 09 851 01 851 05 851 06 851 07 851 04 851 00 851 09 Afantou Archangelos Attavyros Ialysos Kallithea Kameiros Lindos Petaloudes Rhodes South Rhodes 6. Pastida.313 Afantou Afantou.779 2. Istrios. Kattavia. Askleipio. Psinthos Soroni.000 4. Lachania. Monolithos. Kalavarda. Sianna. Faliraki. Maritsa. Isidoros Ialysos Kalythies.

861 Ialysos Afantou Kallithea Salakos Kritinia Kattavia 607 606 590 Archangelos Kremasti Koskinou Paradeisi 5.236 1.585 3.091 Archangelos Lindos Monolithos Mesanagros 334 330 Apollona 997 Kamiros Profilia 326 Massari 931 Archangelos Arnitha 310 Fanes Theologos 895 856 Kamiros Petaloudes Sianna Vati 244 188 Archipoli 779 Afantou Agios Isidoros Askleipio 673 South Rhodes .Rhodes 155 Town/Village Population Municipality Town/Village Population Municipality Rhodes City 80.166 Kamiros Lindos Kallithea Platania Kalathos Lachania 383 380 341 Malona Lindos 1.451 Attavyros Apolakkia 415 Soroni Lardos Psinthos 1.000 5.933 5.224 2.646 Archangelos Petaloudes Kallithea Petaloudes Dimylia Kalavarda Pylona Istrios 515 512 504 485 Pastida Maritsa 1.212 1.752 4.766 Petaloudes Petaloudes Damatria Laerma 477 446 Empona 1.096 1.803 1.000 Rhodes Gennadi 655 South Rhodes Kamiros Attavyros South Rhodes Kamiros Kamiros Lindos South Rhodes Petaloudes South Rhodes South Rhodes Kamiros Lindos South Rhodes Attavyros South Rhodes South Rhodes South Rhodes Attavyros South Rhodes Attavyros Ialysos Afantou Kalythies 15.

The most developed sector is service. stockbreeding. . Paradeisi) and the entire west coast (blue-white colored). runs mainly inland north to south and connects Rhodes City with Lindos. Pastida. along with a motorbike. • KTEL: State-owned buses that serve villages and resorts in the east coast (yellow-orange colored). Future roads: • Further widening of E-95 from Faliraki to Lindos. Ialysos.Rhodes 156 Economy The economy is tourist-oriented. but progress has been slow. Small industries process imported raw materials for local retail. Transportation Road network The road network of the island is mostly modern and paved. • Rhodes-Kallithea Province Avenue: Two lane. Airport. runs through the east coast north to south and connects Rhodes City with Faliraki Resort. runs through the west coast north to south and connects Rhodes City with Diagoras Airport and Kamiros. There are four major arteries: • Rhodes-Kamiros Province Avenue: Two lane. Cars and motorbikes Families in Rhodes often own more than one car. with the first part scheduled to start in August 2007. • Tsairi-Airport National Avenue: Four and two lane. Kremasti. • Plans also exist for a new four lane express road connecting Rhodes Town with Diagoras Airport that will reduce congestion on the coastal west avenue • The first phase of construction of the Rhodes City ringway was begun a few years ago. fishery and winery. The island is served by 450 taxis. Bus Bus services are handled by two operators: • RODA: Rhodes City company that also services suburban areas (Faliraki.about 36 km (22 mi) in length. Traffic jams are common particularly in the summer months. Other industry includes agricultural goods production. Maritsa. • Rhodes-Lindos National Avenue (Greek National Road 95): Four and two lane. This is to be four lane with jersey barrier in the middle. runs inland east to west and connects the east coast with the west and the airport.

The ATC tower and part of the terminal of used to be the public airport of the island until 1977. Afantou. Inoperative. The local league includes two divisions with 14 teams. The island is well connected with other major Greek cities and islands as well as with major European capitals and cities via charter flights.C.[16] . 16 km (10 mi) south west of Rhodes City. • Kolona Port: opposite the central port. Nowadays Diagoras Airport serves the Greek Army and is sometimes used for car races. • Water Polo: mostly amateur based. now under development as an alternative port for times when the central port is inaccessible due to weather conditions. • Akandia Port: the new port of the island next to the central port. Two pilot schools offer aviation services (small plane rental. one in the west coast near Kamiros and one in east coast near Lardos. • Tennis: tennis has a long history on the island. compete professionally at the national level. which it hosted in 2007. Several other are planned for Rhodes City Pales De Sports.. near Maritsa village. • Basketball: Colossus BC sponsors professional basketball and has joined the Greek A1 League. • Cycling: for a long period of time Rhodes had the only cycling track in Greece. There is no single indoor pool on the island. • Diagoras International Airport: public airport. Teams compete at the national level. • Sailing: widely developed. serves intra-Dodecanese traffic and large yachts. Diagoras Airport. Sea Rhodes has five ports. • Kalathos Air Strip: served as a landing strip during World War II. Many stadiums are grass covered. • Rhodes competes in the bi-annual Island Games.Rhodes 157 Air Rhodes has three airports but only one is public. Faliraki. for domestic and international traffic. Two indoor courts exist in Rhodes City. offers competition at the international level. and South Rhodes. • Volleyball: local teams only. and one each in Ialysos and Kremasti. being built since 1960s. near the village of Kalathos. third in international passenger volume and fourth in total passenger volume in Greece. • Maritsa Air Force Airfield: closed to public. one of the biggest in Greece. Culture Sports • Football: AS Rodos and Diagoras F. • Rugby: introduced in 2007. Local football leagues (organized at the prefecture level) contain three divisions with more than 50 teams. three of them in Rhodes City. producing Olympics level competitors. It is situated in a rocky shore near the village of Lardos in south east Rhodes. both Rhodes City based teams. • Central Port: located in the city of Rhodes serves domestic and international traffic. At the moment serves cruise ships on peak days. is the main entrance/exit point for both locals and tourists. island hopping). • Kamiros Skala Dock: 30 km (19 mi) south west of the city near Ancient Kamiros ruins serves mainly the island of Halki • Lardos Dock: formerly servicing local industries.

commander of mercenary army International relations Twin towns — Sister cities • Perth. the main characters visit Rhodes to stop the trading of slave labour. and was cited by Hegel and Marx. • Many of the outdoor scenes of The Guns of Navarone (starring Gregory Peck. here perform your jump". . David Niven and Anthony Quinn) and Escape to Athena (starring Roger Moore and Telly Savalas) were filmed on the Island of Rhodes. Western Australia. hic salta!"—"Rhodes is here. an admonition to prove one's idle boasts by deed rather than talk. (2nd century BC) athlete Memnon (380–333 BC).Rhodes 158 Popular culture • In ancient times there was a Roman saying: "Hic Rhodus. Australia Gallery West coast and the town of Ialysos from Filerimos hill Filerimos hill Filerimos The Aghios Archangelos Church in the city of Archangelos. multiple Olympic winner Dinocrates (4th century BC). both Rhodes and the Colossus of Rhodes are featured at the start of the game. philosopher and one of the Seven Sages of Ancient Greece Diagoras of Rhodes (5th century BC). (1st century BC) sculptor • Chares of Lindos (3rd century BC). Notable people • Agesander. The Colossus of Rhodes is a common feature in many games. for example. offering a mythological theory as to how the Colossus was destroyed. • In the PlayStation 2 game God of War II. It comes from an Aesop's fable called "The Boastful Athlete". it can be built as a "Wonder" in Rise of Nations and the Civilization series of games. • In one book of the Roman Mysteries series of children's novels. architect and technical adviser for Alexander the Great Leonidas. sculptor • • • • • Cleobulus of Lindos (6th century BC). boxer. by Caroline Lawrence.



Church in Sianna village, on the west coast

Tsampika beach on the east coast

Kallithea thermes (spa)


Small church in Lindos town

Rhodes town—Old Town gardens

Rhodes town—ancient Olympic stadium

Romanic basilica in Old Town of Rhodes

External links
• City of Rhodes official website [17] • Rhodes travel guide from Wikitravel

[1] http:/ / www. rhodes. gr [2] http:/ / www. nad. gr [3] As of 2001 [4] "Rhodes, Greece, 1481" (http:/ / nisee. berkeley. edu/ elibrary/ Image/ KZ13) Jan Kozak Collection: KZ13, The Earthquake Engineering Online Archive [5] Ambraseys, N. N. and Adams, R. D. (1998) "The Rhodes earthquake of 26 June 1926" Journal of Seismology 2(3): pp. 267–292. [6] "Earthquake's aftermath" (http:/ / www. discover-rhodes. com/ news/ earthquakes-aftermath/ ), Discover Rhodes. Retrieved 16 July 2008. [7] B. d'Agostino, "Funerary customs and society on Rhodes in the Geometric Period: some observations", in E. Herring and I. Lemos, eds. Across Frontiers: Etruscans, Greeks, Phoenicians and Cypriots. Studies in Honour of D. Ridgway and F.R. Serra Ridgway 2006:57-69. [8] "''The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus'', Book V, ch.III" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=agd-eLVNRMMC& printsec=titlepage#PPA336,M1). Books.google.com. . Retrieved 2010-01-24. [9] See Acts 21. [10] Brownworth, Lars (2009) Lost to the West: The Forgotten Byzantine Empire That Rescued Western Civilization, Crown Publishers, ISBN 978-0307407955: ". . . the Muslims captured Ephesus in 1090 and spread out to the Greek islands. Chios, Rhodes, and Lesbos fell in quick succession." p. 233. [11] "Καθολικη Εκκλησια Τησ Ροδου" (http:/ / www. catholicchurchrhodes. com). Catholicchurchrhodes.com. . Retrieved 2009-03-22. [12] See Angel, Marc. The Jews of Rhodes: The History of a Sephardic Community. Sepher-Hermon Press Inc. and The Union of Sephardic Congregations. New York: 1978 (1st ed.), 1980 (2nd ed.), 1998 (3rd ed.). [13] "History of Jewish Greece" (http:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ vjw/ Greece. html). Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-24. [14] "The Virtual Jewish History Tour — Greece" (http:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ vjw/ Greece. html). Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. . Retrieved 2010-01-24. [15] "Municipal Association" (http:/ / www. tedkd. gr). Tedkd.gr. . Retrieved 2010-01-24. [16] International Island Games Association website (http:/ / www. islandgames. net/ cms/ games. html). Retrieved 27Jun08. [17] http:/ / www. rodos. gr



Iraklion Ηράκλειο

The Venetian fortress of Rocca al Mare (1523-1540) guards the inner harbor


Iraklion Coordinates 35°20′N 25°8′E Government Country: Periphery: Prefecture: Mayor: Greece Crete Heraklion Ioannis Kourakis Population statistics (as of 2001 City  - Population: 137711



 - Area:  - Density:

109.026 km2 (42 sq mi) 1263 /km2 (3271 /sq mi) Other

Time zone: Elevation (min-max): Postal: Telephone: Auto:

EET/EEST (UTC+2/3) 0 - 33 m (0 - 108 ft) 70x xx, 71x xx, 720 xx 2810 HK, HP Website www.heraklion-city.gr

Heraklion or Iraklion (Greek: Ηράκλειον Greek pronunciation: [iˈɾaklio̞]; Turkish: Kandiye; Venetian: Candia), is the largest city and capital of Crete. It is also the fourth largest city in Greece. Its name is also spelled Herakleion, a transliteration of the ancient Greek and Katharevousa name, Ἡράκλειον, or Iraklio, among other variants. For centuries it was known as Candia, a Venetian adaptation of the earlier Greek name Χάνδαξ (Chandax, "moat") or Χάνδακας, which in turn came from the Arabic rabḍ al-ḫandaq. The English form Candy, derived from French Candie, meant the city of Candia or all of Crete (as in Twelfth Night 5.1). Under the Ottoman Empire, it was called Kandiye. In the local vernacular, it is often called Κάστρο (Kástro, "castle") and its inhabitants Καστρινοί (Kastrinoí, "castle dwellers"). Heraklion is the capital of Heraklion Prefecture, with an international airport named after the writer Nikos Kazantzakis. The ruins of Knossos, which were excavated and restored by Arthur Evans, are nearby.

Heraklion is close to the ruins of the palace of Knossos, which in Minoan times was the largest centre of population on Crete. Though there is no archaeological evidence of it, Knossos may well have had a port at the site of Heraklion as long ago as 2000 BC.

The present city of Heraklion was founded in 824 AD by the Saracens who had been expelled from Al-Andalus by Emir Al-Hakam I and had taken over the island from the Byzantine Empire. They built a moat around the city for protection, and named the city ‫ ,قدنخلا ضبر‬rabḍ al-ḫandaq ("Castle of the Moat"). The Saracens allowed the port to be used as a safe haven for pirates who operated against Byzantine shipping and raided Byzantine territory around the Aegean.

Byzantine Era
The snake goddess in Heraklion Archaeological

In 961, the Byzantines, under the command of Nikephoros Phokas, Museum later to become Byzantine Emperor, landed in Crete and attacked the city. After a prolonged siege, the city fell. The Saracen inhabitants were slaughtered, the city looted and burned to the ground. Soon rebuilt, the town of Chandax remained under Byzantine control for the next 243 years.



Venetian Era
In 1204, the city was bought by the Republic of Venice as part of a complicated political deal which involved among other things, the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade restoring the deposed Byzantine emperor Isaac II Angelus to his throne. The Venetians improved on the ditch by building enormous fortifications, most of which are still in place, including a giant wall, in places up to 40 m thick, with 7 bastions, and a fortress in the harbour. Chandax was renamed to Candia in Italian and became the seat of the Duke of Candia. As a result, the Venetian administrative district of Crete became known as "Regno di Candia" (Kingdom of Candia). The city retained the name of Candia for centuries and the same name was often used to refer to the whole island of Crete as well. To secure their rule, Venetians began in 1212 to resettle families from Venice on Crete. The coexistence of two different cultures and the influence of Italian Renaissance lead to a flourishing of letters and the arts in Candia and Crete in general, that is today known as the Cretan Renaissance.

Α part of the Venetian arsenals in Heraklion

The Venetian loggia (1626-28) of Heraklion

Ottoman Era
After the Venetians came the Ottoman Empire. During the Cretan War (1645–1669), the Ottomans besieged the city for 24 years, from 1648 to 1669, the longest siege in history. In its final phase, which lasted for 22 months, 70,000 Turks, 38,000 Cretans and slaves and 29,088 of the city's Christian defenders perished.[3] The Ottoman army under an Albanian grand vizier, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha conquered the city in 1669. Under the Ottomans, the city was known officially as Kandiye (again also applied to the whole island of Crete) but informally in Greek as Megalo Kastro (Μεγάλο Κάστρο; "Big Castle"). During the Ottoman period, the harbour silted up, so most shipping shifted to Hania in the west of the island.

The Ottoman Vezir Mosque (1856), built on the site of the Byzantine St Titus, and now the basilica of St Titus



Modern era
In 1898 the autonomous Cretan State was created, under Ottoman suzerainty, with Prince George of Greece as its High Commissioner and under international supervision. During the period of direct occupation of the island by the Great Powers (1898-1908), Candia was part of the British zone. At this time the city was renamed "Heraklion", after the Roman port of Heracleum ("Heracles' city"), whose exact location is unknown. With the rest of Crete, Heraklion was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece in 1913.
An outdoor market in Herakleion

Heraklion is an important shipping port and ferry dock. Travellers can take ferries and boats from Heraklion to a multitude of destinations including Santorini, Ios Island, Paros, Mykonos, and Rhodes. There are also several daily ferries to Piraeus, the port of Athens on mainland Greece.

Heraklion International Airport, or Nikos Kazantzakis Airport is located about 5 km east of the city. The airport is named after The port Herkalion native Nikos Kazantzakis, a Greek writer and philosopher. It is the second busiest airport of Greece, mostly due to the fact that Crete is a major destination for tourists during summer. There are regular domestic flights to and from Athens, Thessaloniki and Rhodes with Aegean Airlines and Olympic Air. Also flying to and from Athens is Athens Airways, whereas Cyprus Airways and Aegean Airlines fly to Larnaca, Cyprus. Furthermore, Sky Express operates direct flights to Aegean islands such as Rhodes, Santorini, Samos, Kos, Mytilini and Ikaria. During the summer period, traffic is intense and the flight destinations are from all over Europe (mostly Germany, UK, Italy and Russia). The airfield is shared with the 126 Combat Group of the Hellenic Air Force. Take-offs in a westerly direction pass directly over the town of Heraklion, making it a very noisy city.

0 (48) 91.8 58.04) (0.0 0.3 (81) 24.7 19.04) (19.7 (71) Aug 28.7 1.0 (48) Mar 16.0 1.13) (0.5 (60) 12.0 0.3 (65) 14.1 [4] 347.4 (83) 25.4 53.1 Feb 15. Public transit There are a number of buses serving the city and connecting it to many major destinations in Crete.6 (62) 12. Climate Crete has a warm Mediterranean climate.5 (74) 19.4 57. with considerable rain in the winter.4 4.3 198.8 (57) 10.0 (54) May 23.2 (59) 12. Chania. Summers in the lowlands are hot and dry with clear skies.6 (62) 13.9 2769.18) 124.3 (76) 19.71) (2.1 (54) 9. and Rethymno.0 6. Because Heraklion is further south than Athens.4 (56) Dec 17.5 (3.9 (68) 16.9 (79) 21.1 (79) 21.5 (62) Nov 20.6 (83) 26.8 (59) 77.05) (2.4 30.5 68.0 (3.1 500.3 (67) Oct 23.6 (56) 9. precipitation days Jan 15.9 228.26) (1.2 (68) 16.2 0. Dry hot days are often relieved by seasonal breezes.6) 300.6 (0.4 (80) 23.1 (74) 19.1 176.0 0.0 (66) Jul 28.8 (62) 13. The mountain areas are much cooler.Heraklion 164 Highway Network European route E75 runs through the city and connects Heraklion with the three other major cities of Crete: Agios Nikolaos.3 (54) 9.7 9.8 10.03) (0.9 (52) Year 21.3 (69) 14.9 8.0 3.4 3.5 (74) 20. Climate data for Heraklion Month Average high °C (°F) Daily mean °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Sunshine hours Avg.71) 351.8 77.7 6.1 (68) 16.31) (3.0 (63) 13.5 372.2 1.7 (71) Sep 26.9 (59) 15.1 282.9 150.8 (50) Apr 20.2 (0.6) 117. Winters are mild in the lowlands with rare frost and snow.0 120.9 (71) 18. it has a milder climate.2 Source: Hong Kong Observatory .77) (2.9 Jun 27.

Football Club of Heraklion which plays in the third division.in Heraklion. plays in the first division.gr • Historical Museum of Crete • Natural History Museum [5] • The Battle of Crete and National Resistance Museum • Collection of Agia Aikaterini of Sinai • Museum of Visual Arts Sports The city hosts three football clubs: • Ergotelis FC . plays in the second division.Hellas Culture Museums • Heraklion Archaeological Museum • Cretaquarium-http://www.Heraklion 165 Colleges and universities • University of Crete • TEI of Crete • Foundation for Research & Technology . the poet and Nobel Prize winner Odysseas Elytis and the world-famous Greek painter Domenicos Theotokopoulos (El Greco). The Phaistos disk in Heraklion Archaeological Museum Famous natives Heraklion has been the home town of some of Greece's most significant spirits. including the novelist Nikos Kazantzakis. Nikos Kazantzakis .cretaquarium. • Atsalenios . • OFI Crete in Heraklion.

sculpturer and architect • Georgios Klontzas (1540-1607) painter of icons • Theodoros Poulakis (1622-1692) painter of icons • Andreas Ritzos (1422-1492) painter of icons • Emmanuel Tzanes (1610-1690) painter of icons • Aristidis Vlassis (*1955) painter • Konstantinos Volanakis (1837-1907) painter Film industry El Greco (Dominikos Theotokopoulos) • List of radio stations in Greece. author and travel writer. theologian. scholar Nicholas Kalliakis (1645-1707) Heraklion born [6] Greek Scholar and philosopher. archaeologist • • • • • • • Fotis Kafatos biologist. poet and translator • Minás Dimákis (1913-1980) poet • Odysseas Elytis (1911-1996) Nobel awarded poet • Rea Galanaki (1947-present) author • Galatea Kazantzaki author • Nikos Kazantzakis (1883-1957) author • Pedro de Candia. actress .1500-1559) painter of icons • Michael Damaskinos (1530/35-1592/93) painter of icons • El Greco (1541-1614) mannerist painter. Joseph Sifakis (1946-present) computer scientist. scenographer • Rika Diallina (1934).Greek Cretan scholar and philosopher[7] • Francesco Barozzi (1537-1604) mathematician and astronomer • Manolis Hatzidakis. President of the European Research Council Maximos (Emmanuel) Margounios (1549–1602) scholar. titular bishop of Kythira Marcus Musurus (Markos Mousouros) (1470-1517) scholar and philosopher Nikolaos Panagiotakis (1935-1997) byzantinologist Peter of Candia also known as Antipope Alexander V. recorded the Spanish Conquest of the Americas • Ioannis Kondylakis (1862-1920) author • Vitsentzos Kornaros (1553-1613) author • Stephanos Sahlikis (1330-after 1391) poet • Lili Zografou (1922-1998) author Scientists and Scholars • Nicholas Kalliakis (1645-1707). philosopher and scholar. actress and model. co-recipient of the 2007 Turing Award Gerasimos Vlachos (1607-1685).Heraklion 166 Literature • Elli Alexiou (1894-1988) author • Aris Diktaios. poet and writer. Miss Hellas • Ilya Livykou (1919-2002). radio stations broadcasting live on the internet from heraklion Crete island • Giorgos Anemogiannis. Painting • Theophanes (ca.

Patriarch of Alexandria • Theodore II (1954) Patriarch of Alexandria • Peter Phillarges (ca. film director Music • • • • • • • List of radio stations in Greece Greek music from Crete . 1339-1410) (also Pietro Di Candia.heraklion live on the net Rena Kyriakou (1918-1994) pianist Fragiskos Leontaritis (Francesco Londarit) (1518-1572) composer Christos Leontis (1940) composer Giannis Markopoulos (1939) composer Manolis Rasoulis (1945) lyrics writer Notis Sfakianakis (1959) singer 167 Sports • Nikos Machlas (1973) footballer • Georgios Samaras (1985) footballer Business • Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki (1955) business woman and politician Politics • Leonidas Kyrkos. Patriarch of Alexandria as Cyril III and Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople as Cyril I • Meletius Pegas. bishop of Cyrigo (Kythira) • Kyrillos Loukaris (1572–1637) theologian. later Pope Alexander V) Fashion • Maria Spiridaki (1984) fashion model and television presenter Local TV stations • • • • Channel 4 Creta Channel Kriti TV MyTV .Heraklion • Sapfo Notara (1907-1985). actress • Yannis Smaragdis (1946). politician • Aristidis Stergiadis (1861-1950) High Commissioner of Smyrna • Georgios Voulgarakis (1959) conservative politician Law • Romilos Kedikoglou (1940) President of the Court of Cassation of Greece Clergy • Maximos Margunios (1549-1602). actress • Aleka Paizi.

) a native of Candia. and of the Aristotelic philosophy. Romania Pernik. and in 1677 he was appointed professor of belles-lettres at Padua. Volume 5. at the end of which time he was made doctor of philosophy and theology. In 1666 he was invited to Venice. (Nicholas. Thomas (1857). htm . gr/ tei/ en/ gen_plhrof/ hrakleio/ index. gov. msc. Harper (1886). heraklion.ypes. htm [9] http:/ / www. Fellowes. Henry John. p. heraklion-city. 425. ypes. www. Retrieved 2009-09-09. htm) [4] "Climatological Information for Iraklion.. where he soon became one of the outstanding teachers of Greek and Latin. Greece" (http:/ / www. Inc. He studied at Rome for ten years. to take the chair of professor of the Greek and Latin languages. php?lang=442 [11] http:/ / www.Heraklion 168 International relations Twin towns — sister cities Heraklion is twinned with: • • Constanţa. teicrete. "CALLIACHI. htm) . OCLC 11558801. [2] http:/ / www. OCLC 309809847. msc.1669) TEI of Crete University of Crete Notes • The War for Candia [8] by the VENIVA consortium provides details of the siege of Candia." [7] Rose. Wright. where he died in 1707. T. "Calliachius (1645-1707) was born on Crete and went to Italy at an early age. xls) (in Greek). gr/ [6] Lathrop C. 36. Hellenic Interior Ministry. His works on antiquities are valuable. and have been published by the marquis Poloni in the third volume of his Supplement to the Thesaurus Antiquitatum. External links • • • • • Municipality of Heraklion [9] Heraklion: a city through the ages [10] Heraklion [11] Information about the city of Heraklion by the TEI of Crete Heraklion travel guide from Wikitravel Heraklion [12] at the Open Directory Project References [1] "Δείτε τη Διοικητική Διαίρεση" (http:/ / www. gr/ veniva/ uk/ main/ p2. New York. where he was born in 1645. gr/ UserFiles/ f0ff9297-f516-40ff-a70e-eca84e2ec9b9/ D_diairesi." [8] http:/ / www. including estimated number of deaths. . Bulgaria See also • • • • • • • • Centre for Technological Research of Crete European Network and Information Security Agency Foundation for Research & Technology .) inc. hk/ wxinfo/ climat/ world/ eng/ europe/ gr_tu/ iraklion_e. Lathrop C. Issue 232. weather. p.Hellas Handakos Street Minoan civilization Siege of Candia (1648 . Hugh James. A new general biographical dictionary. uoc. nhmc.Hong Kong Observatory [5] http:/ / www. Harper. gr/ veniva/ uk/ main/ p2.gr. Catalogue / Harper (Lathrop C. Rose. gr/ [3] The War for Candia (http:/ / www. gr/ index. gr/ [10] http:/ / history. heraklion.

dmoz.mi.Heraklion [12] http:/ / www.9′E Cyclades 73 km² (28 sq.) Government Greece Periphery: Prefecture: Capital: South Aegean Cyclades Fira Statistics Population: Density: Postal code: Area code: 13402 (as of 2001 [1] ) 184 /km² (475 /sq. org/ Regional/ Europe/ Greece/ Prefectures/ Heraklion/ 169 Santorini Thera Municipality seal Santorini Σαντορίνη View across collapsed caldera Geography Coordinates: Island chain: Area: 36°25. 847 02 22860 .) 847 00.2′N 25°25.mi.

Santorini is essentially what remains of an enormous volcanic explosion. The largest island is known as Thēra (or Thira. On the fourth side. though what remains today is chiefly a water-filled caldera. in the northwest and southwest. more or less rectangular.623 km2 (34. and leading to the creation of the current geological caldera. The volcanic arc is approximately 500 km long and 20–40 km wide.thira. Palaia Kameni. thus making it a safe harbour for all kinds of shipping. These have a total land area of 90.990 sq mi). 12. the lagoon merges with the sea in two places.[2] It is the most active volcanic centre in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc.3 mi).Santorini 170 License code: EM Website www. the lagoon is separated from the sea by another much smaller island called Therasia. forming the southernmost member of the Cyclades group of islands. Beach of Santorini A giant central lagoon. The volcanic rocks present from the prior eruptions feature olivine and have a notably small presence of hornblende. the capital.gr [1] Santorini (Greek: Σαντορίνη. pop. with an area of approximately 73 km2 (28 sq mi) and a 2001 census population of 13. and Christiana (all part of the Municipality of Thira).230. and measuring about 12 by 7 km (7. The region first became volcanically active around 3–4 million years ago though volcanism on Thera began around 2 million years ago with . is surrounded by 300 m (980 ft) high steep cliffs on three sides. which also includes the uninhabited islands of Nea Kameni. pronounced [ˌsa(n)do̞ˈrini]) is a small. The island's harbours all lie in the lagoon and there are no ports on the outer perimeter of the island. about 200 km (120 mi) southeast from Greece's mainland. circular archipelago of volcanic islands located in the southern Aegean Sea. It is composed of the Municipality of Thira (pop. The water in the centre of the lagoon is nearly 400 m (1300 ft) deep. Aspronisi. Fira. clings to the top of the cliff looking down on the lagoon.440) and the Community of Oía (Οία.5 by 4. which includes 268 inhabitants resident on the offshore island of Therasia. Greek Θήρα [ˈθira]). The Beach of Santorini island slopes downward from the cliffs to the surrounding Aegean Sea.670. destroying the earliest settlements on what was formerly a single island. lying to the west). 1.

600 years ago at the height of the Minoan civilization. Clockwise from center: Nea Kameni. Monolithos. or Thēra. the Gavrillos ridge. The inner coast around the caldera is a sheer precipice of more than 300 m drop at its highest. Strongýlē (Στρογγύλη. The metamorphic grade consists of a blueschist facies resulting from tectonic deformation by the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate between the Oligocene and the Miocene and represents the southernmost extent of the Cycladic blueschist belt. Mesa Vouno. Palea Kameni. The ground then slopes outwards and downwards towards the outer perimeter. "the circular one"). The eruption left a large caldera surrounded by volcanic ash deposits hundreds of feet deep and may have led indirectly to the collapse of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete. These non-volcanic rocks are exposed at the Profitis Ilias Mountains. 171 Geologic setting The Cyclades are part of a metamorphic complex area known as the Cycladic Massif. which occurred some 3. The basement rock consists primarily of metamorphosed limestone and schist dating from the Alpine Orogeny. Beach sand color depends on which geologic layer is exposed. the White Beach. the Black Beach. Satellite image of Santorini. and the main towns perched on the crest. which formed in Triassic to Tertiary time and were folded and metamorphosed during the Alpine Orogeny around 60 million years ago. through the creation of a gigantic tsunami. etc. Another popular theory holds that the Thera eruption is the source of the legend of Atlantis. Therasia.Santorini the extrusion of dacitic lavas from vents around the region of Akrotiri. and is a reference to Saint Irene. Thera History . and the inner side of the caldera wall between Cape Plaka and Athinios.[3] The name Santorini was given to it by the Latin Empire in the thirteenth century. there are beaches with sand or pebbles made of solidified lava of various colors: the Red Beach. The water at the darker colored beaches is significantly warmer because the lava acts as a heat absorber. non-volcanic basement that represents the former non-volcanic island which was approximately 9 by 6 km in size. Aspronisi. and exhibits the various layers of solidified lava on top of each other. Thera itself is built upon a small. and the outer beaches are smooth and shallow. Pyrgos. The island is the site of one of the largest volcanic eruptions in recorded history: the Minoan eruption (sometimes called the Thera eruption). Geography The island is the remnant of a volcanic cone whose top was blown off. "the most beautiful one"). Before then it was known as Kallístē (Καλλίστη. 110 km (68 mi) to the south.

and pottery. The site remains closed while a new canopy is built. indicating that the Therans used both hot and cold water supplies. killing one tourist and injuring seven more. among other frescoes.Fresco from the Bronze Age.Santorini 172 Minoan Akrotiri Excavations starting in 1967 at the site called Akrotiri under the late Professor Spyridon Marinatos have made Thera the best-known "Minoan" site outside of Crete. not just from Crete. Pipes with running water and water closets found at Akrotiri are the oldest such utilities discovered. A loom-workshop suggests organized textile weaving for export. judging from the fine artwork. Instead. further indicating the Minoans as the culture which primarily inspired the Atlantis legend. The dual pipe system suggesting hot and cold running water. The oldest signs of human settlement are Late Neolithic (4th millennium BC or earlier). Cyprus. The island was not known as Thera at this time. Akrotiri The well preserved ruins of the ancient town often are compared to the spectacular ruins at Pompeii in Italy. streets. flowing. and indicating this was a major town. This Bronze Age civilization throve between 3000 to 2000 BC. Noted archaeological remains found in Akrotiri are wall paintings or frescoes. This has led many archaeologists to believe that the fresco of the saffron/crocus gatherers is a coming of age fresco dealing with female pubescence. yet it has revealed complexes of multi-level buildings. The town also had a highly developed drainage system and.[3] Fragmentary wall-paintings at Akrotiri lack the insistent religious or mythological content familiar in Classical Greek decor. squares. the Minoan frescoes depict "Saffron-Gatherers".[4] The "saffron-gatherers" Some of the houses in Akrotiri are major structures. Crocus has been discovered to have many medicinal values including the relief of menstrual pain. decorative. The site was not a palace-complex such as are found in Crete. all entombed in the solidified ash of the famous eruption of Thera. and the apparent layout of the Akrotiri find resemble Plato's description of the legendary lost city of Atlantis. Landscape of spring time . accompanied by leaping dolphins. perhaps a goddess. In another house are two antelopes. Only the southern tip of a large town has been uncovered. which have kept their original colour well. mills. but also from Anatolia. who offer their crocus-stamens to a seated lady. the origin of the hot water probably was geothermic. where ladies take their ease in the shade of light canopies. but its excellent masonry and fine wall-paintings show that this was certainly no conglomeration of merchants' warehousing either. The pipes run in twin systems. given the volcano's proximity. the famous fresco of a fisherman with his double strings of fish strung by their gills. and walls were preserved in the layers of ejecta. and the flotilla of pleasure boats. but ca. the homeland of the culture. and squares with remains of walls standing as high as eight meters. its citizens were clearly sophisticated and relatively wealthy people. some amongst them three stories high. the advanced architecture. and Egypt as well as from the Dodecanese and the Greek . 2000–1650 BC Akrotiri developed into one of the Aegean's major Bronze Age ports. sometimes as tall as eight meters. The canopy covering the ruins collapsed in an accident in September 2005. Its streets. calligraphic line. Syria. as they were preserved under many meters of volcanic ash. and they contain huge ceramic storage jars (pithoi). In many houses stone staircases are still intact. painted with a kind of confident. and reached its peak in the period 2000 to 1580 BC. with recovered objects that had come.

