Copy rig hted m ateri al

Writte..,n by' Mli ShouJia,ngl & 'You J:ia 'Tralnls~a,ted bry Mliln Chs!ng

CtlU "'" A IN1lEKCONn "., ENTAl [PRIESS

JAB:LE, OF CONTENTS

2 'I':'. "S d f 'I' ~I • Ch ::, .. , 11- ']i , ,~l!ix.l;e[ls~ve' ,,' p,re~., , 0,. ,sw,am 10 <'lwlf), , .. ' .. J'

3 .. Rer gious S'Y~,ler[l of Ld~m i['JJ Cmma, armd [be Deve~opmen:t of ,M:o~que;s, 124

4.Conaeul[,aJt~on and. Dis:pers;ion of Msh~nl. in the' Chinese lul~nd /31

31,;.M,esque Education. Mid Initia 'IOn or ',8Itionwj zati 0][1 of Islam in China m

4.M~)vement of TI,.~m~[~ng aluj, 'Wri,'t):II: Sci.~,pru:res, :~n, Chinese ilnd,N'a'[io[)alb:IMol lOf Tsi~l1m irn Cbin,~, 187

31~'Democrntic Reform 10 :R~J.~,gio:us Sys~em8 (,f 'Chinese E'sllL1EiCh~':,lrer lU,6

Copy rig hted m ateri al

2-Se,uiTl,p '~n 'RepulailioniS and Sv;stem 'to, Stre'A"diJen ~;lomiRe'

,., ",- ,'" -, JU!;c , !Ii" - -iQ;i; '-' -)~, .'~ - --~~' '~.} >~~ I, ,~,~- ,~u' ~ ~,eU~~",J ,l!,Y~~ ~~_~"

,De-nlGCFadc ,Admini~,tration 117'5;

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'P>D'Cf--;""A" ". C_i~

I·,~I[·I;···~:~I

·-;l!;;fc~" I .~ _'i!...1 the '1"1I~'I'U' '8'-; ':" I~'':t.··_,. Vl:··-··- _ 'il(-'j't I'-,~ ·-··,i·,d·IQ->ii'· ."'-~ dv .1'. L~'·:__"'--" id 'f:'Il'-,.:",:

Ud'iUnll,I~_~ tne . .Ii. OO~,~,_ ong, ~ uan, u':JJ,Ulg an. mg ...yOISde'.'S an _ me

:RepuibUc Period (6 I 8-1'9419 A .. :D .), Islamhas developed more than 20 :oUlon '€O:Uowten (Musli;ms) in China. IJI. 'W~8 called by dift~~J]!,t.

961.A.,D·,.),. Islam. 'was called "Dashi Jiao" (r.e:tigion of Dashi ~ Arabs 'were called Dashi then); :~:[l the Ming 'Dynasty (1368·, '1 ,644 .A.,D'. )l~ :h. was called '!;!'Tial'l'lfang: Jiao" (:reli.gion of Arabia), or !~ HId. Hni J i a.a II (:rtd igi(nl 0'£' the :H:l(1i Heis. M:'Il slims of vari ous ethnic backgrounds were generally called Hui Hui then); at the end of the :MiD,g :D_ynasty and 'nbe beghLning of the Q,ill~: Dynasty ( ~. 6, 1.6=

It~'~'l AL ·D··.·.·. ~. ·~:t,: 'iji'i!,':- ~~. ,of'>;ji:~~""1 ~~"Q,tn~~"'h.aif1i' J' :'~'il!i;ri;'~~ (pure - an d . true 're.····'~11· aion ) .. ~ '7.it 1 = =.=. "J, .I ~ n a'll" ""Q!I.!Ii,~, ... .1 ~_l!I""J_ili. .I!!IllIU . . rw .. . . _ .... . .. ~ 'C' .v. H '. !Io

til the KerwlllbUc Period 1(,'19"12.-1'94'9 A.·D.).·· u itwas called "Hui Jiao"

.i1. - .,. ..F..... . . . .. _." ., - . - ~ , , ,,'~ ~ '"'" = - - - - ~- - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~- -- - - ~ ~ - ~

(religion. of the liui 8, 'w:hjcih is a .. Mushm e~h.nic group in. China), .01'\. ..;o:'i-; -- N- ····:~I· :::-~,~,.~ 'CI'jIr" ~~ ~~'~,('i fo •• u··1n11e"4 '~'n- "19··.-AI·9~:·- .~'~,;iJO State 'C-"0'1l1' neil issued .. rU.1Le<f_ ew_ . !l!I.Lt~(lI. '1fT ,Ui.) l:! ~ ~~_dJl _ liI, .iIi . •. "iii' . '!!. tU"" . W,!W' .. v.:U"-"' ,. ;JI;JI'!.JI!'!I.i'U

Copy rig hted m ateri al

not: use '~he term of ~H'Ui J~ao!' :(or.' Islam, tn:~D'ceforilb" 8i:mpl:, ,can U:

Islam. ~l Since '!'nen, the term of' Islam 'w,as 'C(lmmo.nil,:y used Of], the mainlend of IChirnl~1 'w'bih~ i'ft was still called "Hui J iao" in :H:o:n,g; Kong, :M!ac~o and.Taiwan. Among the 5[6 ethnic groups in Chi:n3"'1 there [are :~,Oj' namely the Huis, 't)b,e Uighurs, the 'Klza'ks'!l the Dongxisnga, 'the Khalkhas, t'h;e Salas, Ule Tajilrs; the Uzbeks, 'the '8 ac.i1ans ~nd the Tarars that 'take led am as tt1(df' 'Dati onal falth

c r ... " I, ' .... [ :" , ,I i-<: ~" ,I .. ' , I. ,I c.' ''' ..... ' 1 ,r.); "I.:' .. , ,':'''' '.':, ',,). ,:' , ,,', '. '.' ., I .. [.~ ,.. .',:' ,. ,I '[',"'., .' .: .. u ,,:. ,I ,,' ,I",

Islam exerted great mflueace on the social Iife of China, especially [on the social development led, ethuic traditions of die 10- minority groups 'tthaJt take Islam IS their n~do.mll fai'th,. M;us'l"ims,

in. China lUive and are suU mLtin,g greal C:Oll,'td,budo,ns to the

'o5Jl~' ·W.'",::,1e.11.

gog '_'. ~==I~

Copy rig hted m ateri al

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'CHAPml,:l

:S'P'~ ~-"" ~~: AND D:t!-VEIO'IPMDfi Of ,lSIAM IN CHIN:A

'., "h", 'C'" ~, ,.', , ',- 'iE';-"_ - ',' 'ill,' i -' .-,' , ,'_' --, iod "~,', ·f'-- ,if,::, ,- "------, I _.,' " '. ,-:iL..,,-, ;111, ,., -, -- 'L."" __ ,, I"~ b ,'--','--',--

u:~"t-Q " • .- uJIta~ ,r'I,J!£' ,a, JjQ,n,g pe-n::,,-- Q,b, lyme, m~y ~C~I,QJj~rS u~ve 1-: ~~-A

popular theorv advanced bv well-kaown ooD'tem~~'1iV 'mt~'~U[hlll

,r·'!I.I!"""-,, .. J ._l/ ••• ~~ ,"._- --, ••••.• "J _ ... _. - _ .. ~_l 1 ." ... '~-_r.-~1a,L~'[J' t __ •• -. t"I. -

Chen Vil'll~li"1'1 :]~'Dld'!l'\C-1I'1~'e:!~'!' ,th',I~li1', ~~ was ~I;~ th oilI' second vear '''''if',{m'''f''g' ;;~lliI'~ of

. ~1;1Ar\lll. [I., Y~~I I 1 _ • _ 1. A~-. ~ . __ -A~ Jll~ _ go 1111",1. . __ ~ ~-Vtl,JtU [J" _ .1. y, ,I. ""\IJIJ,_, _: }lJI1U.IL 'U't

the Tang lj"'\'V'Il:II~I~,'~,V 1(:',6~,~~'~ ,A"~,"'-, 'D:,-:,,): He ~O"_,il!l. nd '~11'iI,'~, actual re .... erds ~i,tj1Ii

._~.I ... --~~ .. :l ,L1;,I_.JJUI_~~; "_ .J-.I ... , . !Ii .. !Ii ,.[JJ. lli .. __ l .. U'YI. g:. I .... Ji ,~!\.iI"U,ll-'~'i.1r. [Ill_~

"History o,f'Tang:u and "Cefu ~uam,gu.l (Guide 'to cBoo:ksr~: In the second vear of 'Von'Q~.lI1]j. of Bmoercr 'G3:0(z,O\O'CiI' n,f Tana . the dl'ird

- ~ ~ ~ -~ - ,Y ~ ~.~ ~ - ~ ~ -~5- ~ ~-.~ - ~ ~·~~~,r-~- - ~ -~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~-~~l ~ ~ ~ ~~~--~f~ ~~~ - ~~~ ~

'I

,

,

I '!"Ii

:rn

Copy rig hted m ateri al

diIs:ijl.3,'[[ched, diploma .. tic envovs 'fa Ch!H'n:~aIL canital citv ofTang,

... - .p" -' .... -~ ... _- . '. I ..• - - _. .• - I ~ J" . . _. , . - - - 6 - - ;;0 .. - Y. . _.. rl' . . ... - ~ _.J.

tv pay ,an officiaJ call 'to Emperor ,Oao:zo:ng" in'~rodu[cirn,g: In h:i:m

- ~ "_' '_

the caliphate, their customs Mid Islam, For historic purposes 'most

". - =

-

~

ii;J ",.[ !:iii'

'~'it:-.~ Sea Route and the t "'~:r1'1, 'R[,o~'~'II~[p" 'Si']".Ii11'0P Zhangq ian '(:?-,;'] '1, ,AI A',:":", ",D:")[

!l!._I!II~ _ .!Iii;!:Q I I . !Ii..J!'y!II.-U g_lLl. _ . _ I Ar.' L.r4~IJI,.U . ,. yt-'-"~. _ ~ '-"''-''. _ . .Q_I~~. r- ,; :1.iW_I.lI. . r. ,.. ~, • ~I . I ••

'was sent as an envoy to the We~8t:e.:rn Region fA 'Han Dynasty 't'e:r.m 'for the area including DO'W Xinjiang and CentralAsia) in.

[China, and 't'ne (~ouDJjtri,es to ,the 'west, had stmedl. In the 9th year of ''?o'';1'jI;('rV11'II'a::FiI[ o~' Emneror P',gI'I[1Jir~ 0:" f the 'R','!!I!'~' Dvnastv [0:" :,R" nying

,J, , .... ·J..I'[c;F1 ~[ - .J"i. vJ!. -'." ',r·~,I. '\Y, ,n,!Qj"I,J._~_I,~ ""', III., ".¥ .D.~~I_L - ~ ,J' , -' ,~f.:JJlll,.,..; ..... ",. '_. 'J '-: __:,

reached rhe Arabian Peninsula '~n' person when he 'W,:'" [',a, " sea 'f on '~

,Ii,~-~ _l_I,~._ I Illl_I,._.", ... u_ ':lliU _ ,r~lI:olJ __ .iQ.~_W!U ,IL -'.1- ~.lrQ:V,IJ,l w., ~lI!o~ "_~ .. __ j_)! ~~_,~" ._ ' __ ' a

diplomatic mission to the Western Region. In the Tang Dynasty, the 'transportadO:il a.nd cemmunication between China and the 'wes'~: 'was, 'flllJ:rt:her d,[e'Veloped", The Land Road starting from Southwest Asia, via Persia, Afghani stan ~ [Central Asi a ~ the

T-", , ,'I).., .. ' "M".' "" t ~.. ·.··A H'''' , . ,.' 'c-' ,- '·dl '~C"'" '~'.,." . I... .. mital 'f'" ,um~S\IJ.I!an " OUU;91ns a!llo [ .. ex], . _ om: " Of, ~o [,~~,~an,! ~ll, ca:~:ll~aL O~,

.'

Tang, 'was, an i'mportM:t passage linking China [and. the west, A

~ ~ ~ ~ -

great number ~f M:usUm traders made :~om.g and ar-d,uous journeys into China 'to do 'business," In accordance 'with "ZiZhi Tung Jian" (History as a M:~rro.r).~ there 'were over 4000 foreign business in

Copy rig hted m ateri al

Arabe and Persians, and 'nhe T:iul,g government had to set Up' ,3. "Trading Department" tIJ' be in charge olf adml:f:iIi~slU"a!d,OIt Tile 'Taoo,1 [);rrna,,~y also hid, :rreq.uent nli[i.t~ c:QnJtac~sl wUh me ~, l!damdc Emnire [1- 'il4" P, vears' eeriod ~If' ~:~'m-,- e '~~,m'I:: .~~~: second vear ryf.:'" ,owpu:, ,~ ,!Ill .I!. 0 y""",,,,rs ,t,'-' v , ull d. _ , ,h,!!W' __ , !lil,I,'!!.! ~!!i.o'" ","",UI. , ,;,. A, V ,

Yonghul of Empsror Gaezong (65;:~, ,A,.,D,.) to the :~,4"[h. ,yea'f of 'Z~:~le'ny'~'~'llI,~, of Bmeero ]'f' DI-' ':ill zong :(:700 A', ,'0'·] )'1. the record ed A" rab

I .l~ ... 1;[1,::.: IUUUILIl .. .ll • -r''_'''' .. J _ !tir.'tIliVlUII:~ .. l ,:;1-'0 [ l .~[ . ~.'. j! ~,~~ 11L1!r.i~V\~ ._~._ . _l AU

"D' :""1" ,',' ,t" ,.,'h'" ""t,' ,'I "" I'''h ',,' ,,:·,t"" '1,1""" 'W" ",'II ... " ,,' "d': 1 ~. I, , ""'~,'I-":',, , 'I'

, - _'y nas ~,y; t,;, e ceo trar ~Ul~" .on , ,y was '~_: easene _ IU'Y potmea I

corruption ,and social problems and ,the, ,g'()Vem,OFS in CJGD'tro~~, Il)lf

oud,yill"g: :pre:reemr-es gr-ew stronger, In. tbe winte-r' of 7,5$ ,A,.:D,.; sovernor An Lushan, who wac", ;~n conrrol ofPF'D(tz'tiJa-llJ· FI;]l'UOmQi'

iClove " , .. , ,.. , l.!t.\ I --, '!' .. ,.. ...S! 1.. " .. "...., l . ,Co ... . 1." . . '.1 . . G.

c.." ,,- ~:"-"L'-" ·T'-h"':!~'·'',.' ',-,'" ,;t,' .... ,'~",t,,, ".-. "1]'" ··,·~c.1 d '~~'R·1.."'~"~'''·I' ..... E' A.'", '

,m.e'an ~lm,e" ,', I, ;Hl; ,tS, ,all ,eve:OI,. ,lLlUhOI1l1CI' u ,.Y ca~ .. e r , __ , •• ' ,e~,nl,o.ll, 0,1, , ,1:1.

the Tans government, From then ·0: ,"1t'II. the ~g;:ID.I'U' reaime became

_ ll~ '~l._ •• ~ ::_.l" ~ ~ 1.1111 .. '"~l •••.• ~ L'!l I~V[. I •. ,=~'\r.r~ .. LI;II'j! .. ~lll .. [IJ[~ __ ~O 1'.l'l!ir!,~III[IIJlt~ ._V-!lir-"_ 1.IJ~

Tang ,Iove;rnment ,a;(ted 'Fort ,mili .. Uu;y help from me A.rlb Empire e. Emperor Zongyurn. allowed the A:ralb so-ldiers 1:0 Uve In. CbblaJ,

'II' II ' 'I . ·.i I '-;~' ," 'w;-r, i ''i'It-" I ·.:'J.:.- .... ·n,'i, 'I 'W '< I 'V'I' .A:~":' :' ". c,' "I .'111-" )' _.,;~, - Y " 'I ',.' " ,_- 'I _-,

pennanennywnea me reoeiuon .. as o. er, ,. l sa resun, ,$!dlm was

introduced, into the N'o:rthwest, of China by Arab l'llld. Persian

liZ! ~

Copy rig hted m ateri al

_.

,~

:~

L ..... II

::1 ;~

the sea business nassase sla:rting<' from Peesian Gulf and AI--;:'t)

- - '- ~ '!a:---- - --,~- - ---~-~~:',' = ~~~~ = ~=~=-- = -- u== H= __ ,I ra __

Seal" via. the Gulf of B'M,gbtdes,n, 'the Straits of Malacea and the S'OUlth ChiLrna" Sea" to Chinese ports like GUlng;z"bO'Ll; Quanzn,ou, and 'YMg~,OU .. A ,pe8JE number of Arab and Persian traders come

to these places tn do bu si ~j,ij;~~, '_ and - ~,':O: m ae of ~'h~ em settled ,d'It:"'i'W,",,:"'Ir':

~~ ~~~~_~ .1,;.I:g.~~.1I ~V ,_, ,.~~l~L.JI,~!il!~~ "~ILI"I, _. ~ _, v.. ll __ j~ o. ~,,-",~llJL . ,u, .. 1,.1

there, T,DUS,. Islam '\V,M :infrod,'llC-ed, into China '~~: sea 'b>:,I'I,;,': ,;~-;:t:

__ ~ _ _ _ _ . !, ~ _ _ ~_ ~ __ ~ ~_ ~ __ ~ ~_ =_ ~ _, ~=~ vy u •.• a!. iU!Sln,e8a!!~

The Tang and Song dynasties (61:8,·,1:t7'9 ,A".D,.) were 'tile

~' '" ,A f' ''Ii' 'II .' C' -1.. '. '-M'" ,~" • C" -b- " h'l '.

',I),1rs1: pen,o~'S oj: ,!ls,~aul 1:11 "., _,1l1111a" ... :Ju:811mB :1::11, I: .• una ,at t 1~lat time

envovs from Arabi a - Persia md other cou ntries Thev settled

_ ,I, ''''',1: ' ,I _ .1,11""" , " " ','" ,,'" I " ," __ ',' ,_-' _-,' __ "_,, _-",~ ,_- " e= ~,_,,II, ~'_-,',_,. = ,~~, e ,:1' ""'_: ,J,,, "'" ,,1_

dO'w:~, and ~iyed, in compact communities 'when. tbe:Y' came to 'Cbiul, :iee~[n'! tb~iir :wli !ion fIJ1G uph)lue wav of ~j€e,. The 'nu~se

r ~ ~ "'1, IJ' IF" · ... r·~i

'WOr.:IL" therefore, t'ne.y 'were mol opposed by the Chinese :ruUn8'

-:j,~ ~"~, and 'W - -- ~ ]111~w'if>A 'f -- -.N,ll = A,- 'W ' ,'d' I ,." t" ' • ", ',' .".' :"~"h' I" .,,,,,'11 ciass, aI'LL .• vere a ,IlO::OU ,0 seme uO>:JI ,an, intermarry wn I_I, new

'.'

:C.·~bi"· ese oeoole LT.11ro c:, rM>l,"II~ > who 'h': r,d'-] ,. t' ~I'_:-:' r.1r. .. -:,': -,', '_:::-C-,CC':~: -~'I=-- C"~' ~;d-,nes·e p __ o,p=e., '= LIJl~:"~. U~hl,m,S __ ~ {) " a~, ",~:LJ~iIl up permanent

residence in China, 'UN!Fe called Zhu Tang (literally means :fur-ejgn.ers, llivtng' ChiDI,),. 'These, ,2)bIU Tangs married local Chinese

lil

'women and lijij,ulti,pUed" and their descendants became nati veborn :Fan Ke (meaning ~folre]g;l;e;r; ,actlllai~ly r0fe:rrin,1 to fot,eigll

,,;I: ''1i'

Copy rig hted m ateri al

Muslims) However, :Muslims at that thne 'were, of small DjU!mfue[[;~, conce'D~ra:~i:n,g in big cities and perts Iecated along vital commun w,e alrn on FlU e s Due to rel lglous needs and national customs, they built mosqaes and lived in Ciompact ,oo~nm,ulljjdes 'W ith the: mosques as icelltem:~ Today's mosques like the Hnaisheng 'M,osque in Guangzhou (construeted in the ';mlg D~ymH,'ty).j' the Qin,gj ing MO\!Hl~H~ i,n 'Quanzhou (Masjiid m'~=,AsJlJ3Jb~~, translated as Shengyou Mosque, constructed in the Northern S QnfJ; :~ynasmy ),~, the Xianhe Mosque in Yangzheu (constructed :i'lJl ~he Southern

S-- i"fI;'--, ~, 'D"~, "C'I"'II['iiJ'), -, - d th p- " 'iJI"" , ' '-, M'" "'" 'i' ",' -' 1L1T, ,-' r e.: 'b' ",'

_,un~ 'j J1Ija8~.;r" ann tne ~ en.gwJ!Ju.ang , osque In J[JJ,ang,z; ou

:-:._ ~ \1. ,[ 1\'.' '.1, ,"""" \j·'·li,II~'

g
I,
iIJ'i
~
....
00
"eI
a
!,
g
~
~
..::
n_
.....
€Ii
'C
~I
:::I ..
... '
iQ
-
I
~.
:il'-
n
c;,
~
= '.

'.

Copyngh ed rna erial

'.

'.

a Hij i1iS'~e.ng lV]o:-;qlUii." in Gill Ltmlgzhuu tconsrruc ted i [3 "ne' T~mg D y:na~ty)"

'.

(constructed in dJe Yu,aD :D,YlfUlSty) m-e called The Four Ancient Mosques. ill China,

Dumimlg' Tang and,

S, on 0" d. 'OJ 1'1] 'l!iil s fl~ e i!:" !.ill ~~

y ,Itt CI' .- J ~- ~.-.- .- ~ ~ ~ij)

C- 'i,;.,:: T,.". h 4- .;'1,;" f-'

nma in tt e '~:Ul yeoc 0

Zheaghe of SOIl"g" there appe ared fb e .5 tb. generation of local-bern

-e

~, K" ,', "'il"iL CIi",,-, , , " " t , " ,",,,,,,'~I'~, ~" , ' d ~llll, '";t\""iQ!I " L,' 1

,F",M, ,,' e, rne aon:g, governmen speeiauy U!;S ueo ,Qerh,£1\c)e, JlW

'.

,~, ,,;:,l!.. ,ili:,.,·L, ,G"","" "~"'" f" ..... , .... ,'1- :J..." , F:,,' 'Y"H .. deal '~'~ ,"'~'~

rer UI!C ,.,J I!Ju,:_d;~!l'ilierall.oD 0.:" Loca -norn ,.' an ,I\.e to aeai wuw:~ meir

:heri:ea.,ge matters, To, adar!pt: themselves to local society, the nativebum, M 111 slims in the Song Dynasty began to recei ve Chinese culturaleducation positiv,ely, In Guangzhou and QuaDz'bau where Mu.sli'ms were concentrated, there appeared spec ru al schools run by :Mus11im:s themselves-Pan Xue (school 'for foreigners ll! wmcb or~i]y or 'ma&nl:y :recruiwd :na!1urv!e-bom M'u~li,l1~S:j Ic'hji~dr~n" To set 'Uip Fan Xue, 'the local government 'had ·~o ;a:pply 'to the courts for

'.

'.

'.

'.

"

'.

€;I

Copyrlqhted mat rial

w~ich WIS file. most ·i'm'~rta.rnt 'wa'~' '~O '~adiclnat-e in 'oolhic;s - The .

.. ~_l." .,' .. ,-'II .. _!f •• ,ll,t .. r. .. ~.lllF'-~····- ,J ... -J' ... r·- ,,-,. 'r'- - ... ''''- ,r'¥' -,.-,~ •. ,,_ -

and UJcir offspring U vin,g 'Cbi·na. to ·take 'n'he :m:l'~riBJ €!X8J11jnJltiOD

- - =

'I·' .

- ,",", I \. ,,~

po, J.t.IIC s,

'TI-I7-·'< '·II'~";ijl'I-'" ·ii~_~. betw .. .' I' f, -, 1~"Oil' '~,;f"r~'II'':'I:- 'II",:J,'~I i"~ in 'C~''r~i-''J' "He Ind~:r.malT.,~,age lJ'C.weern .. 1.00ret~n. lL'V.llUS,dms ,11 'ir.ln,llill .. :.. J.O[lI,

and. native Chinese became I, common :p:hem,omem,o'ro'i' A.w.ong the 'if] rst eeneration ;!f)'if: fjj'll~;~ (if'1j"l 'IM.:·.·-·;' uslims ~ 1"11 :C_!itl~'n,~,_ most came alo ue,

l""l~~!lJ Ci~~~~' .. !Ir.-llU~.!l V. I .I.'-i..J.lll~,I'[~l~lll , _, .~~\I - ~. _ ,I",I~IJ ... 111.1" ~ Y-1' [IJLllLl,Vf~. J •• U"J.,Jt~ !WI_I .. ~ ,IHlt.~ .l

They were wealthy and enjoyed high soci . .a.l status so' intermarriage was not a diffieuh thing for them at all, They married girls from, ordinary, officia] even lroya'~ families as, well,

Ofe '0'· -Jnlr""j2i, there -w' C,tlIiIi!'l.lf!i, som -A roM···· luslim ,00:]"iI"'~'i:' m :i1i,'i:'TV:1i'O-!Il7 No n 'M·' 1'1: .. ,;t-J"I]im- .it" ,. ·UII.on.",,, , .... Ji.'''''',<,,~.~ ,jv :,~I.,~ ~".,~ c QJ.iL'.c6 ~~.~,g, ~'~'-~"'i=~·J,~ i""'! ' ,,~-g=~""\~c_,II_O!!i

all embrace J:sla'm when tbey :marry :Muslims,~ A~ a result, the Mu ,~II im, uenul atio '0 '~II''-n' C' -CL,j;'ffi:!ii; in C·-- re ' .. ,!!:i;,LC"~'~

.;;t!lb.1 .. ' ,F .... .t" .Ii. (I,. I. 1 ,Ii,· , '. _lb,I,~« 11. I., .. Qr~""'4U,.,

."

". ~.

Copy rig hted m ateri al

Keepin,g ;SI,3J,VeS, was another impertant 'w,ay '~O increase the

M:,,-:,-:-,u' 1'!Ii'i,11'~I'm" 'I pop :'U' I'~":~,it,~~itji; _ In the C'!"""O-ID Dvnastv, 'I" a, nd aanexatien "" " ,ltlIO.lLI, '" ,,:, - ,I , ," "!l",i~ilUU,,. .ll ... , !l.JJ! ~!IU'" '$ " - .J U,~"!!<'l"J" "LII, - , ,lIiIi.1!uit ,A,gil.iluu

'n!l"QiV~~I'I.a;d' I" som "';iiIi, 0' 'fl--' 'fji .... ;iiIi, te 'n'!iiII'n'~ oea oCJ''!fII'Iil-'~oCJ who had lost t'L.'e,jir land

1~1Ii~ ··~:g_I~lt~ .. _" U-V,I I ~ r'\r.l' " ... ~1. '_I~Ir\r.' ·LJ.·:·~~ ~_IJ;~'~r-~:" I~A_ll l~~ L·~·'"·lll.}'·_: ~I G.:__ 11.1, "_', ~: ... _I~I .. )[I~, .lfg_~l.}.·I_.

