Vitruvius, Book I, Chapter 1 On the training of architects
1. Architecti est scientia pluribus disciplinis et variis eruditionibus ornata, quae ab ceteris artibus perficiuntur. Opera ea nascitur et fabrica et ratiocinatione. Fabrica est continuata ac trita usus meditatio, quae manibus perficitur e materia cuiuscumque generis opus est ad propositum deformationis. Ratiocinatio autem est, quae res fabricatas sollertiae ac rationis proportione demonstrare atque explicare potest. Translation 1. The science of the architect depends upon many disciplines and various apprenticeships which are carried out in other arts. His personal service consists in crafsmanship and technology. Craftsmanship is continued and familiar practice, which is carried out by the hands in such material as is necessary for the purpose of a design. Technology sets forth and explains things wrought in accordance with technical skill and method. 2. Itaque architecti, qui sine litteris contenderant, ut manibus essent exercitati, non potuerunt efficere ut haberent pro laboribus auctoritatem; qui autem ratiocinationibus et litteris solis confisi fuerunt, umbram non rem persecuti videntur. At qui utrumque perdidicerunt, uti omnibus armis ornati citius cum auctoritate, quod fuit propositum, sunt adsecuti. Translation 2. So architects who without culture aim at manual skill cannot gain a prestige corresponding to their labours, while those who trust to theory and literature obviously follow a shadow and not a reality. But those who have mastered both, like men equipped in full armour, soon acquire influence and attain their purpose.
3. Cum in omnibus enim rebus, tum maxime etiam in architectura haec duo insunt, quod significatur et quod significat. Significatur proposita res, de qua dicitur; hanc autem significat demonstratio rationibus doctrinam explicata. Quare videtur utraque parte exercitatus esse debere, qui se architectum profiteatur. Itaque cum etiam ingeniosum oportet esse et ad disciplinam docilem. Neque enim ingenium sine disciplina aut disciplina sine ingenio perfectum artificem potest efficere. Et ut litteratus sit, peritus graphidos, eruditus geometria, historias complures noverit, philosophos diligenter audierit, musicam scierit, medicinae non sit ignarus, responsa iurisconsultorum noverit, astrologiam caelique rationes cognitas habeat. Translation 3. Both in general and especially in architecture are these two things found; that which signifies and that which is signified. That which is signified is the thing proposed about which we speak; that which signifies is the demonstration unfolded in systems and precepts. Wherefore a man who is to follow the architectural profession manifestly needs to have experience of both kinds. He must have both a natural gift and also readiness to learn. (For neither talent without instruction nor instruction without talent can produce the perfect crafsman.) He should be a man of letters, a skilful draughtsman, a mathematiciam, familiar with historical studies, a diligent student of philosophy, acquainted with music; not ignorant of medicine, learned in the responses of jurisconsults, familiar with astronomy and astronomical calculations. 4. Quae cur ita sint, haec sunt causae. Litteras architectum scire oportet, uti commentariis memoriam firmiorem efficere possit. Deinde graphidis scientiam habere, quo facilius exemplaribus pictis quam velit operis speciem deformare valeat. Geometria autem plura praesidia praestat archtecturae; et primum ex euthygrammis circini tradit usum, e quo maxime facilius aedificiorum in arcis expediuntur descriptiones normarumque et librationum et linearum directiones. Item per opticen in aeficiis ab certis regionibus caeli lumina recte ducuntur. Per arithmeticen vero sumptus aedificiorum consummantur, mensurarum rationes explicantur, difficilesque symmetriam quaestiones geometricis rationibus et methodis inveniuntur. Translation 4. The reasons why this should be so are these. An architect must be a man of letters that he may keep a record of useful precedents. By his skill in draughtsmanship he will find it easy by coloured drawings to represent the
effect desired. Mathematics again furnishes many resources to architecture. It teaches the use of rule and compass and thus facilitates the laying out of buildings on their sites by the use of set-squares, levels and alignments. By optics, in buildings, lighting is duly drawn from certain aspects of the sky. By arithmetic, the cost of building is summed up; the methods of mensuration are indicated; while the difficult problems of symmetry are solved by geometrical rules and methods. 5. Historias autem plures novisse oportet, quod multa ornamenta saepe in operibus architecti designant, de quibus argumentis rationem, cur fecerint, quaerentibus reddere debent. Quemadmodum si quis statuas marmoreas muliebres stolatas, quae cariatidis dicuntur, pro columnis in opere statuerit et insuper mutulos et coronas conlocaverit, percontantibus ita reddet rationem. Caria, civitas Peloponnensis, cum Persis hostibus contra Graeciam consensit. Postea Graeci per victoriam gloriose bello liberati communi consilio Caratibus bellum indixerunt. Itaque oppido capto, viris interfectis, civitate declarata matrones eorum in servitutem abduxerunt, nec sunt passi stolas neque ornatus matronales deponere, uti non una triumpho ducerentur, sed aeterno, servitutis exemplo gravi contumelia pressae poenas pendere viderentur pro civitate. Ideo qui tunc architecti fuerunt aedificiis publicis designaverunt earum imagines oneri ferundo conlocatas, ut etiam posteris nota poena peccati Cariatium memoriae traderetur. Translation 5. Architects ought to be famliar with history because in their works often they design many ornaments about which they ought to render an account to inquirers. For example, if anyone in his work sets up, instead of colums, marble statues of long-robed women which are called caryatids, and places mutules and cornices above them, he will thus render an account to inquirers. Caria, a Peloponesian state, conspired with the Persian enemy against Greece. Afterwards the Greeks, gloriously freed from war by their victory, with common purpose went on to declare war on the inhabitants of Caria. The town was captured; the men were killed; the state was humiliated. Their matrons were led away into slavery and were not allowed to lay aside their draperies and ornaments. In this way, and not at one time alone, were they led in triumph. Their slavery was an eternal warning. Insult crushed them. They seemed to pay a penalty for their fellow-citizens. And so the architects of that time designed for public buildings figures of matrons placed to carry burdens; in order that the punishment of the sin of the Cariatid women might be known to posterity and historically recorded.
philosophia explicat. acto cum gloria triumpho spoliorum et praedae.to support the roof. victoriae posteris pro tropaeo constituerunt. that their enemies might quake. 7. Translation 6. Philosophia vero perficit architectum animo magno et uti non sit adrogans. nisi his rebus a philosophis erit institutus. built the Persian Colonnade to signify the merit and courage of the citizens and to be a trophy of victory to their descendants. leget. Incursibus enim et circuitionibus et librata planitie expressionibus spiritus naturales aliter atque aliter fiunt. having conquered with a small force an infinitely large army of Persians. Therefrom many have set up Persian statues to support architraves and their ornament. Pausania Agesilae filio duce. and. quod habet multas et varias naturales quaestiones. sentire non poterit. gloriously celebrated a triumph with spoils and plunder. laudis et virtutis civium indicem. Item qui Ctesibii aut Archimedis et ceterorum. and their fellow-citizens looking upon a pattern of manhood might by such glory be roused and prepared for the defence of freedom. quarum notitiam architectos tenere oporteat. Quam necesse est studiosius novisse. There are also other narratives of the same kind with which architect should possess acquaintance. nisi qui ex philosophia principia rerum naturae noverit.
. sed cum gravitate suam tueatur dignitatem bonam famam habendo. nullum enim opus vere sine fide et castitate fieri potest. Not less the Spartans under the command of Pausanias. Plataeeo proelio pauca manu infinitum numerum exercitus Persarum cum superavissent. son of Agesilas. Ibique captivorum simulacra barbarico vestis ornatu. ut et hostes horrescerent timore eorum fortitudinis effectus. quae graece physiologia dicitur. aequus et fidelis. Itaque ex eo multi statuas Persicas sustinentes epistylia et ornamenta eorum conlocaverunt. This motive has supplied for their works some striking variations.6. Non minus Lacones. sed potius facilis. et haec enim philosophia praescribit. et cives id exemplum virtutis aspicientes gloria erecti ad defendendam libertatem essent parati. et ita ex eo argumento varietates egregias auxerunt operibus. Item sunt aliae eiusdem generis historiae. ne sit cupidus neque in muneribus accipiendis habeat animum occupatum. Praeterea de rerum natura. superbia meritis contumeliis punita. fearing the workings of such bravery. quod est maximum. from the booty.punishing their pride with deserved insults . There they placed statues of their captives in barbaric dress . quorum offensionibus mederi nemo poterit. qui eiusdem generis praecepta conscripserunt. porticum Percisam ex manubiis. sustinentia tectum conlocaverunt. sine avaritia. Ut etiam in aquarum ductionibus.
sonitum et discrimina ad symphonias
. scorpionum temperaturas possit recte facere. And these ropes are not shut off nor tied up. and what is the most important. Let him not be greedy nor have his mind busied with acquiring gifts. Bracchia enim. they will hinder the straight direction of the missiles. So also the man who read the works of Ctesibius or Archimedes and of others who have written manuals of the same kind will not be able to perceive their meaning. And such are the injunctions of philosophy. a subject which it is necessary to have studied carefully because it presents many different problems. Translation 8. 8. catapultarum. explains the 'nature of things' (and this in Greek is physiologia). quae in eas tentiones includuntur. fair-minded. Musicen autem sciat oportet. 9. unless he has been instructed herein by philosophers.Translation 7. per quae tenduntur suculis et vectibus e nervo torti funes. A man must know music that he may have acquired the acoustic and mathematical relations and be able to carry out rightly the adjustments of balistae. quae in cellis sub gradibus mathematica ratione conlocantur quae Graeci echeia appellant. But if they do not give an equal note. nisi sonitus ad artificis aures certos et aequales fecerunt. in the case of water-supply. qui non praecluduntur nec praeligantur. Philosophy. Philosophy. cum extenduntur. uti canonicam rationem et mathematicam notam habeat. In capitulis enim dextra ac sinistra sunt foramina hemitoniorum. without avarice. Item theatris vasa aerea. where there are channels or bends or where water is forced along on a levelled plane. makes the architect high-minded. unless they make clear and equal sounds in the ear of the craftsman. and the difficulties which they cause cannot be remedied by anyone unless he has learnt from philosopy the principles of the nature. so that he should not be arrogant but rather urbane. ought to furnish an impetus evenly and alike on either side. aequaliter et pariter utraque plagam mittere debent. quodsi non homotona fuerint. however. loyal. catapultae and scorpiones. for no work can be truly done without good faith and clear hands. but let him with seriousness guard his dignity by keeping good name. as. For the arms which are shut up under those strains. for example. natural air-pockets are produced in different ways. praeterea balistarum. inpendient directam telorum missionem. when they are stretched out. moreover. For in the crossbeams on right and left are holes of 'half-tones' through wich ropes twisted out of thongs are stretched by windlasses and levers. For in the case of watercourses.
also. The watersupply. and other related matters. quae eiusmod sunt. Again. Ex astrologia autem cognoscitur oriens. sine his enim rationibus nulla salubris habitatio fieri potest. he must know the art of medicine in its relation to the regions of the earth (which the Greeks call climata). and to the characters of the atmosphere. Translation 9. of water-supply. occidens. are copper vessels and these are placed in chambres under the rows of seats in accordance with mathematical reckoning. precautions may be taken. no dwelling can be regarded as healthy. The differences of the sounds which arise are combined into musical symphonies or concords: the circle of seats being divided into fourths and fifths and the octave. et aeris et locorum. Disciplinam medicinae novisse oportet propter inclinationem caeli. uti ante caveant quam instituant aedificia. of localities (wholesome or pestilential). aquarum ductiones et cetera. aequinoctium. ea quae necessaria sunt aedificiis communibus parietum ad ambitum stillicidiorum et cloacarum. meridies. in writing the
. Again. In theatres. Item. Or again. etiam caeli ratio. quorum notitiam si quis non habuerit. qui sunt salubres aut pestilentes. Hydraulicas quoque machinas et cetera. also. He must be familiar with the rights or easements which necessarily belong to buildings with party walls. astrorum cursus. septentrio. it becomes fuller. nota oportet sint architectis. before building is begun. sine musicis rationibus efficere nemo poterit. Hence. namque si lex perite fuit scripta. and reaches the audience with a richer and sweeter note. if the delivery of the actor from the stage is adapted to these contrivances. Translation 10. aquarumque usus. aucta cum incremento clarior et suavior ad spectarorem perveniat aures. luminum. 10. quae Graeci climata dicunt. ne controversiae factis operibus patribus familiarum relinquantur. as regards the range of eaves-droppings. The Greeks call them echeia. Iura quoque nota habeat oportet. For apart from these considerations. horologiorum rationem omnino scire non poterit. lest on completion of the works the proprietors should be involved in disputes. no one who lacks knowledge of music can make water-engines or similar machines. when it reaches them. so that. drains and lighting. uti vox scaenici sonitus conveniens in dispositionibus tactu cum offenderit. quae sunt similia his organis. ought to be familiar to architects. erit ut sine captione uterque ab utroque liberetur.musicas sive concentus componuntur divisa in circinatione diatessaron et diapente et disdiapason. et ut legibus scribendis prudentia cavere possit et locatori et conductori. solstitium.
encyclios enim disciplina uti corpus unum ex his membris est composita. careful regard is to be paid both to the employer and to the contractor. and by that circumstance more
. the equinox. it is perceived that all studies are related to one another and have points of contact. being trained generally in the knowledge of arts and the sciences. so great a profession as this is adorned by and abounds in. et ea re facilius omnia cognoscunt. Translation 12. omnibus litteris agnoscunt easdem notas communicationemque omnium disciplinarum. either party may be released from his obligations to the other. the west. Since. Translation 11. quam qui singulas res suis industriis et exercitationibus ad summam claritatem perduxerunt. 11. therefore. Itaque qui a teneris aetatibus eruditionibus variis instruuntur. without raising of captious objections. For a general education is put together like one body from its members. ait in suis commentariis architectum omnibus artibus et doctrinis plus oportere posse facere. the south and the north. qui Prieni aedem Minervae nobiliter est architectatus. varied and numerous accomplishments. the solstice. also the order of the heavens. I think that only these persons can forthwith justly claim to be architects who from boyhood have mounted by the steps of these studies and. For if anyone is unfamiliar with these. Ideoque de veteribus architectis Pythius. have reaches the temple of architecture at the top. 12. they will easily believe it can happen. he will fail to understand the construction of clocks. But perhaps it will seem wonderful to inexperienced persons that human nature can master and hold in recollection so large a number of subjects. Cum ergo tanta haec disciplina sit. fieri posse faciliter credent. By astronomy we learn the east. however. When. For if the specification is carefully written. Cum autem animadverterint omnes disciplinas inter se coniunctionem rerum et communicationem habere. nisi qui ab aetate puerili his gradibus disciplinarum scandendo scientia plerarumque litterarum et artium nutriti pervenerint ad summum templum architecturae. non puto posse iuste repente profiteri architectos. condecorata et abundans eruditionibus variis ac pluribus. the course of the planets. So those who from tender years are trained in various studies recognise the same characters in all the arts and see the intercommunication of all disciplines. Ac fortasse mirum videbitur inperitis hominibus posse naturam tantum numerum doctrinarum perdiscere et memoria continere.specifications.
And. but few throughout the ages have scarcely attained renown. who was the designer of the noble temple of Minerva at Priene. sed in is non inperitus. who has to be skilled in several arts. Therefore. by their industry and experience. have advanced individual arts to the highest renown. quemadmodum potest architectus. nor in other sciences excelling in a singular manner. no sculptor like Myron or Polyclitus. nec plastes quemadmodum Myron seu Polyclitus. sed non aniatrologicus. sed graphidos non inperitus. sed non amusos. non efficiunt. no painter like Apelles. non id ipsum mirum et magnum facere. why should not an architect. ut habeant omnes summum laudis principatum. nec pictor ut Apelles. 13.easily acquire general information. yet not unskilled with his pencil. yet not without culture. even those who severally possess the qualities of the craftsman do not all succeed in reaching supreme mastery. since in each art. qui pluribus artibus debet esse peritus. Non enim in tantis rerum varietatibus elegantias singulares quisquam consequi potest.