against Athens. careful construction and . seven Linear B texts while calling upon "all the gods" make sure to grant primacy to an elsewhere-unattested entity called qe-ra-si-ja and. An alternate view takes qe-ra-si-ja and qe-ra-si-jo as proof of androgyny. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the eruption occurred about 1645—1600 BC. . The Dorians have left a number of inscriptions incised in stone. includes an origin and sovereignty myth of Thera being given by Triton in Libya to the Greek Argonaut Euphemus. which is between about 1550 and 1500 BC. due to their large size. the leader of a group of refugee settlers from Lemnos. in the vicinity of the temple of Apollo. the Venetians annexed the isle to the Duchy of Naxos and renamed it "Santorini". and that when he threw the dirt into the sea it would grow into an island for his descendants to live on. Thera sent out colonists who founded a number of cities in northern Africa. is unknown.[6] For more discussion. Dating of the Bronze Age eruption The Minoan eruption provides a fixed point for the chronology of the second millennium BC in the Aegean. *Qeras[os] could also shrink to *Qera. in the form of a clod of dirt. conflict with the usual date range from archaeological evidence. because evidence of the eruption occurs throughout the region and the site itself contains material culture from outside. *Qherawould have become "Thera-" in later Greek. As with other Greek territories. The poem goes on to claim that the island was named Thera after Euphemus' descendant Theras. celebratory nature. the Franks settled it. once. during which time the Greeks took over Crete. Phoenicians founded a site on Thera. while in the 13th century AD. The Athenians took the island during the war. Santorini came under Ottoman rule in 1579. The exact date of the eruption. Dorians founded the main Hellenic city . Apollonius Rhodius' Argonautica. including Cyrene. If qe-ra-si-ja was an ethnikon first. but these views are not mutually exclusive of one another.[8] Then. Today. After carrying the dirt next to his heart for several days. however. 173 Ancient and Medieval Santorini Santorini remained unoccupied throughout the rest of the Bronze Age. that is "Saint Irene". Herodotus reports that the Phoenicians called the island Callista and lived on it for eight generations. Dorian Thera did not join the Delian League with Athens. Thera sided with Dorian Sparta. in a LMIIIA context (14th century BC). found by Friedrich Hiller von Gaertringen. Tiresias. Theras. During the Crusades.execution by craftsmen other than the authors. This group later claimed that they had named the city and the island after their leader. The woman then told him that she was a daughter of Triton named Kalliste. it passed to the eastern side of the Empire when it divided . however. "Therasia" and its ethnikon "Therasios" are both attested in later Greek. If aspirated. written in Hellenistic Egypt in the 3rd century BC. that city is referred to as Ancient Thera. Thera then was ruled by the Romans. In the 5th century BC. The eruption occurred during the "Late Minoan IA" period at Crete and the "Late Cycladic I" period in the surrounding islands. and applies this name by similar arguments to the legendary seer.on Mesa Vouno. 396 m above sea level.149-165).Santorini mainland.[7] Over the centuries after the general catastrophes of 1200 BC. son of Autesion.which now is known as the Byzantine Empire. and. following a drought of seven years. These inscriptions. According to Herodotus (4. Euphemus dreamt that he nursed the dirt with milk from his breast. If the endings -ia[s] and -ios represent an ethnikonic suffix. and during the Peloponnesian War. then this means "The One From Qeras[os]". have been thought by some archaeologists to be of a ritual. in the 9th century BC. At Knossos. but lost it again after the Battle of Aegospotami. see the article on the Minoan eruption. son of Poseidon. qe-ra-si-jo. and that the dirt turned into a beautiful woman with whom he had sex. since -sos was itself a genitive suffix in the Aegean Sprachbund. attesting to pederastic relations between the authors and their eromenoi.in some cases .[5] These dates. then in following him/her/it the Cretans also feared whence it came.

a dessert wine made from the best sun-dried Assyrtiko. White wines from the island are extremely dry with a strong. then boiled legume Lathyrus sativus . and can be eaten raw. raisins. The island's pumice quarries have been closed since 1986. many plants depend on the scant moisture provided by the common. figs. the island has gained great wealth and population. and especially its volcanic ash soil. Imerovigli. Santorini "fava" (a purée made of the hulled. Perissa. honey and tea. In their adaptation to their habitat. from small springs. Until the early 1990s locals filled water cisterns from the rain that fell on roofs and courts. leading to the desertation of many of its villages. The Santorini tomatoes are renowned. with the grapes hanging inside to protect them from the winds. possessing the standard Assyrtiko aromas of citrus and minerals. dark amber-orange. with auxiliary cultivations of two other Aegean varietals. Wine industry The island remains the home of a small. Oia. Athiri and Aidani. It matures to a sweet. then sun-dried. Agriculture Due to its unique ecology and climate. such vines are planted far apart. early morning fog condensing on the ground as dew. In recent years a desalination plant has provided running.Santorini 174 Modern Santorini Santorini in the Greek State Santorini became independent from Ottoman rule in 1821. Santorini is home to unique and prized produce. much like Vinsanto. Kamari. and Aidani grapes and undergoing long barrel aging (up to twenty or twenty-five years for the top cuvées). and they often are trained in the shape of low-spiralling baskets. Since rain is rare on the island from mid-spring till mid-autumn. wine industry. Café in Akrotiri The viticultural pride of the island is the sweet and strong Vinsanto (Italian: "holy wine"). The island's wines are standardised and protected by the "Vinsanto" and "Santorini" OPAP designations of origin. as though they were fruit. Its major settlements include Fira (Phira). In 1956 a major earthquake and a volcanic eruption resulted in the demolishing of many buildings on the island. in order to preserve the caldera. Santorini's primary industry is tourism. yet non-potable. and Therasia. citrus scent and mineral and iodide salt aromas contributed by the ashy volcanic soil. water to most houses. and water is scarce. Nowadays due to the expansion of tourism. unctuous dessert wine that has achieved worldwide fame. during the Greek War of Independence and was united with Greece in 1830 under the Treaty of London. The yield per acre is only 10 to 20% of the yields that are common in France or California. so the vines needed no replacement during the great phylloxera epidemic of the early 20th century. Assyrtiko. with ruins from the Minoan era. staining color. with very few seeds. as their principal source of moisture is dew. but flourishing. Aridity Santorini has no rivers. and with an intensely red.not from the yellow split pea as in the rest of Greece) is considered the best in the world. . Pyrgos. whereas barrel aging gives to some of the white wines a slight frankincense aroma. and with imported assistance from other areas of Greece. they are cherry tomatoes that are extremely flavorful and sweet. Athiri. The white eggplants of Santorini are very sweet. The vines are extremely old and resistant to phylloxera (attributed by local winemakers to the well-drained volcanic soil and its chemistry). Emporio. based on the indigenous grape variety. the hot and dry conditions give the soil a very low productivity. particularly in the summer months. layered with overtones of nuts. It is not easy to be a winegrower in Santorini. Akrotiri is a major archaeological site.

steam and sulphur dioxide are given off. These rooms are prized because of the high insulation provided by the air-filled pumice. Santorini Airport viewed from Ancient Thera . At some time in the future. at the current active crater (there are several former craters on Nea Kameni). if left unpicked when green. Recent volcanism In 1707 an undersea volcano breached the sea surface.972 feet) in length. Avro RJ. The unique characteristic is the common utilisation of the hypóskapha: extensions of houses dug sideways or downwards into the surrounding pumice. the last in 1950. it will almost certainly erupt violently again. Santorini was also struck by a devastating earthquake in 1956. and eruptions centred on it continue — the twentieth century saw three such. Although the volcano is quiescent at the present time. with low-lying cubical houses. made of local stone and whitewashed or limewashed with various volcanic ashes used as colors.125 meters (6. with chartered flights from other airlines during the summer. taxis. Airbus 320 series. forming the current centre of activity at Nea Kameni in the centre of the lagoon. The main asphalt runway (16L-34R) is 2. and ATR 72. Transportation to and from the air terminal is through buses. 175 Houses built on the edge of the caldera Airport Santorini is one of the few Cyclades Islands with a major airport. Scheduled airlines include the new Olympic Air.Santorini The katsoúni is a unique local variety of large cucumbers which. turn yellow and acquire a sweet taste almost indistinguishable from that of melon. Fokker 70. Boeing 737. and are used as living quarters of unique coolness in the summer and warmth in the winter. The parallel taxiway was built to runway specification (16R-34L). It can accommodate Boeing 757. and also as premium storage space for produce and especially for wine cellaring: the Kánava wineries of Santorini. See also Santorini (Thira) National Airport. Architecture The traditional architecture of Santorini is similar to that of the other Cyclades. hotel car-pickups and rental cars. It is about 6 km southeast of downtown Thira. Aegean Airlines and Athens Airways.

Santorini 176 Volcanic eruption The physical eruption The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera has become the most famous single event in the Aegean before the fall of Troy. +/-25) caused all the biblical plagues described against Egypt. have revealed that the Santorini event was much more massive than previously thought. The violent eruption was centered on a small island just north of the existing island of Nea Kameni in the centre of the caldera. compared to previous estimates of only 39 cubic kilometres in 1991. the eruption destroyed the sections of the ring between Aspronisi and Therasia. it expelled 61 km³ of magma and rock into Earth's atmosphere. New archaeological discoveries by a team of international scientists. re-dating the eruption to c.[9] [10] producing an estimated 100 cubic kilometres of tephra. lying up to 60 metres thick overlying the soil marking the ground level before the eruption. and Plagues Shaped the Exodus Story. Speculation on an Exodus connection In The Parting of the Sea: How Volcanoes. Jacobovici's assertions in The Exodus Decoded have been extensively criticized by religious scholars. and could have been crossed during the Exodus. Jacobovici argued a marshy area in northern Egypt known as the "Reed Sea" would have been alternately drained and flooded by tsunamis caused by the caldera collapse. in 2006.000 years ago. The Exodus Decoded. most recently 21. and forming a layer divided into three fairly distinct bands indicating different phases of the eruption. and between Therasia and Thera. and the process repeated itself. the caldera itself was formed several hundred thousand years ago by the collapse of the centre of a circular island. This may have been one of the largest volcanic eruptions on Earth in the last few thousand years with an estimated 7 on the VEI (volcanic explosivity index). 1628 BC and the Exodus from Egypt in the Bible. The film also claims that these original Mycenaean Israelites fled Egypt (which they had in fact ruled for some time) after the eruption. the 181 AD eruption of Lake Taupo.[11] geologist Barbara J. creating two new channels. and possibly Baekdu Mountain's 969 AD eruption released more material into the atmosphere during the past 5. the caldera formed a nearly continuous ring with the only entrance between the tiny island of Aspronisi and Thera. a deposit of white tephra thrown from the eruption is to be found. The film claims that the Hyksos were the Israelites and that some of them may have originally been from Mycenae. Before the Minoan eruption. It has been filled several times by ignimbrite since then. then collapsing once more during the Minoan eruption. Only the Mount Tambora volcanic eruption of 1815.[12] suggests that the eruption of the Santorini Island volcano Recent ISS aerial image of the volcano crater (c.000 years. back to Mycenae. Earthquakes. A 2006 documentary film by Simcha Jacobovici.[13] [14] . Sivertsen seeks to establish a link between the eruption of Santorini ca. On Santorini. The pharaoh with whom they identify the Pharaoh of the Exodus is Ahmose I. 1623 BC. 1500 BC. Rather than crossing the Red Sea. The northern part of the caldera was refilled by the volcano. caused by the emptying of the magma chamber during an eruption.

Santorini. The ship settled to the bottom near the port of Athenios. and vulcanological evidence[15] [16] [17] has been presented linking the Atlantis myth to Santorini. Gallery Panoramic view of the Santorini caldera. The wreck contains 200 tons of fuel oil and poses a serious threat to the waters of the caldera. the 469-foot cruise ship MS Sea Diamond struck a volcanic reef within the crater and sank the following day. 2007.195 passengers and 391 crew members were on board.Santorini 177 Speculation on an Atlantis connection Archaeological. The Sea Diamond was operated by Louis Cruise Lines. Sea Diamond sinking On April 6. which is resting precariously on an undersea ledge. Plans are currently being made to salvage the ship. and on the Discovery Channel's Solving History with Olly Steeds. part of a Cyprus-based tourism group. and the description of Atlantis from Plato was popularized on The History Channel programme Lost Worlds (episode "Atlantis")[18] . resulting in the loss of two passengers. The Merchant Marine Ministry said 1. Speculation connecting Crete. taken from Oia Panoramic view of Santorini's principal city. seismological. Fira .

Catholic Encyclopedia article Volcano. Global Volcanism Program: Santorini History Channel's "Lost Worlds: Atlantis" archeology series. New York 1997.SI. Alexander MacGillivray (archeologist). Features scientists Dr.: Thera in the Bronze Age. Thira.org [19]. Professor Clairy . The town of Oia white caved dome See also • • • • Akrotiri Ancient Thera List of volcanoes in Greece Santorini (Thira) National Airport References • • • • Forsyth. Phyllis Y. taken from a ship in the harbor Sunset at Fira Beautiful Sunset at Oia Fira from Nea Kameni Volcanic Island Prehistoric Site of Akrotiri Linear A script etched on a vase found in Akrotiri Volcanic craters at Santorini today Stairway in Imerovigli. Professor Floyd McCoy (vulcanologist). MacDonald (archaeologist). Santorini The Santorini windmills Thira at night Oia at night The city of Fira. ISBN 0-8204-4889-3 NewAdvent. Colin F. Peter Lang Pub Inc. J.Santorini 178 Typical Blue Dome at Oia Santorini's famous Red Beach.edu [20]. Dr. Thera (Santorin) .

" (http:/ / www.Santorini Palyvou (architect). H. and Plagues Shaped the Story of the Exodus. T. Higham. Papers and Proceedings of the Second International Scientific Congress on Thera and the Aegean World II. B.com [28]. C. geologist (retired) Los Alamos National Laboratory. therafoundation. 2: 305–321. . htm). The South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc: Present Knowledge and Future Perspectives Charles Pellegrino. . edu/ how_volcanoes_work/ santorini. Thera: Pompeii of the ancient Aegean. EM (2006). . ISBN 9780691137704. [11] Sivertsen. uri. gr Michaēl Phytikas. author. Center for Global Studies and CAS. com/ tech/ science/ columnist/ vergano/ 2006-08-27-ancient-volcano_x. 1991 TheModernAntiquarian. PMID 16645092. Retrieved 8 August 2009. Retrieved 2008-03-09. Melman D. nationalgeographic. September 20. (1980). org/ post/ 2006/ 09/ Debunking-The-Exodus-Decoded. Ramsey. USA Today.An Archaeological Odyssey Vintage Books. & Sparks. [8] Herodotus iv. org/ articles/ religionmyths/ minoanqerasijathereligiousimpactofthetheravolcanoonminoancrete). The Religious Impact of the Thera Volcano on Minoan Crete.Video Interview References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www.gr [26]. 132. R.. Greece. (1983). com/ higgaion/ ?p=459). and Friedrich. ed. Retrieved 8 August 2009. Was the Bronze Age Volcanic Eruption of Thira (Santorini) a Megacatastrophe? A Geological/Archeological Detective Story. .1126/science. Louvain-la-Neuve. . net/ ) [13] "Debunking "The Exodus Decoded"" (http:/ / www. [12] The Exodus Decoded Office Website (http:/ / www.edu [25].com (http:/ / news. ISBN 90-429-1730-X. sponsored by CGS. S. Steier. "Atlantis" Eruption Twice as Big as Previously Believed. and Wild. Minoan Qe-Ra-Si-Ja. com/ news/ 2006/ 08/ 060823-thera-volcano. A. Grant Heiken. Study Suggests.L. 2006. biblearchaeology. External links • Santorini travel guide from Wikitravel • TheraFoundation. org/ cgi/ content/ abstract/ sci. Dan (2006-08-27). geology. com/ site/ 10846/ akrotiri.com (http:/ / themodernantiquarian. html). Santorini Eruption much larger than previously thought • YourGreekNews.org [21]. Hein I. Sturt W.C. .edu [24].gr [22]. Czerny E. • Pichler. (1976). aspx). [15] "Santorini Eruption (~1630 BC) and the legend of Atlantis" (http:/ / www.. Kromer. "Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B. The Minoan eruption of Santorini. J.. The Modern Antiquarian (2007). Princeton University Press. Barbara J (2009). Retrieved 2008-03-09. The Parting of the Sea: How Volcanoes. URI Department of Communications and Marketing [10] NationalGeographic. html#fieldnotes). C.Illinois. Earthquakes. Professor Doumas of University of Athens Discusses the Archaeological Significance of Thera . • Doumas. Doumas. The Eruption of Thera: Date and Implications • Santorini. Nahid Humbetli (geologist) and Dr. 1–16. Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 312 (5773): 565–569.1125682. Schwab A.edu (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-03-10. Kutschera. pp. html). Belgium: Peeters. heardworld. Vol. Thira (Santorini) Municipality Official WebSite • CGS. London: Thames and Hudson. W. [6] Warren PM (2006).org (http:/ / www. [16] Vergano. W. P.UIUC. Hunger H. [5] Manning. C. Journal of the Geological Society of London. [14] "The Exodus Decoded: An Extended Review" (http:/ / www. Timelines: Studies in Honour of Manfred Bietak (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 149).. Gerassimos Papadopoulos (seismologist) 179 Further reading • Bond.312/ 5773/ 565). Tuesday 19 Dec 2006. Akrotiri. edu/ news/ releases/ ?id=3654). usatoday. "Ye gods! Ancient volcano could have blasted Atlantis myth" (http:/ / www. CB. thira. doi:10. 147 [9] URI. [7] TheraFoundation. Unearthing Atlantis . Michael Hogan. (editors). Center for Advanced Study • Culture. lecture presented at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. sdsu. theexodusdecoded.edu [27]. Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Akrotiri of Thera: fully illustrated capsule of the finds • URI.Illinois.edu [23]. "Mechanism of the Minoan eruption of Santorini". sciencemag. Independent consultant.

uri. yourgreeknews. uk/ 2/ hi/ science/ nature/ 6568053. edu/ [26] http:/ / www. Harvey (20 April 2007). com/ 070417/ 180 . "The wave that destroyed Atlantis" (http:/ / news. culture. history. com/ media. newadvent. cas. [18] "Lost Worlds: CGI: Atlantis" (http:/ / www. si. org/ articles/ chronololy/ theeruptionoftheradateandimplications [22] http:/ / www. edu/ [25] http:/ / www. santorini. gr [23] http:/ / cgs.Santorini [17] Lilley. illinois. . therafoundation. edu/ news/ releases/ ?id=3654 [28] http:/ / www. stm). illinois. History. bbc. htm [20] http:/ / www. co. edu/ resources/ webvideo/ was-bronze-age-volcanic-eruption-thira-santorini-a-megacatastrophe-a-geologicalar [24] http:/ / cgs.com. uiuc. BBC Timewatch. Retrieved 2008-03-09. do?id=lostworlds_atlantis_broadband& action=clip). edu/ world/ volcano. [19] http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2008-03-09. volcano. cfm?vnum=0102-04= [21] http:/ / www. html [27] http:/ / www. gr/ 2/ 21/ 211/ 21121a/ e211ua08. org/ cathen/ 14629a.

Location Piraeus Coordinates 37°57′N 23°38′E Government Country: Periphery: Prefecture: Mayor: Greece Attica Piraeus Panagiotis Fasoulas  (PASOK) (since: 2006) Population statistics (as of 2001 City  - Population:  - Area:  .Piraeus 181 Piraeus Piraeus Πειραιάς View of the northern side of Mikrolimano in Piraeus.Density: Urban  - Population:  - Area:  .417 km2 (19 sq mi) 9244 /km2 (23942 /sq mi) Other 175697 10.865 km2 (4 sq mi) 16171 /km2 (41882 /sq mi) [1] ) .Density: 466065 50.

when it was selected to serve as the port city of classical Athens and was transformed into a prototype harbour. The city was largely developed in the early 5th century BC.[6] servicing about 20 million passengers annually. with a population of 175. Greek pronunciation: [piɾɛˈas].4 million TEUs. having the biggest harbour in the country and all the typical characteristics of a huge marine and commercial-industrial center. . In modern era. With a throughput of 1. The development of the harbour has been always combined with periods of proportional acme and progress of the city. Piraeus is the largest passenger port in Europe[4] [5] and the third largest in the world. Situated upon the Saronic Gulf. located 12 km southwest of its center. Piraeus is placed among the first ten ports in container traffic in Europe and the top container port in Eastern Mediterranean.Piraeus 182 Time zone: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3) Elevation (min-max): 0 - 6. which dates back to ancient Greece.[3] The Piraeus urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits to the suburban municipalities. Ancient Greek: Πειραιεύς. Peiraiás.gr [2] Piraeus (pronounced /paɪˈriːəs/.[7] Piraeus has a long history. concentrating all the import and transit trade of Athens.697 people (in 2001)[1] and an area of 11 km2 (4 sq mi). and began to grow again in the 19th century.6 m (0 - 22 ft) Postal: Telephone: Auto: 185 xx 21 Υ Website www. Peiraieús) is a municipality in the periphery of Attica.pireasnet. Modern Greek: Πειραιάς. it became the chief harbour of ancient Greece but declined gradually after the 4th century AD. The effects of its natural space and geographical place have been critical factors for the configuration of the historical fate of Piraeus. especially after the declaration of Athens as the capital of Greece.[3] The city is the administrative capital of the Piraeus Prefecture. Piraeus is Greece's third largest municipality and the second of the Greek capital following the municipality of Athens. with a total population of 466. Greece and within Athens urban area.065 (in 2001)[1] and a land area of 50 km2 (19 sq mi). while in the periods of the harbour's decay the city languished. Consequently. Piraeus is a big city bustling with life and an integral part of Athens.

After the The Long Walls connecting the ancient city of Athens to its port of second Persian invasion of Greece. Funerary relief for a girl.Archaeological Museum of Piraeus. and gradually replaced the older and shallow Phaleron harbour.[9] In 483 BC. has been inhabited since the 26th century BC. . the mighty Athenian fleet was transferred to Piraeus and was built in its shipyards. and its muddy soil made it a tricky passage. Piraeus assumed its importance with its three deep water harbours. Piraeus was rebuilt to the famous grid plan of architect Hippodamus of Miletus. meaning the 'salt field'. and was connected to the mainland by a low-lying stretch of land that was flooded with sea water most of the year and was used as a salt field whenever it dried up. fortified the three harbours of Piraeus and created the neosoikoi (ship houses). In ancient Greece. Piraeus was a rocky island consisted of the steep hill of Munichia. Through the centuries. modern day Kastella. Consequently it was called the Halipedon. turning Piraeus into a great military and commercial harbour. thus by early classical times the land passage was made safe. Themistocles Piraeus. distinguishing itself at the battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BC. As a result. the Themistoclean Walls were completed in 471 BC. the hill of Munichia was fortified by Hippias and four years later Piraeus became a deme of Attica by Cleisthenes. with which Piraeus was connected to Athens. In 511 BC. Themistocles initiated the fortification works in Piraeus and later advised the Athenians to take advantage of its natural harbours' strategical potential instead of using the sandy bay of Phaleron. a name which roughly means 'the place over the passage'. Meanwhile. the main port of Cantharus and the two smaller of Zea and Munichia. which fell into disuse. Since then Piraeus was permantly used as the navy base for the developed and powerful fleet of Athens. Piraeus flourished and became a port of high security with a great commercial activity and a city throbbing with life. In 493 BC.Piraeus 183 History Ancient times Piraeus. the area caught the attention due to its advantages. the area was increasingly silted and flooding ceased. thus the main agora of the city was named after him as an honour. called Hippodamian plan.[8] In prehistoric times.flanked by her parents(330/320 BC). In the late 6th century BC. The city's fortification was farther reinforced later by the construction of the Long Walls under Cimon and Pericles.

. The reconstruction of Piraeus went on during the period of Alexander the Great. Piraeus was mostly deserted. In 403 BC. and its population consisted mainly by fishermen. and built the famous Skevothiki of Philon. Although there were numerous land owners. Munichia was seized by Thrasybulus and the exiles from Phyle in the battle of Munichia where the Phyleans defeated the Thirty Tyrants of Athens. where it still stands today. the ruins of which have been discovered at Zea harbour. The city lost even its ancient and original name that was forgotten. when permanent inhabitation of the area was restarted.Watercolor by the Bavarian captain Ludwig Köllnberger. The destruction was completed in 395 AD by the Goths under Alaric I. During the Byzantine period the harbour of Piraeus was occasionally used for the Byzantine fleet. After the reinstatement of democracy. far away from its glorious past as a prosperous city. meaning 'Lion's Port' from the Piraeus Lion standing at the harbour's entrance. but this revival of the town was quashed by Roman Lucius Cornelius Sulla. but it was very far from the capital city of Constantinople. Conon rebuilt the walls in 393 BC. the Spartan fleet under Lysander blockaded Piraeus and subsequently Athens surrenderred to the Spartans who put an end to the Delian League and the war itself. Throughout the Ottoman occupation. a name given by Ottoman Turks during the Ottoman occupation of Greece. named Porto Leone by the Venetians in 1317.Piraeus During the Peloponnesian War. while the neosoikoi were also pulled down. Piraeus suffered the first breakdown. Piraeus became known as the Aslan Liman (Lion's Port). Piraeus was led to a long period of decline which lasted for fifteen centuries. as the city's walls and the Long Walls were torn down. but it was not until 1829. except for the monastery of Saint Spyridon (1590) and a customs house. The Piraeus Lion was looted in 1687 by Francesco Morosini during his expedition against Athens and was carried to the Venetian Arsenal. which controlled the commerce. Piraeus became a small town with huts and a few farm-buildings.[10] In 404 BC. Athenians did not live in the area. and Porto Draco by the Franks.[8] 184 Ottoman period In 1456. and it was only used for small intervals for commercial issues. The customs office of the port of Piraeus in 1837. the Athenian fleet surrendered to the winners and some of the triremes were burnt. especially before the beginning of the Greek War of Independence. founded the temple of Aphrodite Euploia and the sanctuary of Zeus Sotiros and Athena. Piraeus would follow the fate of Athens and was to bear the brunt of the Spartan rage. A copy of the lion statue is on display at the Archaeological Museum of Piraeus. In the second year of the war the first cases of the Athens plague were recorded in Piraeus. There were at least two failed attempts to create a new town. As a result the unfortified and tattered port city was not able to compete with prosperous Rhodes. but in the following battle of Piraeus the exiles were defeated by the Spartan forces. the first in 1792 by bringing population from Hydra and the second during the Greek War of Independence in 1825 by the installation of people from Psara. who captured and totally destroyed Piraeus in 86 BC. So.

Piraeus. the Town Hall. municipal elections were held to elect a mayor for the city. Zea (Pasalimani). with its population almost doubling to reach 251. churches. one of them. still stands as the Municipal Theatre.659 in 1928 from 133. all of which left Piraeus more strategically important than ever. an excellent example of the area's Piraeus marine. A town plan for Piraeus was also drawn up and approved by King Otto. continued arriving to reside in Piraeus. from a deserted small town. the Post Office Building and charity institutions.020 people. the Stock Exchange Building. and developed into a great commercial and industrial centre. amongst these were its ultimate declaration as the leading port of Greece. the port was also supplemented and modernised. At the end of the 19th century Piraeus had a population of 51. Piraeus experienced a great demographic explosion. once wider neoclassical architecture. such as educational institutions. as it was revolutionary for its time. quickly became the leading port and the second largest city in Greece. Piraeus numbered around 300 inhabitants at the time. New buildings were constructed to cover the necessities of this growth. played a catalytic role in the city's development. with dredging operations. while its prime geographical location and closeness to the Greek capital helped it continually to grow. the construction of the Royal Landing. View of Castella from Mikrolimano. populations.482 in 1920. which controlled the works of construction and maintenance of the port. which made a more efficient job of managing a port slowly increasing in traffic. who was to be Kyriakos Serfiotis from Hydra. mainly from the Aegean Islands. The forecourt at the Piraeus Train Station. The town flourished and neo-classical buildings were erected. but it was not completely fulfilled . which continues to ornament the present town. Piraeus' seafront. and the Piraeus Port Authority in 1930. the Central Market. the commencement of construction work on the Outer Moles and the completion of permanent dry-docks.[8] Following the establishment of Piraeus as a municipality in 1835 and the petitions from the new prosperous bourgeoisie that was emerging. the Troumba Pier and the quay-ways up to the Customs House area. Although there was an increase in the labour force.Piraeus 185 Modern era With the creation of the modern Greek state and the proclamation of Athens as the capital in 1832. attracting people from across the country. an increase owed to the arrival of Greek refugees from Asia Minor after the Greco-Turkish War and the Asia Minor Catastrophe. the industrial development of the area in the 1860s and the creation of the Corinth Canal in 1893. . the completion of the Athens-Piraeus Railway in 1869. A number of events contributed to the development of the city. After the decisive for the Greek nation period of 1912–1922. the port again acquired a reason for existence and growth. The establishment of the Port Committee in 1911.

[1] The Piraeus urban area. as damage to the port and the city were repaired and new additions took shape after 1955. Furthermore.[1] The table below shows the historical population of Piraeus in recent times:[11] Year Municipality population Urban area population 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 186. the city proper with its suburbs form the Piraeus urban area. coastline from the center towards the left corner.957 187.458 196.671 175. the Saronic Gulf in the south and west. Piraeus is bounded by the Mount Egaleo in the northwest. part of the greater Athens urban area and comprised by Piraeus city proper and the six suburbs of it.138 476.Piraeus 186 a variety of social problems also emerged with the concentration of new populations in the suburbs of the old city. Geography Piraeus larger area is situated in the southwest part of the central plain of Attica. which is incorporated in the Athens urban area. which was an island in its geological origin. has a population of 466.389 182. Piraeus larger urban area includes the suburban harbours of Drapetsona. thus making Piraeus an integral part of the Greek capital. However.865 466. Demography Piraeus is the third largest municipality in Greece with an official population of 175.697 439. which encompasses the Athens agglomeration and is widely known as the Attica Basin. called Kanatharos in ancient times.697 (in 2001). and Munichia.088 183. such as Nikaia. Zea also known as Pasalimani. After the war the city began to develop once more. In addition to the central one.065 people (in 2001). the smallest of the three and widely known as Mikrolimano. Drapetsona and Korydallos. Piraeus city proper consists of a peninsula. Piraeus is now the third largest municipality in Greece. the smaller harbours to 3D View of Athens.304 456. Inside view of Piraeus metro station. Nowadays. Keratsini and Perama. the involvement of Greece in World War II came as a major setback to the city's progress. Keratsini.065 . and is connected with the rest of the Athens urban area in the east and northeast side. featuring three natural harbours. with Piraeus covering the the east are still in use. the port of Piraeus is an important international port and the largest of the country.

In Kastella the Syrangio is to be found. restaurants and pastry shops. including tourists. hosting a variety of cultural events including theater.[13] The Municipal Theater of city has been the center of the arts in Piraeus. restaurants. Excavations in Pasalimani revealed the skevothiki. the ancient gate to the harbour and part of the fortification of Piraeus. During this event.[12] while the Three King's Way Festival marks the beginning of the carnival with all the associated costumes and entertainment. the Maritime Festival and the Piraeus Rock Wave Festival take place. both made by the prehistoric inhabitants of the area. an ancient structure where ships' equipment was stored. which probably served as a sanctuary to the local hero Syrango. part of the Village Cinemas chain and built in suburban Agios Ioannis Rentis. Munichia and Kantharos navy yard. renowned for their cuisine. is popular for hosting variety shows. parts of the ancient Themistoclean Walls and Eetioneia. The majority of them are arrayed along the coasts of Mikrolimano and Piraiki. both of which are to be found within the city's Town Hall Square. specializing in seafood and fish dishes. designed by architect Philon. can also be seen. The Municipal theatre of Piraeus. Iroon Polytechneiou and Grigoriou Labraki. Plenty of major shopping areas can be found on the central avenues of Piraeus.[14] . widely known as Delfinario. dance and music lectures. a large multipurpose center. cafes.Piraeus 187 Culture Archaelogical sites Among the archaeological sites of Piraeus. Leisure and entertainment The city provides the people with a wide variety of choices for entertainment. Next to it. with view to the Saronic Gulf. The Veakeio Theater in Kastella is a popular destination during the summer and hosts concerts. Mount Hymettus and the southeastern part of Athens. The Village Park. built during the Peloponnesian War. folk music bands as well as Greek and foreign troupes. in addition to the twenty cinemas which make it the largest cinema complex in Greece. a mole in the entrance to the harbour. are still preserved in good condition. with numerous bars and nightclubs scattering around. In the summer. while the Menandreio Theater. Piraeus is famous for its tavernas and restaurants. the ancient neosoikoi in Zea. attracts a large number of people from the whole of Athens offering a diversity of shops. The Veakeio Theater on the hill of Kastella. Ruins of the ancient city at the basement of the cathedral of Agia Triada and the ancient Theater of Zea next to the Archaeological Museum. the Allou Fun Park is the latest and largest amusement theme park in Athens filled with rides and attractions. One of the most popular events in Piraeus is the Ecocinema International Film Festival. and the Cave of Arethusa. Part of Eetioneia. and attracting a lot of visitors. The nightlife of the city is swinging. a number of films are screened at the Atticon Cinema and the Cineak Cinema. staged annually towards the end of February.