SU;Ulbt mfu.l:e; iFl ~)m[e]WJ- or :ridh f8imUie.,j, in order 'hJ' change their ide::mutY' or sociail.s18ttlS" or.- to 0,scape certain soc4aJ obli,g31ltjOllS.,

and -I ~,e;'iiTiiQ' ~',lll;itiIU~ -:;: 'I~:~ ''ii'l:~II;'i'f! ,I!ljj lso 1 QI "C-'Ii"m,-" :'rm-,''''-:-'O:'; n ehenom C-:-::_Fi'ilinn-'" '1Ii"~I"!]'t' ,f'l- -::- ~:::_, '~Ji.~' U'V\.i!\lYL ...... ' 1;!IJjg.'r''''''S'' ,~~, 'n',~ ~j~ __: 'iii-!!- Cv~~~_,~~ P,l,l~~_ ~~m'!.~'1;.;1!:...c__, !l.U~"'. rgom~

dlm.g 'for MI:SUms", because ;ac:cordiiog: 'to J'slmic tr&1iltollJ8, S.[;fl'V"eS, af' 'this 8011t were qlllJaili'fied to ~.nheri.t "ad, even 'total [e~t.es ()<f the

ill aU, walks of social ljfe by various means 8UJt~h. as running schools ~ 'taking imperiel examinations, Intee-marrying and keepiol: ,sla:vcs1; re,slldn.I' in the. increase of the MusUm population aad :leldj~g t~) 'the birth 'o:.:f a new ethrd,c groop: the Huis,

TIL'e" I~'p' :re:, ... ~1 of Islam fro - , :Im' " I'CI·:I.,.~'I'jII·a"~'it'1' "W' :::,ajt'l,~'J]iI:r, I? fro ",'I("ii'iie- ::r 'W,_!ll'1'

. ·.,11.,·" !ill ,,'.1" ... CIU v .. ', .. ·~'.~lg= !_ !_ • , u 1 . ,", L .' ..... - ·.[[I"lnIJli. _', 10 .'~' !\.?-.~l"""" .11~ll I I', . IILJ)LI;' ," .: . u.~

tribe believing in Islam) migrat-ed 'to the west, One group of Hai :H:us, ~ed, 'by- Pan,gteqin wef:1J~: west,w'ards, to the Chu Riv-er where tIl;e Garlnq, tribe was, in occupation,., Pangteqin and, his clansmen

Copy rig hted m ateri al

new Hai Hu regime 'whi,c:b was his[ori.caU.y c:a11ed, :K.I!mkiw", From, the middle of ['he 9th. cefl'tury to illite early l3tb century, Km-ald,bd. lasted over 310 years, D,uDng the same period ,of'lli'me, the cen'tF,[ul :f,egion of Chio~, e xpedeneed an alremation [of several dyuultiie._, from tb.' -.':'i"" 'rr:"bl'rji;gl_. to ,~''''''a Five Dvnasties ~I~~ 1'.~1 'Il"rln-I[iJ1d~ oms .. tt'9 the II y" ,I . _ ....... ,Jj, ~J,I\ ... , ~u 1J.~=I~.r ~!\r.i' ,Jl.J! .1IIJ1, . _~!Il._ ~ all_~,d~Jll ,I,~,I=IJ ,ftJl = 'Of" .y, = = g.,. 'I.!'u . _1_Jt~

century) dynasties, And, at 'the same 'U me in 'the north and non!'bw,es~, of 'ChIna. there appear-ed, sev"er-ru ofher :mhl!ori'~y. ,lfOl1!PS'

In the ready days, 'the Karakitai :Dynuity practiced 'llie donbleKhan fl.d'i:'flt"r svstem, The empire was eUv'ided, lfl'~o ea,''I. 3.'nd west

~~~."~~~ ~ __ ~~~,~ ~IY~~_~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~.=.~ ~ ._'-=. ~.- .. _ =l."""l ~ ~l.'j._ ~w •• !i ..

branches t\ i,'r the e Ider and ~ he '~',:';-I'-' ser ~O;: f--_:','!~" ~K:--'~:!"-' . 'IllI-; I'~ I'; .. ," .,'~ _ ~ __ ~'~ ~ ~~_ ~ = o=_~~e eJl~e~ a~= _. I,=~e yo lln.ge~ fjOOS (h ,! .uillrlJ.. .,' I, ,e e:lS~,

br anch was ill' n d a:r. th ~ ru le of th la, eld [' er brother 'W··. :[:;~IOi.: "'Ii~:i!ild[!. chi e.'· "nf;'

. ' .. ,.' ..... n .. U~ . ,.... I~ ,'"'.! """ v,li, .. , ..... Ii;.! '_ 11i;,;I_~V~U,,,,,,_, .. .u~ "'g.~ "",JlJL ~=

khan and was :tnowo as, Arsbl'fl Khan (khlg of 1]011ls)" The ca;pi'tal

- =

of the east branch W',38 located in B,an~~'haO'on l(no'VI Tokmak

___ ., _,._ - - ... ~ _., •.. - ,_. , • - .,_. _" __ ,. __ ._ - ._ I '_' • __ ' __ ' __ "_' .......:. ' __ I~'_ '_-_ ,- _-_._. _.. ~ _ ~_ •••• = I

Kirghizstan) The 'west branch was. ruled bv '('he vouneer br-nttler'

"'~- .;. -. " .. "" " .•. '0'. _ .••.. "_" ... -'''j_ .. ''_'_ -,j ._~,~~ .J .. _ .. ~-_',~._= _~._. __ F.

wh 0··.· was vic e kh an and 'W.:. r',l9:~, known as Boehra Kh ;DI~ ~k~-"]i~ "Jii!tit o;c'f"

-¥¥. , .. ~ u[~ '¥" ,I,. . . L UJ=I, ~.ll, J •• U~ ,lI\.J,I!U·YY ,1 . .1 O~ , . ~. ~;I.I_ ,Q ,.L _ ~J.I, '\. _ __ ,J=~'g . ,~

mate camels ),. The capi,ta'n of ' the west branch W~, located.in [Tala!) (now Dzhambul, Kazakstan). ,g,aWit. Boghra Khan, wino W'US the primogenitor of the 'west branch, was Ulfe: fhrs:t khan of the

Copy rig hted m ateri al

- """ ~I

~I

'.

o The Flit; 111 A.giHl.: of ih~ HlLiuj uex ~8n®: Mosque in X i"an. pni nted b,Y n M't~~l i rn ~n i-tt in the' Ming DYlltlsty ( 1.168~:1 J9'8 A. D.).

Abdal Kamim,. U; is said that Sa'ruk 'was :mf1,Ue:nced, 'by the Mus]]ims, of the S:_' am anid Dvnastv since 'b,,~it1' childhood and eventnallv

v , ~"'~ _ m~ ~ RILl U] .# ,_ !'\IL~ "J !il!Ji. ,'Iir'~ ,J~W ~,~ ~ J " V'I!J . ~~, Q~!L!Ij . Y ~ Y~c!i ~ ~ ~=-~\J

became a Muslim, himself, Having seized. power fromhls uI1cID,e by force, Satuk soon established Islamic rule as Arailbian counsries bad done, He was on the throne for 4-5 years ~nd d.iied in ,3,4[4

A- N' '('11ii5~ Iii: 'g'lc'£ A' 'D-) Tibl ' ]V'l-. -, -'it',' b ,,-, ,-'1 '] -, - - ;' ,- , 'L ,- - 'Iil..,,'-. , ••. ' r: '.' I, '7c ,J"" ~,JU' ,. '",'~ iL~e nJ:.tlna.,.,e -l~c,ame =5, .a.mu; W,u:E:n. w-Id,S

so n M,", usa succeed led' I to the throne ]'n ab out '9-'6" -0,'-, A' "" 'D", 'M""I 'U-, ,oa

03" ' ,", ,b,o:II,ill ,]10, ro..;, _1/;.;;" - " _Iv" "-' I!J" IL'Vtllll'l!;.o',., ,U ," - VH~,,_ - _ ~,"~ , __ ~~,

d ~ ,,1. "A ]1 Is ' ' t 'iIf'L - ,~!Ii- liIf'_-"" ,:}-,"'o"":--: ,-~- ~- -~~1 ?O,",('!J. thou - nd -T'iii';i!;nL.. eC;ll_,arl6u, s ~~m, ~B I!lrU~ :$'Ilal~,e :m:e. ]I.ti;r~'o.n~ anu ,0::;.,' '!jJ!! 11:,' " ' _:s;,a,u ' , U.il ,11:'1;.

]!G)

Copyrlqhted mat rial

r

.

~!8.;1

.~ ~ ~ 5!f

s,

history,

The Kar,aJdtm Dynasf;Y became stronger since H had become Islamic, It C~)llq,uef'~d. 'Yut~,an (now Hetian Xinjlang), and its Influence extended to Qiemo and ·Ruoq.'· ang ..

The rulers (If'.Kuaklw were eXlre.m.ely pious 'to Islam. and,

a,

did their best to imlp:~.eme:nl Islamic ruling E'veryw'bere in tbe ..

~····'-I'·t, ]·1','··'····· ··,·t·· -"'--'. -·t'l and -' ,-'- .. ,-,- id Islamie u]l.tnlas,,-y, ,S amic COUiT.-S were se !!l,1P~1 ane mosques HIlL, ,8 anne

,~,

..

..

u

Copyt igh ed mat rial

12

I~13'mi[c causes, ftufitheJ'iJllOre, a good nnmber of famous Mazars (AnihIIC ttmislitet,Hiti.01],,. o:rigin.ally mean in i' shrine or tombs of

were constructed, In. this period of time, large numbers of turk nomads started. to senle down, 'this helped to accelerate the

transformation of the ~b<ldg,ijflJes In (he [Centra] Asia into Turks and the Islamization of tbe nomads, The social economy DliJd, sciences :further develoeed and U'i;Oi)bur lsla'mic culmre took sb~a'n~~

,~ = Lr·~

UT' 1,," '" '" ,,~ ,== ~, ..... ..j ,tiT LU f dl "-I ,urn. :D,iotionary'~' and. "Basic Kl1O:W':~oo,le orJll~ Truth" are 0. i a goou

re'.neotioll of this,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

reunify China, ,ma:rn,y Arabs, Persians and Central AN,ian;~1 'who

'b.·~~'"I~'VI~.-1I, ;"1'" '[;~,'I',·a·'I1·~ oraanized the W~,~~t'I~'r'r-1 'pl,~,~'ii'o~;1fIi A· ·"···'IiW··''W and

. '!;,;<,w" , ...... Ili;r<U ,,,1,,1. "i::!" .. ,,, ,I, v, el~,I-I!.1 LoV.. . .I,I,~ . _ ,,",,0; .. ","" ,iI,:Ii ,n,,,",,,~,1i . ,Ii ,I, 1" " ,I,,;}' "_ . ,. _

p,llnJ.cipa;t1ed in this Wl:U;, 'When. the W"lV was over, these :MusU:m,

" =

8out'h of the 'Y_gt~e River, Most. of 'the M11&lim 8o'~diem coming a'~ong: 'with the atm,,, usu,aUy did. :DO~~ 'ta'k)~; their f~mj]ies". T'l~,ey

crsftsmen 'to :ma;oy 'places ill. the ,country, most of whom settled

. = .

Copy rig hted m ateri al

14.

A ~. , .. ' . ":Ik~1 .~ th - , ' -,~.~, -., .t,.. ~ A In U·:I;.. - ~y. ':::,'",,- ."'. =D: I-'~~"'"" ,~,jo- ,i-'iIlo. ... '-M' '~'i""'~I:~ ~', '.'

nowu wnere ~.",'ey worseo, m tile .~ uan =i ynas .. y." .. ne ... usnms

fro.m 'title Western Region and theil' de~scendoots, 'w'ere called, Hni

Hui, who belonged to Se :Mu (one of the four [classes i~li'to. whieh C:biflja~[:s population was divided ill 'nbe ''than Dynasty, including C0llJtral Asian ,aJUes .of the Mongols, mostly Uighnrs and othea Turks.) A~', i'1i Muslim It" in the "y':~ll;gI'-r Dvnastv had '[I]' "'~I'd:le zreat

, . ~""""lfi.,a;I! IIJlJ ~l .;"'~ • ;_.1., .'. ,1l,1,· u -' ii]I . ',1=1 IL\IJ· . I yIQ~IJ..ll , >" ".J" l 1 ,Q~ ~4' ,'[ lQU, l~H II l~lr .. _j~ ,b~Jo ~'1~,~.

conrributions to ·the esrablishraem ofthe Dynasty, they were gi ven high. social status that 'was oldy below 'that of the Mongols and

~'

above 'that· of the Hans and the Southemers. The uooer circle 'Of

_~._ .. _.V.~ .~_-_-~J_~ _,_, , __ , _ ,., .. _~ 1. __ ..••. _ .. _ \,._£ •••• ,[lJ '-'[~·,r·''t •. l_ •• 1 •• l

Muslims were placed in :i'Dl!pommt positions 'by Yuan rulers, ,aud. some of IDem ranked among the ruling class e. In '~'his period of

spread and developed rapidly, [The distribution structure of the

MI······.··· uslim ooou lat ']"0: "[n w:· ·b, ich ,{'IIo",uI1[AI b e d [~it'.r"'r:'~~~ ..... ,1i'l '!'~ .... t:i,n g:' d isoersed i " !L!I_O!!'.h t. ' • f .... 1"' .• I.@. ~ I, .. ,llI._. "eL.U """ .'. l~=U .. I> ._ ",....,~.!t~ g,..'J' ~!Ii~-'b' -~~:r""~' .J',.... - '

'~'[".'., .• ,li,"· .... , ... :11...' '.' . I ~'IL., '.' , ." '. "., ' .. All .... r d ,,'~., .. ' , t·

was ,R. ,U.me wnen slam expeeieneeo great :_eve.I.O'pm.ea ~

[The dev:e.]onmeni of Islam in the Yuan Dvnastv was related

l~ = . ," "_ c_ " __ "= .. _ .t;'.,~.~--.~ ' __ ,_~ '~ , _' _' - _' _- , , . - .,,' ,I - • ~ -,. - ., ,J' ~ - - _ ., _ ,-, , " _

~,

appeared earliest in Shen Kuo's book. 'I;il Men g: Xi Bi Tan~~'(No~es ··W'.': .r. ·:',·t"f'. f ~., ,,' D~":' .... ).'. '.'" tb " 'N':" ..... ,..4:iJ.. ... > '. c 'S-~ ~,';C Dvnastv .(0160 l127

··.··.·n., ... e.n. In .. .rea,w.:: U1 .ue , .. o.IJ.IUJle.:m ;.o_ng ,~·.yu~_, __ y ,'~' __ '-.= e- i,:

~,

.~ . 'D.':· ) ... ~. referri .:. iniO' to th ae .': Hui Hus in '~'lt'-iiD!, '~~'Ili gl Dyna io:"".y.:. During 'It'~e

'~[!I __ . IIJII' I, i..~,ll~ , ,. , , C' I, ,. _ . £1.., .~I, ,;Y,~ _1.,1, ~_I=L\.f. Jl"_ 1 ~:_"l " .. ' [1_"Jt"'I'~'=,~, ~ .. ,_-. 11 l[IJII~:~ 1 ~JLly

Copy rig hted m ateri al

conception of the term of :Hui Hui was broadened, to OOV~I the

M .......•. "U'I' 1~111·.~m •• : ,1i')PI ...... nles - !f!Ir~i~ie· -.~ an d places 1"~ '[-:b, -~ l~'fe"~:';~~m- II R-' ~·~i..,~ - '~"1j"1 j'ir-~, ,_.OJ! _ _ , ,F-V,r ""IQ!" ~ll""Jr q a , .. l- ~,",!Ii,,;.i3<U, ,- - """ W!~ i;tL¥, '... ' ..... ~j!'!-Y,~A'!' J!.~J! lU~~

Shi ~~' by' Z-hQI], Mj,: H-Ibday, ,aU, the Hui Hitis I.e 'die ICeu'tral Re"giton ():f China as their home, while ~her--e are man'y' more :i'D the S()Iu:t'il 0:£ the Yamgtze River, j~ Bly the second year o:f'Em~ror XiJlntZOo,g

( ~ 2,52 A.,D' .. ), the term ~Hui iHJuii 'W;}::; u~ed, in offi'ciaJ census, and

'~~-", bee ~ii"1Ilm~I'~ ~,~"l1..: -~ spe scial ethnic TjW'9lm~ i.;l.'f';'~""_f!!;_' =M:,./I''i1i~-_',]_':~_'ij"If'il~_'' '~_'~~.-"rii_ll\~ Ig';. t ''b-·~.1i''i'.:;.~ij'i~,,1

~lL ~-~g_ ~ gl~.g! .... -~t!ful ~UII~~-=~ 1~_____jUl1I.r.r vI. U~V I 1 _, lU~[ _1_~III_iJ. .I_~I~· t[_ " ... lUIL~ ~~Iulul ill !!!'

m ~

'D-VIfIi asties, tL. eo. ' i;!i;',.""':~:b;.; a ·'n. ~ Persi ,",,'n, '1.t:,u' .. ~JII.l"'.mJt'1i w' "i h o: '~,i!'iIi1l' "",,~I read IV 'i~;~~'e··HI , - ,J ,.Lu:,"~IlIl!!., •• ~, !l.I. .1"\1,;« .. c. ,lid,), ,I, '\.<,Ii, i:!I(lI,!aI!.1i JI,VIJ· ",J! ~~,~,~.-:!!, , c •• lllv ,~lQU ,Wc._Jk Q-'--.,), l~l~L'u.

' •• '.1 n permane ',. '1t'I1!t' r @'11!:~.~ ~~I~@' ';i'ol Chin I'~. c~I'~ '!l~~~ ~'ii'il ,n~-mll'-m.I);i:;i;''irl,\f!!i;~ ~'~ ~,ji,~ji~~, U1Y .. ~ ,- G __ . "I=Ii" "~~ I,Uj~J=~,~']¥ _, ~-. ,I:L,_,~" ~ ,I-~ l' ~UI ~,~,~ ~U~=-=_-=-_~, ~,~~-I ~~ ~~,.....~

'Ioc~~ed on m9!i'l~ tFuffie lines - The:v '~rn~ermmlied 'w'ith '1ocaJ '~n'les,

, ..• _r.,. ~~ 1,._ ••• --_ .• 1 ••• _ ,~'--' ,.~ __ ~. __ ~,.,~_,-._l •• '-'-~-"~.-'.-'-.---'r'.~t'-'=~ .. -

~l

til

+

Copy rig hted m ateri al

and. mu ltipli 00;, and, tbe popUbt'fion of the local-born M:usi~im:s i:Rcmased steadily., T.hey became ,the, earliest :Mus:Ums, in C~hifi;a

the 'Ytl~Ul Dynasty (120,6 .. ,:1. ,3 618 ,A,~:D ,J led 'to the migration of vzous ethnic groups, [classes and professionals to the. east 'Th,ey

W~'~~ not [n~'llv' confined .. ~ the cities located Q'n traffic lines 'Ifo."U~lt'·

"-'11,~ ,I_. ,u!ll., U'~l~.lJ.J ~'"U",IU."" ,_1ll.\r. . Lev . _I,I~ . " _ I,~~ ,W,~~lu;r- .. V.lhll . _hl. __ - " "l~ 'l' '£IJIJ\ .. fl~lt. U. _.'.

wlidell1 seread 'thnJuo'hout the [oou!D!t~s'ide" commercial '(owns and

... '. ,J l '·r '· .. -. ~ - . . 'Ie- _. _ - -~ --" -"'J. -,. _.' .. ~ t ~ I .,/_ _\ - .. - ~,- . - - I _.

31Dd 'Yuall nan and the Northwest, The population and exten si on, ,of the Hui Huis went far beyond. that in the period, of the Tang: and SOD,g :DYllasti;e~,., They were aflowed to marry local women

-,A, --, '11rt'"I,-.'-'I- -, ,w,L"-J-::- ,~k"-'"'"'-::l ·.t-t,ll-·~ d'-I:--W- ,:~,-- V"--=" -'-l'-'-C;' olaees "",-:,,4 ,,,[,-c;, '."

al].u. ,mu ,I ,IP, ywnen IIJU,~y se IUC:U, [_.0:::11 LO:/,uFllOUS P aces, Wlu. as a

-tbe ,SpU:ttill,g,-U,p situalt]on, of 'the northern and southern sides of the Tianshaa Mountalns and enabled communleatl on and,

"-ma)".j,. '" ,t"", '00'1""" +'L. .. 'IIIA.c'f.'"'L.-- 'M"- ,-"-,, ,,",-, ,-- --'c "M"':I-"-'-'-I-' ~:aama!t.lO\ll:;~w[een Ute OJJU~, IlRllJes," . ····orenveE .. s.ome ·.·.··.oog···o.

~~~' ~~~'e}~---·~·~- --~ .~ -_' ~ . .... _" - -,. - "_ ... ,. - ... " ..•. - . . .. "2"· ~. t •.•• _ l. -.,' .

kinas and Khms embraced Islam and 'it exerted a ~ureat influence

.~.~. __ -_,~~. .,_." ,_ .. "-_., ...••• -.~. ,- --- _.'O. ~L .• ',.- .•. _10.] ..... · [-~-.,._ ... _I .••

Copy rig hted m ateri al

stroager when the Uilhmst some of the M:ong;{)bj [and otker lrine-s

J" 0" dned in b ""y '! ": em I·jib· ra 'i"::I"~'IfIi, . g,"'.: Isl am II .

I. .. ' ·.111, .. .. ,. ,. "",. J •. ' ... """,, .Ii" , ·';:'.11., ,,'"

-. I.' _-,

The national 'mig'" ~r.a·tioFl 'tald'Do' nlace in 'dle; 'Yuan Dvnastv

, c,_, _. _,._._- -"---._.,,. __ " •.•.. _ -'.c,[I:"",··-···· _J _ •• 1._-. l~~J·~ ..... - ... J

made a large number of '~hf; :HU1 Huis be.gin, to Uve a EI,ew life dependent on farming, The plre.freu~m:Ua1 treatment: ,giYe:n by the

class sy·[stem p racneed dlurim~' ·the 'Yuan Dvnastv created. flvllraible

"~""- _'.I.!____ ~'I:' ~ ~ ~~-= L· ~ ~~-~ .. ~_/-.~. _. __ J.~ ~ ~"-- - ~J -~- _c~. - "_ - J' c .. '-:.J' ,_ .. , , - .

~'" '. ""iL . ..;II 'II t f' f'h H"[ I' ~ '0" ~.. ·TI'lJ.." ~ .. ~"~~' ~ ~ """AI

comnuons ror tne aevetopmem (l •. 't: o,e; .. [ 1U .riU1S,,. , Jit~y ~DJIOryw,

eertai 'If' nr ]'. vi 1 . .:lIi:'D·I~''''' ~i",I[1 m ['n" TjII" aspect 'i!" 8:1:~:c:'1fo1 as W~ ~?O" -'1f'l..:~ 1f<i[~O:' ;:,'0.1 '~I't,~ ~_ .. _,~q_ ,1J,1. ,~·.,~,·",.lw~S'~[~ VllJI~ , __ i_ ,~lI'J UiJi,I.·II.r.f"-l.·ii-:J. I.!-I ... IJ. _0 ~ . li.L.llll::IO llj_ __ ~-~~11V

examinations, It. made it' 'll1)o8sibbe, for different tribes ,md. g;roUiIPS,

. _ • _ _ - , . _. __ . , _' '. ~ , _. . ,",. I .r."' . , . " . . - - .. . . - I • . - .. .. . . - - - I. - [-,_ .... - I ... - ",1, -.

amalgamate ,3'od, become one ethlc community,

It W31S, an indicatiou of the acknowledgment and enc'Ou'f[ag:em,len.t given to Islam b)l the a:utnori.'t.y of the ''YiIUUl, Dvnasts thar a ~n:c d number of mosoues 'were built as sites fo:r , . ynasy .. eli .,~ ~ 0_ =JJ ~ - - ~ ~ = ~~~ ~ ~ "1," ~ ~ " .. ~.. .. .. ~"" .. "" ~ ~ "" . "~"

M:u8,:Hms! :r.e:Ug;ious activities, The Mosques became a place: where :M:usli,ms, of various identities could. come together to perform ~[eli.,gl.o'l!lS services and engage :I'D various social aetivities. Hence, 18m3-'m. became an :~,m,porbmt medium 'to foster and. strengthen

"

Copy rig hted m ateri al

"

national 'ties, ev!e:nhudly leading '~O' the birth of tffi~le Hui Hnis as an ethic group.

In tbe YliU1D Dynasty, the distribution of the Hai Huis appeared '~O be "being dispersed 'widely and coneerarared in small grcHJIIPS'f~ . ,By "being dispersed widel:y!~ 'the: H:n~, Hais were scattered ,aU (lrvm 'the ,counky; ,and hy "being cODcelillJtra®ed im small groups ~ I'

"

Copyrlqhted mat rial

the Hni Hu,is: thmu,gluJu!t 'the ,oountr,. tj,v:ed, i:11 compact 'conlmuni~.~,e:~ with, ,w'osq UeI, at the Genter oftheir communlty, The unique cbaracteristics of the geographical, distribution of the Hui Hui S"!I di'fferent from that of other minori~.y' ,gmllJ,pIS, had mncb to do widl the s:pec:~fic 1e:li1vtl-ofiJLljj].ent In. which the Hui Hals lived. during the 'Yuan Dynasty,

finance and were capable of a,ud

.Jt!j, 'II'" p,e'r ,j oS! 'n'" ad: .' lIfIi ad 'W-'; II'II[ ,j,,~,~ rati n n

Y.~ - 'I!.r.r J, ~ I~ !\# . !IL~. _", U. I ,I ~~:.lIl Jj I~J ~. __ .. '. bt U =~ ~

Additi onally for the great contribution th .t3i v h 'Ci,~1 m ,aJ.Jl;a. to e" sta bli "" h the Yua n ll. l,,~ )' . ,~-IVU .... glyl~ I~.. ... ~ ~llU .1. ~I .. t, .~ I.. d"] .