. uti fuerit Aristarchus. sed etiam ipsi qui privatim proprietates tenent artium. Non enim debet nec potest esse architectus grammaticus.nec musicus ut Aristoxenus. because it scarcely falls into his power to acquire and understand their methods. Translation 13. Ergo si in singulis doctrinis singuli artifices neque omnes sed pauci aevo perpetuo nobilitatem vix sunt consecuti. Nec tamen non tantum architecti non possunt in omnibus rebus habere summum effectum. quod earum ratiocinationes cognoscere et percipere vix cadit in potestatem. Yet while architects are thus not able in every art to achieve the highest perfection. not all. For in so great a variety of things no one can in every case attain minute perfection. nec in ceteris doctrinis singulariter excellens. yet not unskilled in medicine. ne quid ex his indigeat. yet not without knowledge of music. sed etiam ut omnes artifices artifices qui singulis doctrinis adsiduitatem cum industria summa praestiterunt? Translation 14. one of the old architect Pythius. sed non agrammatus. yet not ignorant of the plastic art. no musician like Aristoxenus. yet in these not unskilled. sed rationis plasticae non ignarus. 14. For an architect ought to be and can be no critic like Aristarchus. sed denuo medicus ut Hippocrates. single craftsmen. therefore. says in his Commentaries that an architect ought to be able to do more in all arts and sciences than those who. nor in fine a physician like hippocrates.
item in organo non medicus sed musicus modulabitur. is proper to those who are trained in the several arts. the execution of the work. alterum commune cum omnibus doctis. uti. Likewise there is a question common to astronomers and musicians about the sympathy of the stars and of the concords. ut aures suae cantionibus recipiant iucunditatem. ut si vulnus mederi aut aegrum eripere de periculo oportuerit. which in Greek is called logos
. ex opere et eius ratiocinatione. uti medicis et musicis et de venarum rythmo ad pedem motus. if a man has to heal a wound or to rescue a sick man out of danger. qui proprie una arte ad faciendum sunt instituti. eas quae necessariae sunt ad architecturam. the other. Operum vero ingressus qui manu aut tractationibus ad elegantiam perducuntur. ne deficiatur. ipsorum sunt. So also in the case of a musical instrument. but it will be the special work of a physician. non accedet musicus. ex his autem unum proprium esse eorum qui singulis rebus sunt exercitati. quod non animadvertit ex duabus rebus singulas artes esse compositas. namely theory.count it a fine achievement if he is not deficient in anything belonging to them? How can he hope for so great and remarkable a thing as to surpass craftsmen who have assidiously and with the greatest industry applied themselves to single employment? 15. id est rationem. a musician and not a physician will be in control so that one's ears may receive the sweetness of a song. sed id ipsos proprium erit medici. ceterisque omnibus doctrinis multae res vel omnes communes sunt dumtaxat ad disputandum. Similiter cum astrologis et musicis est disputatio communis de sympathia stellarum et symphoniarum in quadratis et trigonis diatessaron et diapente. Ergo satis abunde videtur fecisse qui ex singulis doctrinis partes et rationes earum mediocriter habet notas. 16. it is not the musician who will come. craftsmanship. Translation 16. For example. fourths and fifths. a geometris de visu qui graece logos opticos appellatur. Of these the one. si quid de his rebus et artibus iudicare et probare opus fuerit. is shared with educated persons. id est operis effectus.craftsmanship and the theory of it. Therefore in this matter Pythius seems to have erred because he failed to perceive that the several arts are composed of two things . namely. Igitur in hac re Pythius errasse videtur. Translation 15. Physician and musician alike deal with the rythm of the pulse and the movement of the feet. and geometers treat about vision. in quadrants and triangles.
Eratostenes Cyrenaeus. retentiveness that they can be thoroughly familiar with geometry. memoriae. Itaque faciliter contra eas disciplinas disputare possunt. And thus they can easily dispute about those subjects because they are armed with the weapons provided by their studies. go beyond the duties of an architect and are to be regarded as mathematicians. Caesar. Hi autem inveniuntur raro.opticos. Apollonius Pergaeus. 17. musicen ceterasque disciplinas penitus habere notas. music and other studies. Such men. qui multas res organicas. however. he seems to have done quite enough who in the several arts is moderately familiar with the branches and methods which are necessary to architecture. Archimedes and Scopinas from Syracuse. acuminis. Eratosthenes of Cyrene. are in common so far as theory is concerned. ignoscatur. They have left to after times many treatise on machinery and clocks. De artis vero potestate quaeque insunt in ea rationcinationes polliceor. 18. si quid parum ad regulam artis grammaticae fuerit explicatum. Cum ergo talia ingenia ab naturali sollertia non passim cunctis gentibus sed paucis viris habere concedatur. or indeed all. officium vero architecti omnibus eruditionibus debeat esse exercitatum. Therefore. his voluminibus non modo aedificantibus sed etiam omnibus sapientibus cum maxima auctoritate me sine dubio praestaturum.
. We can point to Aristarchus of Samos. so that he is not at a loss when it is necessary to judge and test any work done in these other departments and trades. quod pluribus telis disciplinarum sunt armati. Translation 17. in which mathematics and natural laws are used to discover and explain. are rarely met. astrologiam. qui ea volumina sunt lecturi. But those individuals on whom nature has bestowed so much skill. ut. Quibus vere natura tantum tribuit sollertiae. Philolaus and Archytas of Tarentum. acumen. astronomy. et ratio propter amplitudinem rei permittat non iuxta necessitatem summas sed etiam mediocris scientias habere disciplinarum. Namque non uti summus philosophus nec rhetor disertus nec grammaticus summis rationibus artis exercitatus. or technical methods. sed ut architectus his litteris inbutus haec nisus sum scribere. ut aliquando fuerunt Aristarchus Samius. praetereunt officia architectorum et efficiuntur mathematici. uti spero. Archimedes et Scopinas ab Syracusis. ut possint geometriam. thus throughout all the sciences many things. peto. belongs to those who have been specially trained to work in a single trade. But the taking up of work which is finely executed by hand. Apollonius of Perga. Philolaus et Archytas Tarentini. et a te et ab is. gnomonicas numero naturalibusque rationibus inventas atque explicatas posteris reliquerunt.
Skilful draughtsman (sentence 4): The architect must be able to make the necessary designs to complete the work. in view of the scope of the matter.10) the benefits of these knowledges for an architect are further elaborated: Man of letters (sentence 4): The architect must read what has been written before him and he must be able to keep records of his own work. to have such genius owing to their natural endowment. See sentence 3: 'He should be a man of letters.Translation 18. but only to few individuals. Throughout the text Vitruvius gives an impressive enumeration of the fields of knowledge which an architect should master. Yet reason. nor as a scholar practised in the best methods of literary criticism. as need demands. I hope and undertake to expound them with assured authority. a skilful draughtsman. For it is not as a lofty thinker. a mathematician. not ignorant of medicine. COMMENT In my opinion this is a very important chapter. familiar with historical studies. learned in the responses of jurisconsults. a diligent student of philosophy. At the same time te architect in his work ought to be practised in all accomplishments. to have a complete. nor as an eloquent speaker. Familiar with historical studies (sentences 5-6): to illustrate this Vitruvius gives immediatly an elaborate digression about the origin of the caryatids (see
. a fixed modulus from which all the measures of the different parts can be deduced. In the third place the architect must fix the different proportions of a building starting from. Hence I beg your Highness and the other readers of these volumes to pardon any explanation that too little agrees with the rules of the literary art. acquainted with music. because it gives an insight in things ancient architects should know. not only to persons engaged in building but also to the learned world. In the second place the architect must reckon the prize of a building. Yet it is not granted to nations as a whole. Therefore he must have in mind the most important literature about architecture. familiar with astronomy and astronomical calculations. knowledge of the various subjects involved. does not permit us. But in respect to the meaning of my craft and the principles which it involves. as we shall see later. that I have striven to write the present treatise. but as an architect who has a mere tinge of these things. In the following sentences (4 . Mathematician (sentence 4): here mathematics are seen from different points of view: The plans must be drawn in correct proportions and in the same time the architect must be a land surveyor. but only a moderate.
catapultae and scorpiones is tested by the sound produced by the thigthened ropes. as described by Philo of Alexandria. I think that his reference to history is also a consequence of the final aim of the De Architectura: to give a compendium of the current architectural practice with his roots in the past and avoiding any innovation. and strongly abbreviated description of acoustics in theatres. Further knowledge of music helps in defining the acoustics in theatres and is necessary for the construction of water organs (see book X). Acquainted with music (sentence 8-9): Here his career as war engineer comes to the foreground: the efficiency of balistae. in the second he refers to the ancient physiology. In the first Vitruvius refers to a way of living based on the Stoic principles. Vitruvius in history The work of Vitrivius is the only complete handbook about architecture that was written in antiquity. Meanwhile he already gives a lot of references to topics that he will elaborate during the Ten Books. Indeed. We will find a full description of this problem in book V. Not ignorant of medicine (sentence 10): This helps in fixing the location and orientation of a building. to the time he was war engineer under Julius Caesar in sentence 8 where he describes the utility of music in architecture. where he describes the profit of 'Physilogia' in the construction of aquaducts. we find references to the period he was supervisor of the aquaducts in sentence 7. For the different sciences an architect must know he gives examples which will be later worked out. Reading this fragment I was thinking Vitruvius was telling us in the same time how he became an architect. clolesy linked to Stoicism. So can we read in sentence 9 a rather puzzling. In this chapter we can find already a reference to this series of publications in sentence 12 where he refers to the temple of Minerva (Athena) at Priene built by Pythius who subsequently
. Familiar with astronomy and astronomical calculation (sentence 10): this is a reference to book IX which is about clocks and dials. Before him there were a lot of monographies concerning one building or a specifical technique. Learned in the responses of jurisconsults (sentence 10): The architect must know all about the legal prescriptions about building practice to defend his client against all possible objections from neighbours or possible creditors. especially in the construction of artillery. Diligent student of philosophy (sentence 7): here philosophy is understood in two totally different ways. Archimedes and many others who were in the first place physicians and not philosophers. Ctesibius.below).
It teaches the use of rule and compass and thus facilitates the laying out of buildings on their sites by the use of set-squares. the cost of building is summed up': the architect must make an estimation of the costs of the building. levels and alignments': after the approval of the coloured drawing the final plans are made. It was restricted to a description of architectural practises and techniques in his days without trying to innovate. Sentence 10: 'Again.
. During this proces the architect must be fully aware of the exact location of his building. Sentence 4: 'By arithmetic. Only Vitruvius mentions it and so does also Pliny who gives a puzzling description of this temple. made with rule and compass.wrote a monography on this building. Unfortunately this text is lost. careful regard is to be paid both to the employer and to the contractor': apart from the estimation the architect had also to write an elaborate 'cahier de charge' in which the materials and their qualifications and the building techniques were carefully desribed. disapprove or give some remarques on. Although he knew what was written before and he himself was a practising architect. There we can see how Vitruvius was a man of study and that he was able to obtain the literature produced before him. the work he wrote had not the intention to introduce novelties in this field. Let's try to put these fragments together and understand them: Sentence 4: 'An architect must be a man of letters that he may keep record of useful precedents': Every planning process begins with a reflection on the history of building. It means probably that he had to sum up prizes of materials and labour to give the employer an exact idea of the final prize of the building he ordered. Sentence 4: 'Mathematics again furnishes many resources to architecture. So this drawings are made after having taken the exact measurements of the building site. The Ten Books of Vitruvius remained the standard until 1486 when Leon Battista Alberti wrote his 'De re aedicificatoria libri decem' which on his turn was the base for a lot of later theoretical works about architecture. A full enumeration of the sources Vitruvius used in this work is given in the preface of book VII. Sentence 4: 'By his skill in draughtsmanship he will find it easy by coloured drawings to represent the effect desired': the first plans and drawings are made. This is a kind of prefiguration which the employer can approve. These are real plans as we understand it today. The planning process in ancient architecture Through this whole chapter we can find out the way architects were working. in writing the specifications. These serve to make people understand how the future building will look.
as the text now would suggest. We must be aware of the fact that also the meaning of the word 'capitulis' can be discussed. But here too the text seems to be corrupt.C. writing 'chapiteaux'. dating 1684. homotoniorum meaning 'springs with equal strength'.555 B. played in Asia Minor in the 6th century B. suggests to replace the word 'hemitoniorum' by 'homotoniorum'. A further discussion on balistics is given by Vitruvius in his book X. It is about a dispute between the inhabitants of Cnidos. We do not know which town is meant with 'Caria'. I propose to translate as follows 'For in the head (of the engine) are holes on the right and the left for equal springs through which ropes..'. a town in the province Caria (Ionian coast). This can cause some problems in the translation. further. Vitruvius and history Another interesting fragment in this chapter is the attempt of Vitruvius to relate the origin of the use of caryatids instead of columns to historic events. the history Vitruvius refers to. The insertion 'civitas Peloponnensis' is possibly not of Vitruvius' hand but from a medieval copyist... Indeed. we relate 'homotoniorum' to the original Greek word 'tonos' which means 'spring' we can try another translation of this sentence. and some surrounding municipalities. There appear for the first time statues of women instead of columns.'.This document had effect to both parties involved: the employer and the contractor: the contractor could know how he had to work and the employer had a reference if the contractor was making faults. The main problem I met in this fragment is in sentence 8: 'for in the crossbeams on right and left are holes 'of half-tones' (hemitonia) through wich ropes. Linguistical problems In the matter of linguistics we notice that Vitruvius had clearly a profound knowlegde of Greek literature on architecture because he frequently uses words derived from Greek when he comes to technical terminology.. and had nothing to do with the Persian wars. If. After the victory the Cnidians constructed a treasury at the famous oracle of Delphi around 565 . From this building
. The French translation by Claude Perrault. In the English translation of Frank Granger we find 'crossbeams'. Adopting this version the text becomes much more understandable.C. From this we can understand 'capitulis' as the main superstructure of balistic engines. We can find this interpretation also in a recent Dutch translation by Ton Peters (1997). The meaning of this hemitonia is not clear and through the ages there have been some discussion on it. It is this building that Vitruvius had in mind when giving his history on the origin of Caryatids. Perrault makes it easy with a litteral French interpretation of the word.
Ichnographia est circini regulaeque modice continens usus. CHAPTER 2.only ruins remain. known as 'Periegesis Hellados'. On what things architecture consists
1. Orthographia autem est erecta frontis imago modiceque picta
. and of proportion and symmetry and decor and distribution which is called oeconomia. There is also a figure of Artemisia.'
VITRUVIUS. et ex dispositione. Architectura autem constat ex ordinatio. orthografia. On the pillars are white-marble figures of Persians. quae graece taxis dicitur. Now architecture consists of order. Dispositio autem est rerum apta conlocatio elegansque conpositionibus effectus cum qualitate. including Mardonius. The other building Vitruvius mentions has completely disappeared. 2. daughter of Lygdamis and queen of Halicarnassos. et eurythmia et symmetria et decore et distributione quae graeceoeconomia dicitur. BOOK I. Species dispositionis. sunt hae: ichnographia. e qua capiuntur formarum in solis arearum descriptiones. Ordinatio est modica membrorum operis commoditas separatim universique proportionis ad symmetriam comparatio. We only know it from a description of Pausanias who wrote around 170 A. chapter XI we can read: 'The most striking feature in the market-place is the portico which they call Persian because is was made from spoils taken in the Persian wars. quae graece dicuntur ideae. quae graece posotes dicitur. a guidebook for Greek tourists about towns and places in Greece. scaenographia. Quantitas autem est modulorum ex ipsius operis sumptio e singulisque membrorum partibus universi operis conveniens effectus. Translation 1. which the Greeks name diathesis. hanc autem Graeci diathesin vocitant. In the museum at Delphi fragments of the caryatids are conserved.D. Haec conponitur ex quantitate. which in Greek is called taxis. In course of time they have altered it until it is as large and as splendid as it is now. son of Gobryas. In his book III. and of arrangement.
Such are the outlines of arrangement. et ad summam omnia respondent suae symmetriae. Ichnography (plan) demands the competent use of compass and rule.These three arise from imagination and invention. as to the whole. by these plans are laid out upon the site provided. Inventio autem est quaestionum obscurarum explicatio ratioque novae rei vigore mobili reperta. Hae nascuntur ex cogitatione et inventione. and the correspondence of all lines to the vanishing point. 3. scenography (perspective). This is attained when the details of the work are of a height suitable to their breadth.rationibus operis futuri figura. and the suitable effect of the whole work arising from the several subdivisions of the parts. of a breadth suitable to their length. is the solution of obscure problems. Imagination rests upon the attention directed with minute and observant fervour to the charming effect proposed. arising from this assemblage. Orthography (elevation). and an figure slightly tinted to show the lines of the future work. the elegant effect of the work and his dimensions. when everything has a symmetrical correspondence. in a word. This is made up of dimension wich in Greek is called posotes. Order is the balanced adjustment of the details of the work separately. Now dimension is the taking of modules from the parts of the work. Haec efficitur. and. is the fit assemblage of details. Item scaenographia et frontis et laterum abscendentium adumbratio ad circinique centrum omnium linearum responsus. Eurythmia est venusta species commodusque in conpositionibus membrorum aspectus. latitudinis ad longitudinem. however. Translation 2. Cogitatio est cura studii plena et industriae vigilantiaeque effectus propositi cum voluptate. cum membra operis convenientia sunt altitudinis ad lititudinem. along with a certain quality of character. the arrangement of the proportion with a view to a symmetrical result. however. Invention. the treatment of a new undertaking disclosed by an active intelligence. orthography (elevation). however. and. The kinds of the arrangement (which in Greek are called ideae) are these: ichnography (plan). is the vertical image of the front. Hae sunt terminationes dispositionum. Arrangement. which is the centre of a circle. Translation 3.