Piraeus rides really high in water polo. is the dominant domestically and has made great success in European competitions as well. is the only major club from Piraeus. with a long athletic tradition as well. the Panos Aravantinos Decor Museum. the Historical Museum. Olympiacos CFP. in Neo Faliro. built in 1885 and renovated in 1964 and 2004. It hosted the 1971 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final and several games of the football tournament in the 2004 Summer Olympics. while it was used as a velodrome in the 1896 Summer Olympics.[15] having hosted multiply major international events in several sports. The Archaeological Museum of Piraeus displays objects from the classical antiquity found at the area of Piraeus and the greater coastal zone. typical of the history and culture of the ancient city. one of the largest in Greece. . part of the Faliro Coastal Zone Olympic Complex and built in 1985 opposite to the Karaiskakis Stadium. is the most successful club in Greece. Ethnikos Piraeus F. Peace and Friendship Stadium. in Ellinikon.Piraeus 188 Museums Piraeus is home to several museums and other institutions of great interest within their field.C. the Georgios Averof Museum Ship and the Museum of Electric Railways. first is considered the "Emperor" of the sport and the latter is the only Greek water polo club to have been crowned European Champion. Other football clubs in Greater Piraeus with significant tradition are Ionikos from Nikaia and Proodeftiki from Korydallos. where Ethnikos Piraeus and Olympiacos departments have entirely dominated in Greece. had a long-year presence in Super League Greece and also used the Karaiskakis Stadium as home ground. including the volleyball tournament in the 2004 Athens Olympics. In football. the Inside the Karaiskakis Stadium. Sport Traditionally.334 and one of the most modern in Europe.C. First class sporting facilities can be found in Piraeus. The Peace and Friendship Stadium. Olympiacos F. The Municipal Art Gallery and the Municipal Library. the 1998 FIBA World Championship. is the second largest football venue in Greece with a capacity of 33. which has been significantly interrelated to Piraeus.C. The other major club is Ethnikos Piraeus. having won by far more titles than any other Greek football club. hosted in the Piraeus station. The city also houses the Hellenic Maritime Museum with exhibits related to the nautical tradition of the Greek nation. and its home arena is the Peace and Friendship Stadium. In basketball.C. one of the most successful at domestic and European level. Piraeus has played a major role in Greek sports. The Karaiskakis Stadium. Olympiacos S. is the second largest indoor arena in the country and one of the most impressive around Europe. and its ground is at the Karaiskakis Stadium. are also prominent within the culture of Piraeus. while the volleyball department of the same club. the EuroBasket 1987 and the Final Four of the Euroleague 1993. Olympiacos B. The city boasts for having the most popular and one of the most prestigious Greek multisport clubs. The Hellenic Maritime Museum in Freatida. but in recent years the club has competed in lower divisions and currently plays home matches at the Helleniko Stadium..

in terms of passenger transportation. Nowadays. which attracts maritime industry professionals from all over the world. the successive democratic government generally maintained the deregulation of Greek-based shipping. The following operators serve the Port: • Minoan Lines The "Costa Concordia" in Piraeus harbor. however. and many shipowners have maintained commercial operations there since. as evidenced by the fact that Aristotle Onassis was allowed to purchase the entire island of Skorpios. as a result of traffic congestion plaguing the Athens area. In its capacities as host to Greek shipping. the The building of the Maritime Retirement Fund insurance had been provided by Lloyd's of London and guaranteed by the coalition of the allied forces. while the western part of the port is used for cargo services. the Dodecanese. Piraeus is also 47th worldwide in cargo traffic and at the top of all eastern Mediterranean ports. which otherwise would have been a violation of Greek coastline laws. Today. . the Cyclades. in order to increase desperately needed revenues. when a group of colonels staged a coup d'état against the government. 1967 Military junta In 1967. and bi-annually it acts as the focus for a major shipping convention. the junta offered lavish incentives for Greek shipowners to bring their companies back to Piraeus. As a result. the Greek shipowners left Piraeus en masse in favor of operations in London. New York. 1974 democratic government After the junta fell in 1974. Although the Greek shipowners ultimately won their case against the Greek government in the British courts. and the fact that most shipowners reside in the lavish northern suburbs of Athens. most were uninterested in continuing to base their headquarters in Piraeus both out of distrust of the Greek government and the fact that the war had left the greater Athens area in a state of severe poverty. Piraeus has been affected significantly by the various governments of Greece. largely centred around the street Akti Miaouli. many shipowners have opted once again to move their bases away from Piraeus to Northern Athens. and much of the northern and the eastern Aegean Sea. Alexandria and other major shipping cities. Following World War II. the island of Crete. The central port serves ferry routes to almost every island in the eastern portion of Greece. Piraeus is one of the largest ports in Europe. and the annual number of 19 million passengers makes it the third largest worldwide. known as Posidonia. the Greek government attempted to nationalize the proceeds of the insurance payments given to Greek shipowners who had lost vessels as a result of those vessels having been commandered by the Allied Forces. Piraeus is also the commercial hub of Greek shipping. with most of Greece's shipowners basing their commercial operations there. nevertheless. is still a major centre for Greek and international shipping. This included both tax incentives and other inducements. Shipping today Piraeus.Piraeus 189 Greek Maritime Industry In addition to being the largest marine .based shipping centre of Greece.

It is characteristically elegant due to the numerous neo-classical mansions and luxurious houses. The Municipal Theater in downtown Piraeus was built in 1885 and today is an impressive neo-classical building. predominating. it constitutes one of the most renowned landmarks of the city and a popular meeting place. 190 • Monarch Classic Cruises Landmarks The city of Piraeus is stamped by the diversity of culture among its neighbourhoods. attract large numbers of visitors because of their picturesqueness and vigorous nightlife. an indoor arena and a football ground respectively lying opposite one another. The Cathedral of Piraeus. On the other hand. The hill of Kastella is one of the most prosperous and attractive neighbourhoods of the city. Kaminia is a working class neighbourhood which still preserves the traditional look of past ages. with a panoramic view over Athens and the Saronic Gulf. Located across the neo-Byzantine Piraeus Cathedral. International relations . The Church of Saint Nicolas.Piraeus • • • • • • • • ANEK Lines Blue Star Ferries GA Ferries NEL Lines LANE Lines Aegean Speed Lines Hellenic Seaways Louis Cruise Lines Piraeus port pedestrian bridge. while the Veakeio Theater and a church dedicated to Profitis Ilias are the most popular buildings. The coastal area of Neo Faliro has been upgraded and is also prominent with the Peace and Friendship Stadium and the Karaiskakis Stadium. Mikrolimano and Pasalimani (Zea). the smaller harbours of the city. hosting fishing boats as well as nobby yachts and cruise ships.

Czech republic St. since 1984[16] Worcester. Petersburg. China Mayors of Piraeus • Hydraian Kyriakos Serfiotis (1835–1841)[8] • Petros Skylitsis-Homiridis (1841–1845) and (1848–1854) • Antonios Theoharis (1845–1848) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Loukas Rallis (1855–1866) Demetrios Moutzopoulos (1866–1874) Tryfon Moutzopoulos (1874–1883) and (1895–1903) Aristides Skylitsis (1883–1887) Theodoros Retsinas (1887–1895) Pavlos Damalis (1903–1907) Dimisthenis Skylidis-Homiridis (1907–1914) Anastasios Panagiotopoulos (1914–1932) Mihail Rinopoulos (1932) Athanasios N. United States Rosario. France. Russia. Argentina Ostrava. Miaoulis (1932) Sotiris Stratigis (1932-1928) Michail Manoussos (1938–1941) Georgios Andrianopoulos (1951–1966) Georgios Kyriakakos (1966–1967) Aristidis Skylitsis (1967–1974) Vasilios Zeppos (1974–1975) Anastasios Voulodimos (1975–1978) Georgios Kyriakakos (1978–1982) Ioannis Papaspyrou (1982–1986) George Andrianopoulos (1987–1990) Stelios Logothetis (1991–1998) Christos Agrapidis (1999–2006) Panagiotis Fasoulas (2007.) . United States[18] Galaţi. Bulgaria Shanghai. Romania Varna. since 1965[17] Baltimore.Piraeus 191 Twin towns — Sister cities Piraeus is twinned with: • • • • • • • • • Marseille.

. . ISBN 0140440399. . Hellenic Interior Ministry. www. Piraeus" (http:/ / www. . . olp. Ville de Marseille. [12] "Piraeus Events.International and Interregional Ties" (http:/ / eng. ypes.Piraeus 192 Universities Institutes • University of Piraeus • Technological Education Institute of Piraeus See also • List of settlements in Attica • Never on Sunday . html). gr/ topiki. athens-today. www.profile of geographical entity including name variants" (http:/ / www.Piraeus" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-12-27. Penguin Classics. www. gr/ UserFiles/ f0ff9297-f516-40ff-a70e-eca84e2ec9b9/ D_diairesi. www. world-gazetteer. com/ piraeus/ three-kings-way-festival-gr-cen-trion. com/ node/ 4393). . www. spb. (1972). gr [3] "Characteristics" (http:/ / www. Saint Petersburg City Government. [16] "Marseille Official Website . . Rex. com/ e-olimpica_faliro. Hellenic Interior Ministry. aspx) (in Greek). [6] "ANEK Lines . Retrieved 2008-12-29. Retrieved 2008-12-27. [8] "The Port of Piraeus Through The Ages" (http:/ / www. htm). Retrieved 2008-12-28. Retrieved 2008-12-27. anek. Retrieved 2008-10-23. athens-today. world-guides. [17] "Saint Petersburg in figures . olp.gr.com. html). 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-09. History of the Peloponnesian War [19]. gr/ INDEXen. breathtakingathens. com/ port. External links • • • • Municipality of Piraeus [20] (Greek) Piraeus Port Authority [21] (Greek) (English) Prefecture of Piraeus [22] (Greek) (English) Online Port Travel Guide [23] (English) References [1] "Δείτε τη Διοικητική Διαίρεση" (http:/ / www. piraeus.anek. . Retrieved 2008-11-26.com. [4] "Presentation" (http:/ / www.com. . Festivals. . gov. greece.ypes. p. [5] "Piraeus by Maritime Database" (http:/ / www.Film about Piraeus • Geography of Greece References Bibliography • Warner. Finley. com/ piraeus_events.org. National Hellenic Research Foundation.gr.ypes. . Retrieved 2009-09-27. php?pid=2239). .maritime-database. Retrieved 2008-12-30.gr. htm). [2] http:/ / www. gr/ archaeologia/ gr/ 02_DELTIA/ Fortification_Walls. ypes. htm).gr.com. www. . . [10] Warner & Finley 1972. 152 [11] "World Gazetteer: Piraieús . fr/ vdm/ cms/ accueil/ mairie/ international/ pid/ 185) (in French). www. com/ wg. ru/ figures/ ities). Retrieved 2008-12-27. planetware. pireasnet. Moses I. www. www. . xls) (in Greek). Retrieved 2008-12-27. World Gazetteer.breathtakingathens. htm). Retrieved 2008-12-27. php?x=& men=gpro& lng=en& des=wg& geo=-92& srt=2pnn& col=adhoq& msz=1500& pt=c& va=& geo=460676364). [9] "Τα τείχη των Αθηνών" (http:/ / www.world-guides. maritime-database. html). [14] "Allou Fun Park" (http:/ / www. . marseille.Twin Cities" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-12-29. [15] "Athens 21st Century .com.The Olympic Coastal Complex" (http:/ / www. Things to Do: Events in Piraeus Area. htm).planetware. [13] "Three King's Way Festival. Greece" (http:/ / www. org/ poseidon/ work/ sea-ports/ piraeus.olp. [7] "Container terminal" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-09-27. gr/ INDEXen.piraeus. eie. greece. gr/ english/ dromol/ pireaus1.olp.gr.

google. gr/ [21] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-07-18. olp. baltimorecity. [19] http:/ / books. php). nomarhiapeiraia.Sister Cities Program" (http:/ / www.Piraeus [18] "Baltimore City Mayor's Office of International and Immigrant Affairs . org/ 193 . com/ books?id=qtu1RgcsELoC& dq [20] http:/ / www. gr/ [22] http:/ / www. . gov/ government/ intl/ sistercities. pireasnet. piraeus-greece. gr/ [23] http:/ / www.

Monastiraki Square. Panepistimiou Street. Location Athens Coordinates 37°58′N 23°43′E Government Country: Periphery: Prefecture: Districts: Mayor: Greece Attica Athens 7 Nikitas Kaklamanis  (ND) (since: 1 January 2007) Population statistics (as of 2001 [1] ) . the Hellenic Parliament. the Acropolis Museum. Athens by night.Athens 194 Athens Athens Αθήνα From upper left: the Acropolis.

industrial. Katharevousa (at plural): Ἀθῆναι.717 km2 (159 sq mi) 7604 /km2 (19695 /sq mi) Athens (pronounced /ˈæθɨnz/[3] .[9] [10] It is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy.Density: Urban  - Population:  - Area:  .cityofathens. and taking in the Hellenic .841 (in 2001)[1] and a land area of 412 km2 (159 sq mi). dominates the Attica periphery.[11] [12] largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then known European continent. the capital and largest city of Greece. Athina. IPA: [aˈθina].[5] A bustling and cosmopolitan metropolis. as one of the world's oldest cities. Greek: Αθήνα.[13] The heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city. The Greek capital has a population of 745.[4] According to Eurostat.368 (in 2004). Classical Athens was a powerful city-state. home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum.717 km2 (1131 sq mi) 1259 /km2 (3260 /sq mi) Other Time zone: Elevation (min-max): Postal: Telephone: Auto: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3) 70 - 338 m (230 - 1109 ft) 10x xx.[4] The urban area of Athens extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3. its recorded history spans around 3. widely considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. 120 xx 21 Yxx. Athens was ranked the world's 32nd richest city by purchasing power [7] and the 25th most expensive[8] in a UBS study.964 km2 (15 sq mi) 19133 /km2 (49555 /sq mi) 3130841 411.514 (in 2001) within its administrative limits[1] and a land area of 39 km2 (15 sq mi). dating back to 1830 (the establishment of the independent Greek state). the most famous of all being the Parthenon.130. A centre for the arts. learning and philosophy. as well as a smaller number of remaining Ottoman monuments projecting the city's long history across the centuries.Athens 195 City  - Population:  - Area:  .Density: Metropolitan  - Population:  - Area:  .world city. represented by a number of ancient monuments and works of art.gr [2] 745514 38. The city also retains a vast variety of Roman and Byzantine monuments. Landmarks of the modern era are also present. Athens is central to economic. Ixx (excluding ZAx and INx) Website www. 11x xx. In 2008. Zxx. financial.400 years.[6] It is rapidly becoming a leading business centre in the European Union. the Athens Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) is the 8th most populous LUZ in the European Union (the 4th most populous capital city of the EU) with a population of 4.013. Athinae). political and cultural life in Greece and it is rated as an alpha.Density: 3686371 2928.

In the 1920s a number of Greek refugees. . In the 19th century. History The oldest known human presence in Athens is the Cave of Schist which has been dated to between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. In 1896 it hosted the first modern Olympic Games. the expansion of the Athens Metro. Since the official abandonment of Katharevousa Greek in the 1970s.[16] [17] Classical Athens became the leading city of Ancient Greece in the 5th century BC. Statue of Athena. related tο name of the goddess Athena (Attic Ἀθηνᾶ [atʰɛːnȃː] and Ionic Ἀθήνη [atʰɛ́ːnɛː]). In 1453 it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and entered a long period of decline. as well as a lack of adequate free space due to overcongestion. Μυκῆναι (Mukēnai).[14] 196 Etymology See wiktionary: Athens for the name in various languages. and was relatively prosperous during the Crusades. and the new Athens International Airport). Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896. swelled Athens' population. Academy of Athens. and Δελφοί (Delphoi). The Parthenon and the Odeon of Herodes Atticus during the sunset. the patron goddess of Athens. considerably alleviated pollution and transformed Athens into a much more functional city. the Athens University and the Academy of Athens. It was eventually overcome by its rival city-state of Sparta. Ἀθῆναι (Athinai / [aˈθinɛ]) was formally re-adopted as the city's name. that the population of the city exploded. Athens re-emerged in the 19th century as the capital of the independent Greek state. Αθήνα (Athína / [aˈθina]) has become the city's official name.Athens Parliament (19th century) and the Athens Trilogy consisting of the National Library of Greece. benefiting from Italian trade. and Athens experienced a gradual expansion in all directions. expelled from Asia Minor after the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922). had evolved into the city's most important challenges.[15] Athens has been continuously inhabited for at least 7000 years. and 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics. and from the 1950s and 1960s.[18] By the end of Late Antiquity the city experienced decline followed by recovery in the second half of the Middle Byzantine Period (9th-10th centuries AD). with its cultural achievements laying the foundations of Western civilization. The city's name was in the plural. In the 1980s it became evident that smog from factories and an ever increasing fleet of automobiles. nevertheless it was most particularly following the World War II. like those of Θῆβαι (Thēbai). combined with a substantial improvement of the city's infrastructure (including the Attiki Odos motorway. the name of Athens was: Ἀθῆναι Greek pronunciation: [atʰɛ̑ːnaɪ]. In Ancient Greek. A series of anti-pollution measures taken by the city's authorities in the 1990s.

2002. Summers can be particularly hot and at times prone to smog and pollution related conditions (however.1 °C (95.Athens 197 Geography Athens sprawls across the central plain of Attica that is often referred to as the Attica Basin. Spring and fall (autumn) are considered ideal seasons for sightseeing and all kinds of outdoor activities. The geomorphology of Athens causes a temperature inversion phenomenon which. along with the failure of the Greek Government to control industrial pollution. Mount Parnitha is the tallest of the four mountains (1413 m (4636 ft))[19] and it has been declared a national park. with generally lower temperatures. Courtesy: NASA.9 °C (48.5 °F) in Hellenikon. disruption. February 1992. 12 February-13. in Nea Filadeflia and 10. Due to its location in a rain shadow because of Mount Parnitha the Athenian climate is much drier compared to most of the rest of Mediterranean Europe.0 °F). Athens is built around a number of hills. Mount Parnitha to the north. 4 January-6. with extremely long periods of sunshine throughout the year (2884 hours of sunshine per year at Thision meteorological station 1961-1990)[21] and with the greatest amounts of precipitation mainly occurring from mid-October to mid-April. The basin is bound by four large mountains. when hot air masses sweep across Greece from the south or the southwest.[17] [20] (Los Angeles and Mexico City also suffer with similar geomorphology inversion problems). The Saronic Gulf lies in the southwest.2 °F)[22] Athens is notorious for its heatwaves occurring generally during the months of July and/or August.[17] View of the Attica Basin from space. 2008. Lycabettus is one of the tallest hills of the city proper and allows the entire Attica Basin to be seen. Mount Penteli to the northeast and Mount Hymettus to the east of the Athens Metropolitan Area.3 °C (50. Mount Aegaleo to the west. much less so than in the past). is responsible for the air pollution problems the city has recently faced. snow blanketed large parts of the metropolitan area. 2004 and 16 February-18. Winter is mild. for their part. behind the Hymettus mountain range. causing havoc across much of the city. Fog is highly unusual in the city centre but it is more frequent to the east. On such days temperatures soar over 38 °C (100 °F)[23] Below are the average temperatures for the northern suburb of Nea Filadelfia . experience a somewhat differentiated climatic pattern. The mountainous northern suburbs. the city has experienced heavy snowfalls in the past decade. any precipitation is sparse during summer and it generally takes the form of showers and/or thunderstorms. Nonetheless. if any. Snowfalls are not common and these do not normally lead to significant. According to the National Observatory of Athens the average daytime maximum temperature in Thision (period 2001-2009) for the month of July is 35. During the blizzards of March 1987. Climate Athens experiences a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa). with a January average of 8.

6 (1..1 (57) 6.[28] including one that burned a significant portion of a large forested national park in Mount Parnitha.[29] which is considered critical to maintaining a better air quality in Athens all year round.7 (1.23) (0.0 13.6 (49) May 26.2 Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN) .9 (57) Jun 31. the appearance of smog (or nefos as the Athenians used to call it) has nowadays become an increasingly rare phenomenon.0 °C (118. In January 2007.[30] . In late June 2007.1 12.4 30.0 1.89) (0.[30] The crisis eased by mid-January when authorities began taking the garbage to a temporary landfill.3 (2.1 (88) 18.the carved details on the five the caryatids of the Erechtheum had seriously degenerated.21) (0.84) 130.7 (60) 6.8 (50) 58.2 (92) 20.8 6.[28] The major waste management efforts undertaken in the last decade (especially the plant built on the small island of Psytalia) have improved water quality in the Saronic Gulf.7 Dec 14.5 (73) 12. Hong Kong Observatory for data of sunshine hours European Temperature Record According to the World Meteorological Organisation Athens holds the official highest temperature record in Europe of 48. "..1 291.42) (0.8 (44) 69.7 (2.4 (42) Mar 15. Pollution and environment By the late 1970s.1 56.9 46. an Athenian suburb. air pollution still remains an issue for Athens (although to a limited degree).5 (92) 20.9 52.3 (63) Oct 23.7 (44) 40. Constantine Trypanis.4 °F)[26] which was recorded in Elefsina and Tatoi suburbs of Athens on 10 July.3 (74) 13.2 12. the pollution of Athens had become so destructive that according to the then Greek Minister of Culture.0 3.4 (56) Nov 18.0 9.07) 231.5 (56) 5.3) 2778.[28] the Attica region experienced a number of brush fires.3 [25] 207. Widespread measures taken by the Greek authorities throughout the 1990s have effectively improved the quality of air over the Attica Basin. rainy days Jan 12.24) (1.8 (69) Aug 33.2 (41) 198 Feb 13.8 22. particularly during the hottest summer days.9 10.0 3.24) (0.2 (68) 9.5 (55) 5.Athens Climate data for Athens Month Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Precipitation mm (inches) Sunshine hours Avg.3 (54) 414. Nevertheless.2 87.0 (79) 13.1 (16.9 341. Athens briefly faced a waste management problem when its landfill near Ano Liosia. 1977.7 276.2 (65) Jul 33.7 1.6) 182.7 7."[27] A series of strict measures that were taken by the authorities of the city throughout the 1990s finally resulted in a dramatic improvement of air quality. while the face of the horseman on the Parthenon's west side was all but obliterated.0 8.6 139.4 6. and the coastal waters of Athens are now accessible again to swimmers.1 (65) 9.2 10.1 Year 22.2 [24] 336.7 362.7 10.3) 153.55) (2.[28] Damage to the park has led to worries over a stalling in the improvement of air quality in the city.1 (2.2 Apr 20.2 (85) 17. reached capacity.72) 127.7 (69) Sep 29.6 5.

Greek Parliament. Neo-Classical. The centre The left apartment building constructed in the of Athens was largely rebuilt and this demanded the demolition of 1930s is an example of modern architecture in Athens. ranging from Greco-Roman. Many of the most prominent buildings of the city are either Greco-Roman or neo-classical in style. The Academy of Athens. In the 1950s and 1960s during the vast extension and development of Athens. Athens City Hall. They are usually all found together in the same areas as Athens lacks a certain uniformity of architectural style. several small and private neoclassical buildings. Some of the neo-classical buildings to be found are public buildings erected during the mid-nineteenth century under the guidance of Theophil Freiherr von Hansen and Ernst Ziller include the Athens Academy. to modern. Modern architecture Beginning in the 1930s. Walter Gropius designed the US Embassy and Eero Saarinen the east terminal of the Ellinikon Airport.[31] University of Athens.Athens 199 Urban Landscape Architecture The city of Athens contains a variety of different architectural styles. marble and aluminium and they often blended modern and classical elements. Old Parliament (1875–1932) (Now the National Historical Museum). while the right. the International style and other architectural movements such as Bauhaus and Art Deco influenced almost all of Greek architects and many private buildings like apartment buildings but also public buildings like schools were built in Athens according to these styles. era used new materials such as glass. The architects of that combines modern and classical elements. and Zappeion Hall. Areas with a great number of such buildings are Kolonaki and generally the centre of the city and neighbourhoods developed during those decades like Kypseli. . After World War II. built in the 1950s. modern architecture played a very important role. many internationally famous architects designed several buildings too. Mela Building in Kotzia square.

bars and restaurants. Dimitris Pikionis. 200 Neighbourhoods The Municipality of Athens is divided into several districts: Omonoia. Panormou-Gerokomeio. Pangration. Makrygianni. Kato Filothei. as well as Athens' nascent "Gay Village". Agios Nikolaos. as seen after the country's winning of the Euro 2004 and the Eurobasket 2005 tournaments. appropriately named Omonoia Station. and contains a train station used by the Athens Metro and the Ilektrikos. Thymarakia. Plaka. Prompona.Gazi. Profitis Daniil. It is surrounded by hotels and fast food outlets. Pericles A. Kato Petralona. Fix. Monastiraki. Rebetiko is admired by many. is located around a historic gas factory. Lofos Finopoulou. Aghios Pantileimonas. Metaxourgeio. Polygono. Pedion Areos. Larissa Station. now converted into the Technopolis cultural multiplex. Neapolis. Kypriadou. Zappeion. a unique form of music that blossomed in Syros and Athens from the 1920s until the 1960s. Pnyka. Kato Patisia. Kolonaki. Thission. dance and drink till dawn.Athens Great architects of the 1930s-1960s were Konstantinos Doxiadis. Kynosargous. Aghios Eleftherios. Psiri. Omonoia Square (Greek: Πλατεία Ομονοίας) is the oldest square in Athens. Koliatsou. Gazi. Aris Konstantidis and others. Sakellarios. Lofos Skouze. Ano Patisia. Psiri and Gazi The reviving Psiri (Greek: Ψυρρή) neighbourhood – a. Attikis Square. and also includes artists' areas. Lofos Filopappou. Gyzi. Exarcheia. Aghia Irini. sing. are also to be found. Kypseli. Anafiotika. Tourkovounia-Lofos Patatsou. Aghios Meletios. Ellinorosson. artists' spaces. Evaggelismos. Sepolia. Treis Gefyres. Kolonos. Syntagma. Omonoia Square. Nea Kypseli. as the blue line now stops at Gazi (Kerameikos station). Gouva. Rouf. Aghios Ioannis. The metro's system recent expansion to the western suburbs of the city has brought easier access to the area since spring 2007. Dexameni. Lofos Ardittou. Ano Kypseli. Koukaki. after rebetiko. Ampelokipoi. Aghios Spyridon. Ano Petralona. Kerameikos. Lofos Strefi. Omonoia Street in Plaka. Athens's "meat packing district" – is dotted with renovated former mansions. Kapnikarea. Lykavittos. Aghios Kostantinos. one of the latest in full redevelopment. . making it a hotspot for the city in the last decade. Pentagono. a number of small clubs. while a number of live music restaurants known as "rebetadika". Votanikos. Lofos Elikonos. Neos Kosmos. Acropolis.a. Aerides. The square often becomes the focus for celebration of sporting victories. and small gallery areas. A number of its renovated buildings also now host a wide variety of fashionable bars. and as a result rebetadika are often crammed with people of all ages who will The Technopolis. Akadimia Platonos. The Gazi (Greek: Γκάζι) area. Kolokynthou.k.

Complete with fashion shops and shopping centres promoting most international brands. lying just west of Monastiraki. It remains a traditionally prime tourist destination with a number of picturesque tavernas. live performances and street salesmen. Plaka. as well as its crowded flea market and tavernas specialising in souvlaki. is full of boutiques catering to well-heeled customers by day. located north of Kolonaki. This area also has a picturesque 11th Century Byzantine church. Exarcheia (Greek: Εξάρχεια).[32] Nearby. This is often regarded as one of the more prestigious areas of the capital. Nearby Monastiraki (Greek: Μοναστηράκι). is well-known for its string of small shops and markets. stylish cafés is Theseum or Thission (Greek: Θησείο).Athens Syntagma Syntagma Square. The Temple of Hephaestus in the central district of Thission. Ermou Street. and the tenth most expensive retail street in the world. at the base of Lycabettus hill. Art Deco and Early Modernism (including Bauhaus influences). Old Royal House. lying adjacent to the Greek Parliament (the former Royal Palace) and the city's most noted hotels. Thission is home to the ancient Temple of Hephaestus. for its part. has traditionally been a consumer paradise for both Athenians and tourists. Exarcheia is home to the Athens Polytechnic and the National Archaeological Museum. but at other points also a wide range of art galleries and museums. Kolonaki The Kolonaki (Greek: Κολωνάκι) area. it also contains numerous important buildings of several 20th-century styles: Neoclassicism. is famous for its plentiful neoclassical architecture. 201 View of Syntagma Square and Hellenic Parliament. lying just beneath the Acropolis. making up one of the most scenic districts of the city. and Thission Plaka (Greek: Πλάκα). (Greek: Σύνταγμα/Constitution Square). Exarcheia Kolonaki Square. it now finds itself in the top 5 most expensive shopping streets in Europe. the renovated Army Fund building in Panepistimiou Street includes the "Attica" department store and several upmarket designer stores. is the capital's central and largest square. as well as a 15th Century Ottoman mosque. and bars and more fashionable restaurants by night. Monastiraki. standing atop a small hill. bars and bookshops. has a mixed reputation as the recent or current location of the city's anarchist scene and as a culturally active student quarter with many cafés. . Another district notably famous for its student-crammed. an approximately 1 km-long pedestrian road connecting Syntagma Square to Monastiraki.

Agios Stefanos. the upgraded main Olympic Complex (known by its Greek acronym OAKA) dominates the skyline. futuristic glass. or the suburban railroad).[33] is also connected to the city centre by a tram. which is not excessive in most cases. Heraklio. the northern suburbs (including Ekali. The Athens city coastline. some 25 km (16 mi)[35] from downtown Athens. . to be named the Hellenikon Metropolitan Park. Casinos operate on both Mount Parnitha. with steel arches. Melissia. Cholargos. Ilion. Petroupoli and Nikaia). Maroussi. Psychiko and Filothei). Palaio Faliro. Kaisariani. Voula. landscaped gardens. Pefki.Athens 202 Suburbs The Athens Metropolitan Area consists of 73 densely populated municipalities. extending from the major commercial port of Piraeus to the southernmost suburb of Varkiza for some 25 km (20 mi). sprawling around the city in virtually all directions. next to the sea at the beach of Kallithea (Faliron). the eastern suburbs. View of parts of the city's northern suburbs at Kryoneri. Papagou and Aghia Paraskevi. most of which are operated by the Greek National Tourism Organisation and require an entrance fee. Vrilissia. Egaleo. (including Palaio Faliro.[34] Many of the southern suburbs (such as Alimos. (including Acharnes. Kifissia. the suburbs are divided into four zones. The whole area has been redeveloped according to a design by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. Lykovrisi. According to their geographic location in relation to the city of Athens. Glyfada. Elliniko. Voula and the southernmost suburb of Vouliagmeni). Glyka Nera. Zografou. Vouliagmeni and Varkiza) host a number of sandy beaches. fountains. Dionysos. Nea Erythrea. Halandri. also features modern stadia. Work is underway to transform the grounds of the old Athens Airport – named Hellinikon – in the southern suburbs. night. and the western suburbs (including Peristeri. Pendeli. Elliniko. (accessible by car or cable car) and the nearby town of Loutraki (accessible by car via the Athens – Corinth National Highway. into one of the largest landscaped parks in Europe. the southern suburbs. In the northern suburb of Maroussi. Drosia. shops and an elevated esplanade. Alimos. A second Olympic complex. Vyronas. and a landmark new blue glass roof which was added to the main stadium.

7 hectares near National Archaeological Museum which is currently under renovation. The route in its entirety provides visitors with views of the Parthenon and the Agora (the meeting point of ancient Athenians).[36] [37] The landmark Dionysiou Aeropagitou street has been pedestrianised. continues under the southern slopes of the Acropolis near Plaka. Parts of the city centre have been redeveloped under a masterplan called the Unification of Archeological Sites of Athens. torrents and caves do the protected area. There is also Pedion tou Areos (Field of Mars) of 27.5 hectares in the center of the Greek capital. forming a scenic route. springs. gorges. It's located between the Parliament and Zappeion buildings the latter of which has its own garden of 7 hectares. The National Garden of Athens was completed in 1840 and is a green refuge of 15. In the National Gardens. away from the busy city centre. Culture and contemporary life Athens from the Acropolis with the Lycabettus hill at the background. Philopappos hill and the area around it including Pnyx and Ardettos hill are all planted with pines and other trees and they are more like small forests than typical urban parks. The route starts from the Temple of Olympian Zeus at Vasilissis Olgas Avenue. Lycabettus.Athens 203 Parks Parnitha National Park has well-marked paths. which has also gathered funding from the EU to help enhance the project. and finishes just beyond the Temple of Hephaestus in Thiseio. Hiking and mountain-biking in all four mountains remain popular outdoor activities for many residents of the city. The hills of Athens provide also green space. .

A close-up view of the Philopappos Monument. Detail from the Erechtheum on the Acropolis. At any given time. and is the venue of several hundred specialized lectures. the Archaeological Society. as well as museums at the ancient Agora. several archaeological Museums (including the National Archaeological Museum. Athens hosts 17 Foreign Archaeological Institutes which promote and facilitate research by scholars from their respective home countries. .Athens 204 Archaeological hub The city is one of the world's main centres of archaeological research. Apart from national institutions. conferences and seminars. the Epigraphic Museum. the city is also home to the Demokritos laboratory for Archaeometry as well as several regional and national archaeological authorities that form part of the Greek Department of Culture. the Byzantine Museum. and Kerameikos). as well as dozens of archaeological exhibitions. per year. the Cycladic Museum. Additionally. The Temple of Olympian Zeus. Acropolis. such as Athens University. Athens has more than a dozen archaeological libraries and three specialized archaeological laboratories. As a result. Athens is the (temporary) home to hundreds of international scholars and researchers in all disciplines of archaeology.

000 years. has funded major infrastructure projects such as the state-of-the-art Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport. Its artifacts cover a period of more than 5. including the Athens Concert Hall. The Museum of Cycladic Art contains an extensive collection of Cycladic art icluding the famous figurines made of white marble. Over the past decade. The Byzantine and Christian Museum is one of the most important museums of Byzantine art while the Numismatic Museum houses a great collection of Greek coins. Byzantine and ottoman Greek art.[42] located in Andrea Syngrou Avenue is one of the best equipped digital planetariums in the world. which runs from May to October each year. The city also supports a vast number of music venues. home to the Athens Festival. Athens plays host to a variety of romantic. Entertainment and performing arts Athens is home to 148 theatrical stages.[41] The Athens Planetarium. from late Neolithic Age to Roman Greece. which attracts world-famous artists all year round. . aided by the EU. Islamic art and Chinese art and others.[38] the expansion of the Athens Metro system.[36] The National Archaeological Museum in central Athens.[36] and the new Attiki Odos Motorway. opened in 2009. The Greek Government. replaced the old one which was on the Acropolis. The new museum is receiving much popularity.Athens 205 Museums The most important museums of Athens are: the National Archaeological Museum which is also the most important archaeological museum of Greece and some of the most important internationally as it contains a vast collection of antiquities.[43] Odeon of Herodes Atticus. Tourism Athens has been a popular destination for travellers since antiquity. The New Acropolis Museum. The Benaki Museum with several branches for each of its collections which include ancient. more than any other city in the world. the city's infrastructure and social amenities have improved. There are also many other museums often private and smaller concerning Greek culture and arts. Almost 1 million people visited it during the summer period (June-October 2009). in part due to its successful bid to stage the 2004 Olympic Games. including the famous ancient Herodes Atticus Theatre. National Historical Museum (Old Parliament).[39] [40] In addition to a large number of multiplexes. open air garden cinemas. known as the "Mégaron Musikis".