-D'''''' -. ,7 ·C' .::;,.,." ,--;" nd 'J!iI, ,.Jj , 7 '-"·i' ,--;,,' ster th e' P;'O" 'I ~'n·· 'F"' j;;iL.u,~!i; H'" '1111:~ 'H~' 1'1 ": ('I' w"o· 'iI'II j,1...a, ~'""jIIlI';;:>t-' YIUl;:iJl,j an- ;r;wum,~n.~a'lj""" l, ... !!;.,o. 'U., ....! i~ ilUll.~,"" ,', ,l1l,I1 , "l;I'~Ji:!j; .. . ..11, u~~,"'" 11IdI, ua ,

of the YU,3n rulers, 'Th~y were ,given h:igber.' political status taFJd nlMiy of them W'eJEe ~PPc.l~'I':rte;d offi,cla~s at V,ru;i,QUl8 :~,e .. vels, In almost aU :poS~,HOJIS, 'th~[@ 'WCl[le Hil[]Ji Huis - civml and miU~ary, central and illoca~,!, prov incial and grass-root, They 'were ]LO poss~SSi,OI11 of 'IDMd~ houses" servants, subordinates and '~a_rge, pfoper~y.

To meet the needs of ,the wars, the Yuan ,gov,e,[IDlml~nt cmrried

Copyt igh ed mat rial

~:i'iiIi ,,,,1/:!1

')JUt the, system (llf TUn Ibm (h~vinl garrison troops or peasants o:,eJl 11:1" 'was't-e'1an d, ,Md gr-ow food grains) :~:n its early period. 'When, the w'ho~e oou:mtry was reunified, it 'began 'to ]~mp'~,em,enl 'thls system cfJll1(prebensi'vlel~". ,Amon,g the Hui Huis who opened

more wasteland ,and grew' more grains, most were In the

N.· .. ·' '1':0 •. ,' rtll..;,w, rest, ,~_ ... _ !I:U,I ... _J ~ ~I!l

Huis, Huib:m:i wa near to Gongxian County in. Henan PriJVlIIUDe~ and y···.·[' r ·';idi:> I, ~ sd Qingzhou r".~1 Shandong Province were important aD ' , J,g an, "lrngzuo , ln, ~~",_nu,,",,=,:_ c ,I,.'v . _~~~ _ .. ~\Oj __ ~ __ ~ __ ~~~~~

places 'where Hui Huis grazed horse-s", These :mHita:ry herdsmen were 'ttans:ftu=,illed. into civil households afterwards and became

loeal '":1fi[11'1~;ib~:t\~'D'ts, .

. ~ _ _:Il ll~~JUJ-_. =L~~_~. __ ._

The Yuan [~ynas.t.Y' ,a'lso praetieed the system of Jun Hu (mUitarl~ed, households), The government alloc3!'led lands for JUD Hus fU[F' mHitary' maintenance, and. were exempt from tax. So JuVJ, Hus 'were both militarized, households and peu3!Dt:bouseholds at 'the, same time, who £iJugbt as soldiers did in, ti'mes of wm' and,

fanned and grazed Uke peasants, in, times of peace. Most ofthe H~: t 'H'1. t-. '[',' c ~~:~,tedl. :~'nt:o, the armv as ~u;nne:rs <or Icmftsmen usuallv " m, UilS ,recrn.L ~ 1__ ~~~=J ~~~ ~~. ~-~ ~,,~ ~ ~. ~~~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ -- ~.~ ~~~~.~J

Copy rig hted m ateri al

did no t take tbeir famllies, and. became permanent local :i.n.ha,b:ita:n.ts wb.[en they settled down where th:e:y 'f:oug:lJl or

stati rd Thevlivedth I' ~~i ~:',.- .. ,., -·d' ,"·;t . .,.,1 ~-" .. _;:,.-_, .. -, .. :·'!"iL'lj···_·"-'·I]

~8 ~'_C~ uone ~_-. .lll.~ey u vee mere, ,lJ.anJJUl,g ana ,mJ)P;;;;;lJllan:y.lmg W,I.IUU, ,lIoea,

The ¥U;lUl government also encouraged tbe :H-ui Hui;s 'w'ho- g' ,_; carne along w:lth the MOll,glo1~, from 'the west to settle down In. ij'

China to be engaged :i:n agrieulnire and uim.a] b.u.s'bamdry; a'lld. D'8'V e them 'm[.:9I'I1[V 'f:!I,:rar~p!~iIjIIlt~;l' a-'~ 'ool1.ii .... ies ~'Ul .... '-rl '~~ :9I'II.]l~"':9Iit-l·I[!IlO W'!!:i;~f,~;~:g,~d:', i.

ct- _. _!\r.l- - II Nt llll J , ~ - _g_ I :J' l~~ ~tl.I~Ii.~111 .. - f. - .11 ,r~·,I~.~~ \.?-~ ~:Ufv~I,[1 ~ "_1_ l~. - - -;'0 ~ _ ~!5i).r~I.iAI~~IL .

'·f·' . ,,'''. - ·t.'L_- .. _ .. '.--- ,-, t , - r: , 1 heea .... 'II"'b,'", ... - '''- ".::.;Ii.. .. - _-- ····1 'I·'~t·:i'." ,; .f,""".4 ,.Cl._ ~I'~·t''''":~-~ .-.04

rom me west [$;000. necame ,II," orers WuO ClhtV3"LCU waS'~lllljnu,

and developed aericulmral ·p .• lfuductiom l'n the Northwest in

.~_ .'~ ._'I~ .• , •. _,~." __ . '_'}I~ '.~ ,]'" '_'-.", •. ""'-, ',I, ',E ," .• J!II ., _. ", ~."~' , . _.' •• '~_.~ •• '" ••••• 1 •• ,1_.,

eventually became ~:nllan[eDt~ :iatlaldtan,ts. there.

'~ :rr'¥

Amone '~~[~ 'I HI" I'U-'i ';i .H["·~u:-I]·~' :c;..n;'m·~c';i'~g.-.· alo II'[Ii'g~.'· 'W~'~'bl rt'lr~' "'I.·['Y~lig~:'O: ,1i~ fr":·-:~~if:Ii'ii'

, =, rV,1J1JO lil._I=~~, ..• IIL.,. __ l~ .u, III JILLI1 .. ,., ~_~ .. llll,. :.1 _ ~ .II\I._lll l~tl~ 1~;VlI1V,I::I, .. ' .. ll!iJ.I l l~ Vli£illl

the west there were 8), ,~realt nembec of craftsmen. For example,

~ l!l

conq mered bv tbe Araibs around 700 A-D~,~ ,and bv the 'M[QD~O'l-S in

• , , i. ,; " _. ..." ~ - - r .. , ,. ••. .. ,. . _ _ , .."._, I. f. .. - ,. ,J . - ., ~ . . _ Ii!)' - .-

rhe 13' th - .. ' , ...... '1' -" , .. " - .. 1 :. [ .' 'U"I", .'11..,.1",,:;. 'fl . . .)-. ,- '1' -".' d I sr v. -" 1 ,. d .. [. 11001'1

ne ,,,'. u century, .l'lOW In·~',ZliJeJiJ;SdlJl1L[ W,a8 [e-!S,r.o-ye~, over I. ~ .,'

'~h-ous.a'F1d, craftsmen w·[er-e.. sent toO Chi na, and more than. 3[0

:~

2-1

Copy rig hted m ateri al

moved 'to China and settled down in compact areas too.

During the ·Yuan. peri 00,. Hui Hui 'tmd,ern who carne along with the :M:O:llgo~ 8 from tbe 'west and Muslim ·trad.[ers from Southeast Asia. were everywhere in. the country, Traffic became coltv,etii.e:nJt Ml~t the .M.ou,gols·' eonquerlng marches to the west, Md. motivated 'b:y the preferential treatmernt, Hui Hui traders <came ·'0".[: C·~I~~1il1 ~I ':'0-1 large 1]'11'01' m bers and in t he end settled down where

['i.~" . _ ,1=1.], _ ,UJ ,1 __ . .I.~ '. ~ .1 . .1,. , _ . ,~ , _~ ,1,lJcCL . ~It\.! 'liir.rIJlj _" ~~l~ u.~ . ~ Uv .. l.l~ w. IlI1V.~ ~

The ·Yiuam. :Dyoasty was ,a:p!1rec:laU:ve 0:[ the ~c.i.endfj.c talents of the Hui Huis who carne from the west ~nd :P'IlI:t them in imlporumt 'pUS! tions, 'To make good 'use of these professionals, the Yuan governmen t set u.p special departments to deal wi th certain work, for example [GlUlU·1 Hui S i. (department of 'wide :'~':~::}'f':~11 "~.), C~:'~~', \"1' charae of ,~t,;·e.· H,~" "0' it' H:': ·~·~I·jl~i!":~ m '. ~...111·"C··.1·'lj'e," HI'- ;"11} H~ I'·u:~ Guo

Well,H!I"e. w~ .b~. !;,.I~,~~~,__.I!. !IlU _ .. , . IL!I!.I!il! , ...... u .. .1i1 .. '!!. .iI. . .iI ... ,

Z:i Jian (tbe, Imperlal College of the Hui Huls) was for training tr,ans]a;tors:; and Hui Hui Si [Ti . an Jian (astronomy department of

tb ~-". ·H'["~~. ro. I:~' HI I'~~.·~~) ~W· . .'.·./~~ii."1'. '<:'''''1 charse o .. ·.:fi" ,,;'1.1., .~. mo. "1 an .. a sement a u d QI. '.r. :'U·I...:2i. '[ :.V.· o_·I .• f ~ .~.~_ . e ~ .~.~Ul . _.!I;lIII~.J .. ~ .In IIi.?n ......... i£S; ... t..I!.lv. .,.u, ',0",""", ,\01 • I, ... "~u,, v., t.U"",

like astronomer Jamal al-Din and. Kamal al-Dia, IltiUery-making expert ·~.Ala.' al-Din and Isma'il, .a;r-ehitec:n Ihteer al-Din, medical

22

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'The; 'Y030 rulers held, am ,a'Uitwde oftolerance Mid, pmteoti,ol1, to'WUf1ds all religions, Islam, deveJ.oped :Fu:pid.~y al 'm'bat: time, The Mongols' conquering :Dll1'[,cbes to the 'west and the :[leJig:iou:s

P:O: '<li'i,{'>i,Q~' '~'If-D;\1 ado nt~~ ,d' I~'~~'~~' 'n~iI1r1'ot,\i!IId' I '·ii-..·p ~~f;,;:;,;;rjW'~::I"V'~' ~p:~~'dJ and

=..... ~~~~ ~-~'-""'IJ ~UJ. 'JL-'~U' "_iIJJI~'LI1J." ~tllUjlllL~l~lr. "W" _' ""_Ill~ ~lu;\lll;.iJ.._~ ._,!\.r. ~'="'Jl~A __ ' MI_LII._

,A:S:I,a; and. made Islam develop into the religion that was, laser lIjO 'be in, a, leading :positioD..

lil

til

Copy rig hted m ateri al

spread 'widely to the Chinese interior, Tille system of Fall, Fang (foceilm fsenle4m,en.t) practiced in the Tang: and Son·,I.pe.ri,ods, became le-ss efficient. in, ,adolim'StFatimg religious and ethnic afffdrs, ~'n" '~'~~~ '~i~g;n' D_y··':··n·.I:~!,,'~Y·'· (:',0.··.··· ":-r-.Ii:Ji;. Department of 'Q' .... adi W'>:~~ set '1'11":' '1"1'jii

~ ~,U¥ 1 [u-g~. ~. .' ,_-_-~~~l .': ,!! ~ '_ U-l~ ~ ". ~ I _ !¢Uj, ~ ~\ _ ll-, v,. . . Q-u_1. .. Q~ ~~ ~l UJ . . ."'1,

I~' _" ,~.~ . '~.

both [ce.;m,tra1. amd local governments tOr 'be in CLllarge s,pecificaU'y of the :i:1l.te:ri,ar matters .of the lim Huis [and, hit' religious affaies, 'WheI-ev"el' the Hui Huis were of latge number, a local Department

-

0011('.'" ·Q::;""'~~I~ 'W'[~,!", set '11'11:p: '.:0[-.: handle :rp'II:I' ~ii:o·IU·;!t'!·· [ c ,ii'Vl·'11 an d nena '1' .aff ~'ii'lj~

y,. . )L!i.u, .. Ail) ~.... U,.. !Ii... .• a _ l.U... .'V,I, "Ci,I. . .... i>~ ","",I ~ ,I. g, I... 1"_1,11,. U. ~U. iil!

,~,

among: Muslims,

[Qadi is a word ori~i'l1.atoo from ,A'rabl,c, m,eanlng: executive officer of Islamic :La w, 'wb,[o' :is authorized to judge c i vil commereial and. penal [aifaiIm amoug Muslim_s i'n accordance widl Islamic law~ :DUD,'llg: Ute firs'£ :h_aIJ of' ,the 'l'luan period, Qadi was (hie; supreme ren,gi()'U.s :perso:nD,;e1 [()f I:Bla'i'It~ who W',DS, ,!pl~eac'het, reli aious lead er, ~[Il;~fl cial and executi ve ': 0;ffir-er :~md' I command er red"gliVU~ . VQ_-';;o_, JYtut,..,.=~ Pi_y '\rooo'",_!I;,I. _, U , .. ' "1,.1'==='\# ~ i!l!YA _ "". =,,==.A!.!..JI. _~

Copy rig hted m ateri al

s~atus,~, and was 'f€spectfu,U,y called master 'by the court,

The De partmefllm, of Qadi that appeared 1.0 the 'Yuan Dynaity '(vas composed ofa certain :rn,umbel" ~)f [Qtadis,;, w:hnse :re,s:poli.isj;'b~~Uty was to' pray for geed fortune for the emperor, dc:d 'w:itb re:~:ig:iIO:U~, '~Jff~:~r~ ereach '~t Ct,tl~'ber\nQi' prayers, judge CN] U:~J-i'D'ioliJs- ,ci'\~i~ and

L ,iLl.. ~ ,It"" , -, , ,;[ ,0'" - - , ,..I" e' I _ "J -, -!!! I -" .0" -" "- 0' -,' - ~ , " . , " ," ,

- --,-.,,"I-"f'f'· - ",·,til...'M""-'I'·ll",--- ,- ,'j' .accord " w·~I..Iitl:I-""·:lf!I,"I,!'!I;" penial, a ,J[i.IJS ameng "IUe ("J us uns ,In 1[~COr.[' anee w ,IIILU. , ,~dlm~~, ,~jijI,W,

During the mid and late period of the '¥lJIall, :[)Y.liUl~'[Y (nljd=

14th century), the 'Dep~men't of [Q,adi 'WritS] ~vw,tf[~aJly abolished, 'but: Qadis still existed, The:y' were I\l.Q~ in charge of praying 'f~or

,,,,r~'Ii"d-- fortune ,;j;'j,~l;r-C the counrrv :~'n/jl ~'[k~, eCfm~--'ne.·r-~~i"~' "liIRV' '~o,c;'nl[""e:'ii" ~:il'i':t· ~'VUC' ,,'V,~, ~,!,J,~~,,,,,, lv,~ ,'~[,~.........."" !!.lI~'''~~',.i!' ~u,u iIj;~~~ . ~ . [,~ 1,1"" _ '~, 'Y",~"., '~~~./ .~,~ ~~~ _,~,,:! l} II!.II I".

until the [end, [of the 'Yuan Dyua_~,~,."

The establishment, of the Dep3'nment~ of Q\ad~, W~SI 0:[ ,Ifellt

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'.

'.

'. ,- i ~t1t r ",:' iI', , the ~ _'Ii!..", dev ,I,: ' ,-, " " ,,- I : f ~>:] : ( ~ I ,C,," h "."-, ':, W:-,'~::~lr;,'-" .1ml~'''''w .. ance dl ne rur mer eveiopmeat 0, , ,J!.S am 1]1 ' naa, ~,wa.[

, =

..

'Qadj~, did :(1), the, Yuan, D,ynlSt~,. such. as pI~yillg for good formne fo - the, Non-Muslim Mongol emperors and eulogizing their 'wisdom and br,a'Y'fiFY~ laid 'me: Itbe-oretm,c fouudation for the 'Theory of Double Leyaldes (loy~, to Allah, mild. loyal 'to the" supreme ruler as well), ,8 theory ail vanced by the Hui scholars in MinI ~md Q.i0l: period .

As the MU.sU'm, population and the number of the mosques keptincreaslng, it became bl!cr-easin,giy necessary to s,3'misfy the needs of :M:u'~dims~ religious ~uei' Thereupon, the system '00 Qadi changed, and, a new' rSYSWI11. ,cIlled 'II'Trl,p]e;",Pm,y AdmJni sttation ii

.'

. '

Copy n g hted m aten 81

came into, being.

~iTripIWe'-,'P'ru1,y ,AdJll:~nJ8,tration~! means 'three, :pM1ies,~ :namedy' Imam, :Kl1atib 191nd, :MlJ],imdb(lhin together a;dminj"","tr11h!~, ]., Iamic affairs, This 8 ys®em, W,a!S, established in 'dle, Ming DYlll~ty. ],~ was

a. creati on of !CITh'm nes e Tsbt.m and rare hI Islamic countriJCS aftd regions, n was also the result of' he development umd evolution of Islam in Chinese ill si'~orricaJ conditions.

As tl;:u~; De.panmen~ of Qiad.'~ was ,eve.nwally abO:~'ished, durhlg the mid '~O late period of the 'Yu,an Dynasty Jiao Fang I(MuIS,-.fum settlemem) took 118 place, Jiao P,ang 'was. ,acttuIU:,' a special 'type

'.

'.

'.

' .

. ,

.,

'.

27

Copyrighted material

of organization 'w'~'~h' tout any official iI(1F~·~}WIj:".:!ii ~~. 'W" as n either :~(.~

'IV' V~ .. ".~-"IYl;L,,,,,,!Il, '!i.!I'in. ~ ~ JIl,!Il, , ,V!I.il!!l, "Hi.... 'W' .. I.... ,I ,uallo !I.iU. '!;.r" . .I!,'l, . i:'L..;II , ,.I., ""',, r Q,[].

executive i[l~:[itudo:n on certain levels no[ So bordinate to .any executive instirunons, but a sort of r-eH.,g:ioUJ:S, organization 'for MllsUms·~· common :reU,gi.ous ~tivities within the Un,periail system,

:relalted '$.() each other; 3) each Jiao :Fang took ,B mosaue as center

._ ·~l

Tn. the Yltian Dymli5ly, mosques were bu ilt wherever the M.u~H:m;s, were concentrated throeghout t~e country It W'~S a svmbol that 1~'Ii:!,c:,,]"'~'W{I'" had ~U", iccessfullv taken '1'i'0.:Ii"'Io,"":.~~'. ]'·'11 Ch Jna A:\~·, a

~ rJ.' =-!"!l~ ~ ~ IL=~u ~ ~1fJ !"!l~_ 11 .. '. _ ~'J .. ~ ~ .. ~~ ~~ .~ l Jl,J ..... , .. LJ!ir.;IlL~ JIJ. Y UIL .J.II.. ... ...• . .. i2Ii It ..

Copy rig hted m ateri al

the Muslims ~ spiritual world in a. sense", In the Yu:m .Dynasty 'dIe ,,' '. ",~: ',~ '-:~i~' -c.", M"'. ~ !ii:iii'~ ],-'~ m ',c;, p: erfo "Inn'--- ted 'po: rayers (. "1I' r» :t~ll,,!iilI'~I'rn,y.': iI!'lIfIiIO' isq - uei,), dl d,

$h",e,: W,WlIi!li:rI'ir... ,,'lIII.l.':I, 1. _, a r;.., I' U "llt , !Io.o' ~ Q,II;,.ii"-!!I!liIiJlill" UU! 'o;II_ __ _ _ __

" .-. ,_,,'

Dot, ylet have a. fixed name, They were caned by different names, such as, ~!:Li B,~j Si~' (prayer temple _'~ "-Hui Ellul, S.1~'1' (HUl, :Hub~~ temple), ~li,H'ui 'Hmi TaIllig~i (Hu:rn :Hurs!~ 'hall), '~IZhen J:rn:l~); Sin (tem:ple of 'revealed, religion) or "Qing ling S'w ~1' I( clear and clean '~em,ple) i Comp,a:red to thai in Tang and Song period, the 'function of tbe

m os.que becnme 'more di v,e:f',s,:ifj,'ed.

d u 'r] 'ml1 0: t 11 e Yu ,~I n

' ' _ ',~ _" '_ _" il:_, ,

Dvnast V '11It, CW-,-,;J;,r; 'iii'iIrii,'~'

.. IJ !I!"~JI~~ J' '!I . ru. '~, .' l~i::I! ,IIU,U L

curdy a place where 'the' Mu s l im s

p erformed prayers c bu t al S,O a rostrum

wh ""[.1iJI; 'th BV' le arned w· ,I~,.~ .1) il!r!J." I 'I!.r.I. _I ~u~ .~.

and, preached Islam; al s 0 a public place

W, here tII"b'e' l>m- -'I~lftI"'i<l' ," ;]I,Iit'iJ...:1 ._. _ ~ l!~-.t I", I!JJ·W _ JL__ QWlJ~ w. 'QlIl-J.l~l

other Islamic leaders handled the internal

....

"

.'

'.

"

Copyriqhted rna erial

30

of the past, and ,also ,a :S0EVh~e; Clenlb~.f where M:uslimg, (;ou:~d, seek hel:p om :mlllfY th~ng8" LI~el' it: dlrve[oped i'n~o the [oeo'teT' of Mosque ,Ed,'IllC;il!Uorn, (Islamic education conducted :i:n mosques), As tbe

, , f," of J'~. '.' . 'F-"" ._ d' I, . , '~A' d': '."- "'d' I the , , ~ ':" .. ..,;'1

sys .. e:m 0," c.,lao[, -~an,g :',~:eve,l,opeu ana :ma!tllrel~, me econemic ana

~l ~[ ~,

'pubnc 'we~fare ,Md, free :schools, within Jh3J,o :Pang developed and

= ., "

life, lDJm.u~mer,a"Dle :mosquesl were fbudt or reibuHt: [during the YU~l1.

=-

lil

and [early Mifl~ dY.D3Jsd,~s (tbe [3i~h, [century to the :mlddle of the 1.'4t.b ,century). 'U:nrfo(rtlllllilitely, due. to wars and aatural disasters, '[m[I~'IJ'V of them 'iIr~!'1I;'V[~ '-r~o;:fIil~1 [d! Ig[~[t[ roved. 'T, ."h()d! ones still ",' 'n ;;'1;;,., ;',' '9,t'~Ii" c ~

, .. iAJ.I,,J v, IL,. I ........ , ,I_I!CII, ~ Ii;,;< !JJ!!i.;i'!li.o',IUi .. '""", .1, U J !;,f. _. , • """ .. ,11,1,!;.i~ ~::II. ~,' H' 'HI,~ ...... .n" ,;JI ........ iIi.I]""""'""

'Inda,:y are of' 'UIU~ follu;w:iug:: the; Zbeng Jiao {or Feng Huang) Mosque In ROiD,;zhou" the SOU,I Jie~ :M:[osqu,e in S:h,un;gluli, the

;,

the [QioS: ,Zb~n :Mosqne in Fuz'h.ou,~ the Zhen Ji,ao Mo~!qu:e In [Qin,lz'h.olj", SHl.lnd.o11ig;~ the Hna Jue Mo.sq[l!1ie in, X:~,'~,3'n~ the Jing Jue 'M;e· sene '~n N anil n U: the Great Southern Moon ue in, J inan, the

"~ 08"'1 .... ,1- ,~Jl~~" .. ~=.. . ~ = - -- - - _. ~= ~ =~~ = = ~ "'1, ~ - ,~~ - ~~~ -~~~:t. ~,~-

"

Copy rig hted m ateri al

D[I!r.imp" the first two h~ndlF.ed vears of the MinD Dvnastv ~ WFUI1Uld

• - - " 0 = [~ ., t_ ,=.. OJ ~. ., = } . - = -,"'. J . -. - .., . - , I. ~, -, .0' . lJ"' , - . - . IJ \. - - ,. . . - - r. .

stable [oompac~, commnnities of M:us'llms 1D places, even hI some remote , areas, where there 'W';;iIiiNflj no ~Oll,~ ... '1"r1 communities before :~[11I1 ch

, , ....... , ,iV" , , .1!.'li."~~' •. " ,,,,-",J,'!!;;> ,., ,\.Ii." .• 'l!;.AL"" IU , ~!LlI!!\,;'.U, , ,'UI" .I"M" .. ,I,U~.I ... 'l2!< Iuc!l'u\ ,\;.o\!Io i:::! _,,,-,U,

lee ated on, the northern bank of the Canal from Beij ing te Hangzhou, C'hangpilllg" Tian] in, Qian 'an, Yixian, [and, 'B (li,odieg: .ound, Beij ~'ni, [alld Li;n,gzbo:u, TOlng:xiu, and (~UYU.l in, :N.i'llxiia,. Also :ru'n mis c&-,e 'were 'Ouizhou. :A'Qvi,[lce ,and 'tibet, ,Aud W~dsbM~

Baoshan, Tengehong, SiJD,gming~, ~ban.yit. Q~j:i:ig, 'Yuxi~, :M[e;ngz'i,

'0lilffi;1 S-:'i'1I:~'iIrr:~'"f'O".":. '~in·." V.JiTJi'Tjio'~Ii""1 Province were :!'i;'1]ii.'1'01 places \li1~':'t.t;!!i¥I' 'M,""U'I~:'~'~'-rn, I [~, n,J,I,!Ji, , _ ulylu,~,~ , . .1 !,.U!IJ.I~!U ,!F.,Ii,v Y ,IIiU".. ". ,,!!I;,< ~;d~v L-,Jj",,,,,,,,"","11 'yY U~,t[1i;.,o '_' '_. ~~L ~~

moved in only siaee the early Mln,g D~y.:nasty.