. Scenography (perspective) also is the shading of the front and the retreating sides. the suitable display of details in their context. Proportion implies a graceful semblance.
ballistae foramine. horum enim deorum et species et effectus in aperto mundo atque lucenti praesentes vidimus. Proserpinae. from cubit. quod et ab severo more doricorum et ab teneritate corinthiorum temperabitur eorum institutio proprietatis. Dianae. Iunoni. Fonti Lumphis corinthio genere constitutae aptas videbantur habere proprietates. his enim diis propter virtutem sine deliciis aedificia constitui decet. quae dipechyaia dicitur. Convention is obeyed when buildings are put up in the open and hypethral to Jupiter of the Lightning. Libero Patri ceterisque diis qui eadem sunt similitudine. Decor demands the faultless ensemble of a work composed. of approved details. Translation 4. foot. in sacred buildings. As in the human body. so also the calculation of symmetries. Minervae et Marti et Herculi aedes doricae fient. palmo. or a triglypf. so is it in the completed building. navibus interscalmio. by the space between the rowlocks in a ship which is called dipechyaia. seu consuetudine aut natura. the correspondence of each given detail to the form of the design as a whole. Uti in hominis corpore e cubito. quod his diis propter teneritatem graciliora et florida foliisque et volutis ornata opera facta augere videbuntur iustum decorem. to Heaven. palm. in accordance with precedent. quod Graeci peritretron vocitant. item ceterorum operum e membris invenitur symmetriarum ratiocinatio. Et primum in aedibus sacris aut e columnarum crassitudinibus aut triglypho aut etiam embatere. Statione. si aedes ionicae construentur. Veneri. It obeys convention. inch and other small parts comes the symmetric quality of eurhythmy. either from the thickness of colums. digito ceterisque particulis symmetros est eurythmiae qualitas. of a balista by the perforation which the Greeks call peritreton. Item symmetria est ex ipsius operis membris conveniens consensus ex partibusque separatis ad universae figurae speciem ratae partis responsus. pede. both te appearance and effect we see present
. sic est in operum perfectionibus. is found from the details. habita erit ratio mediocritatis. the Sun. in the case of other works. quod graece thematismo dicitur. for of these gods. Decor autem est emendatus operis aspectus probatis rebus conpositi cum auctoritate. 5. or custom or nature. Florae. Translation 5. First. the Moon. Symmetry also is the appropriate harmony arising out of the details of the work itself. or the module. Is perficitur statione. which in Greek is called thematismos. cum Iovi Fulguri et Caelo et Soli et Lunae aedificia sub divo hypaethraque constituentur.4.
for to these goddesses. triglyphs are applied. spirals and volutes will seem to gain a just decor. on account of their gentleness. or if with voluted capitals and Ionic entablatures. decor is thus expressed. Proserpina. buildings ought to be erected without embellishments. For if the interior apartments present an elegant appearance. Doric temples will be built. they will not be accompanied by fitness. Translation 6. works constructed with slighter proportions and adorned with flowers. cum aedificiis interioribus magnificis item vestibula convenientia et elegantia erunt facta. account will be taken of their middle quality. uti ex natura loci maiores auctasque cum dignitate divinitas excipiat opiniones. in quibus fana constituantur. for to these gods. Again.
. if. Si enim interiora prospectus habuerint elegantes. Cum enim ex pestilenti in salubrem locum corpora aegra translata fuerint et e fontibus salubribus aquarum usus subministrabuntur. aditus autem humiles et inhonestos.in the open. 7. si primum omnibus templis saluberrimae regiones aquarumque fontes in his locis idonei eligentur. Flora. Mars and Hercules. Ad consuetudinem autem decor sic exprimitur. Item si doricis epistyliis in coronis denticuli sculpentur aut in pulvinatis columnis et ionicis epistyliis (capitulis) exprimentur triglyphi. characteristics are transferred from one style to another: the work as a whole will jar upon us. non erunt cum decore. celerius convalescent. the world of light. translatis ex alia ratione proprietatibus in aliud genus operis offendetur aspectus aliis ante ordinis consuetudinibus institutis. Temples designed in the Corinthian style will seem to have details suited to Venus. et eorum deorum quorum plurimi medicinis aegri curari videntur. because of their might. since it includes details foreign to the order. Saluti. Diana and Father Bacchus. With reference to fashion. dentils are carved on the cornices. pinacothecis et quibus certis luminibus opus est partibus. 6. Naturalis autem decor sic erit. a septentrione. and the other gods who are of the same likeness. if Ionic temples are erected. To Juno. in Doric entablatures. deinde maxime Aesculapio. Fountains. si cubiculis et bybliothecis ab oriente lumina capiuntur. quod ea caeli regio neque exclaratur neque obscuratur solis cursu sed est certa inmutabilis die perpetuo. Item naturae decor erit. Ita efficietur. while the approaches are low and uncomely. foliage. Nymphs. when to magnificent interiors vestibules also are made harmonious and elegant. To Minerva. balneis et hibernaculis ab occidente hiberno. because the determinate character of their temples will avoid the severe manner of the Doric and the softer manner of the Corinthian.
the architect does not require what can only be supplied and prepared at great cost. aliter beatis et
. the transport of them may be difficult and costly. Also there will be natural seemliness if light is taken from the east for bedrooms and libraries. Now where there is no quarry sand we must use washed river or sea sand. aliter quibus ex possessiones rusticis influunt fructus. Translation 8. 9. 8. ulmo. Distributio autem est copiarum locique commoda dispensatio parcaque in operibus sumptus ratione temperatio. however. inopiae quoque abietis aut sappinorum vitabuntur utendo cupresso. for baths and winter apartments. in the first place. quae non potuerunt inveniri aut parari nisi magno. Utendum autem est. For it is not everywhere that there is a supply of quarry sand or hewn stone. non idem feneratoribus. elm. poplar. Haec ita observabitur. secondly and especially for Aesculapius and Salus. si primum architectus ea non quaeret. So will it happen that the divinity (from the nature of the site) will gain a greater and higher reputation and authority. Different things are found in different places. Distribution or economy. for picture galleries and the apartments which need a steady light. reliquaque his similiter erunt explicanda. Namque aliter urbanas domos oportere constitui videtur. and the thrifty and the wise control of expense in the works. or fir or deal or marble. is the suitable disposal of supplies and the site.Translation 7. pinu. This will be guarded if. from the wintry sunset. populo. sed aliud alio loco nascitur. from the north. if for all temples there shall be chosen the most healthy sites with suitable springs in those places in which shrines are to be set up. they will more quickly recover. ubi non est harena fosica. Namque non omnibus locis harenae fossicae nec caementorum nec abietis nec sappinorum nec marmoris copia est. pine. For when sick persons are moved from a pestilent to a healthy place and the water supply is from wholesome fountains. Alter gradus erit distributionis. There will be a natural decor: first. the need for fir or deal will be met by using cypress. fluviatica aut marina lota. and generally for those gods by whose medical power sick persons are manifestely healed. because that quarter of the heaven is neither illumined nor darkened by the sun's course but is fixed unchangeable throughout the day. other difficulties will be solved in alike fashion. cum ad usum patrum familiarum et ad pecuniae copiam aut ad eloquentiae dignitatem aedificia alte disponentur. quorum conportationes difficiles sunt et sumptuosae.
et omnino faciendae sunt aptae omnibus personis aedificiorum distributiones.symmetria) are derived directly from Greek sources: Vitruvius
. as a native Latin speaker. distributio. In this text we meet for the first time one of the major difficulties of Vitruvius: he. after his Latin 'invention' the Greek word in a Latin transcription. eurythmia. until now. not the same for financiers. This is the only place in the whole ten books where Vitruvius is concerned with aesthetics. in another way for persons whose income arises from country estates. In the rest of the work architecture is reduced to a play of proportions based on fixed moduli. Translation 9.dispositio eurythmia . It deals with aesthetics of architecture. For manifestly houses should be arranged in one way in towns. symmetria. by whose ideas the state is governed. however. To make his point clear he gives. quorum cogitationibus respublica gubernaretur. in another way for the wealthy men of taste. And generally the distribution of buildings is to be adapted to the vocations of their owners. had only Greek sources at his disposal. decor. potentibus vero. there must be special adjustment to their habits. In the first sentence Vitruvius immediately defines six aestehetic categories in architecture: ordinatio. when buildings are variously disposed for the use of owners or with a view to the display of wealth or lofty enough to suit the most dignified eloquence. The definition of architecture is given in the first sentence. The second stage in Economy comes. In the rest of the text these categories are further explained. dispositio. Before him nothing of the kind was written in Latin. It is remarkable that the first four categories of his definition of architecture (ordinatio . For that reason he had to translate Greek terminology and even to create new Latin words of which the meaning stays. unclear. COMMENT The concerns of architecture This is a very rich chapter about the quintessens of architecture as seen in antiquity.delicatis. It comes immediately after the training of the architect and is prominently present at the beginning of the second chapter. ad usum conlocabuntur. for the powerful.
This becomes particulary clear from his definition of decor as given in sentence 5: Decor demands the faultless ensemble of a work composed. Novelties were not allowed in this philosophy.gives for the first two after his Latin interpretation the Greek equivalent. Vitruvius leaves thus the understanding of the contents of these subcategories. It is regrettable that he gives us no indication how to obtain this symmetry. They have no equivalent in Hellenistic literature. of approved details. concerned with compositio) so as to produce a state of harmonious wholesome. This might be proved by the great effort he makes to explain this category: where in the former four he had clearly a ready made definition at his disposal in his Greek sources. 'Symmetria' which is translated as 'Symmetry' has not the meaning of our modern geometrical concept of symmetry. Thus eurythmia is a state of syntactic harmony and has to do with measurable (right) placement and form. Instead of a definition we find for each of these categories two sets of examples. The whole of these four categories comes directly from hellenistic literature about architecture. and of the whole decor.
. Here Vitruvius is very superficial and he leaves everything to the fantasy of the reader. a system of preordained forms which left no place to novelties. Ordinatio. consuetudo and natura. These four categories can be seen as the canon of Vitruvius. For these categories Vitruvius did give neither a proper definition. for the commensurate parts thus obtained are subsequentely arranged qualitatively (through the activity of dispositio. for the latter two he made no Latin equivalent and gives only the Greek version. symmetria and eurythmia are in these categories an interdepent quattour: symmetria results from ordinatio. In Vitruvius' opinion architecture was about the correct application of already approved forms and compositions. to the reader. the activity of ordering the parts of the whole quantitatively. dispositio. The rules to achieve this purpose are governed by three subcategories: statio. The two last categories: decor and distributio stand alone. in accordance with precedent. In my opinion the concept of decor (for which no Greek equivalent is given) is a Vitruvian invention. In turn symmetria itself is the necessary condition for eurythmia. In a certain sense the symmetria is a further explanation of the Eurythmia. he had to explain his concept of decor with a lot of examples from which no proper definition is deduced. The purpose of decor is to produce a composition where everything (form and content) is on the 'right place'. Vitruvius means that the measurements of the different parts of a building should be in proportion to each other.
even to the emperor:
. In the Vitruvian vocabulary it means fixed convention.Vitruvius uses this word with a proper (Vitruvian) meaning.' But there is more than disapproval in these lines and it is even possible that he included a personal settlement with Augustus: Vitruvius clearly alluded to the theater of Marcellus. seen as a 'post-modern' mixture of forms and details from the different orders to produce something new. Also this shift of meaning might prove the Vitruvian invention of decor. In this preface Vitruvius is very sharp. was for Vitruvius an unspeakable thing. Augustus' sister (see preface)) probably his opinion was not asked for this building. in Doric entablatures. In dwelling houses the exterior must reflect something of the interior.Corinthian) details cannot migrate from one order to another. if. in the theater of Marcellus we can see (Ionic) dentils on the cornice of a Doric entablature. something out of the fixed categories and therefore not included in the general canon.C. 'License'. Statio is about the choice of a plan type for a temple (hypethral versus roofed) and the choice of an order (Doric. Although Vitruvius was on this moment one of the more influential architects in Rome (due to the protection of Octavia. It is obvious that he was disturbed by this situation. dentils are carved on the cornices. He explains that the various kinds of divinities have their own type of temple architecture. characteristics are transferred from one style to another: the work as a whole will jar upon us. This was not a noncommittal attitude of Vitruvius: during his lifetime Roman builders started effectively to mix elements of the different orders or styles in order to make new forms. Works were finished in the year 19 B.The first part of 'Decor' is Statio. The construction of this theater was ordered by Augustus after the premature death of is nephew and heir Marcellus. Ionic. tryglyphs are applied. Consuetudo: this category is about coherence. Corinthian). We find the same criticism in the preface of book VI. To explain his concept of statio he refers to the Greek word thematismos which means 'convention' and has nothing to do whith the normal meaning of statio. The first meaning of the Latin word 'Statio' is permanent condition. He conceals his feelings by giving a general opinion about the mixing of details: indeed. These choices must reflect the nature of the gods. His disapproval of these 'post modern' tendencies comes to the foreground in his treatment of consuetudo: 'Again. or if with voluted capitals and Ionic entablatures. in the composition of the orders (Doric Ionic . since it includes details foreign to the order. immobility.
This is about the relationship between owners and their buildings: a building must be apt with respect to his owner. and those apprentices who were so worthy.But. since an open countenance changes for shame when a request is made of a doubtful character. Architects must consider the natural environment of their buildings and adapt their work to natural circonstances The last aesthetic category of architecture is distributio. my name will reach. rather have I held that a slight fortune with good repute is to be pursued more than abounding wealth accompanied by disgrace. Thus little celebrity has come my way. Yet by publishing these volumes. Nor is there cause for wonder why I am unknown to the general. with the one exception of architecture. I hope. your Highness. Other architects beg and wrangle to obtain commissions. For the giver of a favour is courted. For no one attempts to practise any other calling at home. rather than persons of a bold and insolent turn. fortified by confidence in their own erudition. build for themselves. not the receiver. I cannot refrain from praising those owners of estates who. The third part of Decor is Natura: this category is about the relation between the building and the building site. For what do we thinh will be suspected by a man who is asked to entrust expenditure at his own cost to the pleasure of the petitioner? Will he not judge that it is to be done for the profit and advantage of the other man? Therefore our forefathers used to entrust commissions to architects of approved descent in the first place. I have not studied with the view of making money by my profession. because persons who profess it are falsely called architects in the absence of a genuine training. In the first place this site must be healthy to enhance the dignity of the god. judging that if inexperienced persons are to be employed. in the second place should the building be thus orientated that it takes advantage from the direction of the light. to after times. such as shoemaking or fulling or any other easy occupation. that large sums could be entrusted without hesitation to their loyalty. considering that they should employ men with a sense of honour.
. in the second place they inquired if they were well brought up. they themselves are entitled to spend their own capital to their own liking rather than to that of anyone else. but I follow a rule laid down by my masters: not to seek employment but to be sought out. by those who are ignorant not only of architecture but even of construction. But while I observe that an art of such magnificence is professed by persons without training and experience. For the craftsmen themselves trained only their own children and kindred.
The working method of the architect In this chapter Vitruvius gives us an idea of the abilities of the Roman architect. Vitruvius uses the word here to define the ground plan of the building. scaenograhia. Vitruvius uses the word to define the design of the elevation of the building. First we have the word adumbratio. 'Ichnographia' is once again a term derived from Greek. We look at the way of planning a building in sentence 2 where Vitruvius speaks about ichnographia. from the circumference of this circle all the lines must converge in the centre i. one of the key words of this fragment. the facades. orthographia. It is clear that Vitruvius is talking about the ancient technique to produce a perspective drawing of a building. which is the centre of a circle. We see the Greek word 'orthos' which means 'upright'. Further we have the word circinus which is translated here as circle but which means usually compass. Indeed: adumbratio is usually translated as draft. a better translation of this fragment could be: 'Scaenographia is the drawing of the front and the retreating sides with the correspondence of all the lines to the point where the point of the compass was placed (litterally: correspondence of all the lines to the centre of the compass).. In Granger we read shading.. in Perrault's translation we read parties enfoncées (deeper lying parts). a third word derived from Greek indicates the design of perspective. These three words give us an idea about the way of working of architects. drawing ans has nothing to do withshading.e the spot where the point of the compass was placed. The Greek word 'ichnos' means vestige. 'Orthographia' is also derived from Greek. the recent Dutch translation by Ton Peeters gives the more correct version drawing. Thus. 'Scaenographia'. The method of designing is given in the words 'circini regulaeque . which in a certain sense is very similar to the modern modus operandi. usus': by using the compass and the rule. The compass was used to draw a circle. Since Vitruvius makes also allusion to the situation of the building on the site it seems certain to me that these plans contained indications of measurements and also (what moderns call) a situation plan in which the building is situated in his environment and on the plot.
. During the history of Vitruvian study the translation of this fragment posed some problems. This is explained in the definition by the words adumbratio which is translated in our edition as shading and ad circini centrum omnium linearum responsus which is translated as the correspondence of all lines to the vanishing point.