. The 2004 Summer Olympics inspired the development of the Athens Olympic Stadium. host of the 1971 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final. Athenian clubs have made significant domestic and international success so far in other sports as well. including the Athens Chapter of the Sierra Club. Panathinaikos. Four mountain ranges extend into city boundaries and thousands of miles of trails crisscross the city and neighbouring areas. has also been hosted in the capital's venues. AEK Athens. A large number of events in other sports such as athletics. The other major stadium of Athens.Athens 206 Sports Athens has a long tradition in sports and sporting events. and the capital is the only major city in Europe to be bisected by a mountain range. volleyball. rock climbing. because during census-taking (carried out once every 10 years) some Athenian residents travel back to their birthplaces.[49] [50] . These clubs have also prominent basketball departments. both at the Peace and Friendship Stadium.2 million (population including the suburbs). Other clubs with great tradition in sports within Athens are Panionios. however. Athens has hosted the Euroleague final three times. located in Piraeus area. in 1994 and 2007.[47] [48] Also unaccounted for is an undefined number of unregistered immigrants originating mainly from Albania. refer to a population of around 5 million people for Athens.[45] and the third in 2007 at the Olympic Indoor Hall. Inside the Olympic Stadium of Athens Spiros Louis. various sources Athens population distribution. and register as local citizens there. with AEK Athens being the first Greek team to win a European trophy in any team sports.[46] Reflecting this uncertainty about population figures. the first in 1985 and second in 1993. one of the largest and most attractive indoor arenas in Europe.[1] The actual population.000 outings annually in the area. providing exercise and wilderness access on foot and bike. Panellinios. In football. Athens is home to three prestigious European multi-sport clubs: Olympiacos. Ethnikos Piraeus and Maroussi.514[1] with a metropolitan population of 3. Panathinaikos and Olympiacos are among the top powers in European basketball having won the Euroleague five times and once respectively.[44] The biggest stadium in Greece has hosted two finals of the UEFA Champions League. other Eastern European countries and Pakistan. Athens has hosted the Summer Olympic Games twice. while AEK Athens is the other member of the big three. which has gained a reputation as one of the most beautiful stadia in the world and one of the most interesting modern monuments. notably hills and mountains rising around the city. which leads over 4. Panathinaikos made it to the 1971 European Cup Final. is the Karaiskakis Stadium. a state-of-the-art sports and entertainment complex. Numerous outdoor clubs serve these sports. in 1896 and 2004. water polo etc. is believed to be higher. most known as SEF. being home of the most important clubs in Greek sports and having a large number of sports facilities. Demographics The municipality of Athens has an official population of 745. Olympiacos have dominated the domestic competitions. including skiing. hang gliding and windsurfing. The city has also served as a host of several sports events of international notability. Beyond Athens and across the county a great variety of outdoor activities are available and popular. The Athens area encompasses a variety of terrain.

.514 [53] Administration Athens became the capital of Greece in 1834. Throughout its long history. The rapid expansion of the city initiated in the 1950s and 1960s continues today. The table below shows the historical population of Athens in recent times.810 [54] [55] 44.[1] which makes it one of the largest urban areas of the European Union.737 772. which is part of the urban area. is that of Piraeus. the municipality of Athens is the capital of the Attica Periphery and the Athens Prefecture. The Athens Prefecture (blue). It spans 412 km2 (159 sq mi)[4] and has a population of 3. with Peristeri and Kallithea following.023 885. but it has now been absorbed into greater Athens. Athens can refer either to the municipality of Athens or to the entire urban area. In addition.761.500 123. Year City population 4.130. By this process Athens has engulfed many former suburbs and villages in Attica.Athens 207 The ancient site of the city is centred on the rocky hill of the acropolis. In ancient times the port of Piraeus was a separate city.000 1921 (Post-Population exchange) 718. The second largest municipality of the urban area. the freeway that cuts across Attica). The Athens urban area consists of 55 municipalities. Athens has experienced many different population levels. after Athens city proper.841 [55] Urban population Metro population 1833 1870 1896 1921 (Pre-Population exchange) 3.[51] The expansion is now particularly toward the East and North East (a tendency greatly related to the new Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport and the Attiki Odos.444.000 473.841 (in 2001). It sometimes refers only to the Athens Prefecture.130. because of the transition from an agricultural to an industrial nation.000[52] 1971 1981 1991 2001 867. following Nafplion which was the provisional capital from 1829. and continues to do so.000 [52] [52] [52] [17] [55] 3. within the periphery of Attica (grey).358 3. 48 of the Athens Prefecture and the 7 of the mainland Piraeus Prefecture. Athens urban area shown here with its 55 municipalities.072 745.

The entrance of the National Library of Greece. Ilissia. with an area of 3808 km2 (1470 sq mi). The second higher education institution in the city is the Athens Polytechnic School (Ethniko Metsovio Politechnio). It is. For a traveller unfamiliar with Athens. Patissia. called dimotika diamerismata. Along with the Piraeus Prefecture. It is divided into seven municipal districts.[56] against the military junta that ruled the nation from 21 April 1967 until 23 July 1974. found in Patission Street. West Attica Prefecture. the old campus of the University of Athens. The 7-district division is mainly used for administrative purposes. with around 3. the National Library. however.[4] Athens Prefecture The Athens Prefecture is the most populous of the Prefectures of Greece.[1] The Attica Periphery itself is split into four prefectures.776 people (in 2001). which encompasses the most populated region of Greece. familiarity with the contours of these neighbourhoods can often be particularly useful in both exploring and understanding the city.[4] The current mayor of Athens is the New Democracy politician.Athens 208 Attica Periphery Athens is located within the Attica Periphery. Koukaki and Kypseli. each with its own distinct history and characteristics.514 people (in 2001)[1] and an area of 39 km2 (15 sq mi). Piraeus Prefecture. and the East Attica Prefecture. Petralona.[4] It is made up by 48 municipalities. Exarcheia. . more than 13 students were killed and hundreds injured inside the university during the Athens Polytechnic uprising. accounting 2. For Athenians the most popular way of dividing the city proper is through its neighbourhoods. it forms the Athens-Piraeus super-prefecture.664. one of the smaller peripheries in Greece. Nikitas Kaklamanis. Athens Municipality The municipality of Athens is the most populous in Greece. they include the Athens Prefecture. This was the location where on 17 November 1973. 361 km2 (139 sq mi).[1] with an area of The seven districts of Athens municipality. modern campus located in the eastern suburb of Zográfou.7 million people. Education Located on Panepistimiou Street. Most of the university's workings have been moved to a much larger. with a population of 745. each one of which has an elected district council and a directly elected mayor. and the Athens Academy form the "Athens Trilogy" built in the mid-19th century. Ambelokipi. such as Pagkrati.

[60] Extensions to both these lines are under construction.[59] The Athens Metro supports an operating staff of 387 and runs two of the three metro lines. the city's Metro. The spring 2007 extension from Monastiraki westwards.[57] and the Athens Suburban Railway service. a tram line connecting the southern suburbs to the city centre. The eastern part is actually no extension per se. to Egaleo. but Syntagma Station of the Athens Metro. rather an opening of new stations between the Ethniki Amyna and Doukissis Plakentias stations. using the Suburban Railway infrastructure and extending its distance to 39 km (24 mi). namely the ones of Gazi (Kerameikos station) with Psirri (Monastiraki station) and the city centre (Syntagma station). runs from Aghios Antonios to Aghios Dimitrios and covers a distance of 11. and eastward toward the easternmost suburb of Exhibition of antiquities in the luxurious Aghia Paraskevi.[58] Highway interchange in the northern suburb of Maroussi. .000 passengers. Athens Metro The Athens Metro is more commonly known in Greece as the Attiko Metro (Greek: Αττικό Mετρό). namely the Egaleo station.[60] with a daily occupancy of 550.6 km (7 mi). in counterpart. While its main purpose is transport. a trolleybus fleet that mainly serves the downtown area.Athens 209 Transportation The Athens Mass Transit System consists of a large bus fleet.[60] then ascending to ground level and reaching Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport. covering a distance of 16 km (10 mi). through the central Monastiraki and Syntagma stations to Doukissis Plakentias avenue in the northeastern suburb of Halandri. southwards to the Old Hellinikon Airport East Terminal (the future Metropolitan Park).[60] its two lines (red and blue) were constructed largely during the 1990s. and the lines run entirely underground. connected some of the main night life hubs of the city. western suburbs. The metro network operates a fleet of 42 trains consisting of 252 cars.[60] The Blue Line runs from the Panormou Station of the Athens Metro. it also houses Greek artifacts found during construction of the system.[60] The Red Line. most notably westwards to Piraeus. and the initial sections opened in January 2000.

[64] Attiko Metro (lines 2 & 3) and Proastiakós (line 4).[63] The Proastiakos will be extended to Xylokastro west of Athens and Chalkida.[61] with a network length of 25.[66] Of those 1. and a fleet of 1. is the ISAP (Greek: ΗΣΑΠ).Athens Electric railway (ISAP) The third line. as they are referred to in the name of the operating company. with an operating staff of 5. it serves 22 stations. Its network consists of about 300 bus lines which span the entire Attica Basin.[68] . a 25. a suburb located 23 km (14 mi) to the north of the city centre.[62] connects the port of Piraeus to the northern suburb of Kifissia. or ILPAP (Greek: ΗΛΠΑΠ).[68] All of the 366 trolleybuses are equipped to enable them to run on diesel in case of power failure. This is the Green line of the Athens Metro as shown on the adjacent map.[63] The urban and suburban railway system is managed by three different companies.[63] and is expected to stretch to 281 km (175 mi) by 2010.[65] Suburban Rail.839 buses.[67] Besides being served by a fleet of natural-gas and diesel buses.[61] and a An ISAP train (Green Line) passes by the Stoa of daily occupancy rate of 600. This same operation runs the original metro line from Piraeus to Kifisia. reaching to 36 km (22 mi). Buses Ethel (Greek: ΕΘΕΛ) (Etaireia Thermikon Leoforeion). consists of 22 lines with an operating staff of 1. 210 Suburban rail (Proastiakos) The Proastiakós connects Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport to the city of Corinth.[61] The historic Green Attalus in central Athens. via the central Larissa train station and the port of Piraeus.9 mi). namely ISAP. The Suburban Rail network currently extends to a length of 120 km (75 mi). Line. the Athens metropolitan area is also served by trolleybuses — or electric buses. The network operated by Electric Buses of the Athens and Pireaus Region.[61] an operating staff of 730 and a fleet of 44 trains and 243 cars. and unlike the red and blue routes running entirely underground.000 passengers.[66] making up the largest fleet of natural gas-powered buses in Europe. and is set to be extended to Agios Stefanos.137.6 km (15. ISAP runs either above-ground or below-ground at different sections of its journey. the Electric Railway Company. 80 km (50 mi)[63] west of Athens. is the main operator of buses in Athens. not run by the Athens Metro. and is sometimes considered the fourth line of the Athens Metro.839 buses 416 run on compressed natural gas. or Thermal Bus Company.327.6 km (16 mi)-long and 24-station line which forms the oldest and for the most part runs at ground level.

In 2007. and 2 express bus services connect the airport to the port at Piraeus and the city centre respectively.[74] and 10. E75).4 km (3 mi).7% over the previous year of 2006.[69] employ 345 people with an average daily occupancy of 65. Railways. the first runs along the Athens coastline toward the southern suburb of Voula. The Ymittos Periphery Highway is a separate section of Attiki Odos connecting the eastern suburb of Kaisariani to the northeastern town of Glyka Nera.390 passengers. where the line splits in two branches.538. some 35 km (22 mi) east of Athens. Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport Athens is served by the state-of-the-art Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport (AIA) located near the town of Spata.387 passed through the airport for domestic flights.[72] with its 24 passenger boarding bridges. it was constructed in a record 51 months costing 2.[69] which serve 48 stations. connecting the airport to the metro system. AIA handled 205. a ring road toll-motorway (Attiki Odos) was gradually completed.[69] The expansion to Piraeus will include 12 new stations. an increase of 9. while the other heads toward the Piraeus district of Neo Faliro. E94) and the other heading to the north. connecting the capital with major cities across Greece and abroad (Istanbul.Athens 211 Tram Athens Tram SA operates a fleet of 35 vehicles. or approximately 562 flights per day. From 2001 to 2004. this is where it meets the main part of the ring road. extending from the western industrial suburb of Elefsina all the way to the Athens International Airport. Thessaloniki (GR-1.[69] This network runs from Syntagma Square to the southwestern suburb of Palaio Faliro. Athens International Airport control tower.[73] and a small museum. The network covers the majority of the Saronic coastline.390 passengers. Sofia. towards Greece's second largest city.[72] The airport was awarded the "European Airport of the Year 2004" Award. increase the overall length of the tram by 5. and increase the overall transportation network. Ferries departing from the major port of Piraeus connect the city to the numerous Greek islands of the Aegean Sea. highways and ferry connections Athens is the hub of the country's national railway system (OSE).003 passengers travelled through for international flights.[73] An express bus service is provided. 5.583.[74] Of those 16.[72] and a commercial area of 7000 m2 (75347 sq ft) which includes cafes.2 billion euros.955. The span of the Attiki Odos in .294 total flights in 2007. and Bucharest).[69] The tram network spans a total length of 27 km (17 mi) and covers ten Athenian suburbs.[71] Athens Tram.000 passengers.[72] 144 check-in counters and broader 150000 m2 (1614587 sq ft) main terminal. Eleftherios Venizelos accommodates 65 landings and take-offs per hour. one heading towards the western city of Patras in Peloponessus (GR-8A. duty-free shops. There are two main highways. and employing a staff of 14.000.[73] Intended as an expandable hub for air travel in southeastern Europe.[70] Further extensions are planned towards the major commercial port of Piraeus. the airport handled 16.[74] Beyond the dimensions of its passenger capacity.[75] Check-in desks at the Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport.538. in the eastern Messoghia plain.

preparations continued at a highly accelerated. by IOC President Jacques Rogge for their return to the birthplace of the Olympics. and the only major stadium (in its capacity of 60. the Kallimarmaro Stadium. conceived by the avant transformed into a more functional city that enjoys state-of-the-art garde choreographer Dimitris Papaioannou. The intercalated competitions were intermediate games to the internationally organized olympics. The opening ceremony of the 1896 Summer Olympics in Kallimarmaron Stadium. the cities of Buenos Aires. and were meant to be organized in Greece. In the last round of voting. the same material used for construction of the Parthenon. who was the president of the original Bidding Committee in 1997.[77] Some of the finest sporting venues in the world were created in the city.[14] During the first three years of preparations.[77] The 2004 Games were judged a huge success. all of which were fully ready for the games. as both security and organization were exceptionally good. Thanks to his efforts.000) to be made entirely of white marble from Mount Penteli.000 athletes from all 202 countries. having received fewer votes. In 1896. 1906 Summer Olympics The 1906 Summer Olympics. Although the heavy cost was criticized. From that point on. to Atlanta. 2004 Summer Olympics Athens was awarded the 2004 Summer Olympics on 5 September 1997 in Lausanne. the city had an approximate population of 123. by Frenchman Pierre de Coubertin.[77] The only . Athens was awarded the first modern Olympic Games. Switzerland. were held very successfully in Athens.000[52] and the event helped boost the city's international profile.[14] It was to be the second time Athens would have the honour of hosting the games. as is The Olympic Flame at the Opening Ceremony of usually the case with most Olympic cities. Of the venues used for these Olympics. the 1997 bid was radically improved also including an appeal to Greece's Olympic history. and for superbly meeting the challenges of holding the Olympic Games.5 billion. Stockholm and Cape Town had already been eliminated from competition. The Kallimarmaro is a replica of the ancient Athenian stadiums.[14] Prior to this round. estimated at $1. after having lost a previous bid to host the 1996 Summer Olympics. United States. and only a few visitors reported minor problems mainly concerning accommodation issues. technology both in transportation and in modern urban development. The 2004 Olympic Games were described as Unforgettable.[76] 212 Olympic Games 1896 Summer Olympics 1896 brought forth the revival of the modern Olympic Games. or the 1906 Intercalated games. Athens defeated Rome with 66 votes to 41. The games welcomed over 10. After 1990's unsuccessful bid. In 2000 the Organising Committee's president was replaced by Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki. and Zappeion were most crucial. This idea later lost support from the IOC and these games were not made permanent. Athens was literally the 2004 Olympic Games. following the inaugural event of 1896.Athens all is 65 km (40 mi). almost frenzied pace. the International Olympic Committee had repeatedly expressed some concern over the speed of construction progress for some of the new Olympic venues. dream Games.

Armenia (1993) Partnerships • • [101] Belgrade. graffiti or strewn with rubbish. . which was higher than any other Olympics with the exception of Sydney (more than 5 million tickets were sold there in 2000). Lebanon Bethlehem. Peru (1991) [92] Istanbul. Serbia (1966) [102] Paris. Italy [96] Nicosia. Spain (1999) [85] Beijing. with several squatter camps having sprung up around certain facilities. Olympic Properties SA. Eventually. Albania Washington. Illinois. as most of the facilities used for the Athens Olympics are either in use or in the process of being converted for post-Olympics use. United States [99] (2000) [100] Yerevan. development and conversion of these facilities. are disputable and most likely inaccurate.5 million tickets were sold. Russia [95] Naples.[83] 213 International relations Twin towns — Sister cities Athens is twinned with: • • • • • • • • [84] Barcelona. however. Romania Chicago.[78] In 2008 it was reported that almost all of the Olympic venues have fallen into varying states of disrepair: according to those reports. Palestinian Territories [87] [88] (1986) [89] Bucharest. and a number of venues afflicted by vandalism.C. South Korea (2006) [98] Tirana. California. France (2000) Embassy of Spain in Dionisiou Areopagitou pedestrian street. 21 of the 22 facilities built for the games have either been left abandoned or are in a state of dereliction. which is overseeing the post-Olympics management. some of which will be sold off (or have already been sold off) to the private sector. China (2005) [86] Beirut. Cyprus (1988) [97] Seoul. or have been converted for commercial use or modified for other sports. D. a total of more than 3.[82] while other facilities are still in use just as they were during the Olympics.. Turkey • • • • • • • • Los Angeles.Athens observable problem was a somewhat sparse attendance of some early events.[79] [80] [81] These claims. United [93] States (1984) [94] Moscow. however. The Greek Government has created a corporation. United States [90] (1997) [91] Cusco.

Athens 214 Other locations nicknamed "Athens" • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Athens of Ayrshire – Troon. Florida.gr [105] . United States Athens of Indiana – Crawfordsville. Germany Athens on the Spree – Berlin.Athenian Owl coins in Numis website [107]the Athens facts Kronoskaf. Tamaulipas.A guide to Athens and the Greek islands . Maranhão. Russia Athens of the South – Tampa.) – Lexington. Italy Serbian Athens – Novi Sad.Simulation of Athens in 421 BC Zoomable Athens Panorama [109] Athens Greece [110] . Scotland Athens of the South – Nashville.City of Athens official website EIE. Indiana. Finland Athens of Florida – DeLand. New Zealand Athens of the West (early 19th c. United States Athens of Latin America – Santo Domingo. United States See also • • • • • • • • • Agricultural University of Athens Athens University of Economics and Business Cleocritus Eurovision Song Contest 2006 Hellenic civilization Large Cities Climate Leadership Group List of museums in Greece Panteion University of Athens Politics of Greece References External links • • • • • • • • Athens Greece [103] .gr [104] .Granada. United States Athens of the West – Berkeley. Czech Republic Lusa Athens – Coimbra. United States Athens on the Isar – Munich. Egypt Athens of Finland – Jyväskylä. Italy Athens of South America – Bogotá.com [108] . India Athens of the Middle Ages – Florence. Nicaragua Athens of Minas Gerais – Juiz de Fora. Slovakia Brazilian Athens – São Luís.info [106] . Germany Athens on the Torysa – Prešov. California. Serbia Siberian Athens – Tomsk. Cuba Athens of Egypt – Alexandria.Page on Archaeology of the City of Athens in the National Hellenic Research Foundation website Ancients. Dominican Republic Athens of Nicaragua . Italy • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Athens of the North – Edinburgh. Colombia Athens of Tamaulipas – Matamoros. Italy Sardinian Athens – Nuoro. United States Athens of the Southern Hemisphere – Dunedin. Hungary Athens of the East – Madurai. Portugal Little Athens – Pietrasanta. United States Athens of Sicily – Catania. Scotland Athens of Cuba – Matanzas. Brazil Czech Athens – Krnov. Mexico Athens of the Bodrog – Sárospatak. Florida. Brazil Athens of North America – Boston.City of Athens official visitors' website Cityofathens.

. jsp?obj_id=90& lhmma_id=3817). org/ 063/ c00177. Retrieved 2010-01-25.com. 2008. org/ DownloadPDF. htm). . citymayors. Σουφλιά για την Πάρνηθα" (http:/ / www. noa. yppo.Greek History" (http:/ / www. ac. . "The City the Gods Besieged". ypes. parnitha-np. Parnitha-np. html). make.gr .com.gr.com). doc) (in Greek) (. [27] "Acropolis: Threat of Destruction" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-02-10. htm) . . . www. lyceum/ index.gr. htm). gov. . . Parnitha. Retrieved 2009-09-09. New York: Three Rivers Press.ypes. . (1990). .ethnos. com/ encyclopedia_1741501460/ Ancient_Greece. [20] "Daily Report on Air Pollution Levels" (http:/ / www. . p. [16] S. htm). CNN. Retrieved 2008-05-12. Hellenic Interior Ministry. redorbit. britannica. 1977-01-31. and the city is generally considered to be the birthplace of Western civilization. . . com/ features/ cost_survey. Niki (2007-07-16). John C. com/ articles/ 2007/ 07/ 16/ news/ greece. hk/ wxinfo/ climat/ world/ eng/ europe/ gr_tu/ athens_e. ISBN 0-609-80815-X. minenv. gr/ 1/ 12/ 122/ 12204/ e1220400. edu/ europe-highest-temperature). gr/ h/ 2/ eh251.9171.τεχνες . sportsillustrated. iht. [11] "Athens" (http:/ / www. Harlow. ethnos. [7] "City Mayors: World's richest cities by purchasing power" (http:/ / www. [22] "National Observatory of Athens. 2008. Retrieved 2007-03-28. International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2009-03-21. html). [29] Hellenic Ministry for the Environment.cnn. . msn. bearable). xls) (in Greek). gr/ forecast/ bolam/ index. Immerwahr. "As forest fires burn. [28] Kitsantonis. www. bbc. urbanaudit. Retrieved 2008-12-31. . uk/ history/ ancient/ greeks/ greekdemocracy_01. Retrieved 2007-12-28. Retrieved 2008-02-03." [12] BBC History on Greek Democracy (http:/ / www. www. suffocated Athens is outraged" (http:/ / www. Press release. Retrieved 17 April 2010. aroundgreece. minenv. com/ WORLD/ 9701/ 16/ greece. Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC) based at the geography department of Loughborough University. Retrieved 17 April 2010. ashx?CityCode=GR001C) (PDF). co. Retrieved 2009-04-21. noa. cnn. Physical Planning. typoy. helps.. gr [3] Wells. html). htm). weather. Retrieved 2008-01-15. p. html) – Retrieved on 26 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-03.com. jsp?obj_id=1761) – Retrieved 16 February 2007 [32] "Cushman & Wakefield . gr/ forecast/ bolam/ index.gr. php). com/ economics/ usb-purchasing-power.gr. [21] "National Observatory of Athens. 48. 2007-01-30. culture. com/ news/ science/ 819945/ rot_sets_in_as_athenss_trash_problem_mounts/ index. gr/ article. Archived (http:/ / www. . 266. & Public Works (2007-07-18). [23] "European Space Agency to help Athens become bearable in summer" (http:/ / esciencenews. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 40773/ Athens). [31] Hellenic Ministry of Culture: The Old Parliament Building (http:/ / www. "Greece uncovers 'holy grail' of Greek archeology" (http:/ / www. gr/ download/ 2007-07-18. England: Longman. webcitation. com/ olympics/ news/ 1997/ 09/ 05/ athens_update/ ). Preserving the World's Great Cities: The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. "Sentiment a factor as Athens gets 2004 Olympics" (http:/ / sportsillustrated. Retrieved 17 April 2010. com/ ancient-greece-history/ sparta-greece. The Athenian Agora XII: the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. [15] "v4. . [9] "Contents and Principles of the Programme of Unification of the Archaeological Sites of Athens" (http:/ / www.918645. cnn. πολιτισμος" (http:/ / www. city. Retrieved 2008-12-26. "Συνολική καμένη έκταση πυρήνα Εθνικού Δρυμού Πάρνηθας: 15. . 2008. cityofathens. time. php). gr/ topiki. Longman pronunciation dictionary.Οι πρώτοι. Greece" (http:/ / www. [25] "Climatological Information for Athens.The world's most expensive cities" (http:/ / www. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. Time Magazine (Time. lboro. .News & Events" (http:/ / www. [6] "The World According to GaWC 2008" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2007-01-06. gr/ UserFiles/ f0ff9297-f516-40ff-a70e-eca84e2ec9b9/ D_diairesi. . City Mayors. citymayors. worldweather.yppo. Cushwake. [19] "Welcome!!!" (http:/ / www.Global real estate solutions . Hellenic Interior Ministry.Monthly bulletins" (http:/ / cirrus.Hong Kong Observatory [26] "Europe's highest temperature" (http:/ / wmo.doc). htm). meteo. html).723 (Σύνολο 38. Hellenic Ministry of Culture.gr. [14] CNN & Sports Illustrated (1997-09-05). Hellenic Ministry of the Environment and Public Works. com/ articles/ 2009/ 08/ 29/ esa.00. [18] "Sparta Ancient Greece . gr/ welcome. Retrieved 2007-01-26.gr. "Ancient Greek Athenai. 2007-04-05. Αθηναίοι . Retrieved 2009-04-03. ypes. more. com/ cwglobal/ jsp/ newsDetail. ISBN 0582053838. . "Athina" (http:/ / www. Princeton 1971 [17] Tung. [8] "City Mayors: Cost of living . [2] http:/ / www.ypes. jsp?repId=c7800055p& LanId=EN& LocId=GLOBAL). City Mayors. .000)" [30] "Rot sets in as Athens's trash problem mounts" (http:/ / www. . Ethnos. cushwake. "Συνέντευξη Τύπου Γ. uk/ gawc/ world2008. .minenv. summer.. [10] CNN & Associated Press (1997-01-16). [5] Urban Audit. Retrieved 2009-06-10. gr/ 4/ e4000. . html).com. Retrieved 2007-03-28.Monthly bulletins" (http:/ / cirrus. entry "Athens" [4] "Characteristics" (http:/ / www. org/ 5kwKobzGL) 2009-10-31. 2006-10-25. Anthony (2001). Aroundgreece. historic city and capital of Greece. [24] "Weather Information for Athens" (http:/ / www. asu. www. . meteo.Athens 215 References [1] "Δείτε τη Διοικητική Διαίρεση" (http:/ / www. shtml) – Accessed on 26 January 2007 [13] Encarta: Ancient Greece (http:/ / encarta. Retrieved 200-12-31. asp?catid=11380& subid=2& tag=8796& pubid=2530782). html). html). Many of classical civilization’s intellectual and artistic ideas originated there. Retrieved 2010-01-25. sinenteksi.

.00.AIA. . Europa (http:/ / ec. 2005. [56] "1973: Army deposes 'hated' Greek president" (http:/ / news. . gr/ pdf/ FactsAndFigures_en. gr/ ).minenv. eugenfound.Athens Olympic Stadium" (http:/ / www. www. bbc. pp. European Union Regional Policy. edu. [57] "Tram Sa" (http:/ / www. athens-today. asp?fromplace=Piraeus (Attiki)& toplace=Varkiza (Piraios Nomos)& fromlat=37. com/ e-olimpica_stadio. pdf). Astynet. . Tramsa. ec. asp?id=46). Retrieved 2009-03-21. www. pdf). International Railway Journal. Retrieved 2009-03-21. Retrieved 2009-03-21. eu/ employment_social/ equal/ data/ document/ etg2-suc6-cooperation.eu. Retrieved 2007-08-02. europa. 6370849609375& tolng=23. gr/ megaro/ programeng/ top. 265.culture. [43] "ΙΔΡΥΜΑ ΕΥΓΕΝΙΔΟΥ 1954 / Ιστορικό" (http:/ / www.oecd. [48] Athens: Ecology + Environment + Architecture (http:/ / aiaeurope.The Olympic Coastal Complex" (http:/ / www. com/ wg.A. 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[59] "Athens Metro" (http:/ / www. php?x=& men=gpro& lng=en& dat=32& geo=-92& srt=2pnn& col=aohdq& pt=c& va=& geo=460748373). htm). [61] "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 9" (http:/ / www. Isap. Retrieved 2007-01-06.gr. 260.000 inhabitants. proastiakos. athens-today. Urban Audit. cfm?page_id=192& category=learn& lang_id=1). eugenfound. Central European Review. www. August..gr. php?e=A& f=16985& m=N12& aa=1) – Retrieved on 10 February 2007 [47] Carassava. "Athens is Burning" (http:/ / www. html). ISBN 0-609-80815-X. minenv. proastiakos. . . htm). stm) quote: The capital. OECD. . Retrieved 2009-03-22.gr. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 1436180. Retrieved 2007-01-26. [44] "Athens 21st Century . gr/ pdf/ FactsAndFigures_en. [36] "Olympic Games 2004: five major projects for Athens" (http:/ / ec. urbanaudit. "The City of the Gods Besieged". gr/ hellenikon-competition/ oa/ en/ main.gr. htm).gr. Εκπαιδευτικο Κοινωφελεσ Ιδρυμα" (http:/ / www. General Secretariat Of National Statistical Service Of Greece.00. BBC News.gr. Retrieved 2007-08-02. com/ wg. Greekfestival. ce-review. world-gazetteer.gr.com. [42] "Ιδρυμα Ευγενιδου.com. Proastiakos. 9474464019929& tolat=37.1648444. Megaron. europa. [51] Greek Tourist Organizer (http:/ / www. gr/ frontoffice/ portal. gr/ ?lang=en). almost half of the population of Greece. . 1997-10-26. php?x=& men=gpro& lng=en& dat=32& geo=460748373& srt=2pnn& col=aohdq& geo=-1048919). . Retrieved 2009-03-21.edu. gr) (in (Greek)). org/ events/ 2008/ Athens/ ) quote: Modern Athens. Retrieved 2007-04-05. with its population of five million. [46] Ta Nea onLine (http:/ / ta-nea. www.gr.gr. [39] "Home Page" (http:/ / www.gr. globefeed. athens-today. gr/ eng/ page. gr/ en/ ?tid=3& aid=0). . . Retrieved 2007-02-04. Anthony (2001). aia. oasa. Proastiakos. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 6252676. stm).time. BBC News Europe (http:/ / news. bbc. . gr/ index.com. www.en_33873108_33873421_35062645_1_1_1_1. . org/ document/ 53/ 0. world-gazetteer. . uk/ onthisday/ hi/ dates/ stories/ november/ 25/ newsid_2546000/ 2546297. . [45] "Athens 21st Century . www.europa. dolnet.com). . Preserving the World's Great Cities:The Destruction and Renewal of the Historic Metropolis. . edu. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m0BQQ/ is_8_40/ ai_65171917) quote: The Athens urban area has a population of about five million [49] "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: Economic Survey of Greece 2005" (http:/ / www. 2000 (http:/ / findarticles. gto. html). New York: Three Rivers Press. Eugenfound.oasa. 8185988001751& fromlng=23. oasa. Retrieved 2009-06-09. is home today for nearly 5 million people. . culture. [60] "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 15" (http:/ / www. pdf) quote: the metropolitan area of Athens contains over five million inhabitants.2340. co. com/ e-olimpica_faliro. 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Retrieved 2007-01-28. Athens International Airport. www.beirut. Retrieved 2007-03-29. Retrieved 2008-01-25. [78] Athens News Agency (2004-08-27). Retrieved 2007-03-30. aodos.gr.gr (http:/ / www. org/ embassy/ content/ en/ Article.gr. . [70] "Athens Urban Transport Network in Facts and Figures (pdf) page 13" (http:/ / www. gr/ index. derelict. 79. gob. csmonitor. Retrieved 2009-10-25. . pdf). www. Retrieved 2007-01-03.Athens [64] "ΗΣΑΠ" (http:/ / www.org. [75] "Athens International Airport: Air Traffic Movements Development 2007" (http:/ / www. gov. gr/ contact. gr/ pdf/ FactsAndFigures_en. uk/ extras/ features/ after-the-party-what-happens-when-the-olympics-leave-town-901629. yahoo. gr/ pages.lb. oasa.gr. com/ article/ ALeqM5jAognIFQaNRhGk_sG9fHJQHVXuHw). . www. com/ index. Retrieved 2009-03-21. . . . html). bcn. covered in graffiti and rubbish: what is left of Athens' £9billion Olympic 'glory'" (http:/ / www. Selim Efe (2003-11-03).cn.aia. php). aia. pdf). aia.oasa. independent. . OASA. oasa. pe/ ver. [88] "::Bethlehem Municipality::" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2007-01-03. com/ olympics/ news. oasa.. www. cnn. . Martin. municusco.229724149_257215678_1. . asp?langid=2). Retrieved 2008-08-01.bethlehem-city. pdf) (PDF). oasa. gr/ minpress/ aboutbrandgreece_low-res-9-tatsiopoulos. Athens Questions $15 Billion Cost" (http:/ / www. www.google. greekembassy. Retrieved 2007-02-11. pdf). [91] "Ciudades Hermanas" (http:/ / www. Tramsa. [69] "Tram Sa" (http:/ / www. [80] Rogers. .oasa. Retrieved 2009-03-21. gr/ article.gov. gr).5-million mark" (http:/ / www. [74] "Athens International Airport: Passenger Traffic Development 2007" (http:/ / www. www. Afp. gr/ pdf/ FactsAndFigures_en. dailymail. aia. City of Beirut. aspx?office=3& folder=200& article=13956). Post-Olympics Athens" (http:/ / www. CNN. asp?catid=12069& tag=7275) [77] "Athens bids farewell to the Games" (http:/ / edition. www. Retrieved 2007-01-28. co.ebeijing. "Abandoned. pdf). "New. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 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"Four years after Athens Greeks have Olympics blues" (http:/ / afp. html) (in Spanish). pdf). ebeijing. ro/ engleza/ life_bucharest/ history. [87] "Twinning with Palestine" (http:/ / www. beirut. ase. The Daily Mail. tr/ haber. .4022.gr. com/ 2008/ 0721/ p04s01-wogn. twinningwithpalestine. [79] Malone. html).gr. [72] "Athens International Airport: Facts and Figures" (http:/ / www. OASA. tramsa. . City of Beijing. Radikal (Radikal). City of Chicago. php?id=6) (in Spanish). es/ catala/ copyright/ welcome2. [76] Aodos.Ciutats agermanades" (http:/ / w3. html). [81] Itano. Nicole (2008-07-21). Retrieved 2009-03-21. Retrieved 2008-08-23. Retrieved 2007-02-11. chicagosistercities.Short History of Bucharest" (http:/ / www.00. beirut. . Isap. [73] "Athens International Airport: Airport Profile" (http:/ / www.gr. Independent. google.oasa. . . 2004-08-30. www. gr/ pdf/ FactsAndFigures_en.com.gr (Secretariat General of Communication – Secretariat General of Information): p. 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Municipality of Tirana. pdf). org/ sistercities/ ). www. gov. paris. kr/ gover/ cooper/ coo_02sis.fr.org. al/ common/ images/ International Relations. . .yerevan. Moscow City Government. Grad Beograd. Yerevan Municipality. .seoul. asp#sister).1206. Retrieved 2007-01-03.kr.a. os. Retrieved 2008-01-25.q.tirana. . seoul. yerevan. [103] http:/ / www. in2greece.522336. rs/ cms/ view. asp). athens. tirana.rs. html). napoli. beograd. www.al. nicosia. [98] "Twinning Cities: International Relations" (http:/ / www. [101] "International Cooperation" (http:/ / www. www. uk/ Zoomable/ Athens%20Panorama/ index. www. Retrieved 2008-01-26. [96] "Nicosia:Twin Cities" (http:/ / www. City of Los Angeles.gov. gr/ en/ [105] http:/ / www. ukgo. .gov. [100] "International Cooperation: Sister Cities: Athens" (http:/ / www. lacity. District of Columbia. Nicosia Municipality. Retrieved 2008-09-01. gr/ archaeologia/ En/ index. .dc. aspx [106] http:/ / rg. June 2007. com/ [104] http:/ / www. go. www. . php?page=athina& lang=eng). [95] "Gemellaggi" (http:/ / www. com/ . Retrieved 2008-07-31. ru/ wps/ portal/ !ut/ p/ c1/ 04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3izECfXQHMPIwODQFMTAyMXFwNnFydvYwN3I6B8pFm8AQ7gaEBAdzjIPtwqDAwg8njM9_PIz03VL8iNMMgyc dl2/ d1/ L3dJVkkvd0xNQUJrQUVrQSEhL1lCcHhKRjFOQUEhIS82XzZUQkVRN0gyMDBRNTQwMkREMENEQkszMDA1LzdfNlRCRVE3SDIwMFE1NDAyREQwQ cID=6_6TBEQ7H200Q5402DD0CDBK30G2& documentId=102289#7_6TBEQ7H200Q5402DD0CDBK3087). . Mairie de Paris. Retrieved 2008-01-26. shtm). php/ L/ IT/ IDPagina/ 5931) (in Italian). comune. [99] "Protocol and International Affairs: Sister-City Agreements" (http:/ / os. info/ owls/ [107] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-01-25. com/ vr/ [109] http:/ / s3. .beograd. . ancients. [94] "Moscow International Relations" (http:/ / www.paris.Athens 218 [93] "Los Angeles Sister Cities" (http:/ / www. mindbrix. html [110] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-01-26. htm [108] http:/ / www.org. mos. cityofathens.lacity. fr/ EN/ city_government/ international/ special_partners.go.nicosia. eie.cy. Seoul Metropolitan Government. gov/ os/ cwp/ view. dc. Comune di Napoli. www. co. it/ flex/ cm/ pages/ ServeBLOB. php?id=1225698). cy/ english/ lefkosia_twins_athens. www. breathtakingathens. com/ english/ places/ summer/ mainland/ athens. am/ index. [102] "International: Special partners" (http:/ / www. [97] "International Cooperation: Sister Cities" (http:/ / english. kronoskaf. v1. org. Retrieved 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-01-26.am.