31

Copy rig hted m ateri al

32

"II L 'M' '.' D- . (1- 3- ,t:>~]1 '~I £: ~I Ji A- =D) l., '-M-' , ] .,

Jn tne ,:::, ln~.,g !yn.a,s, ty' .-. . ,~' I:),d,-, k o~~ ,~" t,,], tl:~[e .,:: nrs .im

population ,grew faste~s.t in 'NMj:m,g~ Cll):ita'~. of ~'he Ming Dynasty. Nanjing' was called Jian'klDl: Lu in 'the Yu;}n :D'y~[U1S'~y (:1.206 .. :n368 A"DJ.,), 'having: jurisdietion o-ver Lusbi s:~. (DOW southern, part of N anjin~) MId fi vie counties Jiangning, Shangyuan; Jurong, Lishui

3l1id l~iy:a;n,g,. By 'nbe 2c7'~h, year of the ·YnaliJ. Dynasty I( m 290 .A"D[ . .)" ~1rQ~ ~'""~~'--~' l f3~: h ou seh 'o['~d,- "[ of Se Mr-~ n 10, • ne 01 " f1T the , four Ji"":~ asses into

I~Jlh,.,!t'1I;,;.o' wlI,,;.fr~ JJ.'lJi~- ~,~'!IJ". __ ~~~._-.L ~ v., _ """ ._., lUi ~. J,II_, ,~. _' ,_ ,~,uu """'.lli!li::l'Ii..F.:!i .!IIU,iU

=L. ,'i'~'~,'If-~ Si, J' ::l~,:~:'n,," gning and Sh an I:g' rvuan, T'If-,iJ' 'H[:-: 'W,~,~ 'prill ,"!!::' W':Si}Ij,~ onlv a

. ~I~\nl,.l .~.,IJ[, ._" ft 'l~lI=ILll_I, .. , .. _,=u" .,.J __ ~ __ .J _. _ _:I~ •. 1,ll~ l .. lloil,~ JC1J.~[J~ _.~JJ.~ ._I.~UIJ.' ... "

~'~;'"!;lr O,';":D-;Eli' thousand itlil~]'~;~I0]11'iI[o:'iLi' l·:~' accounted .~{'!iI,\,' [0.··. ne third ~,'f the Se Jl~eI\rrJi~~ . 'll~i'lir' U=.~,~,g. .~.Ij~. __ al~=~.~,~ l~~~o~, ='''1 Q.~.~ .. __ '~~I 1 [V.ll .. _ IIi¢ 1l_1~~ __ ,. u,~ .. _._ _" .

. _ .. " " '"l"1'3·-.,n .- ---- - -.- whi zh IIJIi2-''j''O-'" -, ."' ";;>1."_' 'PI ~~ .' .. -,-- .', =Hl"~ c--H='I'~' =B-'" 'I' the was ~}'~,~:7", amorn,g W :_l:C ", 7:n.;-"·:·' persons were ..•. Ul .J.' .lU.S," .., Il •. e

nP'liod of HOllgJ'W-U- the Hui Hni pop ulation in JmaFl~'RiD,(J zrew to

.t"-,... - . -- ... -- "'.''-'' ," '-. -. -, . '- -, ,-- I,· -- -, .,_ Jl, .. ,",.IJ -- '-. ~,I.':'- an b"~ -- - - -- -

other CCHl1:1l1:Ue:s, of Nanjing were taken into account, the total ·PO~<;'PI:~,r-·].·~:~';!,o:. '0--1 0lfi' d .. e 'H" "II'I,~ H'" uis ';i,ltl N:.···.· .. ~i!li"_·~,·~_nl·_lg:·'·· was q '111~,f,~ larse, The main

.. . .1::1 lo,Ai..I. _,. y,. UJJ .. UiI, . .'uta .11. '" AU IJLII ga !l:.JlJI.!I.!!;,;.;, ,"-'Ii . b""~ ,.1, ...... 1. r, ,.'Ii.U

~-; -~, - - - - ~ ~ ~ - ~ :-'.- '. _' II '_

lil

Copy rig hted m ateri al

the. Min,g army and those of the 'Yb an trurmy who surrendered to the Ming moved to, :N'anj ing, In the last years 'Of'drue. Yuam QytUIS,ty~, manv H Hi Hui s P articip ated ht the wars 'to overthrow the 'Yuan

IJ" . =

'Dynasty, and. sOnJU~- 'Of them were promoted no v.ery :w,gb :posi,d,oELS fof' ~heir merit, When the ~g Dynasty WM foum'u:ied", ,m3lD.Y Hui Hnis sneh as Chang 'Yuebun" Mu 'Yw:n,g~ Lan 'Yu" Feng Sheng, Hu ,0 ahai , Tang He, Deng Yu, were ranked, among :prioc:es and marqeises, The surrenderedMuslim generals of' 'llie 'ViI,an ~y

I! ,,'1[ ..... ...:1 d ,. - N": ". ...,II!.. hi b ,~ ... d "(I

also semed I: -o·wn. Ul".i,ijJ:Dj'I:ng'", muout w. ~ tc ", W~ Cart JLm'i. leVl', enee

In ~'he srele inscriptruon titled "Building the J iug Jue Mosque and

....

a.

.'

.'

.'

.'

.,

Copyngh ed rna erial

the Li Bai Mosque by :I'mlperblu' Order in the SOl1~h, of Ying Tian (N[am;j:rlll was ca.'ned Ying: Tian In, the Miil\g Dynasty y~ w.clUf.n by 'Wa.rn"g Ao in, t~be: ,5fh. year of Hong Zhi, which says that Zhu YllIa'm.mUlJI,g (MiDg~jl:8[ first emperor) bad 't'~e Jing Jue Mesque brl1li~t ~I'~ the l]1 ~'~ ve ar ~[,:j; jt1[ ~1jIi :Q" 'W',:' '1' '(' rei :a'~1 t ~ tle of Em meror Zh '~~

.Ii.II,iI, ,U.'!;,;o ,,," iil! ~ .J ' ~,' 'U'.IL .l[][VJ.II,iCi' '" u, ".Ii" ,II'C,II~, ,.1 '!I.< ",-!". ' . ,iF '-'.11, 'U .Ii u.

YUfulzhaag) (:0 ;a;rr,lllge: the surrendered M:u:slim generals and 'fac.il~tlJte their religious ~iJe., However, they were permitted to :P(Ii'Bcti.se Islam and perform pray[ers only" Dot to participate ill :politi[cs"

rd ""ii." h ,., · d'i h Ji J',' M"

'-;-.':::- ~-, ,~,-~",-,,-. :-'~:-i-l\'lI~ -~., '-J"'-'~,--_-'-l ':-"--:'_'-'~l~ .-:.-:"-~~""-::-'I '."-:'.~. :1':"1-:' " .-:- ' .. ~ .. [~.' ,(.-:-. '=.'r:~·

aceo ance WJl~h mstone doeaments tne .Ul,g .rue LJoBque was,

[e.tam edg~; M, ,81tD Shan, Jie ,and mol1hem, [ed,gle [at Sha ,Zbu Xia-ng~ I[l, later years, j t 'W~S repeatedly damaged and reduced in M-ea, [after renovations. Aeeording to Ie;g'end. the name of 'the ling Jue MQistque is connected to Zbu 'Yiuanzharn.g;. founder of the Min,g

Dyn~sty (on 'the 'throne, '. ,3,68-13[9:8 A,~:D,)~ Le gend has it that among the Hu.i. Huis in, :N anjin:g::: Chang: YUlch,UD, Hu D,~aJ and

Copy rig hted m ateri al

fOlr prayer, One day- Zhlll'YulDihSDg we[ll~ ·~o the Mosq:uel to ~.ook.. for 'druemn for M j ~-~portru1tmatter, Seeing them peeforming pJa,ye:[' in the hall, he stepped in widiout'dmiDlcirn.g .. ,According 'to Islamic Law f),Ji"!jI.no; --:-e C r uld en'~ler '--: - ~ -Iver hm.ru W't't.];;;. s hoe --:- ~ - I ,~'~, =- c- ,I-q'_ '_~ e

~ 'II '!i;,!! """,[]L _0_ _ _ _ __ !!L ~ ,pra,1 . "_',.Ll _ ~'!I;.!,,"I!' •• s, so 1!J,j-l!le m05 , u_

Yusnzhaag took his 'foot back. A:f~e,r that, the Mosque was renamed J i:n"g J"1Jl e vih'en, he .ordered, to

rebuilt it. (''_J mg Joe'

r,'terRl.ly 'means ,clfln and conscious, i's

pro III U nc i at i o-n :i s similar' to 'Jin Jiao'

(pro nou need as J:m n Jue In the -\1 a:nj:~,I:i,g:

d~ alect) whi[:h means '~O step foot inside)

!Qi dl JH[' .. .::J€.COl'i ~ w,y~ ,. ln,

various :p.flof'CSsinrnats

0- E'''i;''-Ini ... ite brie], ~'!.!f\ illl! uf Jirt:s.i.u~ ~]""'.fuC

moved to Nanjing, III ~;1IiI.iin:..·.

.'

i.

or

..

1:,;::

J,,JI

COPYrighted ma nal

~~

~.~ I

.~ " I

. '

- ~

o 01 u Ium it III rE:' an d A raib Ie cal lig ru phy in Jir.l_!ju.1! MO$quc Ln Nanj,ing .

. '

'D' ur ~ n 0' tho , e early period A if'

, ' "U.l,c.' " '~u ~,: ., !!;.r.l,W,'IL,l[c ul"

'dle MinD Dvnastv N'm.li"inO·

1 , . J ,.0 " . ""J'"., ., !JI' ,. '0'

wa s (be ,Piil)lit'i,c~'~~ eocwm,IQWC'I' co mmeffd al and

... 1""" 1 ' .. 'r-' i' ".,- "f' "'h '

cu :,t ura center Q_. tne

.H u 1. Hui craftsme n m,n d

" d d' 'h 'I" "

, I -.::' . - -", -;"Ij I.~.. -:- '. ,:. -. _-, ·,I."l D

[ra, ers I110 we ',. ere, t rs

the . 'amily tree of Mr. Liang, a. bone doctor :Hvin,g ill. Nan] ing no \\1", that hi s earliest ance s tor:" am: expert

at :resettID"ll,g oflollten bones moved from :Hum,ongdi run, the 'Wes:tem. Regloa to Biandu in the period of Xi Ning' (1068- ]077 A~DI.) of the SOD,g: :Dy,[iJ13:S'~,. and ~he lemperor of Song; bestowed upon him the fl11UJy name Qif 'Liang', I n the period lof Hong 'W'u (13168,., 1 39'8 A,~D.) of the ,M:~ ng Dynasty his descen dent; UlO wed to N a:nji:rn,,~ frem JU andu, There w'ere ,3 tremendeu s number of professionals among the Hui Huis in the Yuan D'ynasty and the

Ll" "Ji,'("Il 0;;;'1 ''Il'llIiCii're iu ir"t- ·o .. ··n·e· , of them '8" aill:" 1 d' ;!:!I.;[> craftsmen ; .. C',' 'i" ~ 0,,1":" ~~, C' 1- . '

ii:JILI.!lio,i:!!, .~. 'bo.' .. .J' . .::ill. .... , ,. 'u. U]&,.-, "" .. '!o.?i!i!.a" "'-<0 """ ••. , '-:, \ ,I. ,Ib<!II~, rum"y i:...t I!!,~ wose

Copyrlqhted rna erlal

capital [~i~.y where the D.obility Uved and the S;lle [of the 'COUl'I1'm~!s[ b~g"'~'~est iewelrv market, NUllJ"'i'nlf anraeted 3 'IOit 10" M'l!li Hui

""·.'i~· • ,J ... "'J "J -.-} .• ~, ".l_·_['!."_·I~ __ ~._ '_I •• _j.~ .. _l •. 1.,_, _~ ."" ,,,_J,, "".

f"['~lr' "., ''' .. ~~ A ~ .e'L· ·H"'··· ~'~ 'iH'1 .;" A'" "d':'~' e ejL· . ". "~ .'. f"

stlillil. m.oDo,IIOII,~.zelJl. [[fir [,I.iI.e . , .. U~ .. ,' !lUS •.. , .eCo.li~.'· ,J,og_ U) bl,e OO:ClO.ll, uS, 0.1,

~3inCI~'~,~o~s Zhene He. W'u Ru and 'M~ Shavihei ,aU moved ·to

'-~'-' "_ •. _ ~ , .=I~ '_- '_ =0 .~'= -!Ii .. ~-"~ ~ [_ '-'~- l."""l- '~'~~' - -'-[-~'J = .. _ = ~~,-='= ==' . "_' "_ . __ L , ••

- .

Zhenu He [('13'J"1 -,1.f?[~; A D')I whose oriQ'i~'~l~~ll" name W3"-', Mr>!a

~~ !'" ng ~"~ _ .. ',.' ~ __ . ..' ,,';;"; ' ~ .. " _. __ .S _ ._._,~,l!li~a!. IL . .1..'_' i,'I! .. ~J .

Sanbao, was a. famous Muslim 8~UO:r- and diplomat la the Min,I' D.y~na~~.y., He was 'born to Hill e:ml~U:'~Dt. [flris'tocrcllti[c f'amUy tbat hid. been :M:llsJims 'for generations, His grandfather CIUl'Ii' :M:l.dibl!a. 'was 'w:nade Marquis 0.:( D~i,aF.l:yaDg in the YlUUl :D:,'nastY~1 and his father Mll:~j:in succeeded him as :M:arq.uis of :Oian)l',ln,g :ta·£e:F.~ .A;s[ his "father and grandfather bad performed Hajj to Mecca, dlCY 'were

II~S·II!~·~,:"I~., 111Ucfl'H,' aiii M<I. It the ·14l·~h:-1 .... :(. 'Ii,' :·:;f-' Hone ·w:·[ wh :i' .l!e",.p~C~j U[I=Y CDl,lIeU =, JaJJ ~ =., ,~l,n _ ,~e .. u = year 0, ,~nmg, .. u~ ... lld~:;rn

M:.~,:rn..g troops commanded 'b:y' Lan 'YU and MD 'Y':iIDg; attacked

caiP~nr.[ed and sent to N ~njiiDg,. Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang gave him tn Zh ·U .. D', 1" - 'Ii)'i~'f'cif'~' of'Yan, asa eunuch. In ·t·:h~,'B· [[,g,'frf/I~ of'Jmenan ~~

1I,.U _, _ , ~ ,~ ,t'·.IJ.,I~~,lf~ U 11"_IUl~ "_~ '" ~IYJol.!I.lI!" . I It ,. • ,J,~. . _ I "-' "Q-II.-'_I,~ u, cl1llle }H_ J[ Jt. c..IJ

Iii

+

+

~."tIi J ~j

Copy rig hted m ateri al

Clll[lfit: (h}... r11ml!Wt L3..'illni .Ili • ill ~L or!t'l~ jill

rum~ ~ ib~ 5i(Ji [EE1nrYL~ uf M U3hm ~®r

2:h":llg tw ~~lDg JC1S£Illi1i P;)ci1iC'JJ..I'II:1 lndian O~iIM

'.

rendered ,exlt:raonnuary service with his wisdom WIld. tactics, Zbu Di appreciated 'dDs 'V1e,ry much. and decreed an important 'position, [i),POD 'hdm.,:m the 2nd year ofY~g Le (1404 ,A,.;D'.)~ :~u Di, who had taken over the throne, bestowed him Zbe:u,g' as his f~umH.y name and caJill[,sd, him, Zbe._lll@; He" Later, he was promoted '~O be ~he garrison IcoDunand, of :N'anj:jng.

T~)! J]CV~~l 'dIDe :power and Lnfluenoe of the. Ming Dynasty and,

..

'. ~Jttract foreign tributes,., emperor Zhu 'D] (1402=·1424 A,'-D,. on 'the diro'D,e) decided 'to dbl;p,atlc~b a luge fleet on a diplomatic mlsslon to the countries in W,e Pacific and Indian. Oceans, In the 3,m year

38

~ m~pT~~ 31. .. /'\.. - r .. lC Jtlftt ~t M.. ff t~. ~!- ~ #. ~ -:t

'.

'.

'.

'.

,of ¥ong Le (~405 A"DI~. Yong Le is the: :r.ej',gn title of mperor

_' "_ . =

Copy n g hted m aten 81

ambassadoe [and 'w'a'FI iC!!' '1\·1 't]!; p,'h:;I["fIIIf';jJ!' '\'iI;~,¥, vice amhassad 10""" 'B.:[~ ,,,,'-reP. :~t~

_~-!!l~~l}l_~-~~.~~-_ ~!"!l __ ~._ • • •• ~~~ ,~~lttJl!'~~l~V~I~ ~~ ~ Ij~-~ ~~~. ",g~~_~g. _Vll~1! [_',JI "_llII ...... OlUJIl

vear 0,[1 'X" uan 'O"~, [( '11,4,,3:':3,':': A'.~"', JD'-)"" "w",'~i·'~'il't1I; ~~ neri ;;'\d:" 1 ;;'\[f"" '21~: VIP"l~_ ? .... '?iI'illQi' .'! !!oo>iIi.'I ",I, '" ,,~,iI, ,,!!w' II.,.Ii, "", ',' ~, - .,,~ ,', ji,LiUI,LiI, ~, r-' ,u, u" ' ,0 ~ "-'QiJIi,""" Llb,,",I.ilO

'''ill I ' t [ ".>\11.;11 4 "'h"" ,',' ,," '( ,'b"'" ,t 1 AI 8"'" , " ,t, 'i s) '~"" ',," 111,0; ,'b;l']'" it'J '(": 'Ik""," I ,it neet was ,~,. ,;z, ,alilg;s:["a:":ou~,~ me ers[[ ,d).ng, ,1[[0 z; UII;;!!1 ',alJ.h.l!'l!]~

60 meters) 'wide, with '9 masts ,and m 2 sails, The sblps wer-e :fu'U:y '~[0,~~,[e;1, W'·I '1:11:-.1', 'I '.,Ij,~cj,o:,""llI':":,: soods '\'iII:Il,d' I, famous erod 1,"~;Ci~~ ':fcir-:~~~I .C"" i~h:·I'~ gil,

~.u~}'!J I!i.t.UI __ ,1 _ILl [F,IL!\pI] .. ,~. _. ~ c-V. '-.lI ~_ ~_ II I. _ . __ II II ,Ul~ri] ,rll U. _. ~ .. ~.!ilI l III v~~.t~ . ,~~I_ ltllilig

carvings '~I,~fl bronze .... oins ~ifi' the M···.··· .. ing, They traded 'W:'~J~ilt 'ilo/::~,.,l:

~,,~,_, _.~ ." a ~IUJI,U 1Ji.Il._ lIJ~_LL,~ ~ .. l.lI~a u., . _ ,~ _. [,I'll" ,lll , Il\J ~_I, gU\iii. _ I,lL_I, I, llt~ g

, ~ • l_' ,-_:

'7,'0" [0'" '0"01 I",,· 'II ""iff '"Z' "~" ,. .' "H~'" "j!." ,. '-" d " j' tha ':]!'O' [ , ',", ". t" "I. ,", ~.

,[~ 1';;,1 ,Omle~erS,- zneng " ie \']J'slte, ,11l0FenHn .:.;-,1, countnes U],

'C"""'~"'i " ',:]'. 'lEi" " "X""/'·'- H'" ,c· S": " r and S····.·~·h"- 8":,'," ,", " .. ,,-, ,e" 'M'"'' "", ,,;'Ii"', J' I"' 1[, ,-, '['];;."1 ,Oiti'i;,.

. ll,itO.llg~l, r-ei ,:11,0,. '[H[ a _\au 8.11!_ ,'" iILiClU], were . ,,,,,,UiSi\~,lm,,, JIl..Il: me oILil:~,

",-, -, "fX"""""' D',·,,- '('14' 3'3' A" '0:" ) wh -,,', Z",'b,", 'e 'H"",.-·, nad . '16}' .. 1'" ,:tiL

year o.l,,;lllan -e [I ,~,',;, ,:., _![ .. I:, W: .. en ,-u;e:n,g ae ,ma>e ll!U~ se.venl~Jl~,

sailln~' as 'far ,9JS Jeddah on the east sh .. ore of the Red Sea, be ~ernt'

.... --- '0'" , .. , . __ ._". -_'- ,v- _ 1._ . __ ,_._;-lri.,l .. _."._ .. _., '_"_" ' __ "_' __ "'_,--=._ ~· __ '_'._!1

,'.-."

+

lil

lil

;,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

·IIiA "tU

for pilgrimage, and, had them, draw a 'pictur-e of Ka'bah and took

, '.~ ~ =

it to Naniin Qi' Zhen P" H'e also drew up n iii vi pation 'm:3J"S; 00'" hi s

, a .. --~., - OJ1., - ,. e .,. ... _' .... '" ' i .'_ ""~'.' ." '" ~·'r .. ~' '~'.'~"'~'

vovaaes, markin 0' in detail the courses thev sa:Ued throu g', h tbe

.... ~' _,~._l,'. -~ . ,._- "'OJ , -" -_ _. -.'. - ., -,J' ."_ , .. _. _ .. -. '_ II~'-'" '_,J '~-'--

,greo,gJa,:hicid situations of the [OO3iS~S and 'the potts of the countries

th a:v 'il:" ,~rll ed bv a 't'[i; 'd' I the subm erzed I reefs sh al '11"-'" '!i'Ll',t:" ,', ii_"~ an ·",1.~

il.1~""',J" ,~';Ad,''I;,;i _",j" [.L1,'., 11,.,,'1;;,0 ,;:t!<'!I.iI!,t}',1 [.I'!i.o'IO,I!;;,.'.' ,'!I;;>''"''~''''' "" ,tiI:,,,W,'!, •• iw,~''i!' I;:),inu,[, us;

:m,eUllintfmri'Ds and coastal terrains. It is, the first 'w'Odd map of marine ,geogJlp:hy in Ch i na, Ma Huaa, Fei Xin and G'-on~ Zhen who-

o 1_ •

durin 01' rhett' 'voVa'Ct,e-s in the books ~~Y;~'i"i 0" 'Va, Shet1'~ Lan" (,be~r~ff~-Ir.i]

.~.-. 1"_1'~1' __ 1"~_' _ •• J .. Ci."-- ~ll.~=" ..... _t~_. ~~ ~ ... _.1.'1.l~. l~l'_.'_' ••••. _.U._tU_l

.- '~"" bl - ri '-, ' . .' ~'" i','L,.-, 'fi-' 'r -", .. , -'- -: .. , I' "j)'-, '~rx' j," 'e- ,·'I!...'I :8·· hens ~ 'IL'" I . '~! I'b,'·· - 'j' ti f'-:' : ]

scenery 111 me ,.JL eceans), =" .. =ng_c~la, _,,,,"e=b,lg Lan \:eau~,LL

scenery seen. in sailing) and "Xi Ya:n,g: Fan Guo Zhi" (CODotr,lles

In 'dle: Pacifi,c 00,(1, Indian Oeeeans) respectively, They recorded

t- ~"'-A T'i"i i"i;'.,'i n'~~ ~ 'ii't, ii:' 'F~ '!ill'e' , .... oi:!' "'" 111'~ '''(D'' -l!i;,t'.t:!i,;i."1l '''''''0' , d' - [.'ii! ".,.,j.,-~ ~ A,j'!;;'~' al ~'iIi"F" ," ct ",r. -"\I':ii; V

[~,,,,, JijJ,'Y[UJ!:t~!gl.!liJ!~'" rrv rs, ..... ,lil,..L..;(iI..:..'o!Jo, r"'- _',,_ uc ,,8, Sv~,~,icli= ~'I~JriU.[U )Ur ~~,t

in Asia and Africa, the;y bad, been to, These; 'books, are of very iw:port'atlt dOO'umeilta;ry value to us '~Odl\Y-.

Zheng He's seven sailings opened a sea-route to east Africa

" .. -. h " '.'- I' .. ~ 'Ii..-. :t" 'II ','. 'e," .' .... ,.~, -.' ." df "~. '.' ' ... '.- . "it-.' '.'. d 'j -11-.,,[, ' ..... ..:.

exe ".a:rngles oerween '. -ulna. an, rorergn counmes, 2.11',. e,llu(IJ:llCcu

A,.t!~;;!f"'~[n·- C·.·if[ii~'II.n. "~·.~e·if', _ After Z······~L~i"I'Oi' 'p:" e's diplom a. '~l" t"i' (!'~I'ill"~ ~ ~g' ... ~.;(:!: _ 'Im'O',·r:e--·' !L!d,,,,",,~ ,'. vyllll,IoI,..L. ,i!I<~ ,_.1 c'!i.o',~, ,- U ..... ua, ,n .' ~ ", 1.·,·· ,,. I,'!i;r- 13J1lli'I.b.J,~,- i:J;,. ,I!,~,I! ... \1.' .

Copy rig hted m ateri al

A, D' Kim 0" [of Sildill ,(" 'HOW PldUp'. ,:t')ines), villa 'W'a;81 a Mu~li:m,~ carne

""., , ... , -, ~ .... ,~.. .. '.". ~, ,. _. ,,,t"' .. ,, . 1,. ~.... ~" .. , ~,. - ,'. - -, """ ,

effects 11; located, ~E the somr~h foot of :Nlush.ou :Muunt in, Jijungtdng district Nan:~:~!Il-~' People call it M,B. HU'i Huh 'M'u (,"lomb [of 'Hut

,_,15~~, ~~, .~, '~~ ,JI, -~I,.', '~'~' - ',"~' ~ ""~,,~ , '~ ~~, , '" ",' ,','" ,'~ "~~"', ' " __ ",'"

:H~ui M'm) because 'Zhen,g H~~':8, ",Jigmal fajI}j~y name WIS Ma: Iltld

nl1ouDt: where his t:owiv is located ]5, [caJled Hui :Hui M«U'Il!E,.

To sum it; up, ~he :Hui. :H:'I)J.;,$ experienced ,a, procesS'. of :Iatg\~-, scale gatjh,erirng: to ,Na.nJing :in, the ,eMly Min.,g ,D,ynastr, but It was very short and, 'followed, 'by a 'big dispersh:n1. soon alter., ISo;me ,of

,~'jk~ 'HI' 1'~I'~ 'H' I r.1"~" 'W ntal .~,~~ r w:~ itk ~~c'C'~'~1 '~'I"r.IC"'C'~"~I;C~ ,'~' C~I~:' 'ti,C' ~,"'"~, w,~j]'~ ~U~ ' .. Ul . ' .. Uls:~,[eD, .a ,O;rng,~-,], u, ILlU,e, 'COllq,U,e:tflO,g [1.ll1I1:Y I.l!O UiJ,e,~" e:~~1

stU] :mov~d, as, 'the captI-tW, (:itJ' 'W[~$ moved :fi-om :Nardi'D-I 'EO Belling;.

S.• ~:{'\m' ·'~I O·I4;~,~:t,...a, H~~"r'l~ ~Uil~'~l':~ '~',ji"J!l'I'nIO ,ii'H; [G"~glili'li'C"l!iIl ~ (¥i~,o'h· ''ljlil~~ G·.·.·. ,,~li~:g,~[O''V·ii .. ~1'lli'Ii,;~'Ii\g'tijll ~v, 1.1. "",,:,~, ~l,", ,,'Il.Ii.!I, ,n,ill,ill,;;;l! ,hi,,, ,I. ,D ,u!l,:__ILIi.IiJ:~, ." '(:.lilLiI'D:' LIi.lII,!!:.:!I;iI_a:lI:Gi.AlL~ ,Iu_."~u.~liil,

the Mini: Dyna;s,~y.,

[The 'big: ,g8Jltherin4 to Na'lljilll ,ad 'b:ig: dispersion 'tlnam, 'tbe:

Hui Huis experienced in the ea'dy Mil,,@; 'Dynasty is, of [great

S

.r1i:J

~J

[i1!