Temple of Apollo and Diana 5. Temple of Divus Julius 2. Species autem aedium sunt quinque. Entasis 3. CHAPTER 3 On the kinds of temples
CONTENTS OF THIS CHAPTER
1.Scaenographia: perspective. Bibliography 4. Araeostyle temples 1. BOOK III. quarum ea sunt vocabula: pycnostylos. Temple of Ceres 2. Text and translation 2. Temple of Dionysos at Teos 2. id est crebris columnis. Temple of Venus Genetrix 3. diastylos amplius
. Hermogenes 7. Capitoline temple of Jupiter 6.Ichnograpia: ground plan . Comment 1. Eustyle temples 1. systylos paulo remissioribus. 1521
Text and translation 1. Illustrations of the Cesariano edition. These tasks are comparable to the activity of modern architects.Orthographia: elevation . Temple of Fortuna Equestris 4.We can conclude that the planning process of a building contained three stages: . Temple of Hercules 3. Architectural system 8.
cuius intercolumnio unius et dimidiatae columnae crassitudo interponi potest. rare quam oportet inter se diductis araeostylos. in quo duarum columnarum crassitudo in intercolumnio poterit conlocari.So then pycnostyle is that in the intercolumniations of which the thickness of a column and a half can be interposed. with the spaces of the intercolumniations a little more open. quemadmodum est Divi Iulii et in Caesaris foro Veneris et si quae aliae sic sunt compositae. that is with close columns. item valvarum adspectus abstruditur columnarum crebritate ipsaque signa obscurantur.patentibus. quemadmodum est Fortunae Equestris ad theatrum lapideum reliquaeque. Translation 1. Matres enim familiarum cum ad supplicationem gradibus ascendunt. The systyle also is that in which the thickness of two columns can be placed in the intercolumniations. eustylos intervallorum iusta distributione. with intercolumniations more open than they should be. of which the names are as follows: pycnostyle. wider still. and the plinths of the bases are equally great with the sapce between two plinths. with the just distribution of the intervals.
. systyle. and any others which are so arranged. 2. item circa aedem propter angustias inpendiuntur ambulationes. Item systylos est. There are five elevations of temples. non possunt per intercolumnia amplexae adire. quod fuerit inter duas plinthides. Translation 2. araeostyle. quae eisdem rationus sunt conpositae. eustyle. 3. nisi ordines fecerint. diastyle. and the others which are arranged in the same proportions. Haec utraque genera vitiosum habent usum. as in the temple of Fortuna Equestris against the Stone Theatre. Ergo pycnostylos est. et spirarum plitnhides aeque magnae sint et spatio. as in the temple of Deified Julius and of Venus in the Forum of Caesar.
. Translation 5. Diastyli autem haec erit conpositio. the view of the doors is taken away by the numerous columns. and the statues themselves are obscured. item Capitoli. tamquam est Apollinis et Dianae aedis. Pompey's Temple of Hercules. Et ipsarum aedium species sunt varicae. but continuous wooden beams are to be emplyed. low. that the architraves break because of the wide openings. These two kinds are objectionable in use. as is the Temple of Ceres at the Circus Maximus. humiles. In araeostyle buildings it is not given to use stone or marble architraves. quod epistylia propter intervallorum magnitudinem franguntur. top-heavy. For when matrons come up by the steps to give thanks. and the Capitoline Temple. as in the case of the Temple of Apollo and Diana. 5. cum trium columnarum crassitudinem intercolumnio interponere possumus. sed inponendae de materia trabes perpetuae. walking round the temple is hindered on account of the narrow intervals. they cannot approach between the columns arm in arm but in single file. broad. Such a disposition presents this difficulty. ornanturque signis fictilibus aut aereis inauratis earum fastigia tuscanico more.Translation 3. further. In araeostylis autem nec lapideis nec marmoreis epistyliis uti datur. latae. Translation 4. Of the diastyle. uti est ad Circum Maximum Cereris et Herculis Pompeiani. Haec dispositio hanc habet difficultatem. And the design of the buildings themselves are straddling. The pediments are ornamented with statues of terra-cotta or gilt bronze in the Etruscan fashion. the arrangement is as follows: when we can interpose the thickness of three columns in the intercolumniation. 4.
one in the front and one in the back. quod erit in fronte. into 11 1/2 parts. quod in postico. into 18 parts. dividatur in partes XI S praeter crepidines et proiecturas spirarum. or octastyle. is to be three columns wide. Frons loci quae in aede constituta fuerit. Reddenda nunc est eustyli ratio. and has proportions set out for convenience. alterum. For so the building will have both a graceful appearance in its configuration. Sic enim habebit et figurationis aspectum venustum et aditus usum sine inpeditionibus et circa cellam ambulatio auctoritatem. Huius autem rei ratio explicabitur sic. quae maxime probabilis et ad usum et ad speciem et ad firmitatem rationes habet explicatas. let one be taken. and the walk round the sanctuary will have dignity. and that will be the thickness of the column. if the building is hexastyle. Further. of these parts. Ipsarum columnarum altitudo modulorum habebunt iustam rationem. The height of the columns will have a just proportion of modules. in partes XVIII. si tetrastylos facienda fuerit. si sex erit columnarum. beauty and strength.
. whether for tetrastyle. Intercolumnia singula. Item ex his partibus sive tetrastyli sive hexastyli sive octostyli una pars sumatur. eaque erit modulus. dividatur in XXIV et semissem. if it is to be tetrastyle. into 24 1/2 parts. 7.6. and a convenient approach. For in the intervals the width of two and a quarter columns is to be made. mediumque intercolumnium unum. Cuius meduli unius erit crassitudinis columnarum. si octostylos constituetur. We must now render an account of the eustyle. praeter media. which is specially to be approved. Translation 6. if it shall be octastyle. Namque facienda sunt in intervallis spatia duarum columnarum et quartae partis columnae crassitudinis. The method of this arrangement is to be explained as follows. excluding the plinths and the projections of the bases. and in the middle intercolumniation. hexastyle. The several intercolumniations except those in the middle intercolumniations at the front and at the back will be severally of three modules. modulorum duorum et moduli quartae partis. Translation 7. trium columnarum crassitudine. mediana in fronte et postico singula ternum modulorum. The front of the site which has been set out in the building is to be divided.
qui etiam primus exo stylon pseudodipterive rationem. and in no respect detracted from the appearance. Hence there must have been great and subtle skill to produce the works of Hermogenes. ut aspectus propter asperitatem intercolumniorum habeat auctoritatem. si ex imbrium aquae vis occupaverit et intercluserit hominum multitudinem. Translation 9. he preserved the impressiveness of the whole work by his arrangement.8. For the columns round the temple were so divised that the view of them was impressive. but in Asia there is the hexastyle temple of Father Bacchus in Teos. Eas autem symmetrias constituit Hermogenes. sed in Asia Teo hexastylon Liberi Patris. Pteromatos enim ratio et columnarum circum aedem dispositio ideo est inventa. Thus far as is explained in the pseudodipteral plans of temples. and it has left sources from which posterity could draw their methods of study. they have plenty of room to linger in the building space.
. moreove. Huius exemplar Romae nullum habemus. praeterea. and he also was the first to use the exostyle or pseudodipteral arrangement. and in that manner abridged the expense and teh work. Translation 8. Of this we have no instance at Rome. He made an opening for the ambulatory round the cella in a striking fashion. ut habeat in aede circaque cellam cum laxamento liberam moram. These proportions Hermogenes determined. Thus without letting us miss the superfluous parts. Quare videtur acuta magnaque sollertia effectus operum Hermogenis fecisse reliquisseque fontes. Is in medio ambulationi laxamentum egregie circa cellam fecit de aspectuque nihil inminuit. For from the plan of the dipteral temple he removed the interior rows of the thirty-four columns. because of the high relief given to the intercolumniations. Haec autem ut explicantur in pseudodipteris aedium dispositionibus. 9. Ex dipteri enim aedis symmetriae distulit interiores ordines columnarum XXXIV eaque ratione sumptus operasque compendii fecit. if a number of people have been unexpectedly cut off by showers of rain. sed sine desiderio supervacuorum conservavit auctoritatem totius operis distributione. unde posteri possent haurire disciplinarum rationes.
ideo quod per latitudinem intercolumniorum aer consumit et inminuit aspectu scaporum crassitudinem. In this way the relation of the intercolumniations will be observed proportionately. Now of the eustyle temple. let the height be divided into nine and a half parts. and of that one part is to be made the diameter of the column. Also in the pycnostyle. the columns are to be so made that their diameters are one-eighth to height. tenuis et exilis apparebit. uti systyli. proportionibus adaugendae sunt crassitudinis scaporum. Eustyli autem aedis columnae. et eius una pars facienda est columnae crassitudo. ratiocinatione est exequendum. Ita habebitur pro rata parte intercolumniorum ratio. Translation
. Ergo quod oculus fallit. In systylo altitudo dividatur in novem et dimidiam partem. Quemadmodum enim crescunt spatia inter columnas. Itaque generis operis oportet persequi symmetrias. Item in diastylo dimetienda est altitudo columnae in partes octo et dimidium. uti crassitudines earum sint partis octavae ad altitudines. et ex eis una ad crassitudinem columnae detur. 11. in novem partibus altitudo dividatur in crassitudine imi scapi. In the systyle let the height be divided into nine and a half parts. as of the systyle. Contra vero pycnostylis si octava pars crassitudinis fuerit. et unius partis columnae crassitudo conlocetur. Item in pycnostylo dividenda est altitudo in decem. Translation 10. Also in the diastyle. Namque si in araeostylo nona aut decima pars crassitudinis fuerit.10. For araeostyle temples. let one of these be given for the diameter of the column. Aedibus araeostylis columnae sic sunt faciendae. and let the diameter of the column be on one part. propter crebritatem et angustias intercolumniorum tumidam et invenustam efficiet speciem. the height is to be divided into ten. quod eae ad aere circumciduntur et graciliores videntur esse aspicientibus. and of that let one part be set up for the diameter of the bottom of the shaft. Etiamque angulares columnae crassiores faciendae sunt ex suo diamtero quinquagesima parte. the height of the column is to be so measured out into eight and a half parts.
The contractions. eadem ratione pro rata constituantur contracturae. Item si quae altiores erunt.11. For in the measure by which the spaces between the columns grow. it will produce a swollen and displeasing appearance. In the column which shall be from thirty to forty feet. it will appear thin and scanty. Also in those which shall be from twenty feet to thirty feet. Item quae erunt a pedibus viginti ad pedes triginta. item dividendae sunt in octo partes. ex his sex et dimidiam in summo habeat contracturae rationem. it seems. Therefore we must follow the symmetries required by the style of the work. Those which shall be from forty to fifty feet are also to be divided into eight parts. the diameters of the shafts are to be increased. Item quae erit ab quindecim pedibus ad pedes viginti. in pycnostyle temples if there shall be the eighth part of a diameter. let the lowest diameter be divided into seven and a half parts. the lowest part of the shaft is to be divided into six and a half parts. the lowest diameter should be divided into six parts and the top should be of five of these parts. et earum septem in summo scapo sub capitulo contrahuntur. Quae autem ab triginta pedibus ad quadraginta alta erit. si columna sit ab minimo ad pedes quinos denos. For if in the araeostyle there shall be the ninth or tenth part of a diameter. because through the width of the intercolumniations the air consumes and lessens in appearance the diameter of the shafts. in the topmost necking of the columns. Therefore what the eye cheats us of. Contracturae autem in summis columnarum hypotracheliis ita faciendae videntur. should be so made that from the smallest dimension up to fifteen feet. and these are to be contracted to seven at the top
. scapus imus dividatur in partes septem. ima crassitudo dividatur in partes sex et earum partium quinque summa constituatur. let the lowest part of the shaft be divided into seven parts. Quae erunt ab quadraginta pedibus ad quinquaginta. must be made up by calculation. scapus imus in partes sex et semissem dividatur. uti. and of those parts five and a half are to be the upper diameter of the column. 12. and let the top contraction be made six of them. earumque partium quinque et semisse superior crassitudo columnae fiat. however. of these let the column have six and a half at the top as the amount of contraction. because of the frequency and narrowness of the intercolumniations. because they are cut into by the air and appear more slender to the spectators. earumque sex summa contractura perficiatur. Translation 12. On the other hand. Also in those which shall be from fifteen to twenty feet. ima dividatur in partes septem et dimidiam. The angle columns also must be made thicker by the fiftieth part of their diameter.
Back to contents 2. cuius si non blandimur voluptati proportione et modulorum adiectionibus.of the shaft under the capital. 2. Like in the preceding chapter Vitruvius illustrates his statements with a lot of examples in Rome and elsewhere.1. Haec autem propter altitudinis intervallum scandentis oculi species adiciuntur crassitudinibus temperaturae. subscripta. as a parenthesis. The temple of Divus Julius on the Forum Romanum (sentence 2)
. and unless we flatter its pleasure. Vitruvius seems to have admired Hermogenes for he refers many times to him in his work and in this chapter he dedicates two complete sentences (8 . 13.9). For the sight follows gracious contours. to the methods of Hermogenes. by proportionate alterations of the modules (so that by adjustment there is added the amount to which it suffers illusion). if any are higher. let the contractions be determined proportionately in the same way. Translation 13. As to the welling which is made in the middle of the columns (this among the Greeks is called entasis). COMMENT Vitruvius is working systematically. quae apud Graecos entasis appellatur. an illustrated formula will be furnished at the end of the book to show how the entasis may be done in a graceful and appropriate manner. quemadmodum mollis et conveniens efficiatur. Further. It is on account of the variation in height that these adjustments are added to the diameters to meet the glace of the eye as it rises. De adiectione. In the former chapter he gave us a description of the different types of groundplan appropriate for a temple. Here too he goes back to the theories of the hellenistic architect Hermogenes who clearly codified the rules and proportions of Ionic temple architecture. an uncouth and ungracious aspect will be presented to the spectators. vastus et invenustus conspicientibus remittetur aspectus. uti quod fallitur temperatione adaugeatur. quae adicitur in mediis columnis. Venustates enim persequitur visus. in extremo libro erit formata ratio eius. Now he gives an account of the different elevations and their proportions.
Today only the concrete core of the high podium remains. Back to contents Back to text
. hexastyle and probably with antae. The temple itself was Ionic. and on this the stylobate proper which rose 2. In this temple Augustus placed treasures from the spoils that he had taken and different paintings. The illustrations show Richter's designs.62 metres.C.. It is completely stripped of his original architectural decoration. but apparently built by Augustus alone and dedicated 18th August 29 B.This is the temple of the deified Julius Caesar. a rectangular platform 3..5 metres high. authorised by the triumvirs in 42 B. A reconstructional drawing has been made by Richter in 1888.C.18 metres in diameter at the base (4 Roman feet) and their height was nine times the diameter or 10. Starting from the measurements of some architectural fragments he made calculations for the different elements but these calculations are based on the description by Vitruvius. The temple consisted of two parts. For this reason I think that this reconstruction is purely hypothetical. making the cella floor very high.36 metres above the platform. This stylobate was 17 metres wide.C. as we can read in hisRes gestae divi Augusti: Aedem divi Iuli . The predilection for high podia was an Etruscan heritage which we meet very often in the two last centuries B. The next chapter of this book is devoted to foundations (and podia of temples) and we shall review this later. 26 wide and about 30 long. The cella occupied the whole width of the temple. The columns were 1. not enough is left to confirm the deductions of Richter on the site. feci.
Interesting is the mention of the 'Theatrum lapideum'..D.C.C. Back to contents Back to text 2.C. he vowed a temple to Venus Genetrix. Alone from Vitruvius we know that it was systyle but we don't know wether it was hexastyle or octostyle. The temple of Venus Genetrix on the Forum Caesaris (sentence 2) The works on the Forum Caesaris started in 51 B. Like the temple of Divus Julius also this temple was built on a high podium. built by Pompey in 55 B. It is the first stone-built theatre in Rome. in which Caesar defeated Pompey in 48 B. We know that it was dedicated in 173 B. and that it probably disappeared in 22 A. The temple was hexastyle with nine columns on the sides. The rear side was closed forming a type which Vitruvius doesn't describe: peripteros sine postico which goes back to Etruscan traditions. At the battle of Pharsalos. in the Tuscan manner.2. during Caesar's absence in Gaul.2. The temple of Fortuna Equestris (sentence 2) Apart from a few mentions in Latin literature nothing is known of this temple. in the axis of his forum. The three columns on the illustration are the result of a modern rebuilding. the mythical ancestress of the Julian gens. Also of this temple not very much is left. Fragments of this theatre on the Campus Martius are preserved in the foundations of renaissance and baroque buildings.3. This is the first Roman temple of this type.
.. and proceeded to build it at the rear wall. This temple presents a typological innovation: the rear wall ends in an apse.C. Archaeological evidence has shown that this two temples were really pycnostyle as Vitruvius quoted.