but dropped the plan after his surveyors.[15] Remains of Nero's canal project in 1881 . The Roman Emperor Nero (r. among other grandiose engineering schemes. while a third group at the ridge drilled deep shafts for probing the quality of the rock (which were reused in 1881 for the same purpose).[1] He abandoned the project due to technical difficulties. feared heavy floods. named Diolkos. The first to propose such an undertaking was the tyrant Periander in the 7th century BC. The canal is 6. and instead constructed a simpler and less costly overland portage road. The Roman workforce.[14] started digging 40–50 m wide trenches from both sides. thus effectively making the former an island. miscalculating the levels of the adjacent seas. As the modern canal follows the same course as Nero's. The Corinth Canal History Several rulers in antiquity dreamt of cutting a canal through the Isthmus.[13] but the project was abandoned when he died shortly afterwards. 48 to 44 BC) projected.[7] Remnants of the Diolkos still exist next to the modern canal.[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] According to another theory.3 kilometres in length and was built between 1881 and 1893.D. Periander feared that a canal would have robbed Corinth of its dominating role as entrepôt for goods. a canal through the Isthmus.) launched an excavation. no remains have survived. consisting of 6000 Jewish prisoners of war. personally breaking the ground with a pickaxe and removing the first basket-load of soil.[8] [9] [10] The Diadoch Demetrius (336–283 BC) planned to construct a canal as a means to improve his communication lines.[12] He was assassinated before he could bring the scheme to fruition.Corinth Canal 219 Corinth Canal The Corinth Canal (Greek: Διώρυγα της Κορίνθου) is a canal that connects the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. It cuts through the narrow Isthmus of Corinth and separates the Peloponnesian peninsula from the Greek mainland.[7] [11] The historian Suetonius tells us that the Roman dictator Julius Caesar (r. 54–68 A.

the company ceased work after only the two ends had been dug. 11. In 1923 alone. it was closed a total of four years for maintenance and to stabilize the walls. and early attempts to build a canal".000 ships per year travel through the waterway. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. Greece. 2 (1997). 41. Australian daredevil Robbie Maddison performed a moto-x jump over the canal. Finally. It saves the 400 kilometres long journey around the Peloponnesus for smaller ships. who had also been involved with early surveys for the Panama Canal.000 cubic meters of material fell into the canal. “L'Isthme de Corinthe: tentatives de percement dans l'antiquité” [19]. pp.[17] Between 1893 and 1940. Vol. On April 7. A French company was hired to build it. were hired to plan a new canal.Corinth Canal The modern attempt at construction began in the 1870s following the successful opening of the Suez Canal. Geology The canal was cut through heavily faulted sedimentary rock in an active seismic zone. 8. but due to financial difficulties.[16] 220 Achievement The Corinth Canal is considered a great technical achievement for its time. 1. pp. At each end of the canal. but since it is only 21 metres wide it is too narrow for modern ocean freighters. 225-232 • Werner. seashore roads cross using submersible bridges that are lowered to the canal bottom to allow maritime traffic to pass. which required two years to clear out. Bela. 2010. Bulletin de correspondance hellénique (1884). No. No. A Greek company led by Andreas Syngros (the main contractor being Antonis Matsas) ultimately took over the project and completed it in 1893.[18] Bridge submerging See also • Portage railway Further reading Ancient attempts at a canal • Gerster. The canal is nowadays mostly used by tourist ships. 98–119 . 26. Walter: "The largest ship trackway in ancient times: the Diolkos of the Isthmus of Corinth. Vol. The water in the canal is 8 metres deep. in 1881 the Hungarian architects István Türr and Béla Gerster.

nasa. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Suet. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. pp. 1958. pp. No. + Nero+ 19) [14] Gerster. R. 44. & Tolley. Early Railways. gr/ result. cfm) [18] Corinth Canal History: 1923 A. pdf). J. com/ en_index. & Tolley. corinthcanal.22.) [16] "Robbie Maddison Jumps Over Corinth Canal In Greece" (http:/ / www. Vol. efa. periandros. / Rees. Greece. 1961. and early attempts to build a canal". pp. "L'Isthme de Corinthe: tentatives de percement dans l'antiquité". M. . "Lives of the Caesars: Nero". M.A.: "Archaic Greek Trade: Three Conjectures 1. 26. Vol.. son fonctionnement". gr/ result. 45 (1992).com [23] Geographical coordinates: 37°56′04″N 22°59′02″E References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Diogenes Laertius. Greece. gr/ docs/ diolkos.C. aapg. Bulletin de correspondance hellénique (1884). 26. Greece. 2 (1997). edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Suet.: "Le Diolkos de l’Isthme à Corinthe: son tracé. gr/ [21] http:/ / earthobservatory. dirtrider. Vol. php?site_id=1& serie_id=BCH). pp. html). (eds). + 44) [13] Suetonius. 2010. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. fees and conditions for canal transit. 8. Walter: "The largest ship trackway in ancient times: the Diolkos of the Isthmus of Corinth.1 (C335): Porthmeia and the Diolkos". No. No. Walter: "The largest ship trackway in ancient times: the Diolkos of the Isthmus of Corinth. 2 (1997). 98–119 (114) [8] Verdelis. "Railways in the Greek and Roman world" (http:/ / www. 133381& t=k& z=13 [23] http:/ / www. 2 (1997). 984257& spn=0. 225-232 (228 & 232) [15] Werner. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. [17] Geology and Ancient Culture Along the Corinth Canal (http:/ / www. com/ features/ web_exclusive/ 141_1004_red_bull_robbie_maddison_corinth_canal_jump_greece/ index. 233–261 [10] Werner. Bela. Vol.3 (http:/ / www. "L'Isthme de Corinthe: tentatives de percement dans l'antiquité" (http:/ / cefael. pp. Bulletin de correspondance hellénique (1884). 19. and early attempts to build a canal".W. google. corinthcanal. pp. 1. php?site_id=1& serie_id=BCH [20] http:/ / www. 99 (1979).Nowadays (http:/ / www. efa. 1. pp. 26. org/ pw/ diogenes/ dlperiander. 05619. perseus. html) [19] http:/ / cefael. J. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology. Vol. 225-232 (227f. 8-19 (11) [7] Werner. A Selection of Papers from the First International Early Railways Conference (2001). pp. dirtrider. • Corinth Canal [21] at NASA Earth Observatory • Corinth Canal [22] on Google Maps • Corinthcanal. and early attempts to build a canal". org/ athens/ fieldtrip2.com.: "Le Diolkos de l’Isthme à Corinthe: son tracé. php . Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique (1957. 152-155 (152) Drijvers. Vol. T. [20] . pp. 1963) [9] Raepsaet.0. 1960. 8. 117 (1993). gov/ Newsroom/ NewImages/ images.Corinth Canal 221 External links • Periandros S. Website contains photographs. 233–261 (256) [6] Lewis. G. co. "Life of Periander". Vol. A. Nikolaos: "Le diolkos de L'Isthme". No. 81 (1957).2 (http:/ / www. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. 98–119 (115f.: "Strabo VIII 2. pp. uk/ maps?hl=en& ie=UTF8& ll=37. Nikolaos: "Le diolkos de L'Isthme". No. + Jul. 75-76 (75) Raepsaet. php3?img_id=17418 [22] http:/ / maps. Vol. son fonctionnement". J. and history of the site.Current operator of the Corinth Canal. in Guy. The Journal of Hellenic Studies. The Diolkos". Walter: "The largest ship trackway in ancient times: the Diolkos of the Isthmus of Corinth. tufts. htm) Verdelis. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. G. sciencenews. 93093. com/ history3. Mnemosyne. M.) [12] Suetonius "Lives of the Caesars: Julius Caesar". . Vol. perseus. pp. 117 (1993). 526-529 (526) Cook. M. Vol. 98–119 [11] Gerster. Bela. 6 (http:/ / classicpersuasion. April 7.

. Although the citadel was built by Greeks. John Chadwick said: "Names such as . iii. Mycenae (Greek Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē). Minyans) . previously spoken in Greece. vi 941 [1] Europe and North America 37°43′51″N 22°45′22″E Inscription history Inscription 1999  (23rd Session) [70] * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. but is rather one of the many pre-Greek place names inherited by the immigrant Hellenes. The period of Greek history from about 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is called Mycenaean in reference to Mycenae. which has the form of a plural. The change of ā to ē is a development of later Attic-Ionic. ii. (See Pelasgian. Corinth. a military stronghold which dominated much of southern Greece. 48 km to the north. like Athānai..Mycenae 222 Mycenae Archaeological Sites of Mycenae and Tiryns* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Type Criteria Reference Region** Coordinates  Greece Cultural i. iv. is an archaeological site in Greece. Argos is 11 km to the south. Mukanai . located about 90 km south-west of Athens. From the hill on which the palace was located one can see across the Argolid to the Saronic Gulf. the name is not thought to be Greek. Name The reconstructed Mycenaean Greek name of the site is Mukānai. in the north-eastern Peloponnese.. are certainly derived from one or more unknown languages. [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO. In the second millennium BC Mycenae was one of the major centres of Greek civilization. but there is no evidence to rule out a member of the Indo-European superfamily.."[2] The pre-Greek language remains unknown.



Only scattered sherds from disturbed debris have been found datable to this period, prior to about 3500 BC. The site was inhabited but the stratigraphy has been destroyed by later construction.

Early Bronze Age
It is believed that Mycenae was settled by Indo-Europeans who practiced farming and herding, close to 2000 BC. Scattered sherds have been found from this period, 2100 BC to 1700 BC. At the same time, Minoan Crete developed a very complex civilization that interacted with Mycenae.

The Tomb of Aegisthus outside the walls of the citadel.

Middle Bronze Age
The first burials in pits or cist graves began to the west of the acropolis at about 1800-1700 BC. The acropolis was enclosed at least partially by the earliest circuit wall. Of the cist graves and the Middle Helladic Emily Vermeule said: "...there is nothing in the Middle Helladic world to prepare us for the furious splendor of the Shaft Graves."

Late Bronze Age
The settlement pattern at Mycenae during the Bronze Age was a fortified hill surrounded by hamlets and estates. Missing is the dense urbanity present on the coast (such as at Argos). Since Mycenae was the capital of a state that ruled, or dominated, much of the eastern Mediterranean world, the rulers must have placed their stronghold in this less populated and more remote region for its defensive value. Since there are few documents on site with datable contents (such as an Egyptian scarab) and since no dendrochronology has yet been performed upon the remains here, the events are listed here according to Helladic period material culture.

View from the acropolis, or high city

Late Helladic I Outside the partial circuit wall, Grave Circle B, named for its enclosing wall, contained ten cist graves in Middle Helladic style and four shaft graves, sunk more deeply, with interments resting in cists. Richer grave goods mark the burials as possibly regal. Mounds over the top contained broken drinking vessels and bones from a repast, testifying to a more than ordinary farewell.[3] [4] Stelae surmounted the mounds.[5] A walled enclosure, Grave Circle A, included six more shaft graves, with 9 female, 8 male, and two juvenile interments. Grave goods were wealthier than in Circle B. The presence of engraved and inlaid swords and daggers, with spear points and arrowheads, leave little doubt that warrior chieftains and their families were buried here. Some art objects obtained from the graves are the Silver Siege Rhyton, the Mask of Agamemnon, the Cup of Nestor, and weapons both votive and practical.



Late Helladic II Alan Wace divided the nine tholos tombs of Mycenae into three groups of three each based on architecture. His earliest - the Cyclopean Tomb, Epano Phournos, and the Tomb of Aegisthus - are dated to IIA. Burial in tholoi is seen as replacing burial in shaft graves. The care taken to preserve the shaft graves testifies that they were by then part of the royal heritage, the tombs of the ancestral heroes. Being more visible, the tholoi all had been plundered either in antiquity, or in later historic times.

Mycenaean swords and cups.

Late Helladic III At a conventional date of 1350 BC the fortifications on the acropolis, and other surrounding hills, were rebuilt in a style known as cyclopean because the blocks of stone used were so massive that they were thought in later ages to be the work of the one-eyed giants known as the cyclopes (singular: Cyclops). Within these walls, much of which can still be seen, successive monumental palaces were built. The final palace, remains of which are currently visible on the acropolis of Mycenae dates to the start of LHIIIA:2. Earlier palaces must have existed, but they had been cleared away or built over.[6] The construction of palaces at that time with a similar architecture was general throughout southern Greece. They all featured a megaron, or throne room, with a raised central hearth under an opening in the roof, which was supported by four columns in a square around the hearth. A throne was placed against the center of a wall to the side of the hearth, allowing an unobstructed view of the ruler from the entrance. Frescos adorned the plaster walls and floor.[6] The room was accessed from a courtyard with a columned portico. A grand staircase led from a terrace below to the courtyard on the acropolis. In the Temple built within the citadel, a scarab of Queen Tiye of Egypt, who was married to Amenhotep III, was placed in the Room of the Idols alongside at least one statue of either LHIIIA:2 or B:1 type. Amenhotep III's relations with m-w-k-i-n-u, *Mukana, have corroboration from the inscription at Kom al-Hetan - but Amenhotep's reign is thought to align with late LHIIIA:1. It is likely that Amenhotep's herald presented the scarab to an earlier generation, which then found the resources to rebuild the citadel as Cyclopean and then, to move the scarab here.

The entrance of the Tomb of Clytemnestra outside the Citadel at Mycenae, a good example of the architectural type known as the tholos.

Wace’s second group of tholoi are dated between IIA and IIIB: Kato Phournos, Panagia Tholos, and the Lion Tomb. The final group, Group III: the Treasury of Atreus, the Tomb of Clytemnestra and the Tomb of the Genii, are dated to IIIB by a sherd under the threshold of the Treasury of Atreus, the largest of the nine tombs. Like the Treasury of Minyas at Orchomenus the tomb had been looted of its contents and its nature as funerary monument had been forgotten. The structure bore the traditional name of "Treasury".



The pottery phases on which the relative dating scheme is based (EH, MH, LH, etc.) do not allow very precise dating, even augmented by the few existing C-14 dates due to the tolerance inherent in these. The sequence of further construction at Mycenae is approximately as follows. In the middle of LHIIIB, around 1250 or so, the Cyclopean wall was extended on the west slope to include grave circle A.[8] The main entrance through the circuit wall was made grand by the best known feature of Mycenae, the Lion Gate, through which passed a stepped ramp leading past circle A and up to the palace. The Lion Gate was constructed in the form of a 'Relieving Triangle' in order to support the weight of the stones. An undecorated postern gate also was constructed through the north wall. One of the few groups of excavated houses in the city outside the walls lies beyond Grave Circle B and belongs to the same period. The House of Shields, the House of the Oil Merchant, the House of the Sphinxes, and the West House. These may have been both residences and workshops. Citadel facts and figures Circuit length: 1105M Preserved height: up to 12.5M Width: 7.5-17M Minimum stone required: 145,215 Cu.M or 14,420 average stones (10 tons) Time to move 1 Block using men: 2.125 days Time to move all Blocks using men: 110.52 years Time to move 1 Block using oxen: 0.125 day Time to move all Blocks using oxen: 9.9 years based on 8 hour work day The largest stones including the lintels and gate jambs weighed well over 20 tonnes some may have been close to 100 tonnes. [9] Somewhat later, toward the end of LHIIIB, another extension to the citadel was undertaken. The wall was extended again on the north east, with a sally port and also a secret passage through and under the wall, of corbeled construction, leading downward by some 99 steps to a cistern carved out of rock 15 m below the surface. It was fed by a tunnel from a spring on more distant higher ground. Already in LHIIIA:1, Egypt knew *Mukana by name as a capital city on the level of Thebes and Knossos. During LHIIIB, Mycenae's political, military and economic influence likely extended as far as Crete, Pylos in the western Peloponnese, and to Athens and Thebes. Hellenic settlements already were being placed on the coast of Anatolia. A collision with the Hittite empire over their sometime dependency at a then strategic location, Troy, was to be expected. In folklore, the powerful Pelopid family ruled many Greek states, one branch of which was the Atreid dynasty at Mycenae.
Tomb of Clytemnestra from the inside

The Lion Gate (detail) - two confronted-animalslionessesflank the central column whose significance is much debated.An older view that it represents a goddess, now generally discounted, is to be found in W.K.C. Guthrie, in The Cambridge Ancient History (1975) vol. I, part ii, p. 864 "A frequent design on engraved Cretan engraved gemgems is of the type made famous by the Lion Gate at Mycenae, a single upright pillar, flanked by a pair of guardian animals. Sometimes the same arrangement is preserved, but the the anthropomorphic figure of a god or goddess takes the place of a pillar" (and illustrations from Nilsson). More recent discussions of its symbolism can be found in James C. Wright, 'The spatial configuration of belief: the archaeology of Mycenaean religion' in S.E. Alcock and Robin Osborne (eds.), 'Placing the Gods', OUP 1996, 37-78. Here Wright suggests that the pillar represents the palace which in turn represents the state.



By 1200 BC the power of Mycenae was declining; during the 12th century, Mycenaean dominance collapsed. The destruction of Mycenae is part of the general Bronze Age collapse. Within a short time around 1200 BC, all the palaces of southern Greece were burned, including the one at Mycenae.[6] This is traditionally attributed to a Dorian invasion of Greeks from the north, although some historians now doubt that such an invasion took place. Displaced populations escaped to former colonies of the Mycenaeans in Anatolia and elsewhere, where they came to speak the Ionic dialect. A further theory, mentioned by Egyptian hieroglyphs, is that the destruction of the palaces is related to Homeric Greece. the attacks of the mysterious Sea Peoples who destroyed the Hittite Empire and then attacked the 19th then the 20th dynasties of Egypt. Other theories have been that a drought caused the Mycenaean decline, but there is no climatological evidence for this. Amos Nur argues that earthquakes played a major role in the destruction of Mycenae and many other cities at the end of the Bronze Age.[10] However, no conclusive evidence has been brought forward to confirm any theory of why the Mycenaean citadel and others around it fell at this time. In the period, LHIIIC, also termed "submycenaean", Mycenae was no longer a power. Pottery and decorative styles were changing rapidly. Craftmanship and art declined. The citadel was abandoned at the end of the 12th century, as it was no longer a strategic location, but only a remote one.

Revival and end
During the early Classical period, Mycenae was once again inhabited, though it never regained its earlier importance. Mycenaeans fought at Thermopylae and Plataea during the Persian Wars. In 462 BC, however, troops from Argos captured Mycenae and expelled the inhabitants. In Hellenistic and Roman times, the ruins at Mycenae were a tourist attraction (just as they are now). A small town grew up to serve the tourist trade. By late Roman times, however, the site had been abandoned.

Much of the Mycenean religion survived into classical Greece in their pantheon of Greek deities, but it is not known to what extent Greek religious belief is Mycenean, nor how much is a product of the Greek Dark Ages or later. There are several reasonable guesses that can be made, however. Mycenean religion was almost certainly polytheistic, and the Myceneans were actively syncretistic, adding foreign deities to their pantheon of deities with surprising ease. The Myceneans probably entered Greece with a pantheon of deities headed by some ruling sky-deity which linguists speculate might have been called *Dyeus in early Indo-European. In Greek, this deity would become Zeus (pronounced zdeus in ancient Greek). Among the Hindus, this sky-deity becomes "Dyaus Pita". In Latin he becomes "deus pater" or Jupiter; we still encounter this word in the etymologies of the words "deity" and "divine." At some point in their cultural history, the Myceneans adopted the Minoan goddesses and associated these goddesses with their sky-god; scholars believe that the Greek pantheon of deities does not reflect Mycenean religion except for the goddesses and Zeus. These goddesses, however, are Minoan in origin. In general, later Greek religion distinguishes between two types of deities: the Olympian (including Zeus) or sky-deities (which are now commonly known in some form or another), and the early deities of the earth, or chthonic deities—these chthonic deities are almost all female. The Greeks believed that the chthonic deities were older than the Olympians; this suggests that the original Greek religion may have been oriented around goddesses of the earth, but there is no evidence for this outside of reasonable speculation.

Mycenae Walter Burkert warns: "To what extent one can and must differentiate between Minoan and Mycenaean religion is a question which has not yet found a conclusive answer"[11] and suggests that useful parallels will be found in the relations between Etruscan and Archaic Greek culture and religion, or between Roman and Hellenistic culture. Mycenean religion certainly involved offerings and sacrifices to the deities, and some have speculated that their ceremonies involved human sacrifice based on textual evidence and bones found outside tombs. In the Homeric poems, there seems to be a lingering cultural memory of human sacrifice in King Agamemnon's sacrifice of his daughter, Iphigenia; several of the stories of Trojan heroes involve tragic human sacrifice. This, however, is all speculation. Beyond this speculation we can go no further. Somewhere in the shades of the centuries between the fall of the Mycenean civilization and the end of the Greek Dark Ages, the original Mycenean religion persisted and adapted until it finally emerged in the stories of human devotion, apostasy, and divine capriciousness that exists in the two great epic poems of Homer.


Mycenae in Classical Greek mythology and legends
Perseid dynasty
Classical Greek myths assert that Mycenae was founded by Perseus, grandson of king Acrisius of Argos, son of Acrisius' daughter, Danaë. Having killed his grandfather by accident, Perseus could not, or would not, inherit the throne of Argos. Instead he arranged an exchange of realms with his cousin, Megapenthes, and became king of Tiryns, Megapenthes taking Argos. From there he founded Mycenae and ruled the kingdoms jointly from Mycenae. Perseus married Andromeda and had many sons but in the course of time went to war with Argos and was slain by Megapenthes. His son, Electryon, became the second of the dynasty but the succession was disputed by the Taphians under Pterelaos, another Perseid, who assaulted Mycenae and losing retreated with the cattle. The cattle were recovered by Amphitryon, a grandson of Perseus, but he killed his uncle by accident with a club in an unruly cattle incident and had to go into exile. The throne went to Sthenelus, third in the dynasty, a son of Perseus. He set the stage for future greatness by marrying Nicippe, a daughter of king Pelops of Elis, the most powerful state of the region and the times. With her he had a son, Eurystheus the fourth and last of the Perseid dynasty. When a son of Heracles, Hyllus, killed Sthenelus, Eurystheus became noted for his enmity to Heracles and for his ruthless persecution of the Heracleidae, the descendants of Heracles. This is the first we hear in legend of those noted sons, who became a symbol of the Dorians. Heracles had been a Perseid. After his death Eurystheus determined to annihilate these rivals for the throne of Mycenae, but they took refuge in Athens, and in the course of war Eurystheus and all his sons were killed. The Perseid dynasty came to an end. The people of Mycenae placed Eurystheus' maternal uncle, Atreus, a Pelopid, on the throne.
Perseus, from Pompei.

Atreus became king. the throne of Mycenae went to Aletes. the election of Thyestes should be reversed. brought anarchy. Recovering. killed Atreus and restored Thyestes to the throne. Orestes returned to Mycenae to kill him and take the throne. whom Menelaus and Agamemnon married. piracy. With the help of King Tyndareus of Sparta. the winds started blowing and the warfaring fleet departed. but Thyestes managed to escape Mycenae.Mycenae 228 Atreid dynasty The people of Mycenae had received advice from an oracle that they should choose a new king from among the Pelopids. but he died in Arcadia from a snake bite. Agamemnon sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia. The Murder of Agamemnon. but not for long. and became insane for a time. After the war. returning Agamemnon was greeted royally with a red carpet rolled out for him and then was slain in his bathtub by Clytemnestra. who reigned subsequently. was smuggled out to Phocis. He returned as an adult to slay Clytemnestra and Aegistheus. Agamemnon and Menelaus. he argued. son of Agamemnon. the last of the Atreid dynasty. His first move was to pursue Thyestes and all his family. Hunting goddess Artemis replaced her at the very last moment with a deer on the altar. Legend tells us that the long and arduous Trojan War. His son. The sun appeared to reverse direction and set in the east. the son of Thyestes. Because the sun had reversed direction. . but Orestes. Helen and Clytemnestra. and took Iphigenia to Tauris (See Iphigenia en Tauris by Euripides). the Atreids drove Thyestes again into exile. The Return of Agamemnon. Thyestes. Meanwhile. In legend. The two contenders were Atreus and his brother. Tisamenus. the warships could not sail to Troy. respectively. The latter was chosen at first. Agamemnon conducted a 10-year war against Troy to get her back for his brother. He then fled to Athens to evade justice and a matricide. Agamemnon inherited Mycenae and Menelaus was regent in Sparta. although nominally a Greek victory. Helen eloped with Paris of Troy. son of Aegistheus. Because of lack of wind. and ruin. They claimed the right of the Perseids to inherit the various kingdoms of the Peloponnesus and cast lots for the dominion of them. Aegisthus. Tyndareus had two ill-starred daughters. The deities having been satisfied by such a sacrifice. In order to please the gods so that they might make the winds start to blow. who hated him bitterly for having sacrificed their daughter Iphigenia. Clytemnestra was aided in her crime by Aegistheus. the Atreids. Orestes then built a larger state in the Peloponnesus. was killed by the Heracleidae on their return to the Peloponnesus. At this moment nature intervened. Atreus had two sons.

Also in the 14th century BC the Ahhiya began to be troublesome to numerous kings of the Hittite Empire. It was Ahhiyawa (possibly the Acheans) one of the cities of the tj-n3-jj ("Tinay"?). there was a total eclipse of the sun in the Aegean on March 5. Muwatalli II (reg. this name. Cyprus. . The Perseids would have been in power ca. After the death of the latter and in the reign of his son. raid Alasiya. king of Wilusa (Ilium).Mycenae 229 Atreids in Asia Minor? In fact. This date does not solve all the unknowns. reconstructed Mycenaean Greek for Achaea. settling on the coast of Anatolia. 1296–1272) makes a treaty with Alaksandu (possibly Alexander). the "man of Ahhiya" (i. after Danaë.e. 1380. extended its influence over Miletus. nor is there any evidence of a powerful Pelopid named Atreus of those times. A late date is implied for the Trojan War. the date of a statue base from Kom el-Heitan in Egypt recording the itinerary of an Egyptian embassy to the Aegean in the time of Amenophis III. agree in their omission of a great king or other unifying structure behind Tinay/Ahhiya. The external LHIIIA:1-era sources do. these documents create as many problems as they solve. the Hittite king could be either Muwatalli II or his brother Hattusili III. This is the only known occurrence of a man named Attarissiya. however. Madduwatta allies with Attarissiya and they. rather. which Atreus might have twisted into a setting of the sun in the east. named. Ahhiya. i. He obtains refuge and military assistance from the Hittite Great King Tudhaliya. and competed with the Hittites for influence and control in western Anatolia. The Hittites did not use Danaja as did the Egyptians. Ahhiyawa or Ahhiya. have been against Troy VIIa after all. ruler). in myth. and besides. Attarissiya. Tarhunta-Radu.e. While establishing the credibility of the Mycenaean Greeks as a historical power. a Hittite king wrote the so-called Tawagalawa letter[14] to the Great King of Ahhiyawa. which would. M-w-k-i-n-u (phonetic "Mukanuh"?) was one of Map showing the Hittite empire and the the cities visited. which occurs a few dozen times in Hittite tablets over the century. however. which during the preceding LHIIIA period Amenhotep III had viewed as equal to Mycenae. which suggests that the Perseids were in fact in some sort of dominion. is associated with Thebes. Neither of the names of the great kings are stated. For instance Uhha-Ziti's Arzawa and through him Manapa-Tarhunta's Seha River Land. Attempts to link this name to Atreus have not found wide support. along with another ruler. now known as Ahhiyawa. and another document has Wilusa swearing by Appaliuna (Apollo). a rare early document of the name of Mycenae. attacks Madduwatta and drives him from his land. Elsewhere. During LHIIIA:2. which at least dates the letter to LHIIIB by Mycenaean standards. For example. 1223 BC. is probably Achaiwia. Arnuwanda.[12] Homeric Danaans. Similarly. in the "Indictment of Madduwatta". But the Alaksandu of the treaty is too early to be king of a city assaulted by Agamemnon. But neither the Atreus nor the Agamemnon of legend have any brothers named *Etewoclewes (Eteocles). Priam was king of that city. in that case. even though the first Ahhiya reference in "Indictment of Madduwatta"[13] precedes the correspondence between Amenhotep III and one of Madduwatta's subsequent successors in Arzawa. concerning the depredations of the Luwiyan adventurer Piyama-Radu.