'''I!

l'I~'

,

,

,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

w'be"te Islam had never touched during the Yuan Dynasty, 'The ,M:us:Hm!S population :~:rl N3.'flj:~'l1lg: increased JiS a result , and, became

Copy rig hted m ateri al

CIlAPTIER, 2:

N,AI1'OI:NAlIZATlON' OF :IS1LAM :IN CRIN,A

..

'li:he [oovera,ge of Islam expanded wioel:y LQ China as it had, spooad

_ l."""l ~ =

.. '-r;;i~ ,,,t ",-·~·",-,;.il L"h"""""'" '" '" '("[~'~ '0 0(\'']' ,;i\, D':I'" )" ~",-" £1f:1I;i!;,n, 'it ""IiC1' in ,~, '0:"'[ )'" [arn~, yev[e~.opey In ~~,~e ,I mg, g I 0-7V: f"l~~ ',. " ~onJC, '~7 ... nJ!-' eIl~, ',' '7 fl",""". '[1'

~ _" "_'

'YlUt:n (1206,-,13[6:8 A"D.,) and early Ming (130[8;,,,,.1[644, ,A.,:O.,)

-

dynasties. ,Aft:e.r the middle O'f the Ming Dyrna8'tr~, fuudameotal

changes took place '~O' the conditions for Islam to spread ,amd develop in China, First of ~:n, the H'Ld Hnis' :poil:~,'U.lcal ~,'ta'IU;S;

'11 ,,,4,~ d !4-I1.., f- ik"",;':"ri. 11 A ~ 'h fbei d

c_Jm,g:eY,~, re~luoe~, to i!ll;~a!n, aL IU€lOg ru~e.;J, ·troro t~JU 0' ~1J1!I:g~ secon c'

'.

'.

til

'I'

li.

rj.

li.

lil

'.

ll!

lil

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'b:y "blg di spersion and small coneentra tion" obstructed the conJtacfs mllOll;g: 'the communities in ,differeDJ( pl~~CCS" Funl1ermore. I the :Mi:mg :DyrJulsoc,y pursued 'broad, national as;s:imMludo:n ,and, put

'res'trilc:~jOIl on marriage 'witbin. the 8a'W,C; race, It forced the Hui Huis to use the Chinese :~a'Dg:ual~~ and t:beiF.' national language

] ast "itl~, value ,0 •.• ' ,f'.' 1P1-:::~ .... tice ~it';lJd' tji'i:~IPIl!l;. F:ry'i],i'itml""ih 1 v J'~~a~ :F9n~" (,'I' M',','.; ,usU:m .os ,I,~ _ Adl);", " I, r ~ 1.'I;r.o ...... C""'A ~ ~Q!._!l.,~.;r '_ = ~J!'~ _ ,IJJ",;n- ~ ~ _V ~ __ ~ ~,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~

, " "" " " "" """" f

[ J '." II!!' I'" ,I I. ..." . . •. " [ ~J Ill', , I." . • '_ '" ' _:II' _ '__ _ 'r. ~ ';'11

H1U, Huis mto grOIll:ps W~I,t;h similar features and by ,ls,II'I:lU,C belief

A:Hec~,ed by," the above factors, the Hui Hui communitv in

, • I~'

. -

China ~'Vnhl'ed 'inin ten [ethic sroues md. tWOI svstem .. ," 'the Ulpl~u[s"

,. ~--~' _' ',' "_ '_' '_ "_"_' =- ~"- " __ ' "_' "_ ._. ,- f._ I~-' .,._ ,r'- "_._ -_ - -~ .. IJ" ~ • ,_ '" .• 1 l - , •. _" CJ_· __ .ko f.

Jljvi~@; mainly in The ,Xlojiilt-n,B 'U:i,lbsuf Autonomous Region, .and tb,e :Hu~.s; 'mhe Salas, the DQUgA:~mlgS, and, the Bao'ans living ul:a'iJnly in the Chinese hdaud,.

Copy rig hted m ateri al

Viii MUS(,[lle illl Xil!ljhwg.

) g
~,
il:'
9!
N
~
~.
s
~
ir
..... "
<::;I,
:=1
~,
r
",-=,
[~
'S)
:6"
,Q
~
5"
c,:; Copvngh ~ m anal

.t~. "'IV

Mazdais:m and Buddhism, The 'U'·~t'I'hliJ:FS are distributed mainlv

••• , } ~ _. f. ~ r _. ",. . __ •. •• •. _ t. 1 -, - , -, ,_I " •... ~ . , '10' • ."_ - , . - .. . . \ -,. . _ .. 01- •• • ,., - _. - •• ',J"

i;·iIi"oj, Th [;i:!i; 'X·- ':- ~'''IilJ··I·iIi:i~!i''r'i,ijl!i' U·~·~[O'"'Il,."i'IIi'i'i Antonom ':0'·-: !ljiC!o Rezi ~'t1I; while a sm ·gl'~ll ..I.II.1i .it. [ .. '-'. , .. J.. I. : .. 1I.~,~.lio ._ ... 1i.C',I.1 U!.iIi. . ' ... ,'!U.lu,_ .. 1 1 J . UI! . .;:]I ...... b,V,I.II.,_- ,,_I,,~.'!;.I ~, ~Ji.,.1 :g,~ ..

population of file Uighurs is about 1.2 million In, the middle of

'_ ~ . -

BOQr1-"~a [~9['~ 0-9[56 A -:0 - )[.~. 'khlllD of the KMaidtal Dvasstv [e;mbnltCi~d

'~.~ ~~".Y.,~_ l '-' ~ -,~ ~ .. ~,.~ - ":I' .. -- -, - ., - J . . '.J , .. ,.

Islam 'Kasbcrrar· Yiroiana and Kuche became Islamic one: after

~ .\,~. _ '.' '" '~ __ "'~~ , "'''''11 .. ',~' , ... , .. t , •.......... , •. , .. \ ... , .• C ,., , ... .'." .. ,.

:~-ry;OItilt~f :,r;"'~"~"'i"- .A(~f·~j30if' th e 'i:,A;t;h. centurv Islam spread '11"0-" the If1iIO·~"L.. of

iQJ..I.V,:,-UII,,',I. <:U,;~"",I.". .. !IiI",",Ii.. . ,1, "'It.[ .. II;;,!,,",-U:l,1I.!I 'J .;:]I, iCUU ';),1, .,I ..... ftl , ..,-,.. ... . Ui .. J. [lJ.1 ... ,

,Xlrnjbuil,U;,. and b:r' 't'liJ.e 16'th century, the whole region became lsla.mic,. 'The Eidkah Mosque in Kashgar, the M~lZ~U" of Afaq

:Knwa;djia, the; tomb of the 'U i,tuj'~' Ki,'DU;' 1m Hamid, and '~,e Emin ,M~irn1D'elt: in 'Iurufan all are Islamic coasrruetions da!~ing from ,earrly

and dzu:HJ:i:m"g .. Their beautiful folk [an: works including the epic poem "Fu Le ,Z.bi Hui" (wisdom and happiness) and the 'mu;s;I.[c

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'2~. 'llI'C V;i; ~,~ 'T~ l··· •. ,·I·L~~

Th e' 'K··',ffij,"""'iIi ...... '~'iii;flJ d' 'il,""iiii'i,'b'i'li~--1 'm~,i;'ii'i"1v A"IIJI&iFi Yili Tach ;6ii'11,O" ~'Hili ...... 'JU!U.l~ Ullioi '.IiS'~IlJi ··'IIl;I,IIl't;U, ... WII.lJJ.1,}, 't,J'T !W.1II.I"~.:t:,, .. O!!;,;o, !!;;",UCi, ~IIJ.U

A'ertai in the Xinjiang 'Uighur Autonemens Region, with ,9, Ij~JP:u]altli.o:n, of' ., .'2 million. 'It is ,an ~mll1gMDation. of seY\e.rl1, ,aJncierru~ :mlrn,o:rU,y groups li vlag in. the north of China., By the middle of

.,

41'

Copyrighted material

,.

o Kar.:..bK womc f'I ;md chi hJ re 11 1 i v i r~~ i 11 the T. an :-.hc,m

'the :1 S th cent UlrY when 'i'1l.. ((iii! K--·~·!\iii zak . _< ,~J!Iii'= UJ,I""", -1!llI~U,"

v 'h- <iTIj, '-n fj t, eo, J:'\., , . d. - 'iQ.. _ "".

f,' -, ,- d - -.,ii' ~ 0 l!I n. ~.Ie U 'I'

K -.." 1l... - -- - ~ - 'f-

. aZ~.r(s came nnn

being ·3:8 an ethi c group .. Islam was i ntrodueed 'to the Kazak Grassland

spread w~~.dely after th e 18 th centu ry m

T'b n e

'I' 1 '"

I . I. - . .: .

"~" a mi C

do ctrin e WH .. S 'writ®en. in ij~'TQU Ke

\1t'llinL~lilil"). Corpus JHri,SI\_ the

nati.ond corpus juris @f the 'Kazaib~ There ~.pew:--ed; in. ttbe history a number of :Ka:z* :muUahs and scholars who were weU, versed,

m 'botb ls]a:m and Arabic, The' Kazaks ,are affluent :W'D folklore, with 'the outstanding epic 8 u Alpamls" t U Kobu [auld Ii and II Sal ih and Saman" '" They like music, and are adept 211 singing and dmcW;g~ Donbura is 'the.ir :[ep,iie~eDltlti ve 111.uSi.caJ. iins;trum'e!lI!t~ The

Copyt igh ed mat rial

Kazaks are engaged nudn[y in I:nima:~, husbandry and, ' , U'[Ue agriculture 4lIJS well, and some of tl.u~;m are engaged in ,ru nrJug:try and commerce,

~ ~!'''II'''' '1f?''lII.'I' .~. 'III' VOl" .. &·· ... II!t:' -. JlJ!Il ,Incl ,~~-~

The Khalkhas is also am. ancient ethnic gT11tlP ],ving tn ,tthe Xinjiang Uighur Autoncmous :Re,gin:n.-, w'h.o allied with 'the Uighurs, the Kazaks and the Mongols allot COopc[3!m:ed 'w"'tb the army lof the Qing Dynasty '~O put down the rebeiUrno:rns of' the Elder

I ,

1. P I I L ....

'1111 ...

;-

.'

..

. '

..

Copyngh ed rna erial

Iive :m3jinly :~n 'the Ke'erlesu Khalkhas Autonomous Prefecture in Xln)j iang 'with. a. population of m 40JJO O. They are engaged :maiWy in animal bus'barndl)l' ,a_:_nd at mitt~~e ,a,gri.lc~u~l~llre, as well, T~e'y have very beautiful fo:nd.()lJt\li Iegend s and vi "lid sayings with. unique national characteristics. The famou;s, epic poem. '! I Manas ~ j' is a treasure of tb__e;wt folk art The Khalkhas women are adept ~,t handicraft such a~ embroidery, carpet and mural production .. ,

A _ ~:~' U .. zo··· :i . 'E''I1''~' ~iI! .Il~ . . .l:lAu]I!

The Uzbeks are sea .. rtercd in p ~ ace S snch as Urumchi, Kashgar, 'Ymn1rng and Tacheng in 'the Xinjiang Uighur .A.utOID.om.ong, Re,gioD.~ wi to a, po:pu.l,ali.on of about 1. ,5,000 n, Around the 1 :hh. century, 'they s ettted down in China and

;.

lil

'.

,.

o An Uzhek f.i..Llt"lily I'i\"ing 'un the: ba,;"in uf the Vjli River.

embraced ISl3JITI., They U 8 e :p:h oneti c letters 'b' ,,......:1 -- A .... ·I]...~ '~.~ h

_ a.S.d.], an ru:aJuu:, 'W,U]J.C ; "

, - - - '1 ... - ." ,-' -, h . . ,,', ,-,

m,BA'CS .m t .m uc . easier

for them to. study Islam", The Uzbeks have' bui It, some large

Copy n g hted m aten 81

mosques ,.,'0 Kashgar, Shaehe, Y'i b ad Qil~ii M()s'~ of the U zheks Me engaged lncommerce, 'The Uzbeks :~]l,so[JJdruem X:i:~ji,M,g,;nTe very' Idu Uful 3!t. si]lk wea 1lIin,g wbUe the ames in. no,nhem Xiinjh'tlll' are adept am, animal husbandry,

5~ THE 'TAJ,IKS

The '.aj iks have a popu ~,It~ o.n of about 3:3,;~.oO~1~ being of Eutopean odgln. They are concentrated in the Tashkurkan J[~j i.t, Autonomous County, east olf Pamir, and a sma I mneber live in

~'II!'iI':r>"""fj ~'iI'-""r;[j' w·- ~,p,~ ..... 'nn- verted I~JI!.!Ii~~~~~O j;3 . ..' ~!Il,!b- ~ U __ .~ ~W.I~.~.~

:~ It to sect Ismail of S,hi,affiJ II and '[hey stjU abide by the l a:w or '~b1 s sect now, The

in 101 mal~ IUl' sbandry and farming. They biill v e Iiteratu re wi th a I o ng

h'" '- -'. - diti - liS" b- h

' [:"I '1 I" I ',I'." •. ",'.

__ rstonc tIll, I mon, ' ,11 __

Nameh ~i (book of :tl,n,g's)

bv th ,a, fa -m" ....... us =P' t:II"F'Ii.'!' '~ ;!1jj n )j: IL_:,,~ . ,10 V ~l ,,:.~, !-olo] ,

o A T'ljn~ ~'u\lI.h p~'i:)JWI'~g a p]e~toanl me'l~ld~· ~'hr

classlc 'poet Fird!aw~ 'I ,sdlm 'I'lL'\\,' lire.

.'

..

..

..

..

..

"

..

Copyt igh ed mat rial

spreads; mnulDg, them. As tile Tajlits live 00, plateaus, dleiI'literaJbJre waits always concern hawks.

6 T1i'I"1!'!' 'Y'A'T'" 'DIE'

1.1 18&1 l . a,~

tribes S:Elb;j1ected. to the Turki Khanate Empire during the Tang 'Dy.llas'[y~ Around 'the. 1820~:s and. 1830~'s,~ they moved to XiQjial'l"g

'.

'.

"

'.

"

'.

'.

Yin'tng: and 'Tach,eog"" "h,e ,P ()PU lation of the Tatars is 5,~ fi~ 000, Those ,cc the Tatars ml'v,rn.n.g in c:il.,ty mainly engage in busines 8,~

Copy n g hted m aten 81

axe engaged in. 'ii:a]1IUil1lg, especlally beekeeping e. The Ta',tars are com:p[~:[a.tiv·[e.ly well educated wi til the :bl:ghest pe1n;enta.g:e o,f :i.llj~ellectua]izljtionl ,amo:mg aU ~he :Dl3!ti.(i'lut~:i~ies lnl Ch!ima,. The Lla'taf'

School :~.n "~i':~.(d.rn,g is the. earliest new type ethic school ~ 'The ~

i:i.';

literature works [of the Tatars are charaererized by t'ba,t: of 'the "~

reh··· . -' ,.',' ,to .-,'- ofthe H'''['-';'· ~ .. '-. ,~:~'I_-,,,,,, ·i\·'~~:bc.' and 'FJI .. ,---.',Ii"'-- ·M':'··:-I·r-Ir- .. ~'~~'.' e Rn[oes O,!fS o~ . ~e oJ !--.UlS ar-e l[!.~ iL~ n£ll . [ ,a~lc,' c ersum ,;; .. ' wSJ.[m

envoys, traders and Ira velers 'who came and, settled dOWEl: iu China in the period of ~j}e Tang and. Song dynasties, 'who first 'bn:nlgbt Islam ~~O China. As early ~'S the beginning of the 13th [ce:n-I:u:ry,

The H uis began to use Chinese f,om the Ming Dyn~u;ty'~ but:

Imams f;~'l:': n seoke A .. f;~IIb': Ii c w.'h~!~ 'IitF!-',;q,'id:hl~' '1'"\V1~r :~U Pl,nu ." services

,~ .. l~'!"~!l ~~ !:J ~ II ~1!~~'V!!l~ ~ ~ .~~!Ijp1 ~ _ ~=-~~ ~~ _ ~-= _'-=-=-~ ~ ~ ~IW~~~ _ ~~ __ 1. ll'l""! _

and this tradition 'bar .... been in practice UPl 'tin :now" The .Hois, M-e not oO:Iils.rnder[ib~y disdnguis.,lled. fr-om, the H;~U1;S, in. dims", [The IHlu:i:s,

'~i'n', ~,~~, coentevs ·jl:f:i;;::;., live mainlv on farmins ~~I,Tjii:~ take commerce ~ _ ~ l~_l~~ ~ tJ-1~.J.~,"_~. J 1;J!,~Uj~ ~,~ -" ~.~, ~=~.JJ~- _ I,~ v· " p", ,. ,_-~-~,Ln "~ILL_I,UJ !t~, _t~ ~v ' , _ , ,,~'1JI ~~

Copy rig hted m ateri al

.... ~I

-

~I

3

n

=-

~,-

~,

'.

~I

"

'~I" ...., - ..;I "'t" " 1 d' . , '11'-1 ~ .'

,wlv:m.ll~: m llD!WnS, ano cmes are :nUIUl ,'Y len,g31!'e" 1n smau IIlJUSU1~ ses

such as catering trade" coat processing,

.'

TIlle Hu,is. have a 'population. of 8.6, million I' bew ng one of the :mln.Qri~y gronpl,!;, with largest :p cpu 1 ad on aJnd. coverage They are scattered ;alm,o~n, in ,elv,ery province, cit~y and autonomous region ~ while many more are concentrated in the :N1ngxia Hui A u ~:'O no meus 'R eg ion, Qi lID g h ai Prov i nee Gan S'U Prov i nee ~

"

.'

Shaanx I. Province, the, ,Xlmjii M,g Uighur' A,:ulO:t1.CUllllO'U5 Regiou Yunnan Province, Hebei Province ~ Henan Province I Shandong Pro'll:' nee and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region .. , There is one

Copy n g hted m aten 81

au to nomous regi 0 n , namely the N'i:D,gXj 9J. Hui .. A'utolfl.o:m.ous, Region, two ~.u.~o:ru):mQiUS prefectures and. eleven autoaomous ~'0unlt~,es for '~'h~ H I ~Il;~, j 11 the W hole eounnv,

c.v~. ~-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~-~'----'¥ ~=u~~ ~~'--' 1"~.___,V .. ~~""~JV ~ ,U~~'~IJ'~

8.~ THE SAlAS

The S alas Iive in the Xnnhua Scala, AutoDom.OUS, [County,;, 'Q"'1rng."hm Province, with ·a.·POPll'~~tlon of'90000[l, Thev havetheir

. c. =~ ~ :_ ~ ~'"' = = - " ~~= '" "" "" =. = . , L",,,;· ... ~ '"' '" '" '"= _." . .. .. 'Ii' ."., "' '" "' ~ ."~" ... " "' "_." .. t,

eentnry, belonging: to the west Turki [O,guz tribe in Samarkand, .A ch ieftam named Kh harmang led .~'~';EI;. t'>'il~'~ men ·if..e·]l~i~:V:l·iF(I;g-,' ,j'n Islam

~." ~i1L'IiP.' ,1~"~'hl.llll, ,I,ll} __ ,'-f.. _.' , " '11 r. __ ~, .. , .. , .. } _1[11".,., .' ,wU, !Li._I~I!\r.I! ~,~g_llll .1.1 ~IIJI~, tJ~. ~.L\i/ ~ .. lll~ .. :'J lllllJl .iA1UI,. __ ,Ill

[( camel game)~ a. traditional game ~Jhowb]:g: hew their ancestors

ca une to X ..•.• ··.•·· un ·~I~·~la·. fro .: un Central A .. '.~·~'?I" Is v··· r e rv nooular amona the

"'"" .... ,,,,",, ... .. U .. UlU. ..~.U . '""'u,ll.u . ,~\iI.ai, .. iI.':' ... ,} .~v.t" . ~. q .. .'!WI'.I!J,,~ IlJ;b".

S· .... ~ al '!~I:i.:"

"U.~·~ •.

9 I, . '0'" ... -.. . .. ,."

, 't. . ,~HE .. ··.ON6X[AN6S

The 'DOIrn'D'V''lan'Di,S '~i ve 'in the 'Don ClPX:I an a A"I!Ji~Cln;Omous ,COUll' t~'

, [ .. ' 1 c.'!"·' .. ' Ct· .. ' .. . ", .. ,~[ ic" [ ,~., .. " I." ,'" ,.'..[".~,"., C_:.. .~. c" ,=,'J'

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'.

In LiIDlXi~ prefecture of' Gansu Province 'W ruth I, population of 370 . rth.ousaLnd., The :mm.fl 'bo(l:y of'ltheir elbinlc origin is Se Mu (one atf tbe :iOiUUt classes into '~vb:ic'h ChinI8.'s :po'ptdad.oQ 'wu, d:~vided in the Yuan D'yn:asty- including Central Asian allies ofthe M:ungoru s, mostly U.igbuJS and other Turks.) '!IN ho came with rhe MOmlg'ol lfRity '10 Ch~na in the 13th century and settled down. in Dongxiang, 'They MB also related to 'the S:1ll1S" 'Ehe Mongols and the Hans :~JDJ 'blood. There are coulpar,au'vely more sects and MeMullls (Sufis~:

'.

" 1 ,> '" IC":L..!,_" '\, "'-, i C' ,j.'h'" D,I'" "",,' ,"", " ",ilk., L, ","'"" its ow -,

sec ts m ',lUn.m.}1 among 1[,. e - ' ongxiangs, e acn na vmg .1 s OW~]j.

"'11"'1:-.. d '. dO - ".'I:~ '. f~' t. ,~ 'M' . h •

mosque .II.,He' aocmne an_, traemon or eacn sect .u '. en ~; uan .IS

COPYrighted ma nal

:m:nly im'pl,emented in the dai ly life O'f'dle DOn.g'uMIS. They still preserve very WICU, the transcript of the Holy Qultu, brou,ghJE from,

I~':~oil!ii 'C- ·;Ciniloi.....,.,] A'" Q.'J" '!:II 'b'-II' their ancestors ~t...;a;. Donsxi '!]j'n D!L'1 ;g;'~. j!]i!I:1Iiar:g OIp~ U~!b,:_ L." lal, lIIJ , " ,iO:Jl, .. p ',J; :.,' ,II! QU' .... .::J!I~.uW. ~,; .1. u""" . ,,' , . ~A4PJ1,l,~i:!Il ,(ll!h..o 1Ii,.i',IJI@~,'l!.fU.

mainl y in. farm biti,g" They are I.'ffluent ru n folklore, 'with epics "Miraqah ,and. Girl M,a2]lll~tei and "Pu Tao :E Er" (gF;8,pe moth), Like the Hui s, the Dongxiangs are fond of sin,gin,g Hma:~er (a kind. of folk song, popular ill G~Ul su Qinghaw MO.N ing:xj)I)~

10'" T-Ili 1.!I''r'' , 'B"'.iIi· 0' A ""'S"' "."','!Ij!1 IlIf:L.CI . BtU IBJ.' '",

The Bao'ans are also called. Bao'an Huis. They have dlfrir O'yln national sp oken '~ .. anguage, but no written :~jl'ngu;a,ge," They

.,

..

Copyt igh ed mat rial

5.'8'

-nu

-,.,.1

po:pul I!ti; 0(1:1, of' ~. 5 ,000" 'The~~r aneestors were the Mongols and 'rne Hu~, Huis in Central Asia, who came to Cbina ,ar-onnd the later

~~[~AI, of ~ '~'~f'Il' '\f'f.'I,~~ ·D{"vng'9:~,V and ,e'!01T"I~'\ii' ,M,","'., ";i'lJl(lr Dvnastv T-' ·if-Py", "W:',~~

r·'IIr.'lI,·~I~ Vi I 1 .. _lli~ ,11~"_I_]J .. .7 J11}g._~I,J· a._L,1. ,\r.i~.w'J ~. ~IU~,LO . J.' ,1J.J.rU.L)'t.J,'I. ,.,~,I~ .'. .. '!J.r.I~IJ,I~

~e1i.it 'to O1'arriSOD 'dle 'frontier in TOOP'lile- 'Q:'ln0"fuJai at first, and settled

, ,I," ',', S" t. ",',., I ... 1" .. )., "".1 ","',~ I" ',,',," ,1,Ci'I .... "., 1[", ,,"'. I,., "_ ,c _'-

down there and, intermarried with the local Tibetans and Hans" Lnd e .. v[~nt1Jally became ;30 etooj[c StOUp" Taere 3.r1:; mosques in every village where the Bac'aus Uv'e., They have similar customs tn the Huis, DOD,g-xian,g;s1 and 8&18,8" The Bao'~,atn8 live on fMIUi ug,

W:itbOIl),'[: exception, D,y combining Islam wi til their natlonal

= - -

lil

'b,adid5Qn~, ,and, c(Ldture~ 'tb;,ey have made 'the Chlnese Islamic ,culmnr.e more dlv,emifi.ed~ This new' :p:fu:~n,o:me:fII(Ul of religious culture bas, raised io.ten:se :i:n,te,rest; ,a:moD,1 social scientists both horne and

'To adapt themselves '[0 Chinese culture" the MillsUm~1 in China evolved i,:nto' 'ten. ethnic groups with d.l.ffef'[e:rU;

li,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

The 'Mll,s'lim s of the Hui s ' Sa'~,as , Den sxlan es and B,8.'olaJ1S;

! - l'!!"!l_ [..!!"! _l __ ,_ 1- _1 . - =.-- ~ -I~~ ----c~ _ --- _ .

- -

who came inland w:w~'m the Mongo:~ lImy or the M~usUm s who migrated from 'the. We;S:lie,m Region, They eifbe,( li ved In Cbina.

:1' nilfe' rmarrvl -DO' 'W" 'i th ..... t .... er et ... ni .... -'Olil~ln!il!' and m· . 'll'~''';'lil;llild 'n Qi' Islam

, ~_I~· ~"~'" ~ ,w, J' ~. b> ,." '!;,J. .I,ll .ct ~ .U II)'" DW.~IUI~'~ ~ ,U, " ~,L!II.~ J J!u~", ".j;jo~"'I"

as a llfe - 'E,y'b;!; and ,faith,,~, was spread tOI va:r:i,01;l:s places :i:n a, peaceful ~y \iV'ay along w'ru'dl n~e 'Mu:fdims' movement from one place to ,1J},O:ther., Islam pl~ayed ,a, '\fIery h:l]pOdJn~; rol~e ,rulTIl, the 'bidhs of th e above :Ill1,d,on,aJ lties and was Ithe core fa)c t or hl UrueJ:r

'.