Indeed stones like marble and sandstone have a great resistance to compression but cannot support any pull or load. Back to contents Back to text 2. Vitruvius notes an interesting detail of this type of temple with three thicknesses in the intercolumniation: the span beween the columns is too wide for the material which breaks under his own weigth. Araeostyle temples (sentence 5)
This type of temple refers to the Etruscan manner.C. Only from Vitruvius we know something of its groundplan. and dedicated in 28 B. Vergilius VI. It was the most magnificent of Augustus' buildings but apart from mentions in literature nothing is known about this temple.C.69 (Tum Phoebo et Triviae solido de marmore templum) learns us that the building was constructed of solid blocks of marble.4. In the literary sources the temple is connected with a porticus. Even the exact location is under discussion. The temple of Apollo and Diana (sentence 4) This temple was vowed by Augustus in 36 B.5. Typical of all Etruscan temples are roomy colonnaded pronaoi in front of the cella and entrances only on the front.Back to contents Back totext 2. when the span is too wide they may break and cause damage to the building. Common to all the temples with this arrangement are wide spaces
. The illustration shows an exemple of this type of decoration from the Etruscan temple of Talamone in the archaeological museum of Firenze.5. Because of his magnificence it is often mentioned in Latin literature. 57 who refers to a statue of Hercules qui est apud circum maximum in aede Pompei Magni. 2. Vitruvius himself refers to three temples of this type in Rome: the temple of Ceres near the Circus Maximus. Except these literary mentions nothing is known about this temple. In literary sources it is only mentioned twice: Vitruvius and Plinius. It was burned down in 31 B. 2. Works were started by Tarquinius
.D. It was dedicated in 493 B.1 The temple of Ceres This was one of the very old and archaic temples of Rome. and situated near the west end of the Circus Maximus on the slope of the Aventine. XXXIV. These large intercolumniations made it impossible to employ stone or marble for the architraves.C. According to the legends the temple was vowed by Tarquinius Priscus in his battle against the Sabines. restored by Augustus and dedicated by Tiberius in 17 A. It is not known whether this refers to a temple built by Pompey or restored by Pompey.5.between the columns. Naturalis historia.C.5. Because of the archaic style described by Vitruvius I think that we must understand it as a temple restored by Pompey. No traces have been found. the temple of Hercules built by Pompey and the Capitoline temple of Jupiter. Indeed where in diastyle temples there was only the danger that architraves could break under their own load. So wooden beams were laid upon the columns and the whole entablature was of wood with an external terracotta decoration in the Greek style. this was surely the case in araeostyle temples where intercolumniations were even wider. Situated on the Capitoline hill this temple was dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus and his two companion deities: Juno and Minerva.2 The temple of Hercules Nothing is known about this temple.3 The Capitoline temple of Jupiter This was the most venerable temple of ancient Rome. 2.
e.D. Augustus restored it probably about 26 B.C. in the Greek hellenistic manner but the general layout of the plan was kept. Through the ages it was restuccoed and embellished until a fire destroyed it in 83 B. other literary sources speak only about the magnificence of the ornaments. There are no archaeological remains of this superstructure. Excavations and borings. It was restored in 69 B. the wider central intercolumniations measured 11. the narrower 8. It was struck frequently by lightning. The intercolumniations corresponded with the different widths of the three adjacent cellae. it was again burned down and restored by Domitianus in 82 A.C. nearly 5 times the diameter of the columns). Historiae. nearly 4 times the diameter of the columns).12 metres (i.D. so we must assume that Vitruvius is right with his mention
. Vitruvius is the only literary source which gives us a hint to the way of constructing these temples.Priscus but it was completed under his successor Tarquinius Superbus and dedicated after the expulsion of the Tarquinii in 509 B. In 80 A. Indeed this plan was seen as sacrosanct to Roman authors (Tacitus.73 metres between the corner columns and vies with the largest Greek temples.9 metres (i. It measured 49. His destruction started in the sixth century and finished in the sixteenth when the Caffarelli built their palace on his ruins. 53: nolle deos mutari veterem formam). with the information given by Vitruvius in this sentence and Dionysius have established the plan of the temple which remained unchanged throughout the centuries. If there were already difficulties with the intercolumnar span in the diastyle temple it is easily understandable that this occured also in these huge araeostyle temples and that it was nessecary to replace the stone architraves by wooden beams. The temple was hexastyle with three rows of columns across the front.e.C. IV. The Capitoline temple is the largest Etruscan temple known to us.23 metres.C. The temple stood on a rectangular podium which measured ± 55 x 60 metres. This proportions exceeded far the proportions given in the diastyle temple where the intercolumniations were three times the diameter. The columns had at the base a diameter of 2.
the intercolumniation is 2. eu being the Greek word which means good. Therefore it was called 'eu'style. Back to contents Back to text 2. could have been built by Hermogenes. the wider central intercolumniation of three columns was in accordance with the diastyle temple but problems which could eventually occur with the stability were here a calculated risk. the Capitoline temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus.of trabes perpetuae also for the greatest and most expensively constructed temple of ancient Rome. The fact that Vitruvius mentions this temple as an important building in Asia Minor has incited scientists to look for it. I refer to my comments on the former chapter.6. By restricting the span of the intercolumniation to two and a quarter columns the architraves could still be made out of stone. Back to contents Back to text 2.6. The temple of Dionysos at Teos (sentence 8) The identification if this temple has been discussed.23 meter. This is not in accordance with the principles of Vitruvius. The lower diameter of the columns is 1.They found in 1925 traces of a temple that could possibly be identified with the one Vitruvius describes.03 meter. correct.8a) The proportions of this type of temple were codified by Hermogenes. It is a hexastyle peripteros with eleven columns at the side which. for if the intercolumniation would have been 2 1/4
. according to a great number of architectural ornamentation comparable to other temples of the same periode.1. Vitruvius seems to have admired this Hermogenes as his great predecessor who wrote a treatise about hellenistic Greek Ionic temple architecture in Asia Minor. The eustyle temple had the ideal ratio between the column diameter and the intercolumniation. Eustyle temples (sentences 6 .
the pseudodipteral plan is the most important.03. The pseudodipteral plan existed long before Hermogenes. We mention (without description because this should lead us too far) the Greek temples of Corcyra (Artemis). 2. Back to contents Back to text 2. The outer collonades were shifted further from the cella walls in order to give more space for walking around.2.2. Sardis (Artemis). Pseudodipterals are usually smaller and it is more likely that they are derived from a monopteral (or peripteral) plan.thicknesses the lower diameter should have been 1. Paestum (Basilica).130 B. Hermogenes (sentences 8 . Further there is the problem with the central intercolumniation which Vitruvius describes explicitely as being of three thicknesses. Vitruvius sees him as his great predecessor and ascribes him a lot of innovations in Ionic architecture of which.6. in the eyes of Vitruvius.C. Since he don't give any chronological indication it is not known when he lived exactly. Two remarks can be made 1.6. the whole building could collapse.C. the other around the years 150 . Silaris (Hera). This led some scholars to reject this identification. There are two tendencies.. If one should take away the inner columns. when the need was felt to give more space to visitors. Vitruvius is simplifying things when he writes that the pseudodipteral is the same as a dipteral but without the inner rows of columns. sheltered from the heavy
. If we accept the temple of Teos as prototype of the eustyle proportion the relation becomes 1:2 1/6 or the intercolumniation is 2 1/6 thicknesses. Acragas (Olympieum).9) Vitruvius is the only ancient writer who mentions Hermogenes.2. the first dating Hermogenes at the end of the third century B. 2. as is suggested by Vitruvius. 2.2 Vitruvius is simplifying things Temples with a real dipteral plan are usually very great buildings where a double collonade is needed to carry the large roof structure. Pseudodipteral temples are known from the sixth century B.01 meter instead of 1. others accept a total rebuilding of the hellenistic temple in Roman imperial times. The excavated temple of Teos does not present this central intercolumniations: they have the same width as the others.C. Messa on the isle of Lesbos (Aphrodite).1 The pseudodipteral existed before Hermogenes. Selinus ('GT').6.
13) and De l'Orme (book V). If the intercolumniations should have been wider. Back to contents Back to text 2. This placing of the columns and the narrowing of the intercolumniations had an additional optical effect. Architectural system (sentences 10 . in order to avoid them to break the architects had to increase the number of transversal beams and to support the load of these beams they had to increase the number of columns at the outside of the temple. what can be translated in English as 'in closeset collonades. intercolumnia. the whole building should get more transparency which was felt as unsuitable for this kind of architecture. Alberti (book VII. influenced greatly later architects. From this statements we can conclude that pseudodipteral temples were pycnostyle or at least systyle. In the table below we only use the Vitruvian terminology. based on Greek tradition.13 of this chapter we see that the closer the columns were placed. The wooden beams which carried the roof construction had a doubled span which had to carry a double load because of the lack of the inner column. This shifting of the columns to the outside had consequences for the stability of the building.
.12) In the following sentences Vitruvius exposes his system of relations between diameter of columns. etc.sun or (in some cases) from the rain. In our table we ommitted De l'Orme because he only speaks about our eustyle temple and gives the same relations as Vitruvius. As can be seen the relation between the lower diameter of the column to the intercolumniation. height of columns and differences between bottom and top of columns. If we look further to sentences 10 . In my opinion Vitruvius describes this effect in his words ut aspectus propter asperitatem intercolumniorum habeat auctoritatem where the most important word is asperitatem of which the basic meaning is darkness. the intercolumniations are only seen as dark intervals between the (white) columns. It is this effect that gives the impression of grandeur (auctoritas) to this temples. in Latin: instead of pycnostyle he says 'in confertis quidem operibus. If one approaches such a temple from an angle one sees the collonades as nearly closed walls. Since these relations have been a topic in architectural literature in general I did some research in other texts: Alberti.7. 5) uses the same classification as Vitruvius but he translates the Vitruvian terminology. as was given by Vitruvius. Palladio (book I. the higher they were made.
Pycnostyle Systyle Eustyle Diastyle Araeostyle
D 1 1 1 1 1
H 10 9.5 2 2.5 10 2 2 9.25 3 4 Alberti Palladio I I H 1.8.25 2. number of lower diametres.5 1. The second table gives the relation between the lower and the top diameter of columns in the writing of Vitruvius and Palladio.5 8
D = Lower diameter of the column.5 8. Back to contents Back to text 2. I = Intercolumniation. B = Number of parts in which the lower diameter is divided.5 9.Instead of giving these complete texts I preferred to summarise them in two tables. Entasis (sentence 13)
. intercolumniation and height
Vitruvius I 1. number of lower column diametres. To make the differences between Vitruvius and Palladio more understandable I recalculated their measures to whole numbers. Since this is the measure on which the other measures depend we gave it the value 1. The first table gives the different relations between lower diameter.25 9 3. T = Number of parts used to define the top diameter. H = Height of the column.
Vitruvius B T 12 10 13 11 14 12 15 13 Palladio B T 13 11 14 13 16 14
H 15 15-20 20-30 30-40
H = Height of the columns expressed in Roman feet.37 3 7.
13) who.To finish this long chapter some words have to be written about the entasis of columns. Vitruvius claims to have made a design of this entasis. to the side of the extremity of which I apply the edge of a thin rule. and leave the lower part perpendicular. gave a description of his own system. I want to quote this . until the end touches the point of the diminution of the upper part of the column under the collarino. and bend that part wich reaches from the third part upwards. The illustration shows this design. and to cause their outlines to seem concave instead of straight. which is found to give an attenuated appearance to columns formed with straight sides.short fragment in the English translation of 1738: The method I use in making the profile of the swelling is this: I divide the fust (ancient English for shaft) of the column into three equal parts. The height of the column is contracted. the width is unchanged. in contrast to Vitruvius. The entasis had the purpose of correcting a disagreeable optical illusion. which gives the column a kind of swelling in the middle. The red lines give. This design is lost and Vitruvius didn't describe his system. and makes it project very gracefully. foot by foot. The distance between two horizontal red lines equals one Greek foot (29. Nevertheless. Book I. But it also gave to the column an appearance of elastic strength and vitality. the distances from the axis of the column to the outside curvature Back to contents Back to text I have found a comparable text in Palladio (book I. I then mark as that curve directs. chapter 4: On the salubrity of sites
Vitruvius. but this is only applicable to renaissance and baroque architecture and not to ancient architecture. On a wall of the Apollo temple of Didyma was conserved a working drawing of the layout of an entasis.6 cm). for the sake of completeness. or a little longer than the column. of the same length.
In the case of the walls these will be the main points: First. 2. Translation 2. and clouds rising from these shall be conjoined. We may even perceive this from those bodies which are not animal. So also those granaries which look towards the sun's course quickly change their goodness. bodies which are in these places will be infected. Now this will be high and free from clouds and hoar frost. Cum enim aurae matutinae cum sole oriente ad oppidum pervenient et his ortae nebulae adiungentur spiritusque bestiarum palustrium venenatos cum nebula mixtos in habitorum corpora flatu spargent. quae in his locis sunt. item quod spectat ad occidentem sole exorto tepescit. quae non in ea parte caeli ponuntur. non erunt salubria. deinde sic vitabitur palustris vicinitas. shall sprinkle on the bodies of the inhabitants the poisoned breaths of marsh animals. with their blast. Also that which looks to the western sun is warm at sunrise. quod per aestatem caelum meridianum sole exoriente calescit meridie ardet. but is continuously fixed and unchangeable. meridie calet.1. Also if the walls are along the coast and shall look to the south or west they will not be wholesome.
. bonitatem cito mutant. they will make the site pestilential. in this way a marshy neighbourhood shall be avoided. Item si secundum mare erunt moenia spectabuntque ad meridiem aut occidentem. non pruinosus regionesque caeli spectans neque aestuasas neque frigidas sed temperatas. quae non sunt animalia. quae est aversa a solis cursu. the choice of the most healthy site. Igitur mutationibus caloris et refrigerationis corpora. Translation 1. sed septentrione. and fish and fruit which are not placed in that quarter which is turned away from the sun's course do not keep long. efficient locum pestilentem. Besides. In cellis enim vinariis tectis lumina nemo capit a meridie nec ab occidente. Ideo etiam et granaria quae ad solis cursum spectant. and. because through the summer the southern sky is warmed by the rising sun and burns at midday. obsoniaque et poma. Primum electio loci saluberrimi. For when the morning breezes come with the rising sun to a town. vitiantur. quod ea regio nullo tempore mutationes recipit sed est firma perpetuo et inmutabilis. vespere fervet. with an aspect neither hot nor cold but temperate. Hoc autem licet animadvertere etiam ex is. burns in the evening. non diu servantur. Is autem erit excelsus et non nebulosus. Therefore by the changes of heat and cold. For in wine stores no one takes light from the south or west but from the north. because that quarter at no time admits changes. hot at noon. In ipsis vero moenibus ea sunt principia.
being soft and redhot. non modo non laborant inmutatione loci valitudinis sed etiam confirmantur. quae autem ex calidis locis sub septentrionum regiones frigidas. et ita mixtionibus naturali temperatura figurantur omnia animalium in mundo generatim qualitates. while those which are transferred from warm places under the northern regions not only do not suffer in health by the changes of place but even are strengthened. which is hard by nature. through the winter. Not less also the bodies which are transferred from cold to warm regions cannot endure but are dissolved. quod aestate non solum in pestilentibus locis sed etiam in salubribus omnia corpora calore fiant inbecilla. ideo quod a refrigerationibus solidantur. non possunt durare sed dissolvuntur. not only in pestilential. and also. Ut etiam in ferro animadvertimus. We may also consider that is so from the fact that in summer. 4. Translation 4. quod. quamvis natura sit durum. when heat cooks the strength out of the atmosphere and with warm vapours removes by suction the natural virtues. and when. For always. Translation 3. it dissolves and renders them weak. Nam semper calor cum excoquit aeribus firmitatem et vaporibus fervidis eripit exsugendo naturales virtutes. in fornacibus ab ignis vapore percalefactum ita mollescit. and yet when it is heated through in furnaces. by the vapour of fire becomes so soft that it is easily fashioned into every kind of shape. terreno et aere. redurescat et restituatur in antiquam proprietatem.3. it hardens again and is restored to its previous character. cum molle et candens refrigeretur tinctum frigida. id est e calore et umore. as they become softened by warmth. dissolvit eas et fervore mollescentes efficit inbecillas. we see the same thing in iron. are rendered salubrious because they are rendered solid by freezing. ut omnia corpora sunt conposita. Namque e principiis quae Graeci stoicheia appellant. all bodies become weak by the heat.