Well Built Mycenae. ISBN 0-521-21077-1 hardcover or ISBN 0-521-29037-6 paperback. LC 64-23427 • Martin P. 1983. • Emily Vermeule. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Palmer. Athens: Ekdotike Athenon. ISBN 0-393-01569-6 Hard. • A. Cambridge University Press. See also • • • • • Mycenaean Greece Aegean Civilization National Archaeological Museum of Athens Ancient Greece Agamemnon A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae.B. Greece in the Bronze Age. • K. and Diana Wardle. • M. he declared: "I have gazed upon the face of Agamemnon". Reissued by the University of California Press. The acropolis was excavated in 1902. Notes • Elizabeth B. • Leonard R. and the surrounding hills have been methodically investigated by subsequent excavations. ISBN 1-85399-355-7 • W. Finley. French. John (1976). Bristol Classical Press 1997. ISBN 0-299-07370-X . Wace. Sydney University Press. I. Mycenae: Agamemnon's Capital. Mycenae Rich in Gold. W. Norton & Company. The Mycenaean World. The Mycenaean Origin of Greek Mythology (1932). The Mycenaean World. The Bronze and Archaic Ages. A view of the citadel. Early Greece.A. and K. • John Chadwick. University of Wiconsin Press. He found and restored the Lion Gate. In 1874 Heinrich Schliemann arrived at the site and undertook a complete excavation. Murray. ISBN 07524 1951 X. Cambridge University Press. French. Mycenaeans and Minoans. Wardle. Schliemann believed in the historical truth of the Homeric stories and interpreted the site accordingly. 1949 (reprinted 1964). 2000. 1976. 1981. He found the ancient shaft graves with their royal skeletons and spectacular grave goods. Mycenae's Last Century of Greatness. ISBN 0-520-01951-2 Cloth.J. Princeton. Upon discovering a human skull beneath a gold death mask in one of the tombs. Mycenae: an archaeological history and guide. Nilsson. ISBN 0-393-30051-X Paper • Reid Bryson and Thomas J. 1968. 1964. Stroud 2002. Since Schliemann's day more scientific excavations have taken place at Mycenae.Mycenae 230 Excavation The first excavations at Mycenae were carried out by the Greek archaeologist Kyriakos Pittakis in 1841. 1983-2007. W.D.B. ISBN 424-05820-3 • George E.A. E. Tempus. "Climates of Hunger". Mylonas. 1961 (2nd edition: 1965). Mylonas. 1977. The University of Chicago Press. Cities of Legend: The Mycenaean World. mainly by Greek archaeologists but also by the British School at Athens. ISBN 0-520-02163-0 Paper • George E. Taylour. ISBN 0-521-21077-1 hardcover or ISBN 0-521-29037-6 paperback • Chadwick.

htm) Retrieved on 9 September 2007. Princeton University Press. com/ cparada/ GML/ Perseus1. Retrieved 2009-07-01. html . I. pp. Hittites. [14] "Translation of the Tawagalawa Letter" (http:/ / www. John L. htm). Canada. 2000-06-24. now generally discounted. in The Cambridge Ancient History (1975) vol.info. including votive weaponry [21] Homepage of Current Dickinson College Excavations at Mycenae [22] Geographical coordinates: 37°43′51″N 22°45′22″E References [1] http:/ / whc.Mycenae • Rowbotham. wsu. odysseyadventures. uk/ archive/ index. ou. Amos (2008). varchive. 231 External links • • • • British School at Athens Mycenae page [19] Excavation of Citadel House Area [20] Objects from Grave Circle A. . com/ apollophotos/ photos/ greece/ mycenae/ ) 28 August 2007. "Perseus 1" [16]. (http:/ / www. Apocalypse: Earthquakes. ca/ articles/ mycenae/ article_mycenae. John (1976). Barbarians and bureaucrats." Mycenae History. OUP 1996. ca/ articles/ mycenae/ article_mycenae. 'Placing the Gods'. but the the anthropomorphic figure of a god or goddess takes the place of a pillar" (and illustrations from Nilsson). p. • Jansen.K. mac. html [18] http:/ / www. uk/ aha/ kaw/ mycenae/ mycenaeindex. Sometimes the same arrangement is preserved. [9] "The Seventy Wonders of the Ancient World" edited by Chris scarre 1999 (Thames and Hudson) [10] Nur. html [17] http:/ / www. Wright. za/ ETD-db/ theses/ available/ etd-08192005-084633/ unrestricted/ 10chapter4. see Documentary and Archaeological Evidence of Minoan Trade (http:/ / etd. [8] Elizabeth B. ca/ mouseion/ 1997/ jansen/ index. odysseyadventures. rgzm.C. . edu/ finearts/ art/ ahi4913/ aegeanhtml/ mycobj1." Odyssey Adventures. unisa. htm?excavs/ sitepres/ mycenae/ main [20] http:/ / www. The Mycenaean World. which appears related to Danaj-. html). . Classical Views. [7] An older view that it represents a goddess. William (2002). arts. flanked by a pair of guardian animals. htm [16] http:/ / homepage. Guthrie. More recent discussions of its symbolism can be found in James C. html). ISBN 978-0-961-01602-3. ISBN 0-521-21077-1 hardcover or ISBN 0-521-29037-6 paperback. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Carlos (1997). Hittites. 37-78. pdf#search="Linear A Amnisos OR Amnisus OR Amnissos "place names"") [13] "Translation of the Indictment of Madduwatta" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-07-01. Archaeology and the Wrath of God. • Hooker. artsweb. org/ schorr/ use. Cambridge University Press. bsa. Here Wright suggests that the pillar represents the palace which in turn represents the state. [12] For a fuller discussion of this statue base. html [22] http:/ / mycenae-excavations.info. 224–245. HTM [19] http:/ / www. [11] Burkert 1985. • Parada. ac. [5] "Frames" (http:/ / www2. "Bronze Age Highways at Mycenae" [17]. ac. (http:/ / members. Memorial University of Newfoundland and Labrador. (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2008-03-06. Retrieved 2008-03-06. mun. info/ translations. Alcock and Robin Osborne (eds. 864 "A frequent design on engraved Cretan gems is of the type made famous by the Lion Gate at Mycenae. hittites. Retrieved 2008-03-06. hittites. [3] "Later use of Grave Circles. Richard (1996). aspx?text=translations/ historical/ CTH147_Madduwatta.de. htm) Odyssey." Varchive. French. "Mycenae and the bronze age of Greece" [15]. Odyssey Adventures in Archaeology. 2000-06-24. [6] Rowbotham. info/ translations. Washington State University. Greek Mythology Link.rgzm. Retrieved on 9 September 2007. "Mycenean religion" [18]. tripod. [15] http:/ / www. Anton (1997). 21. Mycenae: Agamemnon's Capital. p. p. a single upright pillar. ac. unesco. "Mycenae. the names on it and the pronunciation. part ii. [4] Polos. htm [21] http:/ / www. 'The spatial configuration of belief: the archaeology of Mycenaean religion' in S. William. org/ en/ list/ 941 [2] Chadwick. is to be found in W.). aspx?text=translations/ historical/ Piyama-radu+ Letter. bham. edu:8080/ ~dee/ MINOA/ MYCREL. de/ tomba1/ home/ frames. .E. gla. Tinay. Retrieved on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 2008-03-06. org/ site_index. 1. "Mycenae and the Bronze Age.

ii.Epidaurus 232 Epidaurus Epidaurus Επίδαυρος Location Epidaurus Coordinates 37°38′N 23°8′E Government Country: Periphery: Prefecture: Greece Peloponnese Argolis [1] Population statistics (as of 2001 City  - Population: 4471 Other Time zone: Auto: ) EET/EEST (UTC+2/3) AP Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Type Criteria Reference Region** Coordinates  Greece Cultural i. vi 491 [2] Europe and North America 37°35′46″N 23°4′45″E (theatre) Inscription history Inscription 1988  (12th Session) . iv. iii.

tour guides have their groups scattered in the stands and show them how they can easily hear the sound of a match struck at center-stage. it formed the small territory called Epidauria. Theater The prosperity brought by the Asklepieion enabled Epidauros to construct civic monuments too: the huge theater that delighted Pausanias for its symmetry and beauty. Epidaurus was known for his sanctuary situated about five miles (8 km) from the town. which permit almost perfect intelligibility of unamplified spoken word from the proscenium or skênê to all 15. which is used once again for dramatic performances. they spent a night in the enkoimitiria. The cult of Asclepius at Epidaurus is attested in the 6th century BC.000 spectators. To find out the right cure for their ailments. there was a guest house for 160 guestrooms.. Even after the introduction of Christianity and the silencing of the oracles. at the Saronic Gulf. it was plundered by pirates. the most important healer god of antiquity. colony[3] . In 87 BC the sanctuary was looted by the Roman general Sulla. With its supporting territory.Limera in Lakonia. There were two other similarly named Greek cities. Found in the sanctuary. [4] in Illyria and another Epidaurus The asclepieion at Epidaurus was the most celebrated healing center of the Classical world. the healer. was built near the ancient site. and . the ceremonial Hestiatoreion (banqueting hall). and in 67 BC. The theater was designed by Polykleitos the Younger in the 4th century BC. Fame and prosperity continued throughout the Hellenistic period. the sanctuary enjoyed a new upsurge under the Romans. One Epidaurus. [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO. regardless of their seating (see Ref. The original 34 rows were extended in Roman times by another 21 rows. the place where ill people went in the hope of being cured. Epidavros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece.000 people. as well as its theater. It seats up to 15. A 2007 study by Nico F. brought prosperity to the sanctuary. although as a Christian healing center. the view on a lush landscape behind the skênê is an integral part of the theater itself and is not to be obscured. Famously. The modern town Epidavros (Επίδαυρος). Epidaurus is southeast of Delphi. baths and a palaestra. The theater is marveled for its exceptional acoustics. Reputed to be the birthplace of Apollo's son Asclepius. which is once again in use today. Epidaurus (Modern Greek: Ἐπίδαυρος. such as the murmur of the crowd. As is usual for Greek theaters (and as opposed to Roman ones). part of the prefecture of Argolis. across the peninsula from Argos. when the older hill-top sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas was no longer spacious enough. a big sleeping hall. There are also mineral springs in the vicinity which may have been used in healing. In their dreams. Asclepius. the sanctuary at Epidauros was still known as late as the mid 5th century. the god himself would advise them what they had to do to regain their health. History Epidaurus was independent of Argos and not included in Argolis until the time of the Romans. In the 2nd century AD. Declercq and Cindy Dekeyser of the Georgia Institute of Technology indicates that the astonishing acoustic properties are either the result of an accident or the product of advanced design: The rows of limestone seats filter out low-frequency sounds. in Greek). but in AD 395 the Goths raided the sanctuary.Epidaurus [70] 233 * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. which in the 4th and 3rd century BC embarked on an ambitious building program for enlarging and reconstruction of monumental buildings.

pdf Olympia The name Olympia may refer to: Places • • • • • Olympia.. Hellenic Interior Ministry. London. Ireland. com/ history/ 070405_greeks_acoustics. Illinois Olímpia. Greece. . gr/ UserFiles/ f0ff9297-f516-40ff-a70e-eca84e2ec9b9/ D_diairesi. the site of the ancient Olympic Games Olympia. dates back to the sixth century B. . Tatlas N. K. Brazil. • Vassilantonopoulos S. ee. Olympia Theatre. xls) (in Greek). [6] http:/ / www. gr/ audiogroup/ Publications/ Full%20Papers/ epidauros. an American high school in Washington State Olympia. presented at the Hellenic Institute of Acoustics 2004 conference (in Greek). W. a theatre in Liverpool. Sweden. Tom (2007-04-05). html). wcl. Hatziantoniou P. Die Skulpturen des Asklepiostempels in Epidauros."". 3.ypes.(De Bello Alexandrino c. ypes. a concert hall in Dublin. L. an exhibition centre in London.14) [4] Austria: Her People & Their Homelands by James Baker. a famous music hall in Paris. unesco. 85. a football stadium in Helsingborg. a stadium originally built for the (cancelled) 1916 Summer Olympics .[5] 234 Further Reading • Arafat. N. [2] http:/ / whc. France Detroit Olympia. in São Paulo Buildings and landmarks • • • • • • • • • • • Paris Olympia. 1. Retrieved 2007-04-05.. LiveScience. Retrieved 2009-09-09.-A. Olympia Heights.. a cultural landmark in Sydney. USA. a now-demolished theatre complex in New York. Florida Olympia Fields. when the Greeks founded here Epidaurus" [5] Chao. home of Helsingborgs IF Olympia High School (Washington). 1995. UK Olympia (stadium). Leicester B. D.[6] References [1] "Δείτε τη Διοικητική Διαίρεση" (http:/ / www. Olympic Stadium (Berlin). a ski-jumping facility in Garmisch. • Holland. Zakynthinos T.. "Mystery of Greek Amphitheater's Amazing Sound Finally Solved" (http:/ / www. livescience. Australia Olympia Skistadion. www.. UK Olympia Milk Bar. Thessalonica. the former stadium of the NHL's Detroit Red Wings Liverpool Olympia.c. “Measurement and Analysis of Acoustics of Epidaurus Theatre”.. Dublin. Germany Olympia Theatre. Skarlatos D. no... 45. org/ en/ list/ 491 [3] Aulus Hirtius. pp. 387-400.gr. Mourjopoulos J. 1948. no. pp. upatras. 197-198. the capital city of Washington state..Epidaurus amplify/reflect high-frequency sounds from the stage. Classical Review. Thymele: Recherches sur la of Archaeology. Washington.

a now bankrupt property firm based in Canada Olympia Brewing Company (1896-2003) in Washington State Olympia Flooring and Tile a tile wholesaler in Canada Olympia Press. actress Olympia Snowe (b.Olympia 235 People • • • • Olympias. now dedicated to import office goods The Olympia line of ice resurfacers manufacturer by Resurfice Corporation Sports • • • • • • • • • Olympia Larissa BC. a football stadium in Helsingborg. Crown Prince of Greece Ships • USS Olympia. written for the 1984 Summer Olympics Businesses and companies • • • • • • • • Olympia and York. a ferry operated by Viking Line between 1986 and 1993 • Olympia. a German sports club Mr. later MS Regal Empress. 1931). a ski-jumping facility in Garmisch. Olympia. referring to two ships named after the city of Olympia. women's bodybuilding competition . a basketball club based in Larissa. an 1948 oil on canvas painting by René Magritte Olympia (1938 film). a German typewriter company. a Sports Camp near Huntsville. home of Helsingborgs IF Olympia Club de Bruxelles. 1947). a French publisher Olympia Sports Camp. Greece Detroit Olympia. women's bodybuilding competition Fitness Olympia. US Senator from Maine Princess Maria-Olympia of Greece and Denmark (b. 1967). documenting the Berlin-hosted Olympic Games Olympia (1998 film). Ontario Olympia College. a song by Sergio Mendes from his album Confetti. the mother of Alexander the Great Olympia Dukakis (b. a for-profit group of American colleges. an ocean liner Art • • • • Olympia (Manet). an annual bodybuilding contest Figure Olympia. by Leni Riefenstahl. a former Belgian football club Olympia Skistadion. the former stadium of the NHL's Detroit Red Wings Olympia (stadium). about a Mexican soap opera star who pursues a career as an athlete • Olympia (song). an 1863 oil on canvas painting by Édouard Manet Olympia (Magritte). part of the Everest College system Olympia Werke. daughter of Pavlos. Germany Olympia Wilhelmshaven. Washington • M/V Olympia (later Pride of Bilbao).

John's-worts) Olympia. a British automobile event 582 Olympia. a North American butterfly Olympia oyster. a 1940 sailplane Olympia Academy or "Akademie Olympia". a junior synonym of the plant genus Hypericum (St. a Pacific coast oyster Opel Olympia See also • Olympic (disambiguation) • Olympus (disambiguation) • Olimpia (disambiguation) . a semi-formal group of friends that included Albert Einstein Olympia Marble.Olympia 236 Other uses • • • • • • • • • • Olympia (comics). a fictional city in Marvel Comics Olympia. a minor planet orbiting the sun DFS Olympia Meise. a CD imprint of the Russian label Melodiya Olympia Motor Show.

Density: 171616 ) 125.Patras 237 Patras Patras Πάτραι Πάτρα A fountain in Georgiou I Square Location Patras Coordinates 38°15′N 21°44′E Government Country: Periphery: Prefecture: Districts: Mayor: Greece West Greece Achaea 11 Andreas Fouras [1] Population statistics (as of 2001 City  - Population:  - Area:  .4 km2 (48 sq mi) 1369 /km2 (3545 /sq mi) Metropolitan  - Population: 222460 Other Time zone: EET/EEST (UTC+2/3) .

The largest river in the area is Glafkos flowing to the south of Patras. connected with stairs. This is the result of an interplay between natural geography and human settlement patterns. Pátrai. The older upper section covers the area of the pre-modern settlement. Katharevousa: Πάτραι. overlooking the Gulf of Patras. Geography and climate Patras is located 215 km (134 mi) west of Athens by road. while its busy port is a nodal point for trade and communication with Italy and the rest of Western Europe. enjoyed by hundreds of thousands of visitors in a pleasant Mediterranean climate. The city is built at the foothills of Mount Panachaikon. around the Fortress. hosting a large student population and rendering Patras a major scientific centre with a field of excellence in technological education. which includes the 19th century urban Satellite view of Patras. 215 kilometers west of Athens. 7 km (4 mi) south of Rio.gr [2] Patras (Demotic Greek: Πάτρα. Latin: Patrae) is Greece's third largest urban centre and the capital of the prefecture of Achaea. connecting the Peloponnese peninsula with mainland Greece. it was also the place of Saint Andrew's martyrdom.AZ Website www. Every spring. The city has two public universities and one Technological Institute. according to Christian tradition. with relatively cool yet humid summers and rather mild winters.Patras 238 Elevation (min-max): 0 - 10 m (0 - 33 ft) Postal: Telephone: Auto: 26x xx 2610 ΑΧ.460 inhabitants. 134 km (83 mi) west of Corinth. notable features of the Patras Carnival include its mammoth-sized satirical floats and extravagant balls and parades. The Rio-Antirio bridge connects Patras' easternmost suburb of Rio to the town of Antirrio. 94 km (58 mi) northeast of Pyrgos. Pátra. The Patras metropolitan area is a conurbation of 222. the lower section of the city. It is built on what was originally a bed of river soils and dried-up swamps. located in northern Peloponnese. since 1925.patras. and 144 km (89 mi) northwest of Tripoli. Glafkos springs in Mount Panachaikon and its water is. Classical Greek. Dubbed Greece's Gate to the West. A central feature of the urban geography of Patras is its division in upper and lower sections. Patras is also famous for supporting an indigenous cultural scene active mainly in the performing arts and modern urban literature. Greek pronunciation: [ˈpatra].[3] The core settlement has a history spanning four millennia. it was European Capital of Culture 2006. the city hosts one of Europe's largest and most colourful carnivals. In the Roman period it had become a cosmopolitan centre of the eastern Mediterranean whilst. on what is the last elevation of Mount Panachaikon (1926 m (6319 ft))[4] before the Gulf of Patras. 77 kilometers northwest of Kalavryta. Patras is a commercial hub. is adjacent to the sea and stretches between the estuaries of the rivers of Glafkos and Haradros. collected in a small mountainous reservoir-dam near the village of . core and the port.

It would be in Roman times that it was to become an important port. Later on. Moreover. Andrew was crucified. in the area of modern Aroe. according to a study by the Patras Bureau of the Hellenic Ornithological Society. Triteia and Pharai. During antiquity. Small tremors are recorded along the coast of Patras almost constantly. Mythology has it that after the Dorian invasion. being at the heart of a densely populated urban centre that Panachaiko Range features a relatively arid climate and its admittedly high level of biodiversity. In antiquity. namely Antheia and Mesatis. some of which can be felt in the city. One of the most scholarly philosophers and theologians of the time. Patras played a significant role in the foundation of the second "Achaean League" (Achaiki Sympoliteia). Patras played a key role. Ancient Patras was formed by the unification of three Mycenaean villages located in modern Aroe. at around 860.0 magnitude earthquake caused some damage to several (mostly older) buildings throughout Patras due to the proximity of the epicenter to the city. located to the north of the city centre. a small and coastal aquatic ecosystem of only 30 hectares. a 6.Patras 239 Souli and subsequently pumped in order to provide energy for the country's first hydroelectric plant.[5] The water is also used for the orchards of Eglykas and as drinking water for the city. now Eliki. Patras' Roman Odeum After 280 BC and prior to the Roman occupation of Greece. Other rivers are Haradros. a group of Achaea from Laconia led by the eponymous Patreus established a colony. . During Byzantine times Patras continued to be an important port as well as an industrial centre. with over 90 species of birds being observed until the early 1990s. Patras became a Christian centre since the early days of Christianity. The main features of this wetland are its apparent survival difficulty. The Ionian Islands are also frequently hit by even more severe earthquakes.[6] Another geophysical characteristic of the region is its high level of seismicity. a 5. By the 9th century there are strong signs the city was Monument for the Greek Revolution(1821-1830). In June 15. and following the Roman occupation of Greece in 146 BC. Arethas of Caesarea was born at Patrae. the most notable example of destruction caused by an earthquake in the region was the total submergence of the ancient Achaean city of Helike. 1995. Larger earthquakes hit the area every few years with potentially destructive effects. causing some structural damage to a few buildings of Patras as well. Of great importance for the biological diversity of the area and the preservation of its climate is the swamp of Agyia. and Augustus founded a Roman colony in its area. Patras remained a farming city. along with the cities of Dyme. and it is the city where St. Patras flourished for the first time during the Post-Helladic or Mycenean period (1580–1100 BC). History The first traces of settlement in Patras date as early as in the 3rd millennium BC. In 1993.2 magnitude earthquake hit the nearby town of Aigion. Meilichos and the mountain torrent Diakoniaris.

Venice and Genoa attacked and captured it several times during the 15th and 16th centuries.[8] but the Turks. the city became a part of the principality of Achaea. A number of exquisite neoclassical buildings are to be found. featuring a variety of squares in a unique geometric pattern. and by the close of the 15th century the city was governed by the archbishop in the name of the pope. The most notable of these are the Psila Alonia and the Georgiou I . during the period of Axis occupation.[11] The war effort necessitated by the first World War hampered the city's development and also created uncontrollable urban sprawl with the influx of refugees from Asia Minor. who was immediately contested by the Ottoman Empire. a German military command was established and German and Italian troops stationed in the city.[7] It was here that the Greek Revolution began.[9] The city benefited from its role as the main export port for the agricultural produce of the Peloponnese. the fortress. In 1204 Patras was conquered by the Fourth Crusade. Patras was liberated on 7 October 1828 by the French expeditionary force in the Peloponnese.[10] In the early 20th century. the Town Hall. Urban landscape Patras' western seafront. . During the Second World War. and became the seat of the Latin Duchy of Athens within the Principality of Achaea. endeavoured to make himself master of Achaea and took Patras by storm.Patras 240 prosperous: the widow Danielis from Patras had accumulated immense wealth in land ownership. it never became a major centre of commerce. Under the Ottomans. The city is divided into the upper and the lower sections. Patras developed fast and became the first Greek city to introduce public streetlights and electrified tramways. as opposed to Νέα Πάτρα. the lower sections are attractively laid out. however. Mehmet II. connected with roads and broad stairs. from the Greek Παλαιά Πάτρα. Patras developed quickly into the second largest urban centre in late 19th century Greece. under the command of General Maison. confined to the citadel. In 1458 Patras was conquered by the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. and its archbishop primate The central square of Patras in the past century of the principality while in 1387 Juan Fernández de Heredia. Captured in 1205 by William of Champlitte and Villehardouin. the city was a major target of Italian air raids. In 1408. It was nevertheless seized once more by the despot Constantine in 1430. The upper section is the older and the more picturesque. Patras became Venetian. and offered critical support in the ascent of Basil I the Macedonian to the Byzantine throne. held out until 1828. the carpet and textile industry. Though Mehmet granted the city special privileges and tax reductions. including the '' "Apollon" Theatre in Georgiou I Square. but never re-established their rule effectively except Venetian rule between 1687-1715. the town. it was known as Baliabadra. grand master of the order of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes. the headquarters of the Local Trade Association and the Court of Justice.

This is contrary to what the Constitution of Greece of 2001 declares. now reconstructed and in use as an open-air theatre used for performances and concerts during the summer months. the patron Saint of the city and the largest church of Greece. however. some of the city's coastal areas are not in an ideal condition. Overlooking the whole town is the ruined Castle. Architecture The city is endowed with a number of neoclassical buildings and mansions dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. due to insufficient urban planning as well as institutional weaknesses on behalf of the City Council (mainly due to a lack of proper financial planning). The project for the restoration of the city's architectural heritage is part of the 2006 Cultural Capital bid. rises Nikolaos street at a nearby park.[13] . The winery is the main sponsor of the local basketball team. The region is also home to various Ancient Greek and Byzantine Monuments. In general. Today.[13] The Achaia Clauss wine tasting center is located on the outskirts in Petroto village. and as such belongs to the Greek people. that the Greek coastline is a "national treasure". years of neglect and the absence of protection enforcement. In the past. between the sites of the new and the old port. with several areas illegally occupied by shops built along the coastline. the Castle of Rio and the Fortress of Patras. Today. open to the public. Several (Λαϊκή) laikê (produce markets) take place across the city's neighborhoods on weekdays. much of Patras' coastline is framed by roads and avenues running alongside. stands the monumental church of Saint Andrew.Patras 241 The most significant ancient monument. and on Saturdays. is the Roman Odeon. It was founded in 1861 by the Bavarian Gustav Clauss and is most famous for its Mavrodaphne. built as a part of a coastline beautification project. these include Dymaion Coast to the south and Iroon Polytechneiou Road to the north. including the Patras Archaeological Museum and the Museum for the Sacrifice of the people of Kalavrita. whose current outline dates back to the Venetian invasion of the town (1687–1715). including the Roman Odeum. as well as recent earthquakes had contributed to the destruction of several such examples. most surviving neoclassical buildings are under a strict protection status. Kolokotroni street in central Patras Landmarks The Achaia region is home to 4 museums. its interior is used as a public garden. Near the seafront.[12] A replica of the city's emblematic View of the city from the stairs of Agios old lighthouse. Unfortunately. Apollon Achaia Clauss.

The square features a fountain in the middle and until the 1950s with sidewalks. including the Arakynthos mountains and the mountains of Aitoloakarnania and Fokida. City plan Patras is the first city of the modern Greek state to develop a city plan. Trees were added along with neoclassical buildings. It was completed in the mid to late-19th century when the population boomed. and offers a wide vista across the western Corinthian Gulf. most neoclassical buildings were replaced by eight-story residential buildings. and through the 1960s and 1970s. palm trees. The plan was divided into two sectors. presented the plan of the new city of Patras to the Governor Kapodistrias. while a memorial plaque to people executed during the Axis occupation of Greece stands on the south-western corner. The first city plan of Patras. a revision of the proposal in 1858 was that finally realised. A bronze statue of Germanos of Patras stands on the northern end. Voulgaris applied the orthogonal rule in the urban complex of Patras. In the west end. Stamatis Voulgaris. 1829 . Restaurants were added in the 1980s. the upper and the lower city. who approved it. Several shops. a 15 m (49.5 km from downtown Patras. surround the square. Trees surround the square and it features a grassy field. chiefly restaurants and cafes. with a different city block layout. In January 1829. next to the city's main north-south street. The Panachaiko and the mountains to the southeast including Omplos are also visible from the square.21 ft) tall cliff overlooks the Trion Navarchon pedestrian street. The square is located 1. Gounari Street. a Greek engineer of the French army. Mansion in Psilalonia square The square features modernistic buildings around and it had red shingles with arches.Patras 242 Psilalonia Square Psilalonia Square (Greek: Ψηλαλώνια or more formally Πλατεία Υψηλών Αλωνίων) is one of Patras's most popular squares. a playground. After World War II and the Greek Civil War however.

other suburbs are: • Aktaio (north) Patras city districts • • • • • • • • • • • Agios Georgios Riou (north) Petroto (east) Saravali (southeast.782 190.847 142.970 51.499 23.529 37.616 210.153).190 34.163 154.Patras 243 Neighbourhoods and districts Suburbs Nowadays. south) Mintilogli (south) Monodendri (south) Ovria (south) Paralia (south) Vrachnaiika (south) Roitika (south) Tsoukaleika Zarouchleika(south) Demographics The urban area of Patras includes the towns of Rion (12. comprising 18. Vrachneika (4.570 96.192 103. Historical Population Year 1853 1861 1870 1879 1889 1896 1907 1920 1928 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Patras 15.932 94.805) and Messatida (12.641 25.246).020 26. Paralia (9.227 44.985 37.494 .174 61.985 112.5% of the urban population.728 52.494 33.342 16.278 87.674).854 18. the municipalities of Rio and Antirrio have functionally become a part of the wider urban complex of Patras.596 161.100 [14] [15] [16] Urban Area 19.463 171.228 120.

000 Government Patras is the regional capital of Western Greece and the capital of the Achaea prefecture (the 5th most populous prefecture of Greece).[18] The port of Patras .) 180. The city has always been a sea-trade hub due to its strategic position. Several important works have been recently completed to serve Patras as an Olympic city.Patras 244 2007 (est. The city is going to be the capital of one of the newly proposed regions of Greece. a new port is under construction in the southern section of the city to accommodate the increased traffic and relieve the city centre from port operations. Consulates Population of Patras (dark blue) and the urban area of Patras (blue) from 1853 to 2007. The port manages more than half of the foreign sea-passenger transportation in Greece.000 230.[17] and has excellent car-ferry links with the Ionian islands and the major Adriatic ports of Italy. including Peloponnese and Ionian Islands. The city hosts consulates from several European countries (the only exception is the Lebanon consulate) Patras suburbs • • • • • British Honorary Vice Consulate Consulate of Austria Consulate of Belgium Consulate of Germany Consulate of Sweden • • • • • Consulate of Switzerland Honorary Consulate of Estonia Honorary Consulate of Finland Honorary Consulate of Italy Honorary Consulate of Lebanon • • • • Honorary Consulate of Poland Honorary Consulate of Netherlands Royal Danish Consulate Royal Norwegian Honorary Consulate Infrastructure In the past. a European capital of culture and one of the most populous Greek cities. this trend has changed significantly. in recent years. Additionally. Patras lacked public investment in infrastructure.

A large range of private hospitals and clinics operate in parallel. 20 km (12 mi) ring road was first opened in 2002 in order to alleviate heavy traffic throughout the city.34 ft).[25] Two major state hospitals operate in the city: the Saint Andreas Hospital is the oldest of the two. The highway connection with Athens and Pyrgos is to be drastically upgraded. and the Center of Chest Diseases of Southwest Greece. and was completed in August 2004. where intern medical students specialize on their major. named after the city's patron saint. intended to bridge western Greece from Kalamata to Ioannina. 4 km (2 mi) each.[19] A mini ring road is now being constructed to alleviate heavy traffic-related problems in the city centre. The main freight station of Aghios Andreas lies further to the south. The Rio-Antirio bridge is located to the north of the city and links Peloponnese to mainland Greece. and the Greek army operates the 409 army hospital in the city. two smaller state hospitals. Aghiou Nikolaou Street and Othonos-Amalias Avenue.[21] [22] Another project will lead to an additional entrance to the downtown area by expanding the Kanakari street. A number of research facilities also surround the university. Karamandanio . The cultural and educational facilities include the city and university libraries. 245 . The first is over the small Diakoniaris river while the second consists of two roads. A metropolitan optical network will be deployed in the city. Numerous art venues[26] and an ultra-modern archaeological The New Archaeological Museum of Patras. narrow gauge railway track crosses the city and connects it to Athens and to Pyrgos-Kalamata. There exist.[20] Two large highways are under construction that will connect the seacoast and the new port with the external ring road that surrounds the city of Patras.Patras A newly constructed. The city is one of the main Greek internet and GRNET hubs and is connected with high speed lines to Athens as part of the backbone. consisting of about ten tracks. between Rio-Antirio bridge. in addition. Other heavy infrastructure works include the Peiros-Parapeiros dam (to provide water supply for Patras and surrounding towns)[24] and a "small industries" park that will be constructed next to the Glaykos river and provide an easy connection with the new port. The University Hospital of Rio is a prominent university hospital. offers basic turntable and roundhouse facilities. next to the homonymous church. while the central passenger train station lies to the west of the downtown area. many theatres and a municipal art gallery.[28] in the host city of the University of Patras. A rudimentary single. the Hellenic Open University and the Technical Institute of Patras. its length is approximately 400 m (1312.[23] Patras will also be the central hub of the Ionia Odos highway. that will run in parallel with the Glaykos river. Finally. the old depot of Aghios Dionysios. museum[27] were constructed for the needs of European Culture Capital designation. with a total length of 48 km (30 mi). A new standard gauge railway to Korinth and further to Athens is under construction.children's hospital.

stayed for a total of 634. Tourism The prefecture has 4. As a result. Paralia etc. and is used as a civilian airport too. • Seaplanes [33]. TEI of Patras) Retailing Most of the large retail and super-market chains operate in the city. using its widely respected service and technology sectors. but also operate a transport line to and from the University of Patras. The area still retains some of its traditional winemaking and foodstuff industries as well as a small agricultural sector. Hellenic Open University. financial and the public sector services. but also to and from places in the province of Achaea.[29] [30] The University of Patras with the Rio-Antirio bridge in the background Transport • Araxos airport. Major businesses in Patras include: Banking Most Greek Banks have their regional headquarters for Western Greece located in Patras.Patras 246 Economy The economy of the city largely depends on a thriving service sector. Tertiary education (University of Patras. which is mainly a military airport. Thessaloniki etc. The University of Patras contributed by working towards this goal.000 tourists.800 hotels rooms and in 2006 286. Its main economic activities include retailing. • Port of Patras [32]. Construction and real estate Numerous small local companies are involved in the construction sector. Patras suffered a severe problem of deindustrialization during the late 1980s and 1990s. a considerable portion of the city's workforce and the city's economic planning in its entirety had to be re-evaluated and restructured by the authorities. to service certain charter flights. The railway station of Patras • City Buses. mainly in the summer. which operate transportation to and from the rest of Greece. located between the 16th km of GR-9 and Fares/Phares (pro. which operate in the city. like Saravali. a number of major productive units shut down in successive order. FAH-rehs). • Ιntercity Buses [31]. . • Hellenic Railways Organisation. and some close by suburbs. mainly Greeks. logistics.000 days.. Zarouchleika. like Athens. Patras has also some local but dynamic companies. since it's in a Hellenic Air Force air base (used by the 116 Combat Wing). and its industrial area lies approximately 20 km to the south of the downtown area.

overlooking the city of Patras. Nireus)[36] [37] . (Pavlos Giannakopoulos). Energy Acciona has recently completed the largest wind park in Greece. Patras companies focus in dress production.[35] Foodstuff The most numerous industries in the city include many local juice and drinks producers and two large facilities from Coca Cola HBC and Athenian Brewery. in Psathopyrgos. operates a new yogurt factory in the industrial area. Idealis a leading bike producer in Greece. The city hosts the second largest flour-mills in Greece. followed by numerous smaller textile industries. on the Panachaiko mountain.[40] Textiles The once omnipresent textile industry of the city is now almost defunct after the shut-down of the huge factory of Peiraiki-Patraiki (Πειραϊκή-Πατραϊκή). and a wood distribution center of Shelman. Nowadays. Kepenou-Mills[39] . has its largest production facilities in the industrial area of the city. The largest local company is Abex[41] . The remains of the facilities. Patras is also home to important fish-farming companies (Andromeda.[34] The Public Electric Company. a suburb of Patras. with large export activities. The most important of them are the local Antzoulatos and the multinational Frigoglass. headquartered in the suburbs of Patras. a subsidiary of Coca-Cola. among them the venerable Achaia Clauss. Timber and paper Patras hosts several timber manufacturing companies. ECOFEED operates in the industrial zone of Patras. with a private port. still cover hundreds of acres in the south side of the city. the largest fish-feeds factory in the Mediterranean[38] . the most important amongst them being DUR. The city is also home to many leading Greek wineries and distilleries. operates a small hydroelectric plant on river Glafkos. Machinery Patras has several packing and industrial equipment companies. Friesland Foods. through the local subsidiary NoyNoy. headquartered in the city. The paper sector is also active including a paper-factory belonging to Georgia-Pacific (Delica) and two important Greek companies. The largest local company in soft-drinks production is Lux (ΛΟΥΞ).Patras 247 Manufacturing • Titan Cement Company operates a large cement factory. . Elite and El-pack. Pharmaceutical • CBL is headquartered in Patras • Vianex. In the food sector.

a folk art museum. as a result of the many research institutes and the University impact in the area. with other theatre groups nearby the Viomichaniki(Industrial) and Michani Technis (Art Machine). the Patras Carnival and the Poetry Symposium. a global manufacturer of specialty chemicals and active pharmaceutical ingredients. Apollon Theatre . The architectural heritage of the city is dominated by neo-classicism.[46] • CBL Patras. and several orchestras and choirs.[47] [48] Culture The current cultural activity of the city includes the Patras International Festival (various artistic activities. the Lithographeion and Agora theatres provide additional venues. but also includes structures from other periods. and there are plans to set up a dance theatre within the context of the Patras Patras Carnival. is a startup from a professor of the University of Patras • Patras Science Park is an incubator for many small but upcoming technology companies. Entertainment and performing arts The Patras Municipal Theatre was founded in June 1988 and was renamed as Patras Municipal and Regional Theatre in 1989. while the Pantheon theatre and the Art Factory. and Support Services divisions.[50] A number of schools teach dancing. Expansion plans have recently been completed.[45] • Intracom facilities in Patras house the offices of Telecommunications Software Development. as well as several amateur groups. the float of the king of Carnival Municipal Regional Theatre. there is also a Municipal Library. an historical and ethnological museum and a museum of the press. There is one full-time theatre group in the city. Terminal Equipment Design.Patras 248 Research There has been a significant development in the R&D sector.[44] • Atmel Corporation has an important R&D facility in Patras with more than 200 employees • Bytemobile has its European Development Center in Patras.[49] The city hosts several conservatoires and schools of music. • The Computer Technology Institute and the • Industrial Systems Institute[42] of Greece are headquartered in Patras. with a main stage at the landmark Apollon Theatre. including one devoted exclusively to Byzantine music. The theatre's founding artistic directors were the actors Maya Liberopoulou and Viktor Arditis. • Patras is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and EU Intercultural cities programme. during the last years. an archaeological museum. mainly in the field of music). Patras has a visual arts workshop. Development Programmes. The ancient Roman Odeum hosts ancient dramas during the summer months. modern Greek to international repertoire. and hosts a Municipal Gallery as well as private art galleries. Throughout its existence it has mounted critically acclaimed performances ranging from ancient dramaturgy. a school of icon painting and a carnival float workshop. • The city is also a host to the FORTH-ICE-HT (Institute of Chemical Engineering & High Temperature Chemical Processes)[43] and the Institute of Biomedical Technology. and the institution draws its funding from the Municipality of Patras and the Ministry of Culture.

but includes also constructions from other periods. Patrino karnavali is the largest event of its kind in Greece and one of the biggest in Europe. and there are plans to set up a dance theatre within the context of the Patras Municipal Regional Theatre. The Patras 2006 proposal focuses on two central ideas: “bridges” and “dialogues”. a folk art museum. Further. This programme will amongst other things concentrate on art workshops. improvisation. as well as several amateur groups. The last theme. Excerpt from the Report of the Selection Panel for the European Capital of Culture 2006[51] [52] With the completion of the Capital of Culture programme. The EU Patras 2006 logo Commission found Patras' plans very ambitious and also commented that a successful hosting of the title by a medium sized city would make it possible to redefine the meaning of the term Cultural Capital. and hosts a Municipal Gallery as well as private art galleries. Abbie Gale. the. The carnival is not a single event but a variety of events that include balls. inspiration and volunteerism. The city has a Municipal Library. The first. European Capital of Culture 2006 Patras was chosen by the European Commission to be the European Capital of Culture for the year 2006. with a program consisting mostly of plays—both ancient drama and modern theatre—as well as various musical events. way of life and entertainment. 249 Music scene Patras is also responsible for a very strong indie rock scene with critically acclaimed bands such as Raining Pleasure. The Selection Panel for 2006 noted in its final report: The current cultural activity of the city includes the Patras International Festival (various artistic activities. Serpentine.Patras The Patras Carnival. “A city for Europe”. mainly in the field of music). the transfer of know-how. “The counterpart cities” programme will be developed in the fields of human and social sciences and in diverse artistic fields. Patras has a visual arts workshop. “The many homelands”. is directly linked to the etymology of the name of the city. a historical and ethnological museum and a museum of the press. Doh an Doris and others. the Greek shadow theatre. with Dimitris Sardounis as founder. to underline the essence of the productive interaction of culture and civilisation in Europe. parades. and finally the ritual burning of king carnival in the mole of Saint Nikolaos street in the harbour of Patras. Its apogee comes in the last weekend of Carnival with the Saturday evening parade of carnival groups. The city is also the birthplace of Karagiozis. and neoclassical buildings around the city were renovated as part of a plan to preserve the . a children's carnival and artistic projects. with a heritage reaching back 160 years. a school of icon painting and a carnival float workshop. and several orchestras and choirs. the industrial revolution and similar subjects. The events begin on January 17 and lasts until Clean Monday. taking benefit from the City's rich history and its position as a "Gate to the West". the extravagant Sunday parade of floats and groups. four poles/programmes of cultural attraction will be developed. will relate to the architectural heritage. There is one full-time theatre group in the city.[49] The city hosts several conservatoires and schools of music. The architectural heritage of the city is dominated by neo-classicism. a part old factory was renovated to host exhibitions and house a small theatre. an archaeological museum. Cultural managers from Patras and the general public will be involved in developing these ideas. The concept of the event revolved around the main theme of "Bridges" and "Links". the Patras Carnival and the (organized each year for the 25 years by an ad hoc committee at the University of Patras). “The three sea battles” will present a cultural programme focusing on peace and understanding. including one devoted exclusively to Byzantine music. During 2006 various cultural events took place.[50] A number of schools teach dancing. Its characteristic principles are spontaneity. The International Festival of Patras takes place every summer.

321 1891 Thyella Third Division . It was inaugurated in 1974. Apollon Patras and EA Patras are the major sports club based in Patras. followed by Georgios Nomikos. Peter's Basilica.150 1926 Olympiada Patras First Division . The Cathedral Agios Andreas . 250 Sports Patras has many sports facilities and important teams in all the major Greek leagues.Agios Dionysios 2.200 1927 NE Patras First Division . Panachaiki Gymnastiki Enosi. The church.000 1930 Apollon Patras BC A2 Ethniki .basketball Apollon Arena .Patras city's architectural heritage and link it to its cultural life.water polo First Division . will enhance the town's northern entrance and take its place among the other town landmarks. construction began in 1908 under the supervision of the architect Anastasios Metaxas. the second in basketball and the third in volleyball. It keeps the relics of the apostle Saint Andrew.Akti Dymeon 2. of Greek Byzantine style.volleyball EAP Arena . while there is a living community of Roman Catholics and a historical Anglican church. on the orders of Pope Paul VI.000 2006 NO Patras NOP Aquatic Centre .Perivola 4. The most significant church in the city is the Greek Orthodox cathedral Agios Andreas. which with its globe-like roof and modern architectural design. 1964.water polo Antonis Pepanos 3. It is the largest church in Greece and the largest Byzantine-style church in the Balkans. the first specializing in football.000 1929 2009 the International Children's Games had taken place in Patras. in the east side of the city.150 1961 EA Patras First Division . which were sent there from St. Religion The city is the seat of a Greek Orthodox archbishopic.basketball Dimitris Tofalos Arena 4. Logo Club Panachaiki Leagues Third Division . Rome in September.football Venue Kostas Davourlis Stadium Capacity Established 11.football Fotis Aravantinos Stadium 3. A major new archaeological museum is being built.

and Dimitrios Maximos a distinguished economist. actress Epameinondas Thomopoulos (1878–1974) painter Kostis Palamas (1859–1943) poet Matilde Serao Memos Makris (1913–1993) sculptor Mnaseas Saint Regulus Thanos Mikroutsikos (1947) composer Rena Dor. the former president of the Hellenic Republic. actor Gerasimos Skiadaresis. when the city lay second only to Athens in the urban hierarchy of the country. actor Tasso Kavadia. minister and finally prime minister during the civil war era. actress and singer Timos Perlegas. actress Kostis Palamas Transportation Airports • Araxos Airport is located about 40 km from the city. Politics Related • • • • • • • • • • • Andreas Michalakopoulos Athanasios Kanakaris Benizelos Rouphos Costis Stephanopoulos Danielis Dimitrios Gounaris Dimitrios Maximos George Papandreou (senior) Germanos of Patras Panagiotis Kanellopoulos Zaimis Sports Related • • • • • • • • • Dimitrios Tofalos Kostas Davourlis Kostas Katsouranis Nikolaos Andriakopoulos Nikos Barlos Stephanos Christopoulos Themis Rigas Themistoklis Diakidis Vassilis Stravopodis Culture Related • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Arethas of Caesarea Dimitris Hantzopoulos (1956) Jean Goldkette Jean Moréas Betty Moschona. Panagiotis Kanellopoulos. More recent figures include George Papandreou (senior) leader of the Center Union and one of the most important political personalities in post World War II Greece. Stylianos Gonatas a high-ranking officer. and Costis Stephanopoulos. Most particularly in the first century after liberation. Georgiou Papandreou Street and Akrotiriou) Patras Bypass . the last democratically elected head of government before the establishment of the 1967 junta. significant personalities shaping the character of Greece were associated with Patras. Andreas Michalakopoulos.Patras 251 People The city boasts a relatively large number of politicians in the national political arena as its natives. foreign minister and prime minister. Roads • • • • • • GR-5/E55 GR-8/E55 and E65 (partly Panepistimiou Street) GR-8A GR-9/E55 (partly Akti Dymaion) GR-33 (partly Kalavryton. a prominent liberal party cadre. politician and one of the leaders of the “1922 Revolution”. Its famous natives include the prime ministers Dimitrios Gounaris the main leader of the anti-venizelist party in the 1910s.

Croatia Vilnius. On the obverse the logo for Patras 2006 around the words "European Capital of Culture" can be seen. Bosnia and Herzegovina • Byblos. France Savannah. minted in 2006. the €10 Greek Patras 2006 commemorative coin. This coin commemorates the event that signalled a new enlightened course for Patras and serves as a reminder of the fact that culture can stimulate the economy and promote development. Australia • Craiova. Cyprus Ancona. USA Split. when Patras was appointed as European Capital of Culture. Romania Chişinău.Patras 252 Maps • Patras map under Creative Commons License [53] International relations Twin towns — Sister cities Patras is twinned with: • • • • • • • Aleksinac. Greece Intercultural cities Patras 2006 commemorative coin . Romania Focsani. People's Republic of China Ohrid. Georgia. Poland • • See also • Patras was recently selected as main motif for a high value euro collectors' coins. Italy Saint-Étienne. Italy • • • • Canterbury. Lebanon Bydgoszcz. Serbia Ammochostos. Lithuania Banja Luka. New South Wales. Republic of Macedonia Reggio Calabria. Moldova Gjirokastër. Italy Bari. Ukraine Limassol. Albania Kharkov. Cyprus • • • • • • Linyi. • • • • • • • • • • Apollon Theatre (Patras) Archaeological Museum of Patras Cities in Greece Communities of Achaia Kalavryta Panachaiko Patras wireless metropolitan network Rio-Antirio bridge Rio.

infocenterpatras.Infocenter" (http:/ / www. 2007 [5] Thomopoulos. statistics. National Statistical Service of Greece. htm). Patrai 1952. N.N.gr. gr [3] "EU Commission. ditikiellada. . Tourism data . . [19] "Ring Road map" (http:/ / www. gr/ mnimeia_en. Retrieved 2009-09-09. aspx).gr. gr/ el/ organization/ port. asp?id=92) . http:/ / www. archive. [18] "Οργανισμός Λιμένος Πατρών . "19th Century Patras: how the character of the city changed with the development of the port after 1828" Kathimerini 14-10-01 http:/ / news. "MHXANIKH AE" (http:/ / www. Hellenic Republic. (ed. Mixalis Kaplanidis. org/ CityProfiles. St.gr. gr/ newsite/ erga_new_35. . [25] "Metropolitan Optical Network of Patras" (http:/ / ru6. [13] Region of Western Greece: Monuments (http:/ / www. patras2006. gr/ 4dcgi/ _w_articles_civ_491371_14/ 10/ 2001_3252 [11] Thomopoulos [12] "Info about St. michaniki.Evzoni" (http:/ / www. Inforegio..Andrew Church by InfoCenter Patras" (http:/ / www. cfm). gr/ UserFiles/ f0ff9297-f516-40ff-a70e-eca84e2ec9b9/ D_diairesi.2006" (http:/ / www. "Istorikon Lexikon ton Patron: Istoria tis poleos ton Patron apo arxaiotaton xronon eos simeron kata alphavitikin eidologikin katataksin" 3rd edition. Urban Audit. ornithologiki. Historic Lexicon of Patras [10] Kounenaki Pegy. pdf) (PDF). gr/ gr_tables/ S604B_STO_1_TB_AN_06_3_Y. Retrieved 2009-01-05.Το νέο λιμάνι" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-01-05. pdf) (PDF). cfm). asp?id=129& category=142) . K. gr/ ) [17] "ΟΛΠ . Book A. Athens 1980 [15] Population data from 1853 to 1920 are cited from: Kosta N. php). gr/ mediaupload/ Áñ÷åßá åöáñìïãÞò/ par_patra.Athens . urbanaudit. Michaniki. [21] Loizos Bailas.Patras 253 References External links • • • • • • The official website of the city [54] official website of the Carnival of Patras [55] Info on Patras in english [56] Patras City Guide Patrino [57] Video about Patras Carnival from Travel Channel [58] Video about Patras European Capital of Culture 2006 [59] References [1] "Δείτε τη Διοικητική Διαίρεση" (http:/ / www. gov. . Patras Venues" (http:/ / www. Ornithologiki. Triantafyllou. asp?id=102 [9] Triantafyllou. Retrieved 2009-01-05. html#i__171238864_870) (in Greek). . Chapter I. "Memoirs".) [6] Chris K. gr/ newsite/ erga_new_34. . . xls) (in Greek). michaniki.Birds. gr/ newsite/ erga_new_30. ditikiellada-region. [2] http:/ / www. 9. . . ypes. patrasport. Athens. www. html). blogspot. birding and conservation in Greece" (http:/ / www. Baliabadra [8] Strategus Makrygiannis. Michaniki. gov. infocenterpatras. [20] "Works under construction in the region of Western Greece" (http:/ / www. gr/ texni_en. 2007 [14] 1928-1980 statistical data are from: "The population of Greece in the second half of the 20th century". . City profile" (http:/ / www. gr/ el/ organization/ stats. Hellenic Interior Ministry. michaniki.Thessaloniki . "Hellenic Ornithological Society . [27] "Ktizon.Ν. Athens 1980 & "Statistical Yearbook of Greece" Hellenic Republic. "MHXANIKH AE" (http:/ / www. Michaniki. kathimerini. "MHXANIKH AE" (http:/ / www. .Accessed Feb. org/ web/ 20080404011151/ http:/ / www. gr/ en/ modules/ html/ index. Retrieved 2009-01-05. html) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. Mixalis Kaplanidis.Στατιστικά στοιχεία" (http:/ / web. . statistics. Mixalis Kaplanidis. gr/ 4/ 45/ 4504/ e450401. [26] "European Culture Capital. . 1849. patras. . [23] "Road Axis Patra .gr. ditikiellada. com/ en_contents. patrasport. ditikiellada-region. com/ en_contents. Triantafyllou. php?id=19). php). html). Patrai 1995 [16] Data on municipal and urban population refer to permanent population and are taken from: the "2001 Census" of the National Statistical Service of Greece (http:/ / www. [28] "Cultural Facilities in Patras .v. [24] Loizos Bailas. snhell. [29] "Greek Statistics Organization. gr/ testimonies/ writer. gr/ en/ enmain. cfm). php). asp?id=289). History of the City of Patras from Antiquity to 1821. . [7] Encyclopaedia of Islam s. 9. minenv. cti. . gr/ broadband/ el/ man_93_patras. Κ. Hellenic Ministry of Public Works.Accessed on Feb. . [4] Region of Western Greece: Geography (http:/ / www. com/ 2007/ 03/ new-archaeological-museum-patras. Presentation of the Archaeological museum of Patras" (http:/ / ktizon.gr. [22] Loizos Bailas. Directorate General for Regional Policy.ypes. gr/ contents. .

html). php?e=B& f=13570& m=D17& aa=2). aspx& id=174& nt=124& lang=2). abex. com/ videoplay?docid=6555706811489761081& q=patras http:/ / www. jsp). 7463& zoom=13& layers=B000FTF http:/ / www. . google. Tourism data . . gr/ gr_tables/ S604B_STO_1_TB_AN_06_4_Y. gr/ Default. carnivalpatras. gr). . gr/ http:/ / www. gr/ print_article. [47] "Patras Science Park . asp?id=15). [45] "Bytemobile . php?page=projects& category=1& project=0 [39] "Kepenou mills" (http:/ / tovima. [44] "Institute of Biomedical Technology" (http:/ / www. gr/ default. poetrysymposium. infocenterpatras. [41] "Abex Timber Manufacturing" (http:/ / www. html). lkmk. . . airsealines. org. pdf) (PDF). patras. html). andromeda). gr/ index. [43] "Institute of Chemical Engineering & High Temperature Chemical Processes" (http:/ / www. Intracom Telecom. gr/ content/ display?ses_mode=rnd& ses_lang=el& prnbr=68645) (in Greek). acciona-energia. . dolnet. [31] http:/ / www. openstreetmap. [36] aquaculture. dipethepatras. [40] "Vianex facilities in Patras" (http:/ / www. int/ comm/ culture/ eac/ other_actions/ cap_europ/ pdf_word/ patras_final_report. dei. eu.2006" (http:/ / www. [46] "Intracom Telecom: Infrastructure" (http:/ / www. gr/ http:/ / video. patrino.Company facts" (http:/ / www. gr/ en/ index. [35] "Glafkos Hydroelectric Power Station" (http:/ / www. forth. gr) [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [58] [59] Patras Municipal Regional Theatre (http:/ / www. gr/ index_en. [38] http:/ / www. php http:/ / www.Hosted Companies" (http:/ / www. com/ company/ facts. nireus. gr) Patras Final Report (http:/ / europa. eu. inbit. html) http:/ / www. htm#patras). statistics. com/ default. gr [33] http:/ / www. org/ ?lat=38. pdf) Patras Future Report (http:/ / europa. com/ [34] "Acciona Wind Parks" (http:/ / www. [37] "Nireus Aquaculture" (http:/ / www. int/ comm/ culture/ eac/ other_actions/ cap_europ/ cap_futur_en. bytemobile. intracom-telecom. co. htm). ktel. ekt. [49] Poetry Symposium (http:/ / www. gr). patrasport. uk/ ontv/ travel2005/ patras. . gr/ http:/ / www. gr/ apps/ en/ stem/ listcompanies. 2378& lon=21. vianex.gr/.gr/ "Andromeda Aquaculture" (http:/ / www. psp. . isi. travelchannel. com/ en/ company/ profile/ infrastructure. iceht. [42] "Industrial Systems Institute" (http:/ / www. . . asp?x=0002020101& lang=En#gre).Patras [30] "Greek Statistics Organization. . gr/ eng/ default. gr [32] http:/ / www. gr/ htmlsite/ infrastructure. . htm 254 . Bytemobile. . Patras Science Park. . aquaculture. [48] "Awards of the 7th International Venture Capital Forum" (http:/ / www. aspx?t=MapStation.

musical competitions (Miller. "to rot") is claimed by some to be the original name of the site in recognition of the Python that Apollo defeated (Miller. Delphi was the site of the Delphic oracle. 95). In the inner hestia ("hearth") of the Temple of Apollo.C. it had other attractions that led to it being labeled the "omphalos" (navel) of the earth.[3] His sacred precinct in Delphi was a panhellenic sanctuary. After the battle of Plataea. Delphi was set apart from the other games sites because it hosted the mousikos agon. iv. [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO. The Homeric Hymn to Delphic Apollo recalled that the ancient name of this site had been Krisa. where every four years. 96). a deity who lived there and protected the navel of the Earth. ii. The victors at Delphi were presented with a laurel crown which was ceremonially cut down from a tree in Tempe by a boy who re-enacted the slaying of the Python (Miller. 96). 95). (Miller. the most important oracle in the classical Greek world. v and vi 393 [1] Europe Inscription history Inscription 1987  (11th Session) [70] * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. 96) athletes from all over the Greek world competed in the Pythian Games. the Greek cities extinguished their fires and brought new fire from the hearth of Greece. These Pythian Games rank second among the four stephanitic games chronologically and based on importance (Miller. These games. iii. starting in 586 B. the founding colonists were first dedicated at Delphi. In Greek mythology. one of the four panhellenic (or stephanitic) games. in the foundation stories of several Greek colonies.[4] . Python (derived from the verb pythein. an eternal flame burned. the center of the world (Miller. though. were different from the games at Olympia in that they were not of such vast importance to the city of Delphi as the games at Olympia were to the city of Olympia. precursors of the Modern Olympics. and a major site for the worship of the god Apollo after he slew the Python. Delphi (Greek Δελфοί. Greek pronunciation: [ðelˈfi][2] ) is both an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in the valley of Phocis. in other words. 96-7). at Delphi.Delphi 255 Delphi Archaeological Site of Delphi* UNESCO World Heritage Site The theatre. Delphi would have been a renowned city whether or not it hosted these games. seen from above Type Criteria Reference Region** Cultural i.

which tended later to be attributed to particular sages. the site by his epithet Δελφίνιος Delphinios. according to some because The Temple of Apollo. The Homeric name of the oracle is Pytho (Πυθώ). the winners at the Pythian Games received a wreath of laurel (bay leaves) picked in the Temple.[9] Among other things epsilon signifies the number 5. In commemoration of this legend. carrying Cretan priests on his back.is the harbor-city of Kirrha on the Corinthian Gulf. as well as the Pythian Games and the famous prehistoric oracle.[11] According to one pair of scholars. and includes the Sanctuary of Apollo. the origin of these phrases was attributed to one or more of the Seven Sages of Greece.[8] as well as a large letter E. a plant sacred to him (also known in English as the bay tree). Most likely they were popular proverbs. "the Delphinian".Delphi 256 Location The site's of Delphi is located in lower central Greece. The epithet is connected with dolphins (Greek δελφίς. Apollo killed the chthonic serpent Python. Plutarch's essay on the meaning of the "E at Delphi" is the only literary source for the inscription. used for the Pythian Games. on multiple plateaux/terraces along the slope of Mount Parnassus. a city in Thessaly. when young. hundreds of votive statues remained. Southwest of Delphi. View of the mountain-top stadium of the Delphi sanctuary. "womb" and may indicate archaic veneration of Gaia. delphi also located in the south-western of spur of mount parnassus Dedication to Apollo The name Delphoi comes from the same root as δελφύς delphys.[5] [6] Apollo is connected with in central Greece. Supposedly carved into the temple were three phrases: γνωθι σεαυτόν (gnōthi seautón = "know thyself") and μηδέν άγαν (mēdén ágan = "nothing in excess"). In ancient times. and Εγγύα πάρα δ'ατη (engýa pára d'atē = "make a pledge and mischief is nigh"). who lived beside the Castalian Spring. described by Pliny the Younger and seen by Pausanias.3 mi) away.[7] Another legend held that Apollo walked to Delphi from the north and stopped at Tempe.-ῖνος) in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (line 400). and the Earth Goddess at the site. to pick laurel. The stone steps/seats at right were added under the Romans. This semicircular spur is known as Phaedriades. viewed from below the eastern end. .[10] though ancient as well as modern scholars have doubted the legitimacy of such ascriptions. Grandmother Delphi(left center) is north of the Gulf of Corinth Earth.the site of the ancient Oracle. recounting the legend of how Apollo first came to Delphi in the shape of a dolphin. Even in Roman times. Pythia. "The actual authorship of the three maxims set up on the Delphian temple may be left uncertain. Delphi became the site of a major temple to Phoebus Apollo. about 15 km (9. and overlooks the Pleistos Valley. named Pythia in older myths."[12] From a late myth that deviates from much older ones. but according to some later accounts his wife.

Apollo spoke through his oracle: the sibyl or priestess of the oracle at Delphi was known as the Pythia. go to Famous Oracular Statements from Delphi. son of Enlil. allowing Apollo to possess her spirit. Parke writes that the foundation of Delphi and its oracle took place before recorded history and its origins are obscure.and her ravings were "translated" by the priests of the temple into elegant hexameters. Apollo Smintheus (Greek Απόλλων Σμινθεύς). certainly encourages that view. and fumes arose from its decomposing body. In this state she prophesied. an annual festival in spring celebrating the return of Apollo from his winter quarters in Hyperborea. Gaia. the mouse killer[17] eliminates mice. According to Aeschylus in the prologue of the Eumenides.W.[14] The "Theoxenia" was held each summer. 257 Oracle Delphi is perhaps best-known for the oracle at the sanctuary that was dedicated to Apollo during the classical period. found in no other mainland sanctuary.[21] The Oracle exerted considerable influence throughout the Greek world. which was a new. hence he promotes preventive medicine. which with the wings created the caduceus symbolic of the god. though this theory remains debatable. to worshippers. The Pythian Games took place every four years to commemorate his victory. she had to be an older woman of blameless life chosen from among the peasants of the area. the sibyl would fall into a trance. The bodies of the pair were draped around his Rod. As punishment for this murder Apollo was sent to serve at menial tasks for eight years. and even Egypt. This spring flowed toward the temple but disappeared beneath.Delphi Python had attempted to rape Leto while she was pregnant with Apollo and Artemis. a primary cause of disease. it had origins in prehistoric times and the worship of Gaia. who was conquered by Apollo. according to legend. for this was traditionally the time when Apollo would live among the Hyperboreans.[20] H. The oracle could not be consulted during the winter months. In the last quarter of the 8th century BC there is a steady increase in artifacts found at the settlement site in Delphi. since she was a child of Gaia. When Apollo slew Python. known to produce violent trances.[16] Another view holds that Apollo was a fairly recent addition to the Greek pantheon coming originally from Lydia. creating a cleft which emitted vapors that caused the Oracle at Delphi to give her prophecies. originally given to the plague God Nergal.[18] [19] While in a trance the Pythia "raved" probably a form of ecstatic speech . the atonement and the return of the God. was performed annually portraying the slaying of the serpent. centred on a feast for "gods and ambassadors from other states". A festival. and so forth. and she was consulted before all major undertakings: wars. the founding of colonies. the flight. The Etruscans coming from northern Anatolia also worshipped Apollo. Neither the range of objects nor the presence of prestigious dedications proves that Delphi was a focus of attention for a wide range of worshippers.[13] Another regular Delphi festival was the "Theophania" (Θεοφάνεια). People consulted the Delphic oracle on everything from important matters of public policy to personal affairs. It has been postulated that a gas high in ethylene. Pottery and bronze work as well as tripod dedications continue in a steady stream. and buried under the Omphalos. . She also was respected by the semi-Hellenic countries around the Greek world. came out of this opening. post-Mycenaean settlement of the late 9th century. in comparison to Olympia. The culmination of the festival was a display of an image of the gods. Intoxicated by the vapors. Caria. Dionysus would inhabit the temple during his absence. usually hidden in the sanctuary. but dating to the worship of the Great Goddess. The name Pythia remained as the title of the Delphic Oracle. an Akkadian title meaning "son". She sat on a tripod seat over an opening in the earth. Apollo killed Python but had to be punished for it. its body fell into this fissure. For a list of some of the most noted oracular pronouncements of the Pythia. and it may be that he was originally identical with Mesopotamian Aplu. such as Lydia. the Septeria. The shrine dedicated to Apollo was originally dedicated to Gaia and then possibly to Poseidon. and that it is a case of one deity setting up a temple on the grave of another. but the large quantity of high value goods.[15] Erwin Rohde wrote that the Python was an earth spirit.

Later it was placed under the protection of the Aetolians. Also Plutarch was a significant factor by his presence as a chief priest. Thus the Oracle fell in decay and the surrounding area became impoverished. When Nero came to Greece in AD 66.[23] Temple of Apollo The ruins of the Temple of Delphi visible today date from the 4th century BC are of a peripteral Doric building.C.C. The prophecies attributed to her circulated in written collections of prophetic sayings.Delphi The Oracle benefited from the Macedonian Kings. Delphi .C.). The Sibyl had no connection to the oracle of Apollo. and should not be confused with the Pythia. and 105 B. along with the oracles of figures such as Bakis. The short reign of Julian could not improve matters. 258 The "Delphic Sibyl" The Delphic Sibyl was a legendary prophetic figure who was said to have given prophecies at Delphi shortly after the Trojan War. However barbarian raids during the reign of Marcus Aurelius and removal of statues and other riches (in effect looting) by Constantine I caused it to decay. he took away over 500 of the best statues from Delphi to Rome. Invading barbarian invasions burned the Temple. but was interrupted by the Mithridatic Wars and the wars of Sulla who took many rich offerings from the Oracle. until Christians started to settle permanently in the area: they established the small town of Kastri in about AD 600. The Oracle's credibility waned due to doubtful predictions. which had been severely damaged by an earthquake in 83 B. Hadrian offered complete autonomy. The site was abandoned for almost 100 years. The sparse local population led to difficulties in filling the posts required. Subsequent Roman emperors of the Flavian dynasty contributed significantly towards its restoration. A major reorganization was initiated. After a brief period the influence of the Romans started to emerge. However the Oracle continued until it was closed by emperor Theodosius I in AD 395. dated to the 6th century BC which itself was erected on the site of a 7th century BC construction attributed to the architects Trophonios and Agamedes.C.[24] Site plan of the Sanctuary of Apollo. Most of the ruins that survive today date from the most intense period of activity at the site in the 6th century BC. and they protected the Oracle from a dangerous barbarian invasion in 109 B. It was erected on the remains of an earlier temple.[22] Buildings and structures Occupation e Mycenaean period (1600-1100 B.

Amphiktyonic Council The Amphiktyonic Council was a council of representatives from twelve Greek tribes that controlled Delphi and also the quadrennial Pythian Games. Greece . They met biannually and came from Thessaly and central Greece.[24] Inside was the adyton. Of a similar proportion to the second temple it retained the 6 by 15 column pattern around the stylobate. the town of Delphi gained more control of itself and the council lost much of its influence. which had destroyed the original structure. The monument was partly restored during 1938-1300.Delphi 259 The 6th century BC temple was named the "Temple of Alcmeonidae" in tribute to the Athenian family which funded its reconstruction following a fire. and Agathon. The third temple is attributed to Corinthian architects Spintharos. The new building was a Doric hexastyle temple of 6 by 15 columns. Xenodoros. the centre of the Delphic oracle and seat of Pythia. Over time.[24] Temple of Apollo at Delphi The pediment sculptures are a tribute to Praxias and Androsthenes of Athens. This temple was destroyed in 373 BC by an earthquake with a third temple completed on the site by 330 BC. Columns of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi.

They are called "treasuries" because they held the offerings made to Apollo. continuing up the slope almost to the temple itself. It was restored in 1920. that led to the eclipse of Greek civilization and the eventual growth of Rome. It was built in the Ionic order and consists of seven fluted columns. It is dated to the 5th century BC by the inscription on its cornice. the treasury draws inspiration mostly from the Temple of Hera located in the Argolis. through the protection of the Amphictyonic League. the altar would have made a striking impressions. the acropolis of the city. among them the Siphnian Treasury. recent analysis of the Archaic elements of the treasury suggest that its founding preceded this. built to commemorate the Athenians' victory at the Battle of Salamis. the Argives took great pride in establishing their place amongst the other city states. Several of the treasuries can be identified. explaining why he had deserved his freedom. they won a famous battle at Salamis. and numerous treasuries. the The reconstructed Treasury of Athens. are a large number of votive statues. As a result of these treasuries. The most impressive is the now-restored Athenian Treasury. built to Boetians and the Thebans. Built in the late Doric period.[25] Stoa of the Athenians The stoa leads off north-east from the main sanctuary. these were frequently a "tithe" or tenth of the spoils of a battle. which was thought to have contributed to those victories. to house their war trophies. It was the abuse of these treasuries by Philip of Macedon and the later sacking of the Treasuries. the main altar of the sanctuary was paid for and built by the people of Chios. However. Made entirely of black marble. Completed in the year 380. Other identifiable treasuries are those of the Sikyonians. first by the Celts.Delphi 260 Treasuries From the entrance of the site. and later by Sulla. supposedly any slave manumitted in Athens was obliged to record a short biography here. the Athenians had previously been given the advice by the oracle to put their faith in their "wooden walls" — taking this advice to mean their navy. the Roman Dictator. According to Pausanias. dedicated by the city of Siphnos whose citizens gave a tithe of the yield from their gold mines until the mines came to an abrupt end when the sea flooded the workings.[25] The rear wall of the stoa contains nearly a thousand inscriptions. The inscription on the stylobate indicates that it was built by the Athenians after their naval victory over the Persians in 478 BC. . These were built by the various Greek city states — those overseas as well as those on the mainland — to commemorate victories and to thank the oracle for her advice. Altar of the Chians Located in front of the Temple of Apollo. One of the largest of the treasuries was commemorate their victory at the Battle of Marathon that of Argos. except for the base and cornice. unusually carved from single pieces of stone (most columns were constructed from a series of discs joined together). Delphi came to function as the de-facto Central Bank of Ancient Greece.

98). beyond the via sacra and the theatre.[25] Hippodrome The hippodrome of Delphi was the location where the running events took place during the Pythian Games. Polygonal wall The retaining wall was built to support the terrace housing the construction of the second temple of Apollo in 548 BC. with the later cut into the rock. they fell into a slumber and never woke. and imparted the ability to communicate to Apollo himself. The statues commemorate their feat of pulling their mother's cart several miles to the Sanctuary of Hera in the absence of oxen. The last major remodeling took place in the 2nd century AD under the patronage of Herodus Atticus when the stone seating was built and (arched) entrance. leaving Delphi as the main site of athletic statues (Miller. 98). The charioteer has lost many features. pool and baths on lower floor. but time brought ruin to many of them. When they entered Hera's temple. No trace of it has been found. was a series of buildings used by the youth of Delphi. including his chariot and his left arm.5 metres wide. These pools and baths were said to have magical powers. It is known that Olympia originally housed far more of these statues. and a palaestra. which is half a mile away from the main sanctuary. but the location of the stadium and some remnants of retaining walls lead to the conclusion that is was set on a plain apart from the main part of the city and well away from the Peribolos of Apollo (Miller. far above the temples/theater below.[26] The mountain-top stadium at Delphi. Stadium The stadium is located further up the hill. Its name is taken from the polygonal masonry of which it is constructed. 101) Castalian spring The sacred spring of Delphi lies in the ravine of the Phaedriades. dying at the height of their admiration. are modeled in two of the earliest known athletic statues at Delphi. two brothers renowned for their strength. 98). The preserved remains of two monumental fountains that received the water from the spring date to the Archaic period and the Roman. but he stands as a tribute to athletic art of antiquity (Miller. Kleobis and Biton. The building consisted of two levels: a stoa on the upper level providing open space.Delphi 261 Athletic Statues Delphi is famous for its many preserved athletic statues. The Charioteer of Delphi is another ancient relic that has withstood the centuries.[25] Gymnasium The gymnasium. . It is one of the best known statues from antiquity. The neighbors were most impressed and their mother asked Hera to grant them the greatest gift. It was originally built in the 5th century BC but was altered in later centuries. It could seat 6500 spectators and the track was 177 metres long and 25. the perfect gift (Miller.

with 10 Corinthian columns in the interior.[24] Tholos The Tholos at the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia is a circular building that was constructed between 380 and 360 BC. It is claimed to be where the Sibyl sat to deliver her prophecies. with villagers offered a completely new village in exchange for the old site. Vitruvius (vii.76 meters. The theatre at Delphi (as viewed near the top seats).[25] Modern Delphi . In 1893 the French Archaeological School removed vast quantities of soil from numerous landslides to reveal both the major buildings and structures of the sanctuary of Apollo and of Athena Proaea along with thousands of objects. Three of the Doric columns have been restored.Delphi 262 Theatre The ancient theatre at Delphi was built further up the hill from the Temple of Apollo giving spectators a view of the entire sanctuary and the valley below. Its 35 rows can seat 5. The Tholos is located approximately a half a mile (800 m) from the main ruins at Delphi. inscriptions and sculptures. The Tholos at base of Mount Parnassus: 3 of 20 Doric columns. The opportunity to relocate the village occurred when it was substantially damaged by an earthquake. Excavations The site had been occupied by the village of Kastri since medieval times. It was originally built in the 4th century BC but was remodeled on several occasions since. Before a systematic excavation of the site could be undertaken. introduction) notes Theodorus the Phocian as the architect of the Round Building which is at Delphi.000 spectators. Sibyl rock The Sibyl rock is a pulpit-like outcrop of rock between the Athenian Treasury and the stoa of the Athenians upon the sacred way which leads up to the temple of Apollo in the archaeological area of Delphi. the village had to be relocated but the residents understandably resisted. making it the most popular site at Delphi for tourists to take photographs. It consisted of 20 Doric columns arranged with an exterior diameter of 14.