'E'

'.

Copyngh ed rna erial

Ul!obint\;L A'fter the. Ming - Den astv '(' ] 368-1644 A 'D ~ six 'mtl~Oi 1-

.1~,.· .. ·,·.o -.}-""""" ._.o.~ '~'._____:__.~,r"':_"J t .. · ... I.:1 · .... 1.·.··.· " ., ,[ ••. 1.1, 1Io"l:'~ ••• I'~_._~IjJ. ..

. - ~ ~

regj,ons where 'the Huis U.ved in. compact communities came ~]11t,O being, namely the south of '~be Ya.Q,g,tlJe Ri ver with :N,a[l)jirng and

area with. Hezheu, D id.a 0' and X:in,ru,n,g as cen ter, Guan zhong (Shaanxi) area with Chang'an as center, Y;unnan area, Ji Lu Yu (Hebei, Shandon,_g and He,IrI,Hl1I) area wDitb. Beijing as center and

The Ui ghurs Kazaks, Khalkh as - U zbeks Ttl'~I·iiks. and Tatars

=.~L"""l ~, l~ •• _'l~j!'_",,_ -"_-!l" .. _-_ .. [..-.~. -, -rJj- OJ ~~_ •• _ = _ .

aspects sueh as etlmic origin, religion, economy', culture and customs but has never broken away from the central ,authori~:y

,. I bv vari h '~h 'D 'i' h ',".

'I'U any way:, "1 'was _y various means sue, as ~'I,;e ,I .·"a 'W.R~, reugrous

spread .. 'CompMied to the places where Huis and other nationalities :n,ve, 'the conditiens, :method, and. m;anrnf~tation 'for the spread and developmera of Islam ar-e oo:mplete1y diffe~ernt: here"

Pirst of all, the: rise ,md decime of :Kh,\vaja (a large filtnily in

Copy rig hted m ateri al

exerted direct influence on the rezime of XlnJ:"hllD'~' practicing a

•. _.l.t!! l •...•• ,3._.11._ •.• ,l •...•.• r •. ,.0' l.--,~I .. "-·.al [ __ -_.L_-._._._.[~ __ '

Secondl:~('" :Kh\vaji,i -:l:sh.a.n worship pn~~van~d", The Kbw',oja, family enjoyed the status ofIshan, while ls'han MJr-e ~he 'idend~.y of Khwaja, Due to the vlgorous support of ,t~e. Khw~Ja :famUy, I ,han obtained fuU development in ,Xi:njiang and received much, more secular power Md allowed Islam '~O penetrate into Z111 aspect'S,

building and, wor.8hi,p':~,Dg: Mazar (mausoleum) prev~U:ed. here,

X;I'nJ"'~ CII''j"Wg'''; - is ''II 'I l'[;i:Ii; 11" k ... now J'1il1 in 't:'h: J~ [1~~,c·I:~,ijft,~c'·) ~'!Ii"AlrJld;" for '~i,t';,<:", M-;~"·;:~:~'F\0, ~'"'/ ~llr . I", ,~IQU,_ ,r<;!I Y'Y!i.,o._. ,'!I;,lI', . ,~,_,,,~ ~. ,.ro,.. ~~,~!Q~~l,~,_"Yv~JL l'v~ ],.,~ ,~=a:z~8 Wblt~,

',' I.';

~.

Copy rig hted m ateri al

;iC"Ii y",

,3., wide coverase, '~mQ1;e number and, amazinz diverslrv.and .. al ;i:";:

~ ~ ~ " ~~, ~~~" =~,' ~', ~~ .. == ~ ,= "~- g.j!==iPi_L=o ,~= ~ .~=~=I!j,y'tl, gl!,',.~ A_,~O

:fOI' the, :mystica1l1egend$, of' 'f'he buried and me oo.m:pl~cated. content of' :Mtmat worship. Kb,w,aji~l~lsha'Fl combined saint wership 'with. MgC'T\gjr worship makina MI····.···.···I'a·z;ar .~I. shrlne and .. Q:T'm'[ ooreanr 'ji'[eo'~.~ ~J~: ",'" ~ _~ .. 'V,., ~~~;., 'tI, =~_.L'~II:.~ . , , .. , Yi aU.Uv ;Q.1.iI,U "I!.I, L. Y, ...... JI. ~u; .illli;.;'d.g~OUS

~;Ue., However, 'Ch,e real. reason why '~hey did this was ~J.:~:mp,:i,y to imduce belie;veR to pay stronger worship to 'the living K~bwaj.a.~

.1. sh °in' 1 and ',~ ~., ... , ...... ,. ;'~Il'~ ~~ .. 'fIi,~,'~:~.. the ~,]j~lr~'" '.m -;-', ~.; ·~.~",~I~'il'~ '~, ~.~o:: ,jI'iII.O·" ':m~( I' ,~,n .... 1"'1' d ~ 'n.·n. :, .• l~ 'I' tical ; merest \t! .. \ , ~_~~_~g __ ~ ~~~ @-~\~JL ~ ~ y Yol~~_~ g..~'~l~g._~ ~-~ _ ~~, ~ ~~~ ~~, __ ~ v ~;y~~~ '_J~~I~-'_' ~~l'_~ ~

dle'Vfd.onm~:Tfi'It. EBid~~ in ~;T ~~ 1 ~iL : r =- ~Ich.':i"i.'. ,~1f.~ fi I~, st ]p:'~'"" ';'i~: i" "~:t·I~·li~i;':I!

" ~ ~ "'~.t"=~~~~, = ,-,="1 .~~ Iu'~e = UlJ,_,l cenll.~'; ~ Il.ue ,.~F8 . ,~,I,aI1IUC lfJiCI ,lll.u"lon

of :hi.g'ber learning in 'Chinese Islamic hi story was, set: up in :K. 7·,asht'j"ilf. In, S'1l1J'b~p.Jluent d.y·nastles '~. O~~: Islamic Ins[hD~es 'w:cr.e b'~r.:'~:·~t·~··

~ ,.,' "~ .... ~.. ,. ~ , .... ,." .. ~ ..... " ~~ .. _,~ ~ ~ ~ = , _~=~~L ~ ~~~~ ~=, .. ~ ...... '" .. ~ ~ ., llb"

an 'I.: d, some 1~'t1d.·· Co ~iIf historic ·1'·'t"II~,u~'itiJJ' tes were re ·.~Tji;01'U~lt:~dJ,. Th~I'~': e" se '.' • n stitutes

. ,~'!iJ." ,,,,,,,,,1 .,..,.Ii. ,IU~IL, , lIP .... ~ It '" ;;II ,"",,",.Ii" ' U,V "O!llV, '" .. '~~"~' L~~~[,UI,."""'S

'were of considerable scale, offering courses such as Arabic, Persian, Qnr11[auiic~ annotation, dogmatics, Isla .. mic Law, Islamic h ,Ii Qit\o-rn ~O~D"li, ... , A"~ rabi ro' zram ~"m~"loljllr ooems of :S'IU'~ sm ~. and [ 'W'" '0' rks 0" '·f·:;·

1~:~~~""'-:~IJ.,'i 1~J..I<~o.~, :!I ',_ U-UI.V. ~IJI~_~.J~I~I!.u.ll' .r'~-~·.!Jlrll 0'. ~·-.I._~,J,l· e- :,!J, ~tJl:I~. ·.--.":.":} .. ri_~ I ... : "

Islamic '")lrUry.~o:: p::iireF,t1:~ A"~' '. larse '~IIUr. mber of 'r'9.':]~J" ~U:'l":O:' os professionals

~~~~-¥ ,rJ~u- .. ,~.l~f'_""~~_ ~ ~ _l~,O~ ~1.._,lU 1l1C. u[, IL~ _!lO ... -~ .... 1 •• 1_1~!il!,ILV,IJ~I:. __ CI

....I r . 'I'd' di 'h .. _Ai th

a'ElIU, nterary tatents were proouceo 1'111, t nese KD,8tl tn tie s I.:Du, r .,. e

'influence of Islam connnued '101 expand as a result,

During 'llfurls .period of time, "the Kimg of Hami and his :fanlily

Copy rig hted m ateri al

.'

"

.,

..

Copyrighted material

Aft~~r '~llhirlU Ttmur and his :1.60,,.000 Mongol subjects

~~~lr~~" d 'I 'I ~ "~~ ~n ffh" kh ~ "" "4Ht'" hi "M"" 11" "T~'

emeracec ,~JLLm,~, ,8== '~~J:;~~ ~~jaEllS. ar er ,"~],:m were, ':" 11S,I.lm,. , ,~o~,ey

the sp:i:r.~tlUlJ wodd of the Uighurs. By the early 1,Sth century, Islam bad taken the predominant :pos,iti.on in Ham:ru, symjbol~,ziD,g t:bat tbe entire nation of dle Uighurs in X1:nJ~ ang 'had, 'by then

'b d I 11 ,,ii; £; 1;.. '. ,,,4 ..:;I '] M" '., 'D " dl

em orace , stam. Arter tne rmd ano !I,a,te~J :~ong: ,~"yn~sty penoc ",

peoples such ~S' the. Kazaks 'to the north of Tianshen ~Mounta:i!:n accepted Islam ene after 8Jllot'iler.,

The two systems ofIslam :im, China (Islam in the inland, with '~he Huis as represensative, and Islam, in, X~i:nj:ian,g 'with the Uighurs 3:8 '~pl~·~m's;~ntatiiv.e) .. d', ":lffF'i:r~d'"1 t:'ti·o~ ,n'&:! ~,d: erabl v fro im··· ~'Qi,lf'I'ih other d '1:1 ri 'n··· (l!i'

1~ .•. Io\.o!' ~,,~ _:"~'_:.':i~""; .___:____.[~'-_~ ~ , • v~· .. ".~~=~,~.,_, ~.: l'_jWIJ-""'-~''J"'-''''-lJ' [.JiI.!.-, 'l],] Illir.l.Q~JIL~. "," ll-:-~· ,y, I, . ,U~I, _ r '0

this e~arly period, 'U'[JJjI the m:id and late Qing Dynasty, as the policy 'Of separating religion from, polities was put into practice, 't'~I~' two svstems tended ~:.,.~~ develoo in P"~,:.;J,('!;e, with eaeh oth :¢Ii"~ .A.········~,

_I~~~ ., _ ~ v ~ J ~l' .. , I ~ _iiJ ["''-=~~IU.V. . Il.v ,~ ,,- ~ . ,t."" . I,~. . ""~!W' .". ,Il ~ML., . _ .l~_ "',~"., , ..;I!

:ma:ny Hais moved to :X~iItj:i!ang IS, garrison troops ormigrants,

oD'i"i;A otli, ..... O· '0'0'''' 'm· ,~"-,, contacts b "A'iii"!Il'IJp;j!!i,rn the f""~"Fm~" .:,"~,,~, ~'"p'~ '.,"~ ,~~" tb

auu ecc L} c: .. ,.,j,.,j I,!J;,';"; ~.~ ;;.:u,}"',~ ~ ~ u lv~ri~~.t~, .r ~ ,.,j, dJ~,JJ J~ ng. ani;,.3, :I, n so u. ,~JI

Xl~j1a'Dg' and the pa8tJurill~ area in north :Xloji&ng became C:(08"£, thei:r economy '~~llded ,to ~row ,ait, ,the; 8tl'me. 'r-ace;~ As, Islam itself

[. I~ ,~.

chansed ,mill reli sion became seoarated from no'Utic~ me 'fUrnCitl"<~oill

.. ._ - - OJ 1 _.. - [~ • _> - •••••• _. - - c_ _ •. ,F ' .... 1 -,. _, - - • .t:'-~" - . _ i.;J!, L '.~. '_' ~ - - ,_ _ ~ -

Copy rig hted m ateri al

early 2'o~'h cen'tu'ry"

Of course, Islam In bulb X'~njiiang and. the inlam~, 'win, [oontinue to develop ill ways of their OW:D,. so far as the influence of """0[m'l fp.la:" rati ve,' ,]. ''IlJ' stabl ,e,", , factors such 'I '~IPI eeh ·~i'.i,r;. 'b, sack ii:!t.,r~~'II'"ii',dJ and

!ll.r.-U , , ! ,_ . ,I. (.Ill_lJ. ~. '~ il!t!UllJ '_' "U,~~V,Ii,~ i;I!~lw, ~_~ ~~_ .lIo~,~~ ._.Q~_ .'ID~U~,IHI .. - ~"IJ_~,._

Co,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

B efore the transi tion period between the [Qing; and ~A]j.rn.g· dynasties (mid- l7t'b_ century )~. Muslims in China, belonged. to 'the· Bunni sect, except tile. Tajits who were (11 the Shiah sect and a.

·M··· .··,;C;'t'II;'I;..;II'II~;til;.i::~ e 1m I ne .1'Ig'. red ~'D- e '!fi;fiT'A'r' .'!jIiIiti'~·~·~le· ·r·· :i~:II'''''[d:1 grew r .. apidl v am ·.t"'Ii[DiiJt ... _ . ·""".LII,[[IIi,nlliJJlli:!![ .•• ' .. 'll ': . V .• I.. ell "1,,"'. "-li:LiI.VIl:.U.·. "-.1.1. . ': •. 1. n I. u_ ' .. 1l.U· .1' QII. I. tv. "e

China that bas spread [early [and. widely and bas 'more followers and, greater influence than any other sect As it adheres to the

te.ac:hri:n,gs'i[ th.ough'ts and ceremonies that have been practiced for generstions since ·nhe· Tang and Song d.ynlarS'[~.les,~. so it 'W',IS named

Copy rig hted m ateri al

'U'jJ. timate Principles" and '~~'d' 11:'tl:'10i1'i'~i!;II'~ cerem onies ~I~~ 'li'!I~p' ···n~~'@Jb-.l'I~'~\

_ ,iIi. ... !liIil""," , , , " .. "".a: . Ji,~~ <JU.I~, ':'1, ~ .. 1-.. VJ.IQ~, ~lI;<:t.,,", . 'VJ!IL ...... "'" iCl!i!U,u, I"'Jl.IVI _.= ~'"' _ ,~~"

" ~ =

Song, Y;uaD~ :M:iog: [and, Qi:n.g dynastl,les\, Qadim, has become 'lbe :mainstl)eam sect of Islam in IChina, being up1q'ue in iis own .slyle~

IQ.·',C dim W"(' rl'I+'iI' Il~"IC:~, b '. ": 'S}lhi ~~'Ifo '~,CI~~: (IC'C'I ,:'''''''':;'IC''ij- ,'~'~i't'C;IiiIr-'(·iJ.. lt '~I'1 J~L1m .. , as. mnnenee oy eman ~,O some e;x,e\Il.'-\, aunougn .II" ,1,liDS,

always 'w,alted its OWl], path, ],t 'takes Tldlqaib. (.1,USEe:ri.ty) pr.acd,ced,

b S' fC. 'I'"fI\ A iL"" d'l ii:L "

('~' ~[u~] sm as ,ll [3 ta w W'IlJ, doe 8 not worsnm saants ano tnerr

[J lr"

Ikhwan, wbic:h U.t~r[ally means brotherhood, j,~ also called Ahl al-Sunni (a ,S,OCl ~bid:ing by the :H(,11 Qu],'j,i1'n) and, most other ., ... , ...• ::t\. ,c>~ '~]' "i,t ~: ... - '1N'1 W' IC'c:t ['.' w,~ .. , ... estab r"~d"~ b ,c.:' M-'I'C' 'W:-'-C"f"~'- ,~. seCI,S, [C~)b" ,I,~ IUUie ,.. [e~: ~[~Cl~ .a , , t:: 3.8 eSI :a1,1,1,8u}e ~,y ,:. Aa!..~ 3ILU, [11

time of some tens of years, it has quicki.y developed into a new sect covering Gansu :N ing,xia, and Qi:ng:bai., It abides 'by the

Copy rig hted m ateri al

~IO ~-I;)

are not in, line; with th,e H(d:y 'Q:ur.~'a:n and Hadith should be abolished, ]'t is ,a,gannst mausoleum and mursbid (guide) w!(Jn~:bi:p~ and advocates that :llreJI,c:hilog and Da'wah should, be dome in

Xldaotang also previously called J inxingtang, Basing its doctrine ueon the works of well-known Chinese Islamic scholars

r'~' ~ ~ -

~I'~. ch as LI iu ?L. a r: and I oth ;a"it"~~ 1· it' ~11'ii!!', 91'[' '(1'0". ,c'?111.1e4 Hanxueeai [(,f'i .... :t..oo···.···::]~ ,0" f ~l~~ " , [g~. i\ [Y, ~_u, I. _I,IJ .' ... U_l\.r..L[~I, lL JJ~ [(.I .i;J- . _ /[U! ,.lIl ,,!~- ... ~u~w .' ~-~JJs :__.'-", _.'= .: ~

C!(L.~i~a'\"'e,ru'll'~u,l~)I~ ],~ believes .'i"--9it~ onlv bv combmi C~i C'~?'i~'h C jI--·'I~'~:'':__ .1:U!L.I!! ... ·.., .. "'" , •. ,,",1,"'"'. ~ ,,,", IJC'U "~.;,, II.U.~," .. ,u1Y .' Y '. 0· .. '.~ ,Imn~, W,I,ll"U, _ ~,~lrn}Se

.... 'illl'~':t'ulr~\iiii! eoul d r ;t!J'~ g'm" . 'L.;iliIi, ·d.' ev elop ed ,il'ili'lil 'C':h:l' 'rii ,;g; X' .. "" 'I' d aotan 0" '1:1~'i'lii If" ""~.IJ,,.~.''''''; ~Oly!,' Jl.,~,I,Rn ~, IJI!\J [ ,,,_.'[ ..... ,!lu,I:"" . ..J~~~.J,." ~ ,Ii.L",. ".1 !U;"'I}~L I.,~ W4~

1AIi~~~I~lb·:'I'~'Q'if.;e"'d: I 'Ib~'ly":' '·M····.·· a .Q~·I:'~'~ .(:'1: [~~·7' ... ,~ o 1 ,.iiti, A·.:.·· "'D[: '")'. 1·~ a ~[m[['~:·IC] town A,~'~'~~-;o1i

~~IIrQ. -t !~IIr~lll ':.' ,l_' '. _ 1 '. '.' ~A_I, "".JL OJ. JI.. Jf .. "'" " .• "' .• : .1.1, ,i3 ~ ~ c(U. , ~ '_ ,0 ~Qlo~l~

Jfueheng 1i'iIj"Ii: 'L' ""lli'~,~'an·.·· Countv Gansu P rovinee It abide '~', bv tbe

, ,I. ,. .1.1, '.: ,u'L, .1,1.[1.1, 'I"lI'IU,U[L'J ':! . ~ . "" . ~ l)I, ,it '" y. ,In","" ~ • ,,[~, a, _ 1_" e:s yue

doctrine of Sunni and follows 'tb,e teaching of Hanafiyy,a~,t and takes tbe works of Li u Zhi and oth,ers, [as j'ts Da'wah source, It

til

attaches great imp ortanoe 'to M~(lWlid, al .. Nably (birthday of' Prophet M:ubarmmad and. also the du(y when he passed aw,ay) WIld the anniversary ofthe death of Ma Qixi, founder of Xidaotang, 'b,~1111~ 1':i~ 'D"~IO··- t·"·, build :;j:Ii'r"l'V m aansoleums fo 'T the 'ID" nrshid [!oC" CC. g:' 'ii]' Ide .. )· after . ~~, UcI,U , ~, '. Yil ".' t;U.L,J ... '.' , . 11:.10> ."",,,, '. "~ 1.1.... Ii. [, I"", ,'.. ,~, ..,u: .;:;!I' '.' ,~I" ~~ l;lI" Q;II~¥=

him, It practices murshid-dominarion system wi t11 the murshid as both relisious head and the manaeer JYf'/ the '~Q'~'~:~w,~"c},'il~,_-:,. Iar

"" ~ ~" "_""~ ~ ~ ~ __ ~~~" ~~~" _" ~=~~;t-'Y,~"""= '-l .. , I ..... ,I,,,",,,u.o"" ers secu.ar

U~fe;. Its, followers are of two categories; :indi,vidual households and collective bouseholds .. The :indiv:ich:W,3l1 householda are

Copy rig hted m ateri al

scattered an over the North we st of' China, independent on econ,omy ·and Uvml'~ but dIe)" 'CIn seek help '&om 'XJdaotaog 'whem, Irlley are in need, The colleettve h01!J,selho:ldsl are COllwntrrltW i:m.

'the home ofXidaotang located 'i 0 Lintan County' and en~~giD\1

':"A bu --'Ii!!'::rnim,;<~ .... '", ,l;m;'_';'11l-0' "t"\I'"liIli~!if''h9!.'" animal 'lIl..'iiill'Iitlt...","ri,Allii"'ii~ idJliFi'd'l nfimm-;-'- .-c.-.:;r~ .IU.lll. .. : .... _~lUJlI.!Jj'OO'i!) U~IUlJ ,W,d.lJJ,lIU.IlJIIJI I ~~l .IYllJ.r~~j'5 ,~.~ Id~'~' ,~-I~~i~~~'l'- ~,~ __ , ~y~ .. ~~~~

nationalities of the locale t~1 ,a~tend ~C:bOO':~,; ,and selects (be 'WI}] students w U:hru n X1.d.a.1ota,J},g· to re eeive se eondary and high ed ucatlen, 80 a. considerable numb er of its :(roU.iowe,Fs are 'wleU

if"'·

i

,

"

'.

'.

"

'.

,;

'.

'.

Copyrighted material

10

:Me:n'bu,'lD. is it general term for ,all. the Sufist schools and ,th.eir baulelles pr.ev,ariUllg in inland Cfurbl0" Sufism was imrodaced 'EO .Xi.~ji~g' from, Bukbara ,aud, Samarkand In. Ctokat Asia '~n 'tllie 17th ce:ntllry, and separated into two sects: Baishan (white

and. branches in :Xi:njian,g: are geDer,aUy called Ishan, Since the 1,8:mh ceuf!ury" Sufi schools :~;uc:b as Kubrawiyyah, Qadidyya]:I:~, Kn,lIl:fiyy,a[h, and Jann,yyah ([caU,ed, Four ,Men'b.ua'.ns by Mus~:jms) were introdueed into Gansu, Nlogx:ia and Qinghai successively,

''II' .. ,t'iI ,,,,,,AI b .A~" ~ 'i Cnl ;, I " . .

.!LnuuallC'W,~y u[iuitlon81, • ,.~, amese CU~I.'tlllre; some smaller branche"s,

such as M:ufU" Da:w,antou" Dagongbei, Huasi, Guanchuan came im.t'O being, These Sufi schools and branches that prevailed in the ,'llIi' .... ~~~ of the Hu ·~Ct!l did not have a com mon name at t:if.I~; ver v

R_~l~~ .. a "_I~I, .. l£.]J.. _.~I.!Il! .. \~u. '" vl"l ,~oIH .... _ IIrU - -, -,., ,_, __ -_,~. _' __ , __ -IJ.J~ _ ~_IIJ'

beginning, so some of them, continued toO use the name 'Of the sect. from 'which. 'they originased, 80Ch. as Ku brawiyyah and IQadjriyya'b;, some were named according to the tune; of their

~I

chanting :D'blk:F.' (praise to Allah), such as, Khufiyyah and Jahri:y,Y,oo:, some were, named after the, place where the mausoleum ofthe founder 0[' mosque are located such as Bijiachang and Baizheang: some 'wer-e named ,aft,er the family name of th.e f(l\ilnd!e:r~ s'Ucb a'S Xianmen and Zbu_gw,en.; some were given the;

Copy rig hted m ateri al

name 'fOiF' their wide coverage [a·-,m,d'·I, grand construction of the

_~~~ =_~ _ .. ~~ _=IJI .. ~v~ .. la, ~ __ JlliIl __ r llla._ILlU ~._,lil)~._ ~1~._Yll~l ... , [J. __ ~

-_ ..

_ _

mausoleums ~ such as, 'Datfong~:bei ~g'. )r.amd mausoleum) ,aod 'Huu;i

, , , . - . _.. ..,. - - ~ ~ - [,I ... _.. . . . - • . . -.c' . - ~ _,)' ... , \" ' __ ' - - - .. , - - - -_- .. - _, . _ - - , , .... - I _ I , , -_'_' _ .•

(splendid mesq ue); some were named 'w~'th 'the w~rd Inn 'the ~lte'·le'

"1, •.. _._ .. "".1 .... _f •• ,' ••• __ • _ ._ ' ' __ •••••••• 1 .. , -.V~_ .. ~.v.,- l_-_-~_ ~_'.~.'~/.~~

M,e;oh,uoo., is a tY:&>e 0[1' arg;trdza:ti,IOD combh"led, with reli,aio~us, mysticisro. It ls 'built upon ,3, specific social and economic

Bao'ans. Nei ther :M,e;nhU;8'1lS nor 'their branches, came bli~U[ 'lbeiJJ,g in the same neriod or ill the same way';, When. Sufism 'YLU1;$1[

L.r' J

~1"'i;1ll'1'1" ';M······ •• ·':S'IIjI:hi~I"I"TIiI"1i'~S, ~1iQ' ~ S If"H.] led UI' i"'~~I:~:~·~''\)!'.

r!l!-." __ .1. I I _ '\r.II.IJII_, .I!IrJ."~ILI.I_ A·!ili I. . v. __ .l!\.?-'UI . _ .Ojlu.u_~~I.,J· ~l

,,:,.:,' " "1" ',' 'd'~ .' I' " ·'h I'~" :." '~., I' I ··di ed I '-r-.:. M·: . '1'-:-' .... I"·' :. ·d: I Baha I' l~~r . w.as .Iilam,e' . [as SiIlIC, ,;, . [. was lOUn. e." uy ._, IblUmm,3J· .. [,a .. 111UuulD

it into a sect caI~e-d 'S[a'isboo, (white mou]][m'rn )., 'Durm,g ·rthe same

. ., _ d - fe. tirn . -. '18.' _ h ~ _ _. - t'n~ .. ... ds ~ . . ~ 'f.C" A'" " ~ - ~ . - . ~ '1 ~ . ~

1~!I1if[(J I '0" J I ~I r I ,"'-e- l' ,-~ .' :all Q'liliti'1ii I (a'''I1 'g. ~ l"'~[ml"I' [, orlfli ['0' ,";' :.-. '.,111 [~~ ~[m- n ~ ·iD,n ,if'liI~It"filliiDil ' rn ~

Y_iO.·",·'· .. _· ':. .. '=~:' ""~, i. ,"1:' [Y~,I,V , ,."""iIi. .:.:,I,~~ I. ~ ... JU'.Ii,I, "'.,', ,i l~~., , ", [Q 12!oV """"-1.1.11,.... )!J

'yErq.i~Dl,g :i:11 Xinj.i:ng 'no develop his influence, and. the sect founded, by' him is c~:n,e.d Heishan (btlc:k mountain), III the :1.7mb ce[l!)tury:,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

?l

'.