. et idem. Moreover. Quare cavendum esse videtur in moenibus conlocandis ab his regionibus quae caloribus flatus ad corpora hominum possunt spargere. Non minus etiam quae ab frigidis regionibus corpora traducuntur in calidas. it is chilled and steeped in cold water. but in salubrious districts. 5. uti in omne genus formae faciliter fabricetur. et per hiemem etiam quae pestilentissimae sint regiones efficiantur salubres. Licet etiam considerare haec ita esse ex eo. even the regions which are most pestilential.
therefore in whatsoever bodies. Aquatiles autem piscium naturae. owing to natural temperament. quod e principiis ab aere caloreque
. the other elements. cum insidit in apertas venas plus quam patitur e mixtionibus naturali temperatura corpus. quo minus habent e principiis umoris in corpore. Ergo in quibus corporibus cum exsuperat e principiis calor. are diluted and the virtues dependent on their proportion are dissolved. Volucres minus habent terreni. quod temperatae sunt a calido plurimumque et aeris et terreni sunt conpositae. vices are infused into bodies. since it settles into the open veins more than the body permits by its natural temperament or admixture. minus umoris. the qualities of all animals are figured in the world according to their kind. cetera principia ut a liquido corrupta diluuntur. Item terrestria. the aerial. by the heavy climate. 7. itaque cum ad terram perducuntur. 6. Not less the natural proportion of air and also of the earthy element by increase or diminution weakens the other element. facilius in umore perdurant. as though decomposed by liquid. Non minus aeris etiamque terreni in copore naturalis conpositio augendo aut minuendo infirmat cetera principia terrena cibi plenitate. is predominant.Translation 5. Haec autem vitia efficit fervidum ab certis partibus caelum. caloris temperate. longe aliter terrestrium natura. tunc interficit dissolvitque cetera fervore. For according as from the elements (which the Greeks call stoecheia) all bodies are composed. the earthy by repletion of food. sed umoris habent oppido quam paulum. So from the chilling of moisture of winds and breezes. that is from heat and moisture and earth and air. animadvertat attendatque naturas avium et piscium et terrestrium animalium. heat. Item haec e refrigerationibus umoris ventorum et aurarum infunduntur vitia corporibus. it then kills them and by this frequency dissolves the rest. Translation 6. Aliam enim mixtionem habet genus avium. if moisture had filled the veins of bodies and altered their dimensions. Sed qui voluerit diligentius haec sensu percipere. one of their principles. animam cum aqua reliquunt. aer gravitate caeli. Item si umor occupavit corporum venas inparesque eas fecit. aeris multum: igitur levioribus principiis conpositae facilius in aeris impetum nituntur. et dissolvuntur conpositionibus virtutes. just so by these mixtures. et ita considerabit discrimina temperaturae. Again. Wherefore in laying out walls we must beware of those regions which by their heat can diffuse vapours over human bodies. aliam piscium. Now a hot sky from certain quarters produces these defects.
less of the moisture. quemadmodum proposuimus. inasmuch as they abound in moisture. ibi constituebant munitiones. quae pascebantur in is locis. but have remarkably little moisture). much air. non dubitamus. the less they have of the principles of moisture in their frame. iudicio transferebant idem in humanis corporibus pestilentem
. quod abundant umidae partes. the more easily they persist in moisture. Maiores enim pecoribus immolatis. fishes another. and if we apprehend by perception that the bodies of animals are compounded of elements. Translation 8. since we have to seek healthiness in laying out the walls of cities. let him regard and attend the natures of birds and fishes and land animals. and he will so consider differences of temperament or admixture. if these matters are accepted as we have set forth. and have less of the earthy and more moisture.sunt temperata minusque habent terreni plurimumque umoris. cannot keep alive long in water. also. et si erant livida et vitiosa primo alia immolabant dubitantes utrum morbo an pabuli vitio laesa essent. they lose their life along with the water. non diu possunt in aqua vitam tueri. But fishes with their watery nature (because they are tempered by heat and are compounded by much air and earth. Ergo si haec ita videntur. uti temperatissimas caeli regiones eligamus. Translation 7. But if anyone wishes carefully to apprehend these things by perception. 8. and if we judge that they suffer and are dissolved by excess or defect of them.inspiciebant iocinera. quibus aut oppida aut castra stativa constituebantur. 9. For the race of birds has one temperament. quin diligentius quaeri oporteat. Therefore. far otherwise the nature of land animals. moderate heat. because they have a moderate degree of the elements of air and heat. Birds have less of the earthy. Terrestrial animals. si autem vitiosa inveniebant. cum quaerenda fuerit in moenium conlocationibus salubritas. Cum pluribus experti erant et probaverant integram et solidam naturam iocinerum ex aqua et pabulo. et e principiis animalium corpora compositae sensu percipimus et exsuperationibus aut defectionibus ea laborare dissolvique iudicamus. and so when they are brought to land.itaque etiam atque etiam veterem revocandum censeo rationem. Therefore being compounded of the lighter principles they rise more easily against the onrush of the air. we do not doubt that we must diligently seek to choose the most temperate regions of climate.
and they used to inspect the livers. quod etiam Cretenses asplenon vocitant. Hence we may know by food and water whether the properties of places are pestilential or salubrious. they went on to sacrifice others. sed ex his quae pascuntur proxime Gnoson. the cattle which feed next Cnossos have. Translation 10. So they gatter this plant and use this medicine to cure the splenetic.
. Hoc autem fieri.futuram nascentem in his locis aquae cibique copiam. and those on the other side have not. seeking salubrity in every respect. si quae autem ex altera parte proxime Gortynam non. lessen their spleens. which also the Cretans call asplenon. For the ancients sacrificed the beasts which were feeding in those places where towns of fixed camps were being placed. by it. Ita eam herbam colligendo curant lienosos hoc medicamento. which flows between the two towns Cnossos and Gortyna. Therefore emphatically I vote for the revival of the old method. But that it comes about that the salubrious properties of the soil are indicated by fodder and diet. For cattle feed on the right and left bank of that river. an enlarged spleen. 10. quod est Cretae inter duas civitates Gnoson et Gortynam. Translation 9. Whence also physicians inquiring about this matter have found in these places a plant which the cattle bellow for and. And so they removed elsewhere and changed their quarters. and had tested the entire and solid nature of the livers in accordance with the water and pasture they established there the fortifications. habent apparentem splenem. But of these. they found them faulty. by analogy they judged: thet the supply of food and water which was to be found in these places would be pestilential in the case of human bodies. Unde etiam medici quaerentes de ea re invenerunt in his locis herbam. which if at the first trial they were livid and faulty. if however. quam pecora rudendo inminuerunt lienes. When they had made trial of many. et ita transmigrabant et mutabant regiones quaerentes omnibus rebus salubritatem. uti pabulo ciboque salubres proprietates terrae videantur. qui sunt circa Pothereum flumen. doubting whether they were injured by disease or faulty diet. Ex eo licet scire cibo atque aqua proprietates locorum naturaliter pestilentes aut salubres esse. Dextra enim et sinistra eius fluminis pascuntur pecora. licet animadvertere et cognoschere agris Cretensium. we may note and learn from the districts of Crete which are around the river Pothereus.
ut his idoneum locum ad moenia transferenda conquireret elegeretque. are killed by the unfamiliar saltness. Elpias Rhodius. Aquileia and aother townships in like places which are nearest the marshes. Quibus autem insidentes sunt paludes et non habent exitus profluentes neque flumina neque fossas. Fossis enim ductis aquae exitus ad litus. Item si in paludibus moenia constituta erunt. For owing to these causes. uti Pomptinae. ut liceret transferre oppidum. et mare tempestatibus aucto in paludis redundantia motionibus concitata marisque mixtionibus non patitur bestiarum palustrium genera ibi nasci. Item in Apulia oppidum Salpia vetus. ratione videbuntur esse constituta. His confectis lacum aperuit in mare et portum e lacu municipio perfecit. in eiusmodi locis fuerat conlocatum. those which. ex quo incolae quotannis aegrotando laborantes aliquando pervenerunt ad M. aliaque quae in eiusmodi locis municipia sunt proxima paludibus. they will seem to be reasonably laid out. Exemplar autem huius rei Gallicae paludes possunt esse. Aquileiam. and these marshes are higher than the sea-coast. by swimming from higher parts. there is an overflow into the marshes. quaeque de superioribus locis natando proxime litus perveniunt. Tunc is moratus non est. constituitque moenia et areas divisit nummoque sestertio singulis municipibus mancipio dedit. Ravenna. quod his rationibus habent incredibilem salubritatem. Ravennam. quemadmodum nonnulli scripserunt. For if dykes are cut. An instance of this may be found in the Gallic marshes which are round Altinum.11. and these marshes are along the sea. they have an incredible salubrity. 12. quae paludes secundum mare fuerint. quae circum Altinum. arrive near the coast. and they look towards the north or between the north and east. sed statim rationibus doctissime quaesitis secundum mare mercatus est possessionem loco salubri ab senatuque populo romano petit. and when the sea is swollen by storms. Translation
. there is made an outlet of water to the beach. spectabuntque ad septentrionem aut inter septentrionem et orientem. Itaque nunc Salpini quattuor milia passus progressi ab oppido veteri habitant in salubri loco. which being stirred and moved about and mixed with sea salt. Translation 11. quod Diomedes ab Troia rediens constituit sive. stando putescunt et umores graves et pestilentes in is locis emittunt. does not permit the various kind of marsh creatures to be born there: moreover. So also if in marshes walls are laid out. Hostilium ab eoque publice petentes impetraverunt. eaeque paludes excelsiores fuerint quam litus marinum. inconsueta salsitudine necantur.
In sentence 6 we can read the medical theory about the function of the hearth and veins. but forthwith. In our ears this theory seems a little bit simple but even in the 17th century commentators of Vitruvius thought they had to warn the reader that this theory was meanwhile overruled by 'modern' insights. and. however. and lack flowing outlets.' This means that the blood transports not alone food to the parts of the body but also the qualities of the air (which came in the blood through nourishment and respiration). the town of old Salpia (which Diomede returning from Troy established. like the Pomptine marshes.12. it comes in contact with the air and is cooled. COMMENT In this text Vitruvius tries to convince the reader that he knows other things than architecture alone. after fully ascertaining all the conditions. & que comme il n'y a qu'elles qui portent la chaleur & la nourriture que le coeur envoye aux parties. Elpias of Rhodes). was situated in such places. Thus the inhabitants suffered every year from various ailments. Vitruvius certainly knew and understood this writings otherwise it would be impossible for him to give such a comprehensible summary in a few lines. whether rivers or by dykes. And so the people of Salpia now dwell on a healthy site at a distance of four miles from the old town. as some have written. and obtained permission from the senate and the Roman people to remove the town. and made a harbour out of the lake for the municipality. The principles of the effects of heath and moisture on nature and the human body were best described by Aristoteles and Galienus. bought a site in a healthy place.
. making a public request. il n'y a aussi que les veines qui lui puissent porter le rafraîchissement ou les autres qualitez que l'air de dehors luy peut communiquer. which have stagnant marshes. by standing become foul and send forth heavy and pestilent moisture. Hostilius. in his French translation of 1684 writes 'Les nouvelles experiences de la circulation du sang ont fait voir que les artères ne font que la moitié de cet ouvrage. Those places. Perrault. The heart is the pump wich pumps the blood through the veins from the interior to the surface of the body. His remarks on the health of places are greatly based on medical and philosipical literaure of his time. or. He established the walls and divided the site and gave formal possession to the individual townsmen for a sesterce each. Then he delayed not. through the pores. obtained from him that he should seek out and choose a fit site for transferring their walls. When this was done he opened the lake into the sea. So warmth is transported from within to the skin where. At length they came to M. Also in Apulia.
When. uti fodiantur. quod angulus magis hostem tuetur quam civem. et ea impleantur quam solidissima structura. as may seem proportionate to the amplitude of the work. CHAPTER 5 On the foundation of walls and the establishments of towns
1. tunc turrium murorumque fundamenta sic sunt facienda. crassitudine ampliore quam parietum qui supra terram sunt futuri. uti. Translation
. Item turres sunt proiciendae in exteriorem partem. sed ita circumdandum ad loca praecipitia et excogitandum. cum ad murum hostis impetu velit adpropinquare. they are to be dug down to the solid and in the solid. Cum ergo his rationibus erit salubritatis moenium conlocandorum explicatio regionesque electae fuerint fructibus ad alendam civitatem copiosae. of a breadth greater than that of the walls which shall be above the ground. quo scuto non erit tectum proximum erit muro. In quibus enim anguli procurrunt. Translation 1. BOOK 1.VITRUVIUS. difficiliter defenditur. ad solidum et in solido. a turribus dextra ac sinistra lateribus apertis telis vulerentur. by these methods there shall be ensured healthiness in the laying out of walls. si queant inveniri. quantum ex amplitudine operis pro ratione videantur. Conlocanda autem oppida sunt non quadrata nec procurrentibus angulis sed circuitionibus uti histis ex pluribus locis conspiciatur. and roads duly laid out. shall have ready transport to the ramparts: then the foundations of the towers and walls are to be laid. therefore. If such foundations can be found. or supplies by sea through the harbours. 2. tum dextrum latus accedentibus. and these foundations are to be filled with as solid structure as possible. curandumque maxime videtur. and districts shal l be chosen abounding in fruit to feed the citizens. or convenient rivers. ut non facilis aditus sit ad oppugnandum murum. et viarum munitiones aut opportunitates fluminum seu per portus marinae subvectionis habuerit ad moenia conportationes expeditas. Namque cum ita factum fuerit. uti portarum itinera non sint directa sed scaeva.
are to be projected on the outer side. it remains unimpaired and useful for ever. Etiamque contra inferiores turrium dividendus est murus intervallis tam magnis. Itaque non solum in muro sed etiam in substructionibus quique parietes murali crassitudine erunt faciundi. And so not only the city wall. so that the enemy be seen from several sides. because the angle defends the enemy rather than the townsmen. ut itinera sint interioribus partibus turrium contignata. in the width. dum in crassitudine perpetuae tabulae oleagineae ustilatae quam creberrime instruantur. 3. namque ei materiae nec caries nec tempestates nec vetustas potest nocere. and so divised that the ways to the gates are not straight. towns are not to be planned square nor with projecting angles. Intervalla autem turrium ita sunt facienda. in order that when the enemy wishes to approach the wall in an attack. But I think the width of the wall should be so made that armed men meeting one another above can pass without hindrance. throughtimbers of charred olive wood should be put very frequently. but on the round. Crassitudinem autem muri ita faciendam censeo. si qua oppugnetur. being tied together by these timbers. then as the troops approach. as though by pins. defence is difficult. And it seems that care must especially be taken that the approach be not easy for an enemy blockading the wall. their right side will be next the wall and will not be protected by the shield. in order that both fronts of the wall. Translation 3. For when it is so done. sed ea et in terra obruta et in aqua conlocata permanent sine vitiis utilis sempiterno. Moreover. tum a turribus quae erunt dextra sinistra.
. quemadmodum fibulis. hac ratione religati non cito vitiabuntur. scorpionibus reliquisque telorum missionibus hostes reiciantur. Hostis enim si quam partem muri occupaverit. will not quickly be decayed. nisi se voluerit praecipitare. Towers. uti. uti armati homines supra obviam venientes alius alium sine impeditione praeterire possint. when united in this manner. ut ne longius sita alia ab alia sagittae missionis. non patientur reliquas partes turrium murique hostem penetrare. uti utraeque muri frontes inter se. The approach must be made to wind along the steep places. but the substructures. quam erunt turres. qui repugnabunt rescindent et.2. his taleis conligatae aeternam habeant firmitatem. he may be wounded on his exposed flanks by weapons on the right and left from the towers. neque ea ferro fixa. For such timber can not be injured by decay or weather or age. and those dividing walls which are made to be of the thickness of fortifications. Then. se celeriter administraverint. even when it is covered with soil or placed in water. may have everlasting strength. 4. moreover. For when angles run out. but on the left of the wall.
the enemy may be thrown back. the fortifications of the wall and towers especially when joined by embankments are safer. in rotundationibus autem. Itaque in eiusmodi locis primum fossae sunt faciendae latitudinibus et altitudinibus quam amplissimis. Translation 5. only where there is an approach outside the wall from high ground by a level foorway for troops besieging the ramparts. 6. then the
. the defenders shall cut them down. Item munitiones muri turriumque aggeribus coniunctae maxime sunt tutiores. For engines more quikly demolish square towers.Translation 4. whereas in the case of rounded surfaces. quod angulos arietes tundendo frangunt. quadratas enim machinae celerius dissipant. The towers therefore are to be made round or polygonal. and these intervals opposite the interior parts of the towers shall be joined with planks. uti cuneus. they cannot hurt them. Sed non in omnibus locis est aggeris ratio facienda. The distances between the towers are so to be made that one is not further from another than a bowshot. ut opus terrenum facile sustineatur. because the batterig-rams beat and break the angles. Translation 6. And also opposite the lower part of the towers. so that if a tower is besieged anywhere. Further. the wall is to be divided by intervals as wide as a tower. ditches are to be made of the ampliest possible breadth and depth. Therefore in places of this kind. and if they manage it quickly. deinde fundamentum muri deprimendum est intra alveum fossae et id extruendum est ea crassitudine. But not in all places is the method of embankment to be employed. unless he is willing to throw himself headlong. quod neque arietes neque suffossiones neque machinae ceterae eis valent nocere. they will not suffer the enemy to penetrate the rest of the towers and wall. 5. These. nisi quibus extra murum ex alto loco plano pede accessus fuerit ad moenia oppugnanda. by 'scorpions' and other missile engines from the towers right and left. are not to be fixed with iron nails. Turres itaque rutundae aut polygoneae sunt faciendae. because neither battering-rams nor undermining nor other contrivances avail to injure them. then. however. ad centrum adigendo laedere non possunt. even when they drive the battering-rams wedge-fashion towards the centre. For if the enemy occupies any part of the wall.
ita uti cohortes possint quemadmodum in acie instructae ad defendendum supra latitudinem aggeris consistere. Respecting the wall itself and the material of which it is build or finished. neque universa pondere premens poterit ulla ratione extrudere muri substructiones.foundation of the wall is to be carried down within the hollow of the ditch. Translation 8. For when it shall so be done. uti Babylone abundantes liquido bitumine pro calce et harena ex cocto latere factum habent murum. because we cannot have in all places the supplies which we desire. Sed ubi sunt saxa quadrata sive silex seu caementum aut coctus later sive crudus. 8. arranged comb-fashion. tunc inter ea alia transversa. and is to be constructed of such thickness that the weight of earth is easily held up. For whereas at Babylon. e qua materia struatur aut perficiatur ideo non est praefiniendum. they can have their walls built of burnt brick. will not press with the whole weight. Now when the foudantions are fixed at such a distance from each other. we must use them. eas non possumus habere. De ipso autem muro. coniuncta exteriori et interiori fundamento. or concrete or lava or baked bricks or unburnt. so that with due preparation a wall can be built perfect for ever and unblemished. as the teeth of a saw are wont to be. there must be laid down no rule beforehand. then between these let there be placed other transverse walls joined to the outer and inner foundation. sic enim possunt omnes regionibus seu locorum proprietates habere tantas eiusdem generis utilitatis. where they have plenty of liquid pitch instead of lime and sand. then the greatness of the load of earth being thus distributed into small parts. so far distant from the outer foundation that cohorts can drawn up in line of battle. tunc ita oneris terreni magnitudo distributa in parvas partes. Non enim. cum enim sic erit factum. Translation 7. Item interiore parte substructionis fundamentum distans ab exteriore introrsus amplo spatio. 7. pectinatim disposita quemadmodum serrae dentes solent esse conlocentur. other regions or useful sites have their special advantages. But where there are squared stones. Also on the inner side of the substructure another foundation is to be laid. quod in omnibus locis quas optamus copias. so as to thrust out the substructures of the wall.