Delphi 263 Delphi Δελφοί Delphi Museum Location Delphi Coordinates 38°29′N 22°30′E Government Country: Periphery: Prefecture: Greece Central Greece Phocis [27] Population statistics (as of 2001 City  - Population: 3511 Other Time zone: Auto: ) EET/EEST (UTC+2/3) ΑΜ Modern Delphi is situated immediately west of the archaeological site and hence is a popular tourist destination. The main streets are narrow. a usual way of rebuilding towns that were partially or totally destroyed. In medieval times Delphi was also called Kastri and was built on the archaeological site. a church and a square (plateia). . Delphi attracts tourists visiting the Parnassus Ski Center and the popular coastal towns of the region.511. which demolished several towns in Phocis. a lyceum. In 1893 archaeologists from the École française d'Athènes finally located the actual site[28] of ancient Delphi and the village was moved to a new location. including Chrisso (ancient Krissa). and many taverns and bars. is 3. Delphi also has a school. The Trans European Footpath E4 passes through the east end of the town.373 people while the population of the municipality of Delphi. The town has a population of 2. especially after the earthquake in 1580. It is on a major highway linking Amfissa along with Itea and Arachova. west of the site of the temples. The residents had used the marble columns and structures as support beams and roofs for their improvised houses. and often one-way. There are many hotels and guest houses in the town. In addition to the archaeological interest.

14 cf. History of the Delphic Oracle. The Orphic Poems. The Delphic oracle. said to have been tutor to Pythagoras Delphi Archaeological Museum Ethylene References • Broad. Performance. 264 See also • • • • • Greek art List of traditional Greek place names Aristoclea .Delphi The Delphi Archaeological Museum is at the foot of the main archaeological complex. ISBN 0531151131 • Guthrie. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. By Stephen G.. 2004 . Joseph Eddy. New York. "Dictionary of Classical Antiquities" [39]. Henry A." Clinical Toxicology 40. and fragments of reliefs from the Siphnian Treasury. The Greeks and their Gods. 1983. Portrait of a Priestess: Women and Ritual in Ancient Greece [30]. Python. The Cults of the Greek States. • Spiller. Joan Breton. 1895. 1974. 1928. New York. Psyche. its early history. Priestesses. a study of Delphic myth and its origins. Princeton University Press. • West. • Connelly.H. its responses and operations.C. ISBN 9780199215508 • Fontenrose. Joseph Eddy. volume III [32] and volume IV [33] on the Pythoness and Delphi). Ch. with a catalogue of responses. 1989. influence and fall [31]. ISBN 0-19-814854-2. 2007. Berkeley: University of California Press. Oxford University Press. Biblio & Tannen. Reverend. Immediately adjacent to the exit (and overlooked by most tour guides) is the inscription that mentions the Roman proconsul Gallio. • Plutarch "Lives" • Rohde. on the south side of the main road. 2006. and Jelle Z. Entry to these is free. Hale. de Boer. Martin Litchfield. especially. 1939. John R. 1896-1909. Oxford: B. Blackwell. • Seyffert. Greek Religion 1985. Bacchylides: Politics. Poetic Tradition. New York : Penguin. 1955. is the Gymnasium and the Tholos.2 (2000) 189-196. and a reduced rate ticket gets entry to both. 2007. • Fearn. ISBN 081960285X • Goodrich. Watts. The Delphic oracle. ISBN 0691127468 • Dempsey. the famous Charioteer. golden treasures discovered beneath the Sacred Way. Manly Palmer.. Oskar. David.www [35]. Miller. New York: F. PRS [36] • Herodotus. T. and a post office by the museum. The Secret Teachings of All Ages. Greek Oracles [34]. • "Ancient Greek Athletics". • Hall. Norma Lorre. William J. The Histories • Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo [37] • Manas. London: W. 1978.Delphic priestess of the 6th Century B. Glaisher. Entries to the museum and to the main complex are separate and chargeable. Pythagorean Society. (Cf. There is a small cafe. and on the north side of the main road. Lewis Richard. ISBN 1-59-420081-5. • Farnell. Divination. John Helen. • Parke. including the earliest known notation of a melody. ISBN 0520033604 • Fontenrose. Herbert William. • Burkert. William Keith Chambers. 1947. "The Delphic Oracle: A Multidisciplinary Defense of the Gaseous Vent Theory. Slightly further east. The Oracle: Ancient Delphi and the Science Behind its Lost Secrets [29]. in five volumes. The museum houses an impressive collection associated with ancient Delphi. Walter.. 1925. Erwin. 1918. on the east side of the village. ancient and modern [38]. Clarendon Press.

Robert. The Cults of the Greek States. php?id=3& back=delphi. 2002: "Fumes and Visions Were Not a Myth for Oracle at Delphi" [56] • A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean by Michael and Reynold Higgins. "Fables.3-4. php) [3] Hymn to Pythian Apollo. onwards. August 2001 • Geology of Delphi [55] • The New York Times. travel-to-delphi. Catherine. Such has been the strength of the tradition that many historians and others have accepted as historical fact the ancient statement that Ge and Themis spoke oracles before it became Apollo's establishment. "A Short detour to Delphi and the Sibyls" [47] Livius Picture Archive: Delphi [48] Eloise Hart. Proceedings of 4th Philosophical Meeting on Contemporary Problems. pp. Athletes and Oracles: The Transformation of Olympia and Delphi in the Eighth Century BC. unesco. Lewis Richard. March 19. in a more the Greek-like manner. they said. l. in Scientific American August 2003 [53] • John Roach. Cornell University Press. 61. which often foreshadowed the future. v. Yet nothing but the myth supports this statement. Joseph. In the earliest account that we have of the Delphic Oracle's beginnings. therefore the earth-deity has power over the ghostly world: the shapes of dreams. with a Catalogue of Responses (1978). Hale. . org/ en/ list/ 393 [2] In English. pp. as well as other Greek dialectal varieties (http:/ / www. The Delphic Oracle: Its Responses and Operations. the story found in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo (281-374). Pytho's only inhabitant. "Questioning the Delphic Oracle: When science meets religion at this ancient Greek site.Aeolian form. dialectal forms include Belphoi . The Greek spelling transliterates as "Delphoi" (with an o). were supposed to ascend from the world below. Riddles. [6] Farnell. and Mysteries of Delphi" [40].November 10 to 15 [50] International Delphic Council [51] ASHES2ART Digital Delphi [52] Geology of Delphi • John R. "Such was its prestige that most Hellenes after 500 B. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge [England] . pp. No 4. Greece) In Greek and English. Dalphoi . External links General • • • • • • • • • • • • Official website of the archaeological site [41] Official website of the Museum [42] History of the Ecole française d'Athènes in Delphi [43] (French) Homepage of the modern municipality [44] (English) (Greek) Hellenic Ministry of Culture: Delphi [45] Delphi [46] (Greek) C. Osborne. 1990. 254-74: Telphousa recommends to Apollo to build his oracle temple at the site of "Krisa below the glades of Parnassus". Ge (Earth) (Gaia) and her daughter Themis had spoken oracles at Pytho. [4] Burkert 1985. This was apparently the Delphic myth of the sixth century". [5] Fontenrose. "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" in National Geographic news [54]. com/ page. 84. as /ˈdɛlfiː.III.8-10. Philippines .. 1996 [57] References [1] http:/ / whc. placed its foundation in the earliest days of the world: before Apollo took possession. "The earth is the abode of the dead.Phocian form. "The Delphic oracle" [49] III JUNIOR DELPHIC GAMES 2007 Baguio City. the two turn out to be on better terms than scholars had originally thought". 1999 (Athens.Delphi 265 Further reading • Morgan. there was no Oracle before Apollo came and killed the great she-dragon. et al. ISBN 0521374510 • Temple.C. the name Delphi is pronounced either as English pronunciation: /ˈdɛlfaɪ/ or.

It would be foolish to look for a clear statement of origin from any ancient authority. "The Mystery of Apollo's E at Delphi. A Greek-English Lexicon [18] See Spiller. p." [7] Odyssey. Themis. vol.. com/ seyffert/ 0178." [23] Delphi Archaeological Site (http:/ / www. The worship of these two. His conflict with Ge for the possession of the cult site was represented under the legend of his slaying the serpent. E (1925). Trevor. 239. The Delphic Oracle. [20] See (e. . is really another manifestation of the same deity: an identity which Aeschylus himself recognized in another context. 59. org/ architecture/ delphi-stadium. Seyffert. google. instead of being simple and traditional. "Another very archaic feature at Delphi also confirms the ancient associations of the place with the Earth goddess.14. com/ books?id=SoSJLj3O3tYC& printsec=frontcover). A. Ancient-Greece. ancient-greece. ancient-greece. On p. (Jan. org/ architecture/ delphi-temple-of-apollo. "Delphic Oracle's Lips May Have Been Loosened by Gas Vapors" (http:/ / news. His origin has been the subject of much learned controversy: it is sufficient for our purpose to take him as the Homeric Hymn represents him – a northern intruder – and his arrival must have occurred in the dark interval between Mycenaean and Hellenic times. and de Boer (2000). As regards Gaia. Retrieved 2009-09-09. Hugh. a merely secondary work of improvement on the site. reprinted by Routledge. Eva. google. uk/ books?id=EiyDaZ5DWx0C& pg=PA138& dq=Delphi+ theoxenia& lr=& as_brr=3& ei=0rrfSeOlJJbyygTwrvjaBA) Stehle. htm+ french+ archaeological+ school+ athens+ delphi& hl=en& gl=uk& ct=clnk& cd=2)) [29] http:/ / books. Protagoras 343a-b. pp. "This version [Euripides] evidently reproduces in a sophisticated form the primitive tradition which Aeschylus for his own purposes had been at pains to contradict: the belief that Apollo came to Delphi as an invader and appropriated for himself a previously existing oracle of Earth. Aeschylus in the prologue to the Eumenides. attribute to primeval times the same methods as used at Delphi in their own day. 9780691036175 [16] Rodhe. 1925. 0057:entry=#95523) at Henry George Liddell. The slaying of the serpent is the act of conquest which secures his possession. org/ archaeology/ delphi-archaeology.ypes.) Fearn 2007. 1. They disagree with each other basically. from the 8th edn. A recently discovered inscription speaks of a temple of Ge at Delphi. google. p. ancient-greece. So much is implied by their allusions to tripods and prophetic seats. The Homeric Hymn. 2007. John Murray. 1983. or Gaia (mythology). 85.gr. 387-389. Hellenic Interior Ministry. html) at Ancient-Greece. a mythical prophetess unrelated to the traditions of the oracle itself. 2005. 1. com/ books?id=4Cj0ueSqyVQC& printsec=frontcover [32] http:/ / books. com/ news/ 2001/ 08/ 0814_delphioracle. [10] Plato. Hellenic Ministry of Culture. who is associated with her in tradition as her daughter and partner or successor. perseus. Classical legend asserted that it marked the 'navel' (Omphalos) or centre of the Earth and explained that this spot was determined by Zeus who had released two eagles to fly from opposite sides of the earth and that they had met exactly over this place"." American Journal of Archaeology. The Delphic Oracle. "So Delphi was originally devoted to the worship of the Earth goddess whom the Greeks called Ge. 182. Wormell. Actually this is not what we find. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. [9] Hodge. London. ypes. VIII.org. Performance and gender in ancient Greece: nondramatic poetry in its setting. html). www. and also by the story of the Python. B. as we saw. ISBN 0-521-53081-4. Ancient-Greece. com/ books?id=8Oi_sVWIXLAC& printsec=frontcover [30] http:/ / books. 138. Retrieved March 8. and Euripides in a chorus in the Iphigeneia in Tauris. "Psyche: The Cult of Souls and the Belief in Immortality among the Greeks".7 he writes further. (Basil Blackwell. Cf. [27] "Δείτε τη Διοικητική Διαίρεση" (http:/ / www.1. Dictionary of Classic Antiquities. article on "Delphic Oracle" (http:/ / www. v. Robert Scott. we also can accept it. Hillis (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. All three versions. greeka. [13] Cf.6. writing in the fifth century. xls) (in Greek). not as in the Homeric Hymn. pp 70-71.. are already selective and tendentious. [28] (see link (http:/ / 216. Divination and Democracy (http:/ / books. p.3. Charmides 164d-165a. . com/ books?id=9J0wnXWZmL8C& printsec=toc& source=gbs_summary_r& cad=0#PPR1. implied that the method of prophecy used there was similar to that of Dodona: both Aeschylus and Euripides. 1956). 1996. [17] Entry: σμινθεύς (http:/ / old. was displaced by the introduction of Apollo. but one might hope for a plain account of the primitive traditions. pp. [21] Herbert William Parke. [11] H. . Classical Athens and the Delphic Oracle. Hale. [19] John Roach (2001-08-14). Athens. p. co. 389. html). The foundation of the oracle is described by three early writers: the author of the Homeric Hymn to Apollo. 104/ search?q=cache:VBH7i4wfeucJ:www. especially through the process of incubation." Parke goes on to say. com/ greece-archaeological-sites. Princeton University Press.97. html). gr/ 2/ 21/ 211/ 21110a/ e211ja01.Delphi therefore the earth-deity might acquire an oracular function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. html) [14] James Hall. an egg-shaped stone which was situated in the innermost sanctuary of the temple in historic times. 80 [8] Plato.. National Geographic. in which the consultant slept in a holy shrine with his ear upon the ground. but have been superficially combined in the conventional version of late classical times. [26] Delphi Stadium (http:/ / www. A History of Ideas and Images in Italian Art. and Aegae." Continuing on p. google. Vol. 04. 83-84. "They may learn about the mysterious Delphic Sibyl. That such conceptions attached to Gaia is shown by the records of her cults at Delphi. com/ books?id=sAspxHK-T1UC& printsec=frontcover [31] http:/ / books." [22] Bowden. 2000). It is confirmed by certain features in the latter Delphic divination. gr/ UserFiles/ f0ff9297-f516-40ff-a70e-eca84e2ec9b9/ D_diairesi.org [24] Temple of Apollo at Delphi (http:/ / www. tufts. "The foundation of Delphi and its oracle took place before the times of recorded history. by W. culture. html). trans. ISBN 0691036179.org [25] Delphi (http:/ / www. ancientlibrary. [12] Parke & Wormell. nationalgeographic. Parke and D.M1 266 . No. This was the Omphalos. p. google. google.g. Another difference is also noticeable. as one or distinguished. 1981). ISBN 0719539714 [15] Google books (http:/ / books.

jsp?obj_id=2507 http:/ / odysseus. gr/ prefectures/ greek/ Fokidas/ Delfoi. htm http:/ / delphic. jsp?obj_id=3404 http:/ / www. com/ papers/ Fables_Delphi. html http:/ / www. moonspeaker. html http:/ / books. culture. about. html http:/ / www. culture.Delphi [33] [34] [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] http:/ / books. robert-temple. edu/ ashes2art/ delphi2/ index. html http:/ / hellas. com/ books?id=W9300nUf4uMC& printsec=frontcover http:/ / www. shtml [57] http:/ / geologie. org/ chemicals/ inhalants/ inhalants_history1. gr/ en/ dim_delfon. org/ theosnw/ world/ med/ me-elo. google. htm [56] http:/ / www. com/ news/ 2001/ 08/ 0814_delphioracle. org/ Hesiod/ hymns. erowid. gr/ 2/ 21/ 211/ 21110a/ e211ja01. gr/ histoire/ histoire1870_03. htm http:/ / www. google. org http:/ / www. sacred-texts. de/ index. ca/ Delphi/ delphi. htm http:/ / www. gr/ h/ 3/ eh351. org/ secret. com/ eso/ sta/ index. uqac. sacred-texts. html http:/ / www. html 267 [55] http:/ / geology. com/ books?id=ewIIU_JNarIC& printsec=titlepage& source=gbs_summary_r& cad=0 http:/ / www. coastal. com/ eso/ sta/ sta14. prs. com/ article. ancientlibrary. efa. html http:/ / www. theosophy-nw. culture. ca/ ~mhiggins/ greece. delphic. htm http:/ / www. fokida. html http:/ / www. com/ seyffert/ index. htm . gr/ h/ 1/ eh151. teipir. htm http:/ / www. pdf http:/ / odysseus. sciam. org/ a/ greece/ delphi/ delphi. com/ cs/ odds_and_ends/ a/ aa081901a. htm http:/ / omacl. cfm?articleID=0009BD34-398C-1F0A-97AE80A84189EEDF http:/ / news. nationalgeographic. php?id=87& L=0 http:/ / www. livius.

now part of OSE. .Kalambaka 268 Kalambaka Kalambaka Καλαμπάκα Aerial view of Kalampaka's suburb village Kastraki Location Kalambaka Coordinates 39°42′N 21°38′E Government Country: Periphery: Prefecture: Greece Thessaly Trikala [1] Population statistics (as of 2001 City  - Population: 11841 Other Time zone: Auto: ) EET/EEST (UTC+2/3) ΤΚ Kalambaka or Kalampaka (Greek: Καλαμπάκα) is a municipality in the Trikala Prefecture. Kalambaka is the northwestern terminal of the old Thessaly Railways. I LOVE GR [2] . Greece. The famous Meteora monasteries are located in the municipality.841 (2001). Population 11. Kalambaka voted as one of the most beautiful places in Greece by the show of Skai TV. Germany. Kalambaka is a twin town of Schwabach.

ilovegr. gr/ kalampaka-kalabaka. Kalambaka was granted independence from Turkish rule.gr. This is the ancient name of the city. html [4] http:/ / www. www. xls) (in Greek). In 1995 an ancient tomb was found in Kalabaka dating from the 20th century BC. ypes. On Thursday April 23 of 1943 took place in Kalabaka a battle between Greeks and Italians in which 70 Italians solders died. gr/ UserFiles/ f0ff9297-f516-40ff-a70e-eca84e2ec9b9/ D_diairesi. html . gr/ kalampaka-kalabaka. . kalabakacity. The name Kalambaka was given 6-7 centuries ago. kalabakacity. Retrieved 2009-09-09.Kalambaka 269 History On the 27 August. It is Turkish origin and means powerful fortress. 1881. Kalambaka called Eginio. gr/ node/ 309 [3] http:/ / www. [3] The name of the city When the Romans conquered Greece. Hellenic Interior Ministry.ypes. [4] References [1] "Δείτε τη Διοικητική Διαίρεση" (http:/ / www. [2] http:/ / www.

IV. They were the first people to inhabit Metéora. a rudimentary monastic state had formed called the Skete of Stagoi and was centered around the still-standing church of Theotokos (mother of God). "suspended rocks". which were perfect for the monks. Athanasios Koinovitis from Mount Athos brought a group of followers to Metéora. some of which reach 1800 ft (550m) above the plain. Radiocarbon 43(2B): 1029-1048.Meteora 270 Meteora Metéora* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Type Criteria Reference Region** Coordinates  Greece Mixed i. By the late 11th and early 12th century. V and VII.[2] The exact date of the establishment of the monasteries is unknown. combined with the sheerness of the cliff walls. [71] ** Region as classified by UNESCO. he founded the great Meteoron monastery on Broad Rock. They lived in hollows and fissures in the rock towers. meeting only on Sundays and special days to worship and pray in a chapel built at the foot of a rock known as Dhoupiani.[2] By the end of the 12th century. at the northwestern edge of the Plain of Thessaly near the Pineios river and Pindus Mountains. Initially the hermits led a life of solitude.1 mi) south of Meteora had inhabitants fifty millenia ago. From 1356 to 1372. in central Greece. radiocarbon evidence for 50. they were safe from . In 1344. As early as the 11th century AD hermit monks were believed to be living among the caves and cutouts in the rocks. The nearest town is Kalambaka. The Metéora (Greek: Μετέωρα.[2] The six monasteries are built on natural sandstone rock pillars. kept away all but the most determined visitors. an ascetic group of hermit monks moved up to the ancient pinnacles. II. vii 455 [1] Europe 39°42′N 21°37′E Inscription history Inscription 1988  (12th Session) [70] * Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. The cave of Theopetra. an ascetic community had flocked to Metéora. "suspended in the air" or "in the heavens above") is one of the largest and most important complexes of Eastern Orthodox monasteries in Greece.[4] History The Theopetra caves 5 kilometres (3. second only to Mount Athos. This great height. iv. ii. The Metéora is included on the UNESCO World Heritage List under criteria[3] I. v. In the 9th century. Kalambaka.000 years of human presence.

Continuous weathering by water. Of the 6 intact . Until the 17th century. "The net in which intrepid pilgrims were hoisted up vertically alongside the 373 metres (1224 ft) cliff where the Varlaam monastery dominates the valley symbolizes the fragility of a traditional way of life that is threatened with extinction. beginning in the 14th century. Nectarios and Theophanes built the monastery of Varlaám. which was drawn up whenever the monks felt threatened. requiring either long ladders lashed together or large nets used to haul up both goods and people. The monasteries are now tourist attractions. seeking a retreat from the expanding Turkish occupation. They were created to serve monks and nuns following the teachings of the Greek Orthodox Church. A series of earth movements pushed the seabed upwards. It may be sweltering during summertime. During World War II the site was bombed and many art treasures were stolen.[8] Only six of the monasteries remain today. Much of the architecture of these buildings is Athonite[10] in origin. especially at higher altitudes. Greek historian Herodotus wrote in the 5th century BC that local people believed the plain of Thessaly had once been a sea. and nor are they recorded in the writings of other ancient Greek authors. They were formed about 60 million years ago. the primary means of conveying goods and people from these eyries was by means of baskets and ropes. Athanasius (founder of the first monastery) did not scale the rock.Meteora political upheaval and had complete control of the entry to the monastery. the Byzantine Empire's 800-year reign over northern Greece was being increasingly threatened by Turkish raiders who wanted control over the fertile plain of Thessaly."[7] In the 1920s there was an improvement in the arrangements. marked by horizontal lines which geologists maintain were made by the waters of a prehistoric sea. If this was accurate. only "when the Lord let them break". The rocks are composed of a mixture of sandstone and conglomerate. five are inhabited by men. At the end of the 14th century. around 8000 BC. More than 20 monasteries were built. which was reputed to house the finger of St John and the shoulder blade of St Andrew. Rainfall is generally heavy all year round. and most are perched on high cliffs and accessible by staircases cut into the rock formations. but was carried there by an eagle. However. List of Monasteries All of these monasteries are located at Metéora in Greece. wind and extremes of temperature turned them into huge rock pillars. Steps were cut into the rock. these sandstone rocks rise from the ground.[2] Six remain today. but the driest time of the year is during summer [9] . This required quite a leap of faith – the ropes were replaced. found the inaccessible rock pillars of Meteora to be an ideal refuge.[7] Of these six. 271 Geology Studies suggest that the pinnacles were formed about 60 million years ago during the Tertiary Period. but extremely cold in wintertime.[6] In the words of UNESCO. there was most probably an inundation at the end of the last Ice Age.[9] Weathering and earthquakes then shaped them into their present shape. There is a common belief that St. The hermit monks. This has led to the belief that the pinnacles did not exist 2000 years ago. Each monastery has fewer than 10 inhabitants. so the story goes. one by women. Access to the monasteries was originally (and deliberately) difficult. he failed to mention the rocks of Metéora. Beside the Pindos Mountains. a theory dismissed by modern geologists. The only means of reaching it was by climbing a long ladder. Climate The climate in the region varies greatly according to the time of year. at the western region of the Thessaly plain in the middle of northern Greece.[5] In 1517. making the complex accessible via a bridge from the nearby plateau. creating a high plateau and causing many fault lines to appear in the thick layer of sandstone.

Photograph 272 The Holy Monastery of Varlaam – The Holy Monastery of Varlaam is the second largest monastery in the Metéora complex. Stephen is inhabited by nuns. dedicated to All Saints.This was founded in the middle of 16th century AD and decorated in 1560. this is a small church. only the Holy Monastery of St. It was decorated by the Cretan painter Theophanis Strelitzas. The old refectory is used as a museum while North of the Church we can see [12] the parekklesion of the Three Bishops built in 1627 and decorated in 1637. with spacious esonarthex (lite) is surrounded by a dome. is in the Athonite type (cross-in-square with dome and choirs).This is the largest of the monasteries located at Metéora. while the esonarthex was decorated in 1566. . A church. The Katholikon (main church). The building serves as the main museum for tourists. Monastery The Holy Monastery of Great Meteoron . It was built in 1541/42 and decorated in 1548. [13] The Holy Monastery of Rousanou/St. consecrated in honour of the Transfiguration of Jesus was erected in the middle of 14th c. It was erected in the mid-14th century AD and was the subject of restoration and embellishment projects in 1483 and 1552.Built in the 16th century AD. in 1527.Meteora monasteries. The Holy Monastery of St. and [11] 1387/88 and decorated in 1483 and 1552. Nicholas Anapausas . It was built in 1541 and embellished in 1548. Barbara .

[16] Gallery The Varlaam monastery on its rock pedestal. inspired by the rocks in central Greece. 1741. • Meteora and the monastery of Holy Trinity inspired the book The Lost Throne. • The rock band Linkin Park released an album called Meteora topping the Billboard 200's album charts in 2003. The monastery Agiou Stephanou (Saint Stephen's) is inhabited by nuns only.This small church was built in the 16th century and decorated in 1545.This monastery is on top of the cliffs. Stephen . the Nikolaos and the Grand Meteora monasteries. The Rousanou monastery. music and film inspired by Meteora • The monastery of Holy Trinity was a filming location in the 1981 James Bond movie For Your Eyes Only. by Lancashire author Joseph Delaney • In the post-apocalyptic horror novel World War Z. • Meteora is the main location in the fiction book The Spook's Sacrifice.[15] • Scenes from Tintin and the Golden Fleece were also shot at the Meteora monasteries. • Francesco's Mediterranean Voyage is a BBC Television documentary series first aired in 2008 • The place became a location for the animated film Arceus and the Jewel of Life. . It was abandoned. 1689. It was damaged by the Nazis during WWII who believed it was harboring [14] insurgents. Literature. published in 2008 by New York Times bestselling author Chris Kuzneski. The Rousanou. It was built in 1475 and was remodeled many times in 1684. This monastery rests on the plain rather than on a cliff. the monasteries' natural protection is restored to protect survivors from growing zombie hordes. Nuns took it over and reconstructed it. 1692.Meteora 273 The Holy Monastery of St. when it was being used as a base by the villainous Kristatos (played by Julian Glover). The Monastery of Holy Trinity .

com/ destinations/ themeteora/ 1665010001.Greece (http:/ / www. meteora-greece. tennessee. Published: Reader's Digest Association Limited. meteora-greece.as viewied from Meteora cliffs Sources • Reader's Digest. com/ title/ tt0082398/ locations) [16] Google Book page from World War Z (http:/ / books. com/ books?id=X4Z-6_UjUK8C& pg=PA18& lpg=PA18& dq=world+ war+ z+ meteora& source=bl& ots=92Hoxyfwis& sig=A5lUrnIlQ6j29-HHmOh4UrcGTUI& hl=en& ei=HE10S4WVMYejnQfE3MGdCQ& . imdb. html retrieved March 20 [6] http:/ / travelwithachallenge. 2007 [12] http:/ / www. Nicholas Anapausas Panorama of the Meteora valley Panoramic view at Meteora valley Panoramic view at Meteora valley Panoramic view at monastery Varlaam Panoramic view at monastery Roussanou Panoramic view at monasteries Varlaam and Grand Metereon Panoramic view at monastery Varlaam Panoramic view at the city of Kalambaka . Athos [11] http:/ / www. unesco. edu/ alumnus/ fall95/ greece. [3] http:/ / whc. kalampaka. org/ en/ list/ 455/ documents/ retrieved November 2. unesco.Greece (http:/ / www. newsfinder. March 2001. D. London. com/ greatmeteoron. com/ greece/ meteora-monasteries. 2007 [5] http:/ / www. The Holy Monastery of St. • Meteora photo gallery [18] by Andy Carvin. 1991. htm retrieved November 2. sacred-destinations. meteora-greece. 2009 [13] Meteora . 2007 [9] Meteora . htm retrieved November 3. 2007 [8] http:/ / www. htm) [14] http:/ / pr. com/ en/ meteora/ monasteries.Meteora 274 The Grand Meteoro monastery. com/ generalinfo. org/ en/ list/ 455 [2] Sofianos. 2007 [15] Internet Movie DataBase (http:/ / www. asp retrieved May 22. 2007 [4] http:/ / whc.Z. ISBN 0 276-42111 6 External links • A local site [17] with information on the monasteries and area. Strange Worlds Amazing Places (1994). frommers. unesco. org/ site/ more/ meteora_connecting_with_heaven/ retrieved September 11. htm retrieved November 9. 432 pp. org/ en/ criteria/ retrieved November 7. com/ Greece-Meteora. Holy Monastery of Great Meteoro. com/ rousanou.: "Metéora". html retrieved September 11. 2007 [7] http:/ / www. • Meteora entry [19] on Walkopedia Geographical coordinates: 39°42′51″N 21°37′52″E References [1] http:/ / whc. google. htm) [10] Referring to Mt.

Thermopylae is part of the infamous "horseshoe of Maliakos" also known as the "horseshoe of death": it is the narrowest part of the highway connecting the north and the south of Greece. eliminating the narrowest points of the pass and considerably increasing the size of the plain around the outlet of the Spercheios. surrounded by steeply sloping forested limestone mountains. In ancient times. . View of the Thermopylae pass from the area of the Phocian Wall. com [18] http:/ / www. It derives its name from several natural hot water springs. The area is dominated by the coastal floodplain of the Spercheios River.Meteora sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=7& ved=0CBcQ6AEwBg#v=onepage& q=& f=false) [17] http:/ / www. Geography Thermopylae is located in eastern central Greece on the only land route large enough to bear any significant traffic between Lokris and Thessaly. Between 480 BC and the 21st century. The shoreline has retreated greatly over the centuries because of the sedimentary deposition. asp?WalkID=130 275 Thermopylae Thermopylae (pronounced /θərˈmɒpɨliː/) (Ancient and Katharevousa Greek Θερμοπύλαι. meteora-greece. net/ walks/ display-walk. The level of the Gulf of Malia was significantly higher during prehistoric times and the Spercheios was significantly shorter. The shoreline retreated by up to 2 kilometers between 2500 BC and 480 BC but still left several extremely narrow passages between the sea and the mountains. would have been less than 100 metres (330 ft) wide. edwebproject. Demotic Θερμοπύλες: "hot gateway") is a location in Greece where a narrow coastal passage existed in antiquity. It is directly across the road from the hill where Simonides of Ceos's epitaph is engraved in stone at the top. The narrowest point on the plain.[1] A main highway now splits the pass. the coastline would have been much closer to the mountain. where the Battle of Thermopylae was probably fought. The continuous deposition of sediment from the river and travertine Map of changes to the shoreline at Thermopylae. Passage from north to south along the east coast of the Balkan peninsula requires use of the pass. org/ balkans/ meteora. Further west the way is blocked by mountains and the Gulf of Corinth. the shoreline retreated by as much as 9 km (5 miles) in places. deposits from the hot springs has substantially altered the landscape 2500 BC to present during the past few thousand years. For this reason the area has been the site of several battles. walkopedia. with a modern-day monument to King Leonidas I of Sparta on the east side of the highway. It has many turns and has been the site of many vehicular accidents. The land surface on which the famous Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 480 BC is now buried under 20 metres (66 ft) of soil. html [19] http:/ / www.

For two days they held out between two narrow cliff faces to prevent the use of Xerxes' vast cavalry and infantry force. 276 Mythology Thermopylae means "hot gates" in Greek. 120 from Orchamenus. The hot springs from which Thermopylae takes its name. Gaulic invasion of the Balkans In 279 BC a Gallic army led by Brennus successfully defeated a Greek army under Calippus of Syracuse. 1000 from the rest of Arcadia. 5. The name since then has been used to reference heroic resistance against a more powerful enemy. 500 from Mantinea. Third Sacred War In 353 BC/352 BC during the Third Sacred War. 200 from Philius. 700 Corinthians and 400 Thebans) held off a substantially larger force of Persians under Xerxes. Battles Greco-Persian Wars Thermopylae is primarily known for the battle that took place there in 480 BC.Thermopylae The hot springs from which the pass derives its name still exist close to the foot of the hill. 500 warriors from Tegea. before being outflanked on the third via a hidden goat path named the Anopaia Pass. This is derived from the myth that Heracles had jumped into the river in an attempt to wash off the Hydra poison imbibed in the cloak that he could not take off. in which an outnumbered Greek force of four thousand (including the famous 300 Spartans.000 Phocian hoplites and 400 horsemen denied passage to the forces of Philip II of Macedon. The river was said to have turned hot and stayed that way ever since. 80 Mycenae. Leonidas'monument in Thermopylae .

Diakos. after making a last stand at the bridge of Alamana with 48 of his men. was captured and killed. p. 2006. External links • maps of Attica and Thermopylae [2] • Association of Greek Hoplites [3] Historic Studies Club "KORYVANTES" The War at Thermopylae Geographical coordinates: 38°48′19″N 22°33′46″E References [1] Rapp. lib. ISBN 0300109660 [2] http:/ / www.000 Turks from marching down from Thessaly to put down revolts in Roumeli and the Peloponnese. Geoarchaeology: The Earth-science Approach to Archaeological Interpretation. World War II In 1941 during World War II the ANZAC forces delayed the invading German forces in the area enough to allow the evacuation of the British expeditionary force to Crete. Balkan invasion by the Heruli In 267. Yale University Press. jpg [3] http:/ / www. edu/ maps/ historical/ shepherd/ attica_shepherd_p16. the Germanic tribe of Heruli defeated the Greek force that tried to stop them. 96. utexas. This conflict also became known as the Battle of Thermopylae. Greek War of Independence In 1821. koryvantes.Thermopylae 277 Roman-Seleucid Wars In 191 BC Antiochus III the Great of Syria attempted in vain to hold the pass against the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio. a force of Greek fighters led by Athanasios Diakos made a stand near the pass to stop a force of 8. org . Christopher L. Such was the fame of Thermopylae that the sabotage of the Gorgopotamos bridge in 1942 was referred in German documents of the era as "the recent sabotage near Thermopylae". George Robert. Hill.

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