'.

'.

,~,

COPYrighted ma nal

Khuf y~cvah W~ introduced 1n~o GlwISU. :Nlm;ll.1:ll3). and [Q. r 1n ~l1lj from

~ --'-== '. J ~~-- - - -~ =l.""! ~~ - -_ ~- - -- - = --- -- --= --.~ = ~ ~,-~-.- .. -~.- '.~ ~~~-~ ... - =t= -- ==

- - - I - -

:8,pi1tudin.g;, dev~:~ophl.C and amalgamadng with. [Ctdn.t;.e culture.:~t has generated many branches, Kbu:fly'y,ah abides 'b," the doctrine

appearing in the name of its, founder J\,bd al-Qadir al-Jilani .. 'Il 'Wl~S e.s;~:ab~ished in '~be :~. 2d:~. cent.1u''y and prevailed :i:n :B[lIglllda.d,,and d. develo ne '.oC~ {~~"~ one ~"';f the 'bi~i (tQ',;Q;[,'~: ,S:'.:",>l!]' fi societies Dr'D' In-}I~'D' the d,u . . I. v""' .v.P .llIi .1.iI!u,O 'IW' .. ,."'-" v.I. l. . .. :W,!t';;~,",i.!I!il. . ,1.1 i:!!'V"'i-r.~.",",~I.""" ,. . ." ,1,iI~ l~ . __

:_,:_-[,-_:110,_. reien of Kans ·V··, of the 'Q-"':,'/., :,~ ';0-:'[-"·: '- .... __ :·,'1"·· ··K-:···-r··.'l,.,:,,,~'~-- A:······-r~[ ·,'~'~ .. ·.I~'

ea:ny .relg.rn. 0 .- :ang ,At O. l.ue.:.IJl.,g . -y,lJ.a,s~y; .. , J.IIVio·aj-3 : .. l!Ju11u.3u

,- r. "h-l. ~,.. p" --F,; - laim , 1 to ·k;:::i. th .-. 2,nt'h' t, (iii'e-' -n';!!irr -'Ii'l~ oRI;D of Prophet ·M··-·: uhamm .... ·A

w 1,10 "I .. rue. ,blJ I,ll, -ClUJ .~l lLJ~ I.":-.e .. ·:'-t. I, ~ b'" ~:: 1~1:~all~ lUi. 1 0,1. r~~u, ,.'.l1llwl~ ,'.~::, .U.-:: ~:;':1_::;:: au.

i:n-troduceu, Qadiriyyah i:mto G',fUlSIll" N ingxia and Q.hl,fthai~ w:bf.ch afterwards separated into rbree s:maUe:F' :se{;~ ... : 'Q'imen, Xianmen

(converted .,. ~I~·O.···· Kh ·:~·~lfi·.··I~'V\!",""L.. ]. ater) and M···.···.·· amen ~ founded ·~v 'yi~'Iil: nan

....... v.l..I. T "-J. [Iii"'" ... iI.!I![~. .f'!L. ,lUi. '.J'.J m.l ... , .. - . . u, _. tLlIi .. _._,. "i..I:!.. VIi.liUCU liJ . .! .it. !Wlt il.ilJIilIiI.iIi

-O'f 'Q,ad iri yyah ·found.eel. by .A bd:una'h, ther-e welle othe:F' ·~eC'~$, founded by those. who had studied it in Xi~j13:ng or Arabla .. aDd,

returned .. Qlad~r.iJyyalh abides by' the doctrine of SU:DiOi. and :(oU.OWi,tj, +

the teac:hing of the Hanafiyyah S,ch.ool."

J~hrw"'i&'Y'" all - Arabi c tran sli teration. orig'~ naU'li" 'means "oeen"

• , -, l'.J.::." - - 11 l" . - •• l ,.. - - 1 ~ , "' , .• , _., _. ~ l~l ., t I~" J. . - - ~ J." ,Jl l t •. - _. . ,r,-'IIII" I

a.

+

13

Copy rig hted m ateri al

],Qud:I", ". So J,ahriYYLu is also called Sect of Loud Chenting oppos:lne'to Kbufiyyub wlrlcb is called Sleet of Low 'Chan.dllg~ ]n 'the; 16th ceotJU:r.y J abF.,i,:yy,a~h was introduced into Shache and KasbgM' in, X'i:njioCl,g f:1i'OfrnJ Central Asia Jn 1744, Ma 'Mkogxi:r:l

The foUo:wers ()tf ],oonvvM are di;slmulUited '~n 'the NoJJ.tbw,est IIiJd

'" ~ "_" ,.~ .. ~.\,~. '-'~ _' ~~-~~~J: ---!"'!] ..• -~' .. ' _, .. _:',., ,'._.' - ..••.. '" '.'1' - E ' •• ,'" ••.•••• _. _-,1 ~~ - 1._1

'to Russia, and Central Asia) ~ Jahrivvah abides bv the docrri ne of

•• • -~ _ •• ".~, ~ "l ••• • - - t _, . ..It, I. - •. - - • _ .. - - l}l. [ . .. - ., ,J" ,J' ... -, _. I - • J' '_-_-. _ .~_ '_ ~ _-!"!] ~_ _ ._

'r.

Somni aed :t1tl'l]OW8 tile teaching of the :H,anafl.yy~b School.

K,ubrawiyy,ab,. Arubic tran s,Ule;nl!ltiio[fl 'I' orlginated from the K,u brawi Society founded 'b~l tbe Persian. S ufi philosopher :~~l'ajii:m.ddiJl KU,'ibX,3),w'i in '{~be 13tb century. In accordance with hi~lori(~ records 'that rhe :fjlst~ one who :bl~_rndu,,;ed Kubrawiyyah into Cbin8. 'was a foreign mis;s:i,onocy named Mubaalddln, He came to China three times, :ftrsd,y- '~O Guangdong ood, Guangxi, 8,~concUy to Hunan, and Hubei and th'U-d~~.y '10 Gansu. flruiUy be settled dow,O, in Dawentou, lit vill.age in, DQllgx~an,g'" Hezhou, in. the transition period of the Ming and 'Qi11lg: dynastie4s,. He took a Chinese name l11I,d 'worked on a, land of 0,,9' hectares presented by the "til[aglel's,~, ~nd became a member of the :Dong;xia:n,gs in, the e:lld" ,Alon.i' w,ith

"

Copy rig hted m ateri al

him came bis SOIl] Alirmad Junavd N',an[sJ:dbana, B,a[Dlldadl~ who

[_II~. , •• , ... __ .l,. ,J. Ii. __ .[1. _ 3_ •• _,.!l .. -_J',J' ... ;,.r.;"~~ __ . __ . ' ... ~ .. - .. r. _.,1 .. , ...

convert "'t!i~ m • ore f~~·~!0!"111'.:li~~, ·iiTjl'..-.;'·I~·~1.1·n'!i)i' >l:ii, 'l:"'flt"II:;o"'-'~'11 num ' •• ber :0i'P the 'itJi':i9'lj'lj,i[\

1Ij.J. ,,,"~ ~Ul" v.'-' .1,v,~_'.V"~~a! .~llll,~.~I~U __ ~Jlti, Q ~~'=L~W-~. ,IJI.!lJI __ l~.l vl [U_J,.~ ,n~JIQIill

K'U:brl,'w·~.:y'y~. is also ,caU,ed Zfu;iilD:gme£l OJ' :Dt~.l'.w,ant(JlJ, :M:eD'huan,., It Is of SoomI and belongs to the HSJ1JaflYYM Scheel,

A·~~;-rIO:x:;;:I1t. M~:~I~ftl~~JI:;'i'rii:s differ from ea ~h [o:ith~r:' "the~ 8n'~n :fuJa,¥tf;

= =~ U,L , "ug!l,~ ,., ,V,l,t_U!.l!la~,i!_ I;JI~==¥= ~ = " == _ ac== "~~~~ __ = ~;, ~ _L~ ~~ __ . ~

Jia u f oq, respe ctful form of C add ress '~O- '!til 01 '0" 11..4 man) a nd ,~ ... ke hi m-e- e-' ,'lfIj,(j!

il!Q, '\~, il. "'-'''-'!II,· .. " ILl;! ., .1l1.,u,lI,il. Y. 1 ,,,U!' "I ~~~ !Ii.[. ~. oI.U.!I, . I., WI, ,1i,1;' . !Ii.~:'.; 0 I, ' .• 1.1 !Ci&i;j,

[,

even deem him as Wia'H (address to the Sldi master) who can cr~a;~e and m.a.nife"st various Karamats (mlracles), [The followers

P,::~,',y,.',: greatest respect ~·[O.·.·'· mu r shid and '·rl"t.'I~ f)o,,{Ij' his Kou H.": "UI:i'lII'I'Ii;,,"

a r. ,\r.I .. IIII!\.-I.;) .. l ~~ . \.?-~. IlL. . •• . I a.t.l,lllJ ~_, U ~,.;:),L " .. 1. ,_ .IJ.CI . "-j!lUl , .. a.JJI.

I, -.: ,.-. " • •

their secular life and splrhJU~d w'odd.. Mursldd do.mlnates many

Jiao Fan .p;!!:", (c 0', :'{m' 'm' nnnities o··,~ his 'f0:11'11~'w,::,:, ers) and d) esi 'Di1jli:~t'l;li!S' , R·.·,. a'i iii'"

~,au .![' "" . IC!iJ!: ' .. ,' ...... I, 1 , ..... 111.11 1I.'!I.tt".J! .. .li ,U, ,OJ! ·.u.li.lv. - "_,,. ), u,. ..~ "!!:i)l;I~"\.;. .. Q "Ii';!!

and 1..'1'. .. :1:-,;,1' "d'l (']1' '.' ,[. ,). ,f ..... 00""'" ,'i" ,",,,iL,.,,, '."," "f'c, "r'""'~'" "'1''""''"'

ano ,t'\.I1!;;JIJIUD '" mam N': ,Ul cnarge 0, I. mosques,

fam 1 :~i'~I,~' m '. e': m '.~,-,:"'~. '~In,"d':. [",-,1,[1"11 tsta ad 'ii,,,:,,~' diseinles A:~"',,~,' [\Dir·~ '~;I(-e'·" fouader ;ii}{i""~ .. ".d,; , ., .. , '~.L'<) !Iilli. , , ,i!JU!!li.O!II!Il Ill!, JU,Jo 1lI .<)"""' .It--h'''i!I!, •.. .I!.Ib .... , U.I!_ .~,v .. ~~,.:,lI¥'A ~.~y.

successors of I, M:ern,hu3,n. pass a:w,a.Y" the followers buj]d

ml "'jIir'I'~[~ 0": :]'e',n'm' !t'1 f ',o';r th em ':' som 'e",'~i"m' es thev !!lIi 1 if"1:"'i1 [L--", nt ld m ";i!:ill'I!l. ifl',ii'"'ii;.II~!I!l. ms

.0 I~'U!C~L ", 'U!, I. 10 [~ '.'". I', ,'11./.1 0 ol'!i au. I." ,11l.," '" ,,,,",, I[J1I,.], ,~I,,,,!IL!' IU ~,~" , , ' e ,e ,I"~,_ ,QV,~''''''" ._.~.~",

Copy rig hted m ateri al

to their Menhuan .. Thereby :mlll1soIeillms, have become [a :religi.'l)us

~ .

symbol for :M C\Tihu an ..

J.., Having s:tr.ict and sy stematic S:i.:~.s.ilah" a system . of [S!~voessiQm '~O ~Olju_n1Jli.d [authority., Every M,en'bulfij, has buU.'t UPI its: ,S'Illcoes;sloID lineage ,ihiC;D is called SHlsina'h in consideration of U's development, Three types of succession are applied: by descendants, 'by c] .. an members or by person of virtue, ,AU. Men'huan s attac:h great importance 'no, Silsilah, about wbic:h '~here are ma~oy mysterious legends,

4,. Attaching importance to LTll'ri.qa'h, religious ,ao~ted:ry., [Thriqah is classified into three l~V1els,:: Shari'ah, file lowest level.

Pi'Ulfs n :;, Tllilqah" the 'lllud level, is of the various austerities of Sufism; Haqiqah, the highest level, irs, of toe .b:i.,gbest s:piritual

Menhuans pc,:r,actlce austerities in their own ways, and have

.,' '.~. 000 ._I.~ __ =,_ ,_"_J __ ' __ '_'_'_' __ , __ ,~. __ = _ ' .. ~. l~. _!ll· .. ·.~ll·. _'_,"j _··._Jr ••• ·., •. ~1 • _, •. 1 _-,_"

~ .

to some extent as, well, Almost all Menhuans attach great ~iDl!pojrtance tD chanting Dhikr (praise to Allah), whilst differeat M:erlhillm chant d"i'ffelr-e.DiUy and put: on a mysterious appearance,

M:e.n'hulms are diffeJTe:nlt from [each other 0'0 administrafion,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

O '~'I-' ki th WJ'~- • th 1 1- dmini m ,-"

.,' -:-", 'J:!II' ., i _-", i .- I: ....."' I ' , , I _-'1 - .' - " .. - , ". I -'-.' - • 1- -. .:-:- ::.- - -.- I I' - I' -,- -,.-

~nm,,~L_ly spe~.aL~Ul]Ig,~",~y ' __ pr~tic~ a __ ,_rne-, eve 3Jc_mln.lS ,aI11lVl~

system: Mnrshid-Ra'is-Akhund .. , Murshid is 'rue :higbest ,leader 'of a:U ~.he followers 'both i D ~:pir.i:tu~J, and secular ~:i'£e,!, lenjoy:l:n,g the supreme status and respect, Ra'is is the deputy or representative of the murshid dispatched to other places to administrate r-e~igi.ou~ affairs. Only 'the :mlL'lEshfd ,hIS 'the :ri.,gbt to appcint Ra'is; even, hereditary R2{~S must be lU1lthodzedla:md

co nf'·,a,iini!'\fIi;d~ bv '~'I!..,;fIii m,rnl~hi,'~'dl The basic 'U' H~'~' of the M" ;CiiiH,L'lnr;g,u- ~!r' Jiao

I~ ... ~ ·~_ • .IIL~'~.: "j U,IJ~ " IUJdi~ .'. .I,,!~ lU~'JIJ," W"ILI,~ U ." h" ," ••• '!i.iiI~IJ"~,~IUU- lIj~ (_ .ou

Fang J and eact Jiao Pang bas a mosque and :i n each mosque there is an Akhund (Imam) 'who is in charge of the religious services and affairs 'Of the .J iao Pml,g~ FntrILkly ,s,:pe:wng, Merthuu

77'

Copyt igh ed mat rial

lil

"1:'~"

fl','

I[~[

;l!jJV\li:':!~im.'·-.- ,;~ ,oj; feudal natn ,0 ,gcr,'l'!O[L. .. al elan svstem '.' '~,;fti; n····- n -," -. 1-... - rn 'f'" '.-" -' '~.Jii:j.uJ;i,.I.': ,ilO), Q ,1.[1. 'u;~~~, ,~~,'[.-,[~~,l~:Ui~, ~!ta.;~, :;;)..J~llI~J, m amre norn ,~,ro.m

'tCh~' ,d': I:;i;v.a'I~rynlma:il!~ of 'l~l!i;~'it'" sects in [C,""'h:i'~·a~' ,a'llid': I characterized by

~------=----~ .. -¥.-,~~V,r!"!l!"!l~V-"-=~' v~, ~_~,~li~~V ~~l',~"] ~~~ ·_.!"!l--=.MI~.tt ... ' .... _ .. _, ~~.JII~._ .. "~U-~.lll'-~U .-.' '.

Copy rig hted m ateri al

F:ij'~.'i':~mi th ,~, time Islam 'W'~Ii\,;'1j;~, ii'ijii:tlFo'"i;~~'i';f'Ioiil;!i;d'l !'i"Iilj,O.;· C .~h" t~:~1 '~it[l: ,~~t~ 'm·.[i~d,.'ld' fl~ of

,1i.CU, "t, """ bilL , " .... , l~jQ.IIJ,J,., ~ ,~J,Jj~JJ, vUJ.,.,II;.I~ . ,lulk~ . lU!~, 'iill;,.i!' HI"" ,.~I,. ,.~I,~ '"",

I~."h' ',.'. '1M,' :",,:,~ 'D:·,';·,".':·I·'· :', ,t, ~ I 3",~,£'Qi,~ 'II [~4,',,;11 A"~'" 'ID':).... the 'C> [L{il' .,', 'M"'" "I~'II':·' 1,,111 t,J~ ".J,tn,g ~"yrnJas"y '\' ,,[;"'0- ,1.1.) ,"'f:'""'":j .ue I"'~' ul.n,ese, "~' USl,I.tmIS

religious education had always 'been condueted ill :i:odiv:idual families 'b" wa"Y of oral insrructica 'by' the le:i.der generation,

How ",I~'Ii~\i!!II1i" ii.i~'.~,,,, 'mil "e' IljiL ..... .J1 ,Q.· .. "f·'o!!id' ueation We ",'" 9L"', restriete d': ;f.iFi;, ~i!iII 'it'!'-. \"': .'111.1 ~r-'iDi.",'~~ ,n ".' , ~ ",,"""wJ"5l IlUIIl,.", ... uuu '. '.', !I;.I . !I,!.I,"'Q!l~~V, I.' '.,' (Ii!!< .. < .. i:;!I:llllt""W c' IliV !Q ~U~..: lL~'~!!:iIll";\,,

effects were not enough to meet '(be actual needs of tbe ·,:jJ;!::i'v::~~'~[c'!l;r·'.~·m~·~·~';i?!'i"·[~'lt:· ,f]ilf" Islam In C .• --:~It]'·Tfi;"'\i. A'~~ time ,",w·~,c,~T[Ii'iIo! on . 'M~·:Tl!lL~"'I~~'m-:II~, in

Ui~ . ~~, ).Ir . ~,~I~,1J _ v Jl~~_,u~,~, ,~. _-_ .~ ,~I= ... ~-g~ ,~' =iiJ. ~-~~_,_,~ '_' _ ~.!-~,l- _ t~~ ~. ' __ "h==r_g ,~,~-_

ChI naJ ~doli\lled the Chinese 'I ansua ae and ~'a ve up their mother

_ ,_. _ •. J •. " t ,~'l _.. - ,_ •. ~ ,- -.~. ' ••• " . - s" I ID .. '_"" I at _' _ . ~ .- ,._. -, ,- t., . - ._.\.

tongue, :~eadin= 'to, the '1{)8S, of 'Iheir 1lb:llit~y 'to read scrl:p'~ur-es; in

Arab .: ·.l· """ o·,.'iI(" Per sian, Howe .. "'l~',~1i"'. no C ~h~ •• inese versions of Islamic

, , , j~, u. ,~ _ ,IJ. , ~" ~.~ . _ ._1 ,. ._ "-y _ "!f ~.LI'" .J .• ,.. "_ _1II,~_1,. _.IIi;.1~ "'!Iir.\ [~ __ ' -!il).~, ,[JJ.(I.llA I.\.?-

..

..

~I J'~

Copy rig hted m ateri al

~j;s{: [~ulid, deve:lop ill Cbin:a,.,

In this e'~'~JU' l"!Iiiitl"'~!f1ii,_ ~Ih--' e m en [0,.'- f 'ii~~'~i ~:h'~" Q:mO;)lI'Qi' 'i-; .... ~: ~'[U' II' M·,'·',', 1"u'p'~'~'m;IIS-,·

u,_l.1!l141' ~l!li,.1~)l !l;,JJ.II" iii. _ _, .!Ii.o. .• , .l!J.II~\I!,5-'.u, LllIiU, _ ,~, y.l .... ll. .. " ,1;]',1.11 , , . ,

'~I. .. 'li,.,.' "'.'" " 'd: I' "'t'" .·C·., . - 'B"', c· "'0: ,'.' c· '·'it" d-' I, " - 'II ' " , ' ,,'-' , -'f ,.', - t':h- - y .. ,.... :,' :, '-d: I isianuc e ,ucai1O,Il,~ nase on ,hlS :J~;v[eJl}op\,F.EI;e,[iI,~, ]lUII,Ie, ;, uan 1.1l,',

- .-".<-, i':"'" ,~'f., ',;,f ii' with : ':,,'.' ·i,.f I l'lit,· ',v-_ ,'",' ,t'b,-_- ,',c" i - -- '.', nd ",.,-'. t.r ,c-c' -,' .', ,','

econonuc snuc .. nre ,_,11", agncur U!r.C I;S[uC core (\'JJ11J __ commerce

d ", ,,~ b b dl , id 'I'" - ;, d - .,;' T"'h - - - - Jf'

. t,' . I " I _-_'.' .• 'r. ',' I _ r. .• '.1 .• ," • I'," ••• _' .'" ',.' _-, _' ,," • ',- ",', _ ',_," ;I"

an ,lUltma., IdJ,~::aJ.rn,'_lr'y as s~A~ll,me meusmes, L ~~Iey were 8~~-

;(01'1111#].'''''':1. AII'1II'f Ie. .... o no im"I';i ... allv an d lived ~[ ,O'f,~'ii-..'~e life T'·' k;';<J m rad a '·I'j't.,,!Il;.!!l.,!l.:, ..... ";~II,iI_1!,. ...... """",~,I".',I,["""'Y",~,i el-I.I._ 1 [·.V_, R, ~,~,"U,W:~ "lIJ,'Oi ,~U--'.o ",",R'_~ "!J,,

possible fClf the development of M:osque education, 'The initiator oftj,'f MrJ~~:I!l.·~ 'i9~III'IIii""~if[o: . .-: '0'.1 'W'[',·'~i(1J H. ~:JW~, Denezhou who l ived 1"~1 'Wpf;i~:h' en ij)i',

!!i;;f,1l '_" , ,Vr''''''"1!' ;'!I.< ,~'IOIi,",g .. !I., " ,,!IOliOJ! J!I.'I! ,!!i.o\llO;iI!:.:.o. . v ... , ~ ,1.1 ,II, • '1;.;'. ,n __ ","",Ii,,,,", "","" 'O'f.

'i!Jii town .~ ~ .X.'.:ji;a" "lni'\Jli!!I;'~~., .. ?'~ gi'~'IJ"'Y.~ Provi IDI~"'" in t:h·[1!10 'Ii)~'r;io·.,d' I, ofJ ia '~";i'-r!Q'

;[I, IL;'!U' ~,. .!l!lJI" ,I,. . . ,; U_U,!t:i~ ,.:;)i,~,11 UillUl.A.iI, , , , , ," ,I. , """!!i;,;o' ,I,LJ, " , .... ,f,"'!I.i1 .1", .. , _, , , u, J ,Ii..U,,~

~ t ,;ii:;"'''''Ii'~,11 ,;iii;:4: . .t::, A·'··- '0:', [)-I ,':' -'d: I 'W··.'·,"'~::,c" - 'L:" '(':1 '~'7':'e3·.'-,-,'1-f=,'1·0'i A"·- n' ':'[ )-" " ··:'f; th ,',',' 'M:"':' 1':', [':"[_\ -e ,..,]i,L;L-- ii, ,.]iUIl.,J rl : "i, i, ,an, , .. ~ln ,. ,I, I, ",J " .,- "UL , :i. ;, Q.I, IL""e ,. l.ng

H'"I" :' .. , .. "" " "'" -t' "'r' d TI h - 'H"'" ,.', !, ,,', "h"" , .. ,,',

" =; .Iill S:' were cone enrra ... ee ,;; "I re rt ut S eco uomy nere was

,c.om~anlth!f,elv develooed, and thev were in a better ~'eioO"rnnbie~l

-"~" "'¥'" ,.-_. ._. IJ' _ I .•. , ••• !~., .. - - I. l .. - . 'J' .. ", . ,., ~.I •• IOJ .. I~-' ':F'" .. _ ..

'b~ ~ 'h~:n:r~,e'lf .j! 11 hi s t:a'm'~]'!lJ' Afterwards Lanzhou M.a· hi s second =

_y ~._Lt~L ... 1_" ,I,. ,-- ... 1,,;.,., " __ . _, . __ .... _1, __ " ... " .. _ ...... 1.,'

g:ener,llti,on, student, moved the class to a mosque, markiag the

besinnine ,of M08fi1'Ule 'Bduc,R'tion '~'Il China - S'i'FlICe HUI. Deazzhon

~'~'ID---"-"'C" 'J ._". "._J _ 1_".,1. ,._ ,t.~ •. ,._" •• ,.- •. ,.~. , .. ,

..

:i:nitil,t~d, Mosque EdUC8Itj,OIl, :~,'[ began to rise througboat those places where Hul s were concentrated, such as Shangdong, :Z···· r ' ~p,'i'I~,'!1I;'Il,ig~' .. '. 'Q"iI:n:iliQ'Ij'II. =H'l'u- 'I ~~~, ·~uc. rlU' ~i''jli'!Ji'ii'i :!Jii'i:iid;'i Gueng (~.~ .

.~l~;JllJg __ ~.,_ .. , ~~~IJ~rU_lll~ l II I _~~II!!IJ ll.~._-. lUI'u.1111 U.IJ,II. _ ~·~-!W_ljl~._ .. jnJ~.~

Copy rig hted m ateri al

Th6 purpose 'Of Mosqae Edwc~ti,o\ll was, '~O find ou~ IOd c~ forward the rig hteous Des s 0(,' Islam ad foster qualified Islamic personnel with orthodox UIOIll,gtJ;~! 0- Sunni, This allowed Islamic edueanon to be ~_au,ght 'm n an. or,gal7rru led .and systemade method w nSI[eoo, ()f i 0 imldi vidual families

As M:osque Education developed, i;l, c\o.mll!parnitive]y complete educational system and ,a unified te~trujmlg method w~m;; gnt,d)ua.Uy

"

e.

a.

.'

Copyrighted material

worked [0:: :11I·1.~ .. I·'ifi its initiafpericd, ·:I'l·,o~(~:i"iIu.·<"Ii E, ~:·1.·u, cation ·W\: .. ~I:~ ·n:o.:·~

~ ... \ • ,fIi;.",",. . . . .. !Ii... . ,11,1. .1 r : 0 .1". _ •. 1", .1 .. ""'" .. I.v-., 1.V.1I:. . ~'"1. .""'. .U ... g.. VU. .. ~.~ .. . !Il,.