. Cum autem fundamenta ita distantia inter se fuerint constituta. his erit utendum. uti ex his comparationibus ad aeternitatem perfectus habeatur sine vitio murus.
quae perpetuis trabibus pedes quadragenos plerumque introrsus revincta neque perrumpi neque distrahi potest. tum ad utilitatem et defensionem urbium summam habet opportunitatem. with respect to appearance and variety. This work. ut idem illud intervallum servetur neque inter se contingant trabes. that the same interval may be observed. These being thus laid and cemented together. owing to the alternate rows of beams and stones. another row is added above. Sic deinceps omne opus contexitur. in solo collocantur. besides. but equal spaces intervening. since it [the wood] being mortised in the inside with rows of beams. In this manner the whole wall is consolidated. But this is usually the form of all the Gallic walls. not a square one and be inforced by round towers build on shoot distance from each other. generally forty feet each in length. But the intervals which we have mentioned. chapter 23 of his 'De Bello Gallico'  Muri autem omnes Gallici hac fere forma sunt. and the wood from the battering ram. Translation 23. sed paribus intermissae spatiis singulae singulis saxis interiectis arte contineantur. dum iusta muri altitudo expleatur. these are mortised on the inside. and that the beams may not touch one another. until the regular height of the wall be completed. it possesses great advantages as regards utility and the defense of cities. Trabes derectae perpetuae in longitudinem paribus intervallis. is not unsightly. distantes inter se binos pedes. in such a manner. Vitruvius describes the ground plan of a city. connected lengthwise and two feet distant from each other at equal intervals. In his opinion the walls should follow a rounded layout. Hoc cum in speciem varietatemque opus deforme non est alternis trabibus ac saxis. are placed together on the ground. which preserve their order in right lines. are closed up in front by large stones. It could be interesting to investigate
.COMMENT The Vitruvian description of the construction of walls finds a remarquable resemblance to the description of the 'murus gallicus' which Caesar gives in his book VII. quae rectis lineis suos ordines servant. each row of beams is kept firmly in its place by a row of stones. and. quae diximus. Hae revinciuntur introrsus et multo aggere vestiuntur: ea autem. and covered with plenty of earth. for the stone protects it from fire. Straight beams. His collocatis et coagmentatis alius insuper ordo additur. inter valla grandibus in fronte saxis effarciuntur. quod et ab incendio lapis et ab ariete materia defendit. can neither be broken through nor torn asunder.
(A century after the work of Vitruvius). Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium. The foundation of the wall is 0. The best know tower is maybe the so called Römerturm. the actual Tongeren. The layout is nearly square as a result of the Roman camp which was at the origin of the city.912 meter and a thickness of 2.
. These towers have a diameter of 9 meter. The layout is rather irregular and follows the area of the city. the actual Köln. It has a length of 3. This layout approaches the Vitruvian rules.10 meter (or 7 Roman feet). It is inforced by round towers on irregular distances from each other. The foundation of the wall is sligthly thicker with a gradual transition to the wall proper. capital of the civitas Tungrorum. Atuatuca Tungrorum. The height must have been 5 à 6 meter. It is inforced by 21 round towers on regular distances from each other. Here the wall is composed of an inner and an outer parement of regular silex blocks.D. It has a length of 4.6 meter (or 2 Roman feet) thicker than the wall (0. filled in with silex and other rubble joined together with mortar. (a few years after Vitruvius' death). The construction on the other hand is totally different.D.3 meter respectively on the outside and the inside).40 meter (or 8 Roman feet).remains of Roman city walls to see if this prescription is followed. situated in Belgium. The building of a city wall started around 50 A. A city wall was built in the first years of the 2nd century A.544 meter and a thickness of 2. situated in Germany. 2. I made some investigation in publications and I can give following results: 1.
5. It has square towers totally different from the Vitruvian rule. The building of a city wall started in the beginning of the 2nd century A. Merida. The construction is the same as in the case of Atuatuca Tungrorum. 7. situated in Germany.D. It is maybe constructed in the late empire around the end of the second or the beginning of the third century A. But apart from a plan I have no further information on it.500 meter and a thickness of 3 meter (or 10 Roman feet).D.
. while on the three other sides it is square. makes a slow curve to the east where is goes over in a straight line. It has a length of ± 3. Portugal near Coimbra.This layout approaches the Vitruvian rule. I found references to Roman walls in Colchester and Silchester in England and Avenches in Switzerland but I have no description of these walls. The wall is inforced by square towers on regular distances.5 meter. 3. situated in Germany. the actual Trier. It is inforced by 47 round towers on regular distances. 4. The height is ± 7. on the east side it follows the former current of the old Rhine. the actual Xanten. This layout approaches the Vitruvian rule. Augusta Treverorum. The construction is the same as in the case of Atuatuca Tungrorum.D. There is a difference in the fact that there are straight walls instead of curved. Colonia Ulpia Traiana. The layout is rather irregular. It has a length of ± 6. The layout is almost square. 6. There is a difference in the fact that there are straight sections. The history of the Roman wall is not completely known. The building of a city wall started in the first half of the first century A. Spain.400 meter and a variable thickness: from 3 meter on the east side to 2 meter on the south side. Conimbriga. There has been a city wall of irregular layout with round towers. follows on one side the river Mosel. On the south side the wall is also straight.
Qui si frigidi sunt. Nascitur cum fervor offendit umorem et impetus factionis exprimit vim spiritus flatus. they infect. Dirigentur haec autem recte. nocent. si umidi. when the Nort-west. they cough.quae aqua infunduntur conlocanturque ad ignem. efficiunt ad ignem vehementem flatum. Ventus autem est aeris fluens unda cum incerta motus redundantia. simul autem ut fervere coeperint. For in this city when the South wind blows men fall ill. laedunt. Wherefore this fault must be avoided and guarded against. Quare vitandum videtur hoc vitium et avertendum. These will be rightly laid out if the winds are carefully shut out from the alleys. Quemadmodum in insula Lesbo oppidum Mytilenae magnificenter est aedificatum et eleganter. homines aegrotant. but not situated with prudence. vitiant. Id autem verum esse ex aeolis aeris licet aspicere et de latentibus caeli rationibus artificiosis rerum inventionibus divinitatis exprimere veritatem. if moist. si calidi. CHAPTER 6 Respecting the division of the works which are inside the walls and their arrangement so that the noxious breath of the wind may be avoided
1. . Ita scire et iudicare licet e parvo
. there follow the division of the sites within the walls and the layings out of the broad streets and the alleys with a view to aspect. For example in the island of Lesbos. when the North. they are restored to health. Translation 1. lest there happen what in many cities is not infrequent. if hot. When the walls are set around the city. si exclusi erunt ex angiportis venti prudenter. but they cannot stand in the alleys and streets because of the vehemence of the cold. they are injurious. BOOK I. Fiunt enim aeoli pilae aereae cavae. sed positum non prudenter. restituuntur in salubritatem. For if the winds are cold they are unpleasant. the town of Mytilene is magnificently and elegantly built. 2. Moenibus circumdatis secuntur intra murum arearum divisiones platearumque et angiportuum ad caeli regionem directiones. cum septentrio. ne fiat quod in multis civitatibus usu solet venire. sed in angiportis et plateis non possunt consistere propter vehementiam frigoris.VITRUVIUS. cum corus tussiunt.hae habent punctum angustissimum . In qua civitate auster cum flat.
brevissimoque spectaculo de magnis et inmanibus caeli ventorum naturae rationibus. Translation 2. Now the wind is a wave of air flowing with uncertain currents of motion. It rises when heat strikes moisture and the onrush of the force presses out the power of the breath of the blast. That this is true we may see from Aeoluses of bronze, and by the craftsman's invention of things which express the truth of the divinity, about the causes which lurk in the heavens. Now figures of Aeolus are made of hollow bronze, and they have a very narrow point. These are filled with water and placed on the fire; before they begin to warm, they have no rush of air, but as soon as they begin to boil, they produce on the fire a vehement blast. Thus we may know and judge, from this small and very brief spectacle, about the great and immense causes of the nature of the sky and the winds. 3. Exclusi fuerint; non solum efficient corporibus valentibus locum salubrem, sed etiam si qui morbi ex aliis vitiis forte nascentur, qui in ceteris salubribus locis habent curationes medicinae contrariae, in his propter exclusiones ventorum temperatura expeditius curabuntur. Vitia autem sunt, quae difficulter curantur in regionibus, quae sunt supra scriptae, haec: gravitudo arteriace, tussis, pleuritis, pthisis, sanguinis eiectio et cetera, quae non detractionibus sed adiectionibus curantur. Haec ideo difficulter medicantur, primum quod ex frigoribus concipiuntur, deinde quod defatigatis morbo viribus eorum aer agitatus est, ventorum agitationibus extenuatur, unaque a vitiosis corporibus detrahit sucum et efficit ea exiliora. Contra vero lenis et crassus aer qui perflatus non habet neque crebras redundantias, propter inmotam stabilitatem adiciendo ad membra eorum alit eos et reficit, qui in his sunt inpliciti morbis. Translation 3. Suppose they are excluded. Not only will this render a place healthy for sound persons; but also if any diseases shall happen to arise from other infections, those who in other healthy places find cure from counteracting medicine, in these, on account of the moderate climate and by the exclusion of the winds, will be still more quickly cured. For the diseases which are cured with difficulty in the regions which are described above are these: cold in the windpipe, cough, pleurisy, pthisis, spitting of blood, and others which are cured by strenthening remedies rather than by purgings. Tese ailments are treated with difficulty, first because they are caught from chills, secondly because when the strength is worn out by disease the air is agitated; it is thinned by the agitation of the winds; at the same time it draws the sap from diseased persons
and renders them thinner. On the other hand, a smooth and thick air which is free from the passage of draughts and does not move backwards and forwards, builds up their limbs by its steadiness, and so nourishes and refreshes those who are caught by these diseases. 4. Nonnullis placuit esse ventos quattuor: ab oriente aequinoctali solanum, a meridie austrum, ab occidente aequinoctali favonium, ab septentrionali septentrionem. Sed qui diligentius perquisierunt, tradiderunt eos esse octo, maxime quidem Andronicus Cyrrestes, qui autem exemplum conlocavit Athenis turrem marmoream octagonon et in singulis lateribus octagoni singulorum ventorum imagines excalptas contra suos cuiusque flatus designavit, supraque eam turrim metam marmoream perficit et insuper Tritonem aereum conlocavit dextra manu virgam porrigentem, et ita est machinatus, uti vento circumageretur et semper contra flatum consisteret supraque imaginem flantis venti indicem virgam teneret. Translation 4. Some have held that there are four winds: the Solanus from the equinoctial east, the Auster from the south, Favonius from the equinoctial west, and Septentrio from the north. But those who have inquired more diligently lay down that there are eight: especially indeed Andronicus of Cyrrha, who also, for an example, built at Athens an octagonal marble tower, and, on the several sides of the octagon, han representations of the winds carved opposite their several currents. and above that tower he caused to be made a marble upright, and above he placed a bronze Triton holding a rod in his right hand. He so contrived that it was driven round by the wind, and always faced the current of air, and held the rod as indicator above the representation of the wind blowing. Comment It is clear that vitruvius gives here a description of the socalled tower of the winds on the Athenian Agora. It is an octagonal building with a diameter of ± 7,8 m and a height of ± 14,30 m. It was probably the first part of the building program of Julius Caesar for the Roman agora at Athens, begun just after the
battle of Pharsalus in 48 B.C. The building is erected in marble. As architect Vitruvius mentions Andronicos Cyrrhestes. On each side was a sculpture in relief representing the winds blowing from the quarter facing it. The roof is of 24 triangular marble slabs, supporting each other by means of their radiating joints, and carved on their upper surfaces in the form of roof tiles. On the top of the roof was an octagonal Corinthian capital as a finial, supporting a huge bronze Triton working on a pivot, with a rod in his hand which pointed toward the figure representing the quarter in which the wind lay. Also on the faces of the tower were sundials, and inside a water clock or clepsydra. There were two entrances, formed by two small distyle porches on two of the sides of the tower with architraves and pediments. 5. Itaque sunt conlocati inter solanum et austrum ab oriente hiberno eurus, inter austrum en favonium ab occidnete hiberno africus, inter favonium et septentrionem caurus, quem plures vocant corum, inter septentrionem et solanum aquilo. Hoc modo videtur esse expressum, uti capiat numerus et nomina et partes, unde flatus certi ventorum spirent. Quod cum ita exploratum habeatur, ut inveniantur regiones et ortus eorum, sic erit ratiocinandum. Translation 5. Therefore there are placed between the Solanus and the Auster, the Eurus from the winter sunrising; between the Auster and the Favonius, the Africus from the winter sunset; between the Favonius and the Septentrio the Caurus (which most people call Corus); between the Septentrio and the Solanus, the Aquilo. The diagram seems to be so arranged as to receive the names and the quarters whence the fixed currents of winds blow. Since they may be regarded as ascertained, we must calculate as follows to find the quarters and risings of the winds. 6. Conlocetur ad libellam marmoreum amusium mediis moenibus aut locus ita expoliatur ad regulam et libellam, ut amusium non desideretur, supraque eius loci centrum medium conlocetur aeneus gnomon, indagator umbrae qui graece sciotheres dicitur. Huius antemeridiana hora circiter hora quinta sumenda est extrema gnomonis umbra et puncto signanda deinde circino diducto ad punctum, quod est gnomonis umbrae longitudinis signum, ex eoque a centro circumagenda linea rotundationis. Itemque observanda postmeridiana istius gnomonis crescens umbra, et cum tetigerit circinationis lineam et fecerit parem antemeridianae umbrae postmeridianam, signanda puncto. Translation
Through the intersection and the centre of the circle first described. a circumference is to be drawn. intersecting lines are to be drawn through the middle centre from one side of the circumference to the other. points are to be marked rigth and left in the circle. Above the middle point of that place. Ita austri et septentrionis habebitur octavae partis designatio. qua tangit circinationem. somewhere in the middle of the city. the end of the shadow of the indicator is to be taken and marked with a point. when it touches the line of the circle and marks a post-meridian shadow equal to the ante-meridian. are to be distributed equally.
. 7. is to be marked with a point. ut aequales divisiones octo ventorum designatae sint in desciptione. aequales et tres his distribuendae sunt in tota rotundatione. Thus both for the south wind and for the north wind we shall have marked out the eighth part of the circumference. Tum per angulos inter duas ventorum regiones et platearum et angiportorum videntur deberi dirigi descriptiones. the remaining parts in the whole round. Tum postea sumenda est sexta decima pars circinationis lineae totius rotundationis.6. at about the fifth hour. three on the right and three on the left. Let there be placed to a level a marble dial. Translation 7. Next we take a radius the sixteenth part of the circumference of the circle. or let a space be so polished to rule and level that the marble dial is not wanted. From the centres given by the meridian line at the two points where it touches the circle. ut habeatur meridiana et septemntrionalis region. from the indicator as the centre. and with that radius. Tunc ex signis his quattuor per centrum medium decusatim lineae ab extremis ad extremas circinationes perducendae. Then a radius being taken from the indicator to the point which marks the length of the shadow. two intersecting circles are to be described. Aften midday the growing shadow of the indicator. et per decusationem et medium centrum linea perducenda ad extremum.From these two points. Then the angles between two quarters of the winds will determine the laying out of both of the streets and of the alleys. a line is to be carried through to the end so that the southern and northern quarters may be indicated. et signandum dextra ac sinistra in circinatione et meridiana et septentrionali parte. so that equal divisions of the eigth winds are marked out in the figure. with that. Before midday. both on the southern and on the northern part. centrumque conlocandam in meridiana linea. let there be put a bronze indicator to track the shadow (which in Greek is called sciotheres. Then from these four points. Reliquae partes dextra ac sinistra tres. Ex his duobus signis circino decuatim describendum.
Si autem animadverterint orbis terrae circuitionem per solis cursum et umbras gnomonis aequinoctialis ex inclinatione caeli ab Eratosthene Cyrenaeo rationibus mathematicis et geometricis methodis esse inventam ducentorum quinquaginta duum milium stadium. have been found by Eratosthenes of Cyrene with mathematic calculations and geometric methods to be 252.8. Quas ob res convertendae sunt ab regionibus ventorum derectiones vicorum. His enim rationibus et ea divisione exclusa erit ex habitationibus et vicis ventorum vis molesta. will wonder because only eight winds have been described by us to exist. Cum enim plateae contra derectos ventos erunt conformatae. si in tam magno spatio unus ventus vagando inclinationibus et recessionibus varietates mutatione flatus faciat. which give 31. and the equinoctial shadows of the gnomon and the inclinations of the sky. non debebunt mirari. quod a nobis expositi sunt tantum octo esse ventis. troublesome winds will be excluded from the dwellings and the streets. confined as they are in the jaws of the alleys. uti advenientes ad angulos insularum fragantur repulsique dissipentur. circa favonium argestes et certis temporibus etesiae. huius autem octava pars quam ventus tenere videtur. For by these methods and this division. 9. But if they perceive that the circumference of the world.500 paces. while of this the eighth part which the wind seems to occupy is 3. Fortasse mirabuntur i qui multa ventorum nomina noverunt.937. the rush of air and the frequent breezes from theopen space of the sky will move with mightier power. est triciens nongenta triginta septem milia et passus quingenti. causes varieties through the change of its current. quae fiunt passus trecenties et decies quinquies centena milia.
. Translation 8. as it moves with its inclinations and retreats. africum libonotus et subvesperus. driven back and dissipated. so that when the winds come up against the corners of the blocks of buildings they may be broken. ascertained by the sun's course. Perhaps those who know many names of the winds.500.000 stades. Itaque dextra et sinistra austrum leuconotus et altanus flare solet. Translation 9. if in so great a space one wind. ex aperto caeli spatio impetus ac flatus frequens conclusus in faucibus angiportorum vehementioribus viribus pervagabitur.000 paces. 10. they ought not to wonder. For when the quarters of the city are planned to meet the winds full. Wherefore the directions of the streets are to avoid the quarters of the winds.
Libonotus and Subvesperus. Quae sive est certa sive non vera. our writing cannot fail to furnish true outlines of the regions whence arise the breezes of the winds. euri venti tenent partes. et ea re. But there are some who deny that Eratosthenes could infer the true measure of the earth. when Eurus holds the middle. and rising with a rush looks forward and thrusts forth the breezes with the breath that comes before light. crastinusque dies propter auras matutinas aurion fertur esse vocatus. Because this is generated from aurae (breezes) it seems to be called euros by the Greeks. tosses and beats the damp in the air. Argestes and at certain times the Etesian winds. Supernas and Caecias. unde spiritus ventorum oriuntur. Translation 10. circa septentrionem thracias et gallicus. Thracias and Gallicus. circa solanum carbas et certo tempore ornithiae. Leuconotus and Altanus are wont to blow. of Africus. rigth and left of Aquilo. Euricircias and Volturnus.ad latera cauri circias et corus. Circias and Corus. and because of morning breezes the morrow is said to have been called aurion. when the sun. or from mountain storms. And when these have remained after sunrise. Moreover there are morning airs. tantum erit. euri vero medias partes tenentis in extremis euricircias et volturnus. on the distant parts. quod ex auris procreatur. dextra ac sinistra aquilonem supernas et caecias. qua sol. around Favonius. Qui cum exorto sole permanserunt. 11. Therefore on the right and left of Auster. uti non certam mensurae rationem sed aut maiores impetus aut minores habeant singuli venti. around Solanus. they hold the region of the east wind. Sunt autem nonnulli qui negant Eratosthenem potuisse veram mensuram orbis terrae colligere. There are also many other names and breezes of winds. at the sides of Caurus. about Septentrio. Sunt autem et alia plura nomina flatus que ventorum e locis aut fluminibus aut montium procellis tracta. ab Graecis euros videtur esse appellatus. Whether this is certain or not. Ergo si ita est. Praeterea aurae matutinae. non potest nostra scriptura non veras habere terminationes regionum. drawn from places or rivers. cum emergit de subterranea parte. Translation 11. 12. emerging from the subterranean part. Carbas and at a definite time Ornithiae.
. versando pulsat aeris umorem et impetu scandendo prudens exprimit aurarum antelucano spiritu flatus.
Haec linea erit index meridianae et septentrionalis regionis. Therefore if it is so. 13. not a fixed and measured amount. alterum. the shadow before midday of the indicator. et a centro. Reposito autem gnomone ubi antea fuerat. ubi est B. ubi est D. it will have this consequence. circinique centrum ponendum est
. or as the Greeks say schemata: one so mapped out that it may appear whence the certain breezes of the winds arise. dum decrescat faciatque iterum crescendo parem antemeridianae umbrae postmeridianam tangat lineam rotundationis. and from the centre marked A the compass is opened to the point of shadow marked B. ubi est littera A. ubi est C. ubi est A. in order that it may be more easily understood I have decided at the end of the book to furnish two plans. Erit autem in exaequata planitie centrum. The indicator being replaced where it was before. Translation 12. in qua linea erit littera E et F. visum est mihi in extremo volumine formas sive ut Graeci schemata dicunt. Since these matters have been briefly set forth by us. unde certi ventorum spiritus oriantur. and a circle is to be drawn. ut facilius intellegatur. the second. Then from B and from C let the intersection D be described with the compasses. Tunc a signo. circumagatur linea rotundationis. how by layings out of quarters and streets turned away from their violence. ut appareat. gnomonis autem antemeridiana umbra. deinde per decusastionem et centrum. dangerous currents may be avoided. et a signo. unum ita deformatum. ubi erit littera C. and on this line will be the index of the southern and northern regions. where will be the letter E and also F. circino decusatim describatur. perducatur linea ad extremum. we must wait until the shadow diminishes. that the several winds will have. but either greater or less impetus.Quoniam haec a nobis sunt breviter exposita. ubi est B. Tunc circino totius rotundationis sumenda est pars XVI. then through the intersection D and the centre. diducto circino ad id signum umbrae. with B. expectanda est. ubi est B. quemadmodum ab impetu eorum aversis derectionibus vicorum et platearum evitentur nocentes flatus. Now there shall be on a levelled surface a centre with the letter A. and again by increasing makes the shadow after midday equal to that before midday and touches the circle at the letter C. let a line be carried through to the furthest limit. duo explicare. ubi erit D.
inter africum et favonium N. inter austrum et africum H. and a mark is to be made right and left at I and K. between Africus and Favonius N. And from G and K and from H to I. et ab G ad K et ab H ad I per centrum lineae perducendae. Ita quod erit spatium ab G ad H. inter caurum et septentrionem K. are to be divided equally. Reliquae partes dextra tres ac sinistra tres dividendae sunt aequaliter. et ita dirigantur angiportorum divisiones. Ita his confectis inter angulos octagoni gnomon ponatur. Ab M ad O et ab L ad N perducendae sunt lineae decusatim. the point of the compass is to be placed on the circumference and the northern line where is the letter F. erit septentrionis.in meridiana linea. inter eurum et austrum in angulo erit littera O. likewise the space from I to K will be of the Septentrio. erit spatium venti austri et partis meridianae: item quod erit spatium ab I et K. between Favonius and Caurus O. inter favonium et caurum O. the remaining parts. Then the sixteenth part of the whole circle is to be taken with the compass. in the angle between Eurus and Auster there will be G. When these things are done. between Auster and Africus there will be H. between Solanus and Eurus M. et ab occidente. inter aquilonem et solanum L. inter septentrionem et aquilonem I. From M to O and from L to N intersecting lines are to be drawn. between Aquilo and Solanus L. ubi est littera E et signandum dextra sinistra. at the single angles of the octagon when we begin from the south. on the right three. in quibus litterae L M . So the space from G to H will be the space of the Auster and of the southern region. Translation 13. ubi est littera F et signandum dextra ac sinistra. Quae cum ita descripta erunt. and a mark is tobe made right and left at G H. between Caurus and Septentrion K. Item in septentrionali parte centrum circini ponendum in rotundationis et septentrionali linea. cum a meridie incipiemus. and the point of the compass is to be put on the meridian line where it touches the circumference at E. ubi erunt litterae G H. between Septentrio and Aquilo I. let the gnomon be set upon the angles of the octagon and let the division of the alleys be directed accordingly. lines are to be drawn through the centre. those which are to the east at L and M. in quibus sunt litterae N et O. qua tangit rotundationem. And so there will be eight equal spaces of winds in the circumference? When these are so marked out. inter solanum et eurum M. and at the west at N and O. ubi sunt litterae I et K. and the left three. in singulis angulis octagoni. Et ita erunt aequaliter ventorum octo spatia in circumitionem. quae sunt ad orientem. COMMENT
. Also in the northern part.
5°. His main purpose is to give the streets a correct direction in order to avoid the winds to blow freely through the streets. Nor is it certain whether the circle or octogon corresponds with the city wall. CHAPTER 7 On the sites of public buildings
. which gives point B. in this he follows Andronikos of Cyrrha who also built de tower of the winds at Athens. When. He discerns 8 wind directions. In the octogon a square is inscribed in such a way that the diagonals correspond with every second angle of the octogon. Of course this is a purely theoretical approach. 6. 5. due to the topographical possibilities and disposition of each site. None of the cities in antiquity was oriented in that way. The function of the city wall was not alone to defend the town but was also the delimitation of a wider area appartaining to the city. the deviation of the grid against the north being 22. To obtain this exact direction he uses a rather difficult method (compasses didn't exist in antiquity). BOOK 1. The distance B-C is divided in two equal parts. many antique cities are found where not the complete surface within the walls was build up. 7.south axis. Anyway. This must give exactly the north . This gives point D. The square is filled up with a grid which will correspond to the directions of the streets The result of this method is a grid of which none of the main streets is oriented to one of the eight wind directions.In this chapter Vitruvius describes a completely hypothetical layout of a city. 3. This can be described in 8 phases: 1. It is not certain whether Vitruvius meant that the street grid had to fill up the complete surface of the circle or octogon. the shadow of the gnomon touches the circonference of the circle a new point C is marked. 8.
VITRUVIUS. In the circle an octogon is drawn in such a way that one side of the octogon is diveded in two by the north . a gnomon is installed. Some time before noon the shadow of this gnomon is measured.south direction. A line is drawn from C to A. On a flat surface in the centre of the future town. later in the afternoon. 4. 2. A circle is drawn for which the distance A-B is the radius.
to Apollo and Father Bacchus against the theatre. the buildings may seem to be freed from fear of fires. extra murum Veneris. sin autem mediterraneo. there will not be armed quareels among citizens. for sacred buildings. at the circus. by summoning the power of Volcanus outside the rampart with ritual and sacrifices. Martis fana ideo conlocari. But since the divinity of Mars is dedicated outside the ramparts. sed ab hostibus ea defensa a belli periculo conservabit. Id autem etiam Etruscis haruspicibus disciplinarum scripturis ita est dedicatum. in oppido medio.1. areae distribuantur. in the forum. in cities which have no gymnasia nor amphitheatre. eligenda proxime portum. Now with Etruscan haruspices in the writings of their disciplines. to Hercules. seu matribus familiarum veneria libido. both for Jupiter and Juno and Minerva. in quibus civitatibus non sunt gymnasia neque amphitheatra. and also to Venus near the harbour. Mercurio autem in foro. to Mars outside the walls but in the parade ground. Apollini Patrique Libero secundum theatrum. non erit inter cives armigera dissensio. Divisis angiportis et plateis constitutis arearum electio ad opportunitatem et usum communem civitatis est explicanda aedibus sacris. area ubi forum constituatur. the forum. And if the ramparts are by the sea. itemque Veneri ad portum. yet he will keep the ramparts defended from the danger of war. the dedication is as follows: that the shrines of Venus. foro reliquisque locis communibus. aut etiam ut Isidi et Serapi in emporio. After apportioning the alleys and settling the main streets. or also. and. in excelsissimo loco unde moenium maxima pars conspiciatur. Et si erunt moenia secundum mare. et Iovi et Iunoni et Minervae. To Mercury. so that veneral pleasure may not be customary to young men and matrons in the city. but if inland. Volcani. as to Isis and Serapis in the business quarter. Volcanus. Translation 1. a site where the forum is to be put is to be chosen next the harbour. Martis vero divinitas cum sit extra moenia dedicata. Volcanique vi e moenibus religionibus et sacrificiis evocata ab timore incendiorum aedificia videantur liberari. But for sacred buildings of the gods under whose protection the city most seems to be. the choice of sites for the convenience and common use of citizens has to be explainded. however. quorum deorum maxime in tutela civitas videtur esse. ad circum: Marti extra urbem sed ad campum. in the middle of the town.
. Aedibus vero sacris. and the other public places. uti non insuescat in urbe adulescentibus. the sites are to be distributed on the highest ground from which the most of the ramparts is to be seen. Mars are therefore to be situated outside the wall. Herculi.
of the temple of Venus in the forum Iulium in the third chapter of book III. and what uses they have. De ipsis autem aedibus sacris faciundis et de arearum symmetriis in tertio et quarto volumine reddam rationes. exponere. pureliy and with strict manners. His precepts about the location of the temples of Venus. up the wrong way. Ceterisque diis ad sacrificiorum rationes aptae templis areae sunt distribuendae. Item Cereri extra urbem loco. Now about building temples and about symmetrical arrangements of sites I will give an account in the third and fourth books. necesse habeant adire. the orders and the several kinds of symmetry and to explain them in the several books. quo nomine semper homines. That the Vitruvian approach on city building was completeley hypothetical and theoretical is maybe proved by his mention . Translation 2. Once again we find here a proof of his austere traditionalism which was against all forms of innovation.e. whose favor he was desperately seeking. first. So also to Ceres. by placing the temple of Venus outside the city he . quia in secundo visum est mihi primum te materiae copiis quae in aedificiis sunt parandae. Here he forgets completely his theories about the layout of a city. quibus sint virtutibus et quem habeant usum. Mars and Vulcanus go back on Etruscan tradition. Indeed. with reference to the supplies of material which are to be prepared in buildings. progenitress of the Gens Iulia. under which name (i. Augustus did everything to prove his descendance from Venus and in the forum Iulium the central temple was dedicated to Venus Genetrix. because in the second I purpose. in a place outside the city.rubbed Augustus. caste sanctisque moribus is locus debet tueri.without any further comment . nisi per sacrificium. commensus aedificiorum et ordines et genera singula symmetriarum peragere et in singulis voluminibus explicare. to set forth of what virtues they are possessed.maybe unconsciously .
. since that place must be kept religiously. And to the other gods sites fit for temples with a view to the methods of sacrifice are to be arranged.2. subsequently to treat of the dimensions of buildings. Ceres extra urbem) men (unless by sacrifice) must always approach her. cum religione. COMMENT In this last chapter of the first book Vitruvius allows us once again a glimpse of his character and of his position in the surrounding of the emperor.
Les Annotations de Guillaume Philandrier sur de De Architectura de Vitruve. De Architectura libri X.Knell. We name only Venus Calva. H. London. A new topographical dictionary of Ancient Rome. Amsterdam. 1992 F. Ton Peters. London. BIBLIOGRAPHY Les dix livres d'architecture de Vitruve. L. Vitruvs Architekturtheorie. Darmstadt. 1999. 2000
. 1962. Vitruvius.. 1991.We even can find here an indication of his unworldly way of thinking. Paris. while in his lifetime in the centre of Rome he could find many temples dedicated to Venus where there was no provocation whatsoever to the pleasures he disapproves. Tours. Handboek bouwkunde. Perrault. ed. Corrigés et traduits en 1684 par C.Richardson jr. 1684. F. Venus Libitina. Venus Verticordia and Venus Victrix. Venus Obsequens. Venus Erucina. Indeed: he associates the cult of Venus only with sensual pleasure. Granger.Lemerle. Vitruvius.