·ilt'·-D~~'O'w]~d:l",~ ·~;O'~ fo ster '~~'i]a:"m; 1 '~iP" p-;if''i:"'''f~~~~:~,Oc nals ·A\,~' ,ii·it became more

~_----=--Ij_ .• _.~ ~V"-Cl~ I ... L~l[ .• _'-~ll lll~IIJJ. __ 1.~I.~ . _'lIl.VlIJ"-'O!ilJI. -.lll .... _.1g!l! t, l~ .ILL. lU!\.rw!elh, .. IIi.;?" "",_ I.!\.r

~ .~ d' - - ~ ~ - - -~ ~ ~ ~ ~'J ~ - - - - d - - ~.. ,. -~ - d 'b~ ~ ~ ~ "t -] ~ ~ - d'" - "M':-

. ., -".. . - - ... f· - ...... -'" .,' ... -". •. .' [ , "",' . -'.." .. '. ,'" . .' .', '. ....• . . .'. . ., ..

[811'c_ more pop utar, ano req IIJ,UT~ a ny .•.. a·CI.UD., D.~~I.s, .' .:osq' ue

r I .! '_ 'J

CoUegJ"!e level was specialized tn educate new' Imam - The students

._ .• _~. _'" . •.••• . .. I _. ,",.~ - - ,- .. ", •.• - ...•.••. or _ -,... I ~ .•• , 'I __ • ,~I ., I .. I. t.· ,._ .~ _ ._

. .

,!];~ ,~~k.~~ '1Ie·,:v,:·~:1 were called ~""'.Q:II.""f:-,'~'I:--, Air .. ' M···:·'~·i'Ii:III.9_ ·Tl!..e.··'y·'-[:' were ·~'~r.U~·2·,:.""t.

iClIb llba .~i .' .' ""-,,il ,. ",""iL!Ii.!' ""'~~.. ". , .l"!iJJ.alJIJ dU v· .. ' uILIi.l!.o... .,,-.u . . ... iIW',iIi.! ioU" ~ U ..

~ - ~ -- - - - - ~ ~ - - ~ - - - - - - - 1--,' - - - I, .=-. -

~ r ","Ib.·,·~~,~ Persian _ .I~'II'~'n"'Ii·~,,""' 1" /""(~'lIl~ .d·: octrine, [QC ur'anic annotation !'!!I;'[!II d

l'"'U:u. _' .I,~, rU--.l.~,.LU_IIII!! KlhlUJ.,J!u,!IiJ ,Lra """" ~~I .-V\.r.I!Il.., _ ~ ~l ", _'_ y_ . !eILl_I~IJ. . Q._. _ILIV!lita}l~ Utllll,~. , .

'1:';it'jJi;ri'illi'lllllra, .; inl 'im; svstem . ''1iII·ti[{'O .wo, - ·;g.·V· 'C'-:O:~'~ eees W'a;r[a C"D;f '!Ii'IIP, in 1 ''!lII'I;"g' ',~ or .l!Ji. !1o./,1 ,iClI,I.\Y' "'" .1,1,11 eli, 1i:J';;' 0Ji1L&'.1 ° ° .eI, 1.",",_. "":J" ... ·.Ul'-'6 ;;,i •. _.' '!i.o'.Ii. '!;,;o' ,.,""!!,. Iy:, ..... ilo[ 01 . ,iClI..I!.> "."-' ·V.

medium .. size mosoues, The teaebers (lII collese were special I V'

,_. _ •• - - - - • _... , ,. ". _ •••• !'Po •• • - ,_ ,- •• , ••• .., - • o· ~ ... ,. [~.l,· . .. _, J

scr ~~'p.jl[)l·iIi·re'·.· .~':1')I.. ·.M·. · •• ·ii 10' o"i'I'~ n l't .(: one who 'm· [: 1~'!1II ster 'f' scr ~]' otu res) '.~ A:. khnnd

~"-' .1,,1,. 1I..l!lJl!\ • " . !ill, . ~J I . IL 'OJ .I,I.JI~~ .' V~~I,~ . 11.cClv " "~. \r.f •. ~~ ~""'l . llr'~' .oJI1~!ij '!lJ A __ '~'''IIIU

(I,' . '. c· " . '\ . .. 'U'[ ]I" ·t, .' '(".0:".' .),". 'SI ..... .... ......J'~'II"t~ . '. ~.. .'~ 'II .. , , ... J 'W··· '.' ·t· .... ,'It'i"" 'II ,.m:am'.ifjl or .~I.Sa. 1.,s.tr~,.,OOo.n.u.wJ .. i ,sC.nOO.~. ieve .was a .. ransi .~.o.n'b.

link of Mosque ·8ducaooB., GeJler_~ly 5eaJndlfY' :school level did.

= -'

[as its, b~iiPar [e]u's or to oOIUe,glf, as itJ, elemen'nary ChlSS ,. Primary .SCllOO·:l level was dIe; ildthd period of M:osque :SCh1,CU!JtJ.QO where :Mus:i:i:ms could acquire basic hsl3DTM'~c knowledge, The main task

Copy rig hted m ateri al

and it. was 'taug,'bt bv way oforal teachins. Ofall tbe t'hiree ~eV'e'l:s

-,,_., ~- _ •.. _r._ •.•• ,_,I .• ,J· ~ _I~ ••• -_. - .•• ·, •• ----c, .. ,' I _.r ..• _l_ •.••• I ..•.• _.

of :M:osq.ue E(h:u~:ation; the primary level 'W88, the most popular. In some places sllJI,c,b as S:ha3'F,lxijl '(]a:nIsu,. :N'il1"gx:ia and Qiog;Dllt. the :I.)fi.m~ Mosque Educadon W,~S taken as OOIDPU~SOry:; Lt was a duty of eve;ry :p1ID!nJt't\l send. dle-lr school-age chj]dretll 'Co pri~ sch ~~ ro receive b .·,g~';C·I'··' I·~l,.gI:~'iIC· ~d: Iu' 1~~~ttJ·IO .. I-::', The .po ::'P"'II'I;~:~I~,']!'~:tl·i~lii'. of

il!!\r.l J ,~~, It--'-\.}. , ,-"-~lI, ~ ~ .. ~UIL ,ill o.!J.loUJ. W .. !\r.l oil , . .lil .• ] ,., 0 I. . .ula.!.l.Il_£i_alL ,,,",,.HI U .

':, [I,

several hundred vears, It was one of 'the maiet reasons will'" 'Ute

r.:' ~ _. _ lJ , l '$."3.'.~ •••••...••••. _ •••• 3.,J' ..• 1

Hais and. [other Muslim peoples could adhere to 'tb.e~:r Islamic :faltb,

that tb,e. teachers used, It not only guaranteed ·M.osq.Me :6du.cI!tion. 'to move forward .. smoothly, but also promloted Ule de:ve:l.o:pme;n.t: of the Huis' Islamic ,c:aUigm:pby ,31t, wn'j)c:b developed into a 'Uoique branch Q'~ '~i1"'~[~'iit'~cOnI91'11 £"'9111:i;g··,~r r ;g'p'-rl~l·'('> ,9111.11: '~I1' '] :C.'·hl·r~·ID~I'!jiI~,

U,I, ~~I.I,Y, " ... ~, 111..1. ~..I,. JII,'U,I~lJg_1 "-'A_ , .oIl... ,g. I,. ,1,,1. ~ A., ,I·· .,' l .1.. l ~J.

o ~ !II;:

'~.l

~

""'Ii

lil

Copy rig hted m ateri al

,U'.;!I [~~l

'iM', iosoue "E'" 'd' ucation 'W" "i'iI;'il:'1 eond u' cted ';':'0 the un ~]' r1I'I'~a langu g;IIO"e "., 'u\<)"1_ :', ,- .. " ,Ui,"""",,,. ,iIi,VI",",~ "",,,.\1,111, " ",,-,Il~' , ,11,[,1 (u, ',Iil, "--1,!I.!It'! ••• , ,Ilul:, , ,u'C' '

),'m"'-I,p<t'\j;lril'i,iJ' ~Jd'~ji'~('I,g'~]o~ in in Chinese (.1:0:' the language it uses '~S .... alled

I I ~i!:I""'~~'iO .D, _,,,,,,~"~~ ., ,!~ ~~ .', ,L!l.,~"",,, ~.,.., !LI., ...... ~~~~~~':_' , ..... = _ .. "' ...... g; ,!",_ """'"= "",y,

J' ,';'n"'ai"Qi'nliQ:" Y",,'~'''~):- -~:,"Q'~~I~'O' 'V-I:I ,~,~ ~~, seecial exeression '~'~':i'iI;t'-" O,'I'\D"i!1'IjIi,~'7P~ .~.,~, - 'Dl' -~-.=IJID . ,Yl. ~ ~[I[UIO~IiII=IC' I.u] ,IJ~ g ~lr-IIinl~, ig_l. !\.tA',ro'" .i~r~~~, ~~ ~_II~J.I lllCi~_I~[IJI.iIJ~~

C-:b:·' ' " ,. A'" "L."i and I 'IP'-" -II "~"i," ' ,. 'I" 'i'd' " "..,!.I, 'L" .',' . ~'" 'e- '~,~'~" , ' , , "cc nmese, ,],ra,y,l,e ,0.11[, "erS,I.a,D war, s ano pnrases sn ,'- mnese

pammm- .. It is I, special hUl:,guage 'with unlqne characteristics t)h~.t:

was c;rea'~ed, 'by rhe Chinese Islamic scholars in specific bi~toric~d and ,cld,'turaJ C~~fiCU'llls'tI'rn,,,e8 'ttll develop Islam in, China, which is

..

mUlian" It 'w',as also tJhi,e :fi:rs:l: populMizltic!fl of lslamic '~cr,w,:ptl!J:lie~.'i d.ocuwe amd ,thooll~t~SI, :marklvJ.,g the beglnnlng cf the profound e om ('Jb~~f~ '1]';- atien and extensi 'V';F;i;' exeh an IfJ';::>!' of S~"'~I"~ 1;'Ii;- .A)· rab :C~"~'~1 ~ tu res .

VU •. I! .-_·JllI 19l.11V~.oI, " .. 3'-1 WIl\iI~\r.i!I.~~ll ~~ \i.rA~lJ[1._~11I11Ci~ '.-.,'.] _-,·ll~111!li.:1 [,L'iJ:1Q_-.· .. luJJ_j.!\:rlllllll!ir.r.~=-[1i

'who dev'O't,ed. themselves into Islamlc [cau S~ and elbJcau.on, 'fro;t~red, 'I ilan~~ well-known r slamic scholars and '~lUt ,an end [0

1:.1 • " ~. - ..... ~ • ~ "IY" .. =-=- = I!l _ _. _I!.l = _ ~ _I"":.l=n=f::l ~ _ ':I:l _ -= ~- ~l ~ __ -~. ,I! ~. _ _ _-_ _ ~ I:.l_ ~~ --

tile history 'th.at Islam w~s passed onto the nex,t ,iel1erlltion only

:~~:' '~;-re·:· elder 'O'.~iiJiftoP-iIi"',"1I,t'li~'IjI;~'~, or ,~C·I inst m '1"""~~1",o:,'IIi"'I. C~'t" ~'~:~t, ·'1' '~~Qd: I the 'mi"',.,...v~ilffi"li~il"lit' .' lJl!y !lJl~L ",,~U-!;,i",Ii, eV .... J;Ao,;\Ii, iIiL"I,,,,",U, ~ 'U', QI .u,I_~. . .• '!i;,o[~_ , . ..iU .. .Ji., U,IJI,. _l!llil!l.!o.# ,:tU"""" I. ,IV _ YI:,I:,lt'!i.;',l.!I .. ,

o.f 'tr.;aosl~Jtb:1l; ,and, wd,d:rng scriptures in Chblese~ and changed the [SitUIEioJl [UIE tbe Muslims In emma. w,~re shon, o.fChinese v'ersions

Copy rig hted m ateri al

of Islamic scriptures mild 'the true' spirit of Islam could not 'be rightly :runlerpr-€red,. b hrougbt the mosque's edUCI.nonal ,_:UUllCtio(l1 into p:~:ay ln addition 'to its; religious function, Mosque Bducafoll also 'helped to s'ltengmen the contac~s and exchanges ImQD,I J:illao'

"

Copyngh ed rna erial

~I ~ ~

Fang 81, 'C!),pociwl:y among 'tlle :[S;I"R'mIIC intelleetnals, and enhanced the Islamic conscieusness Olf' othee M'usUms and impn)v',ed, '~'heir

r .' A t

m~l,giaus oonYiUC~.~

T.he, main oe:Otie,rs, of Mos'~llu}e :Ed:uca:ri'o:n were Shaanxi ~ Sbarndomg; ,md. Yunnan,. :N mjtin,g was one of the censers of Mosque

Copy rig hted m ateri al

..

,4~,Mo1Je'me'g.t of Tra:nsla:ti':ng' [.n,d 'Wri',t'i':nl'

Serio ;~J' :1""9'.""' ;.'J?j[ C :J~~ ;n' .... [4:~[. /n:~l,! ,'"r~·:I-:J:~·:jrj/~I~:'J~~,;';';nl'~

'. - .... [f '" r ,1<""!Io";,,l! '-[fl' 0[,,·, .. !Ij!,",' Ii' ",'!f".' ,-I.: "R,,," " ,,[,.... ,.,~_,., ... V [',.

n~ 1:':tj,'1'",.,iK'I :N C·-'-e;I:",;'g,.,

vi' ss l-a , ,[1< ,,",,-;,; I. -,f}['I;. ,,~.

dynasties (the 17th. century)., following Mosque 'Sducatl[oo,!, the movement of translating 91Ud, writing scriptures in 'Chiolese rose

vigorously .A~, all the translators and wri ters a,p~pea'r.[ed in this :pe:ri.od, were wen versed ill four 'm~jOrr ·reUg;~.oIi1~, 'Co\tiJfulcianism· Buddhism Taoism and Islam, H'nd tbey preferred 'to, expound I slam ' ~,If'" doctrine ,~,~ Cenfuc 'l·::~'1j' "'I~'~Iy:.:. s of '~~'ii'I(l"I~:~nlg1'_ ~~I ,ji't' 'i1i1i~91:"", alsn

.~. ,u_ " ,II..... lW"IJ'II.r~_~"lh' ,I.~,"L.. U,LI_ . UJ. ,D,ILI, H' UI_1: ~ v ~_ll.lUJ[I_L_~ _ ,. If. ~~ ,I. iii] U' y~ ~_~,~~

. . -

The me vement of translating a'lJld writing scri ptures In. 'Chinese was divided huo three stages which Itlded. from WalDa:

D;aiyu., Muslim scbola:r in the tf'~Dsit[o:lial perlod, 'be'twe~D, tbe Mina and 'Qin,1 dy.n~!;th~8i~1 and ended w:iJtb. Mo,'L.iat1(Ylli3ill, Muslim seha,I. ftit: m,e end, of the Q.i:n.g DYllas'~yc;. lasthl,g over 'two, hundred

+ ~

+

..

Copy rig hted m ateri al

11 't

W', ", ',",

< e r '=,<no wn

number of wellknow n Islarnic

ir' i'" h 0 ~I ,~ 'riO' ;:0. £I_:,_'I, 'iirn_,' 1 "':,_'~-I,

~ w , ., .', ,~, !ai. ,J. ~ tm LIl.!IJ LW

C'b'

I •• 1' I _,

mn e se

::ill ~,

'.

C The iboo,k.. ... und scriptu res &b,n the Chi 1m, hlami!C A.~StK:'i i.H ion ,n as ]:I uh ~h'ihil:d i ~ revellli }~e\lIJ',~.

hts;tmg iirdluence upon Chinese Muslims and laid a solid meo.r.etie foundation fur the nationalization of Islam, in. China,

The 6n~t stage of 'tile, movement be,g,M wilh the publication

.' ofWaog Daiyu's ~ I Expounding Islam" ~ rig'htt UPI to the eomple tion

.'

of"W:u Znnqi's "Road Leading 100 Islam", In ~bis period of time, the area around ,N,I:n~i:ng and Jiangsa 'wag the center of the movement and tbe ,s'tibjiect. matter was ~:wa:ys closely related to Mosque Educat:ic1:!l1 ;a_:_nd, Dm al-Kalam (theology), The works of

, lids peri,ad were either 'reading boob for :M:osQjue Edueation or a monograph to a, theory:, '\N',wlch, were also read by intellectuals of other 'religions 'who wanted to blOW more about Islam, As a matter of faet all these worKS, borrowed somethlng more or less from Confucianism. and B'udd:bism", brut their Islamic 'naJtnI,e was still

a.

COPYrighted ma nal

obviously demonstrated by t:heir' 8JJ,I'll.ing: and cleba,tinl ~w~lth B,ud.dhism and Taolsm, and. criticizing certain views, of

C···- . 'I~ ~ ... " .

,: _, .. 1 "'I .1' ,;' "i'i' 1',1 .' I 1 ~

. un, UCl~Ull1s:m"

the :fe~f"ef~,ent~llt'vl~ fi,fj;lUir-es Qf' 'this p-.arioo Il1Id thelr w'otb

r' ~ ~

"W' ,,' D-;' ;, 'Iii... 'L.'" I'I-'C, ... , d'" 1- 111 1'1-' i~'I '~I ,i 0'-:-:-1

are" "an 01' _1a:i'\)l'U, 'Wl'm~,i 1.1: S "'ru'Ii)O:t[fl' ~:n'Q1' fh3'm ']~. ""g '~J[mH~: / Ir-e3.'t

.... ~l ~~.-- 'OJ . -',J' .1,] .•••• __ .,_.]1. l,r'" - ,. ---c ... _---- I, .~J .---- .. _" .~.'~~-j.

Learning" and uJRjgh1~ Answers to LTmlh-S:ee'k;emu; Zha~I' :ZJh,Oll~~ with his, "General Knowledge of Islam". "Bssentials of Islsm in

8u,c'h as, :M'I MiIl\fiJ,'ong with, 'RiB, '~P.To Know [Oneself' and 'Wa'Kl6 'Ill(PI

~'; I ''E)", ~,'II'·it·. ,.:H' ~ M,< ~.,~ r J" I' I':· .hi W,'(L ~r ~~"S~' '1" (,'1" I' II .'.: '~,c, '~·'~.'~::I:~'~·': 'JH:" r·t"c . '.'.~' r, ~I ",0 ,f.'\.,eal,( Y 'I'" _ ,I, . , UiIl$,I,II.I,_, 1l.1, II .. IUIS , .. ,.I1I,mm~ry ,0 ,ilJJSdlmlC .u~,nry lD.

Arabia" She 'YW!nsh~n 'with his 1!'f,Zh,RO '¥lUUll ,Mi. Jue", IF':Nl'eces'SiDI'Y Islamic Knowledge" ~ 1.11d, "Tui '¥U~Uij. Zheo,g D~,~!", An t"b,es.e 'wor-ks.

W' .. r'[<;Iior'~~ prepared ,~~or those who were versed in 'CI::-~-n.I~I,~;(!;;]J\~1i'-n.l'ii;,~:-m'l '~'o::"':

. r,;,..,1..... " ~ ,Q!Ii,1[;U ,I,~,I, Ulv~~ ., '_ .. _," ~!lf __ Q _U "~ ~ v,_.~.I!~I"'uQ~.~~~~. ~ !!i.,V

., ~

study Islamic theol,og;~r, and were also useful for ('lrdi:IMy M'IlI:sUms, ttl 8tudy ~~slamic' doctrlne.

scriptures into Chinese beaan from nile time Ma Zhu '[mluil a'fe.d

[j .. ~. .... . •.... ,- 1 •. . . . _ _ [_;. ..• . D~ - . - "... - - J _ I. . _ _ _ _. • . _ _, .,. ~. . •. . _ _ ~ J ~ .. _ 1

'h'l~ i[> '!'!II'~'~ am I ic :: G~J'UlI '~d: e .. b. ·.''IU'1I:'IL.,M to ·~I1..,I;i3J: time lII!1~'-r, en Jin T'llii~~'t(Ii""J!:'b'f:li'1 'Tl"'I~'IOJ~~'~,p;~ ,,!lOll ,i~.ljA, .1. ., . ,.1" . . ,'U'U',ft., 1I...u !Ii.~,b •• IL, ,,,",",,I,LII;;J:u,. J!!L.I, ,.Ii!lilIl!l.LL. !._., ,J!J.!I.1l "~UJ;ol.I!.)I,

'his, n An~,'w'ers, to Doubts Olil I!dllm~;'I~ The, 'm()ivemelIDt 'w',as, 'n,·u~ShBd·

,. - •. ,. - - ~ •.•. ~ 1.. .. - .••. _', .~.".' - • , ." .'~ , - 1._ l •. _.~.~-_-_.~-~~ .' ~~.~. F ~"_",,:, __ ,-=c_.-._.l

til

+

Copy rig hted m ateri al

on ~!LJ:

Liu 'Z" ,j...,; ~I~ 4;1\.;.;;:;.;, 'W' ,"" ost O"'il'ii" .... +.,.'nA':I'I'iII«J" fine l~e 'W' novem 'e,n:t' also extended 'llu, " ~ '~J!iI, w L!U""" , I, 1 '0,,",,' ~~l.G.uWil,ilo 'O.I1.,'W'o, ,I, U~ ",', ,v y ~ " ,~.,ilJ,. [ ,~i.::!V ~i"!li.'\ ,: ,u,cU,

to: ~+~'J.:.e,!I"'p,,':'I' aces, '0, 'l0'it' 0tl[li'lfV be ~11,lr:Ii, 'D' '~'ii,'If\';"Ii, ";;:Ii~:t""':~ '~'n' ~'L, "Jli! area ;g:'I;""i"\'.lllnldTN,'·'~,",'il'l·,n.D' ,,V '\;I'll]! ,\Ii.:, ~,i:!!<, ,I !!iJ.!,l, !!i..!'1I'1I1IJ' ", 'Ji J. lOt ,b,u!,u" ,eu ,11,1, Ui"", 'w, ..... "w,u'I:.IIII.I'" ,~.lIjJII~,

t,,' [L''''' ,"" '{ ected clos '11'·'·i,t'Il.."C'-:"'" 'f"1 ",~'I "iL""" hit1 'TI'h"', obiectof :",0 Ilft;;i coanectea c,l.ose,~,y Wl u,JQ-lll,[iU:';13!11, tnougnes, , .r e oojec 0.1,

.,'t..~: movement \''',''i!)ii~, turn ed t~ th e 1~'I!l' '~~~ld"ljJi; spheres O:,,~ Islam, ~:~p",'l'tji;'Q1' ·~-t~ '_-=-= __ .,,-¥ _- __ - __ ~ _- __ ill 'n ~ I, ~__ _ ~UJ ~v ' ~ v _ 1~_~lI, .!IiP." ~,I.-.~=I~J,L~ .. Jj, lliJ,l!alll.,.I, ,I~I~ ,. _IJ10'

;f.,~ ,,Q;.'nI1i'm, 'I rin ate 0, others ,!'t",~ '111i ~,;~ ,A,~,~ ~ d,",-, '0".' '~I'·I bts of i I ~ "I am ,R'" 'iI['i"d' 1 0," 9::~ n

.l,'Il;,I!! ~,~ .I!".'~'.' ~ I.!I,Q. ~.", !I;.o-. ~ ,iii, ,""I,,I!'Ci',I, V J.1I,Ji3; " 11l.!!",.~ v" OJ! ,~, g, , . , ,1.1" ,I:; u.l J.II,

understanding and support from 'the feudal ruling class and, s cho[u;..oft'lcla1Js,., Thus, the audience and objlee~, of the movement dbM,I~d, from 'tho.se ,either' iII-iterate OF' those 'who only read Islamic sCJi:ptll:res, to 'those who ~{ere, wen versed in, the three :r.[e~~i,gi,o:m:s,. As a result, 'nhe P-IlI'OO Islamic nature of the translated and 'w'l.'iUern,

",~ '. -, ,,'Ii_... ~ ~-~",,-,~ ~ et '~'iiii existence ;Ji,rn=~ '~m' ;I\',!;;ii"p, "'lI,ftd~'1 'Ii,'ii,,'''Jii'~ '1ii'~"n'I:;Cir;,~"~ 'li-...'Olc" 'M;

WOr.iI!i.8, W,3iS, no m ,e~XJ'ILdl j~"", ;R~"Y ,J, .. UO,l!,-~, anu was ,I!,'~.IY~'Q,,",,~U, vy it.

presented dUifli~ ell aracteri sti cs of both F.e'~ i Q'iOl1 S The Isl amic

'= ... _. _.~'~ _._ .~. ~ ,~~.~, ._ ... -~!~~,_ ~~,_ .~r_.\= '_' ~_.' ~ ~ .. _' ._ .. _ l._ , . _ "Ifii _." _,., , "._., rI' , ... -.,.,

but emnhasize d the c om '. mon sroun d betwee 'D." Isl am ~'I"jIi~ ~ u,," """'. ,1"t'U~~;I!.I!.L;_" ~ 1,1 .. ·u·· . ,I, ",V,I,I, iCi,l, '-'I, .. , , ,I ""'11.-" '!;r.. ." ·.'i~;jl, '0" !IOI:,nUl.

:"fii'i(I~O' ~"'ii!)ii 'Z"i'I'~, 'W',,~':'~rt,,'bl I'r,~,~, "Islam ,~,~ .G"IU' I'il:d··~ ebook": L ~'ii'·I'. Zhi, with '~,~~

~l~~l L~VI~ _1.I1'~l' , .. JJ,_. _ .lol=~f~ ,~~I!u, __ I,~. .,.1,. ,'-:- .. u .... ", ,I," .1,1, I[~J _ ,~,!t_,. ,ll~11.1il!

II A'~'~'b.·,~i:gctjl Princinles of '" Natu • :1j'~'H, II A·.··\'Mblii;(:!"t; C erem aonies", "Life ,0.·. "fi"

,~ ,=.it~_ ,I!.Q.I!-I, ,'£l.llu,,,,,,,",~,.~,= , .;;II v .. ' . ~_.I.""" ,. "II,U, .Ji£U:L ........... , •••. l.U"",,",i:l ",d\.. .,'

the Greatest :Prophet ,of All"; Jln LTi3!nibu~ wit'h his "Answers '[0' Doubts ?~I Islam .. n": M~" Bolbln:Q1'. with his '~~,A, S,,)k:,etcb of Islamic

,uuiIJ. ~.i!) Y,U, ,Ilo;, ,""_~ I' - ~R ~ ~ ~ ~~~~iC':Ii ' - - ~~ ~ ~~.,. . - ,. , , . ., - "ill _, ,

Copy rig hted m ateri al

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful