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Language planning is a deliberate effort to influence the function, structure, or acquisition of a language or language variety within a speech community. It is often associated with government planning, but is also used by a variety of nongovernmental organization, such as grass-roots organizations and even individuals. The goals of language planning differ depending on the nation or organization, but generally include making planning decisions and possibly changes for the benefit of communication. Planning or improving effective communication can also lead to other social changes such as language shift or assimilation, thereby providing another motivation to plan the structure, function and acquisition of languages.
2. Language planning and language ideology
There are many different reasons why intentional language planning is undertaken. Political, education, and practical considerations may lead planner to formulate policies that have the effect of changing the status of a particular language or variety. Cobarrubias (1983) argue that certain planning tasks are not ‘philosophically neutral’ and that moral issues are involved in planning. Cobarrubias suggests four overarching language ideologies motivate decision making in language planning. The first, linguistic assimilation, is the belief that every member of a society, irrespective of his native language, should learn and use the dominant language of the society in which he lives. A quintessential example is the English-only movement in the United States. Linguistic assimilation stands in direct contrast to the second ideology, linguistic pluralism - the recognition and support of multiple languages within one society. Examples include the coexistence of French, German, Italian, and Romansh in Switzerland and the shared status of English, Malay, Tamil, and Chinese in Singapore. The third ideology, vernacularization, denotes the restoration and development of an indigenous language along with its adoption by the state as an official language.
primarily in technical domains 8. grammar. and guard against language deviation from within 2. Terminology Unification – development of unified terminologies. Language Standardization – the attempt to garner prestige for a regional language or dialect. transforming it into one that is accepted as the major language. or standard language. in order to facilitate use 4. is the adoption of a non-indigenous language of wider communication as an official language or in a particular domain. 3. Lexical Modernization – word creation or adaptation 7. internationalization. or grammar. such as the use of English in Singapore. of a region 5. protect language from foreign influences. Language Spread – the attempt to increase the number of speakers of one language at the expense of another 6. Language Revival – the attempt to turn a language with few or no surviving native speakers back into a normal means of communication 3. India. Language Reform – deliberate change in specific aspects of language. and Papua New Guinea. Interlingual Communication – facilitation of linguistic communication between members of distinct speech communities 10. spelling. Language Purification – prescription of usage in order to preserve the “linguistic purity” of language. The final ideology.Examples include Hebrew in the state of Israel and Quechua in Peru. Stylistic Simplification – simplification of language usage in lexicon. like orthography. Language planning goals Linguists recognize eleven language planning goals: 1. the Philippines. Language Maintenance – preservation of the use of a group’s native language as a first or second language where pressures threaten or cause a decline in the status of the language . and style 9.
Heinz Kloss and William Stewart. German.Types of language planning Language planning has been divided into three types: 4. they emphasize four common attributes: 1. auxiliary aspects of language such as signs for the deaf. Juridical status 1. language prestige and language function. Language origin – whether a given language is indigenous or imported to the speech community 2. While Kloss and Stewart’s respective frameworks differ slightly. Degree of standardization – the extent of development of a formal set of norms that define ‘correct’ usage 3.g. Language status Language status is a concept distinct from. Status planning Status planning is the allocation or reallocation of a language or variety to functional domains within a society. Sole official language (e. 1968. French.11. A language garners status according to the fulfillment of four attributes. thus affecting the status. language status is the position or standing of a language vis-à-vis other languages. or rules of transliteration and transcription 4. Italian and Romansh in Switzerland) . or standing.1. described in the same year. Auxiliary-Code Standardization – standardization of marginal. though intertwined with. Joint official language (e. of a language. Strictly speaking. French in France and English in the United Kingdom) 2. by two different authors. Both Kloss and Stewart stipulated four qualities of a language that determine its status. English and Afrikaans in South Africa. place names. 4.1.1.g.
3-19% and less than 3%. According to Stewart.g.g. of users of a language to another variable. 4. like the total population. Kloss and Stewart both distinguish six classes of statistical distribution. juridical status. degree of standardization. acknowledged but ignored (e. and less than 5%. origin. Official . West African Pidgin English in Cameroon) 5. Catalan during Francisco Franco’s regime in Spain. they draw the line between classes at different percentages.An official language "function[s] as a legally appropriate language for all politically and culturally representative purposes on a nationwide basis. Vitality – the ratio. Macedonian in Greece) 4. Igbo in Nigeria. The five remaining classes in decreasing order are 70-89%. Spanish in New Mexico. the six classes are determined by the following percentages: 75%. is demarcated by 90% or more speakers. However. Functional domains William Stewart outlines ten functional domains in language planning: 1. on the other hand. 20-39%.1. the first class." Often. 5%. the highest level of vitality. Basque.1. India) 4.3. Marathi in Maharastra. Native American languages in the United States) 6.g. 10%. . the official function of a language is specified in a constitution. or percent. According to Kloss. Together. Regional official language (e. 40-69%. and vitality dictate a language’s status. Proscribed language – discouraged by official sanction or restriction (e. 25%.2.g. 50%. Promoted language – lacks official status on a national or regional level but is promoted and sometimes used by public authorities for specific functions (e. Tolerated language – neither promoted nor proscribed.
English) 5. School subject . Hindi in India.A capital language functions as a prominent language in and around a national capital (e. and symbolic.g.g. working. typically a province or region (e.A school subject language is a language that is taught as a subject in secondary school or higher education (e. Hebrew amongst the Jews) 7. Group .g.2. Provincial . Religious . but more importantly. .g. Cooper also adds two functional domains to Stewart's list: mass media and work. functions as a medium of communication across language boundaries within a nation (e. Capital . A statutory language is a language that a government has declared official by law. Dutch and French in Brussels) 6.g.An educational language functions as a medium of instruction in primary and secondary schools on a regional or national basis (Urdu in West Pakistan and Bengali in East Pakistan) 8. Latin for the Latin Rite within the Roman Catholic Church. Educational . A working language is a language that a government uses as a medium for daily activities. Wider communication . Latin and Ancient Greek in English schools) 9. in reviewing Stewart's list. and a symbolic language is a language that is merely a symbol of the state.A religious language functions as a language for the ritual purposes of a particular religion (e.A provincial language functions as an official language for a geographic area smaller than a nation. Arabic for the reading of the Qur'an) Robert Cooper.An international language functions as a medium of communication across national boundaries (e.g. International . French in Quebec) 3.A literary language functions as a language for literary or scholarly purposes (Ancient Greek) 10. Swahili language in East Africa) 4. Literary .A group language functions as a conventional language among the members of a single cultural or ethnic group (e. makes several additions.g.A language of wider communication is a language that may be official or provincial. he creates three sub-types of official functions: statutory. First.
corpus planning generally involves planners with greater linguistic expertise. and speech is a corruption of it. Graphization Graphization refers to development.2. and a standard against which varieties of spoken language are often compared. the use of writing often leads to a folk belief that the written language is the ‘real’ language. There are three traditionally recognized types of corpus planning: graphization.1. selection and modification of scripts and orthographic conventions for a language. while the spoken variety is more susceptible to language change. this view ignores the possibility that isolated relic areas of the language may be less innovative than the written form or the written language may have been based on a divergent variety of the spoken language. which is primarily undertaken by administrators and politicians. Linguist Charles A. whereby planning decisions are made to engineer changes in the structure of the language. and modernization. standardization. Written language is viewed as more conservative. Second. First. Ferguson made two key observations about the results of adopting a writing system.4. The use of writing in a speech community can have lasting sociocultural effects. 4. grammatical structures and phonological structures of a language often adopt characteristics in the written form that are distinct from the spoken variety. Unlike status planning. the vocabulary. Although written language is often viewed as secondary to spoken language. . which include easier transmission of material through generations. However.2. communication with larger numbers of people. Corpus planning activities often arise as the result of beliefs about the adequacy of the form of a language to serve desired functions. Corpus planning Corpus planning refers to the prescriptive intervention in the forms of a language. the use of writing adds another variety of the language to the community’s repertory.
4.In establishing a writing system for a language. Ainu uses a modified katakana system. in which syllable-final codas are consonants by a subscript version of a katakana symbol that begins with the desired consonant. but Ainu contains many CVC syllables that cannot easily be adapted to this syllabary. Mesrop Mashtots. The Ainu of Japan chose to adopt the Japanese language’s katakana syllabary as the writing system for the Ainu language. Though the script was modeled after the Greek alphabet. An example on an invented script includes the development of the Armenian script in 405 AD by St. As a result. as it confers privilege upon speakers whose spoken and written dialect conforms closest to the chosen standard. original script distinguished Armenian from the Greek and Syriac alphabets of the neighboring peoples. and is imposed upon the less powerful groups as the form to emulate. The choice of which language takes precedence has important societal consequences. Katakana is designed for a language with a basic CV syllable structure. The standardization process began when William Caxton introduced the printing press in England in 1476. corpus planners have the option of using an existing system or inventing a new one. This variety comes to be understood as supra-dialectal and the ‘best’ form of the language. This often reinforces the dominance of the powerful social group and makes the standard norm necessary for socioeconomic mobility. The history of English provides an example of standardization occurring over an extended time period. In practice. standardization generally entails increasing the uniformity of the norm.2. without formally recognized language planning.2. Standardization Standardization is the process by which one variety of a language takes precedence over other social and regional dialects of a language. This was the . as well as the codification of the norm. The standard that is chosen as the norm is generally spoken by the most powerful social group within the society.
2. but technical vocabulary can be effective within a language. Modernization Modernization is a form of language planning that occurs when a language needs to expand its resources to meet functions. which allows the language to discuss topics in modern semantic domains. Language planners generally focus on creating new lists and glossaries to describe new technical terms. While Hungarian has almost exclusively used language internal processes to create new lexical items.3. Acquisition planning .3. and mass education led to the dissemination of this dialect as the standard norm for the English language. as well as frequent use among specialists. Because of the dialect’s use for administrative and literary purposes. but it is also necessary to ensure that the new terms are consistently used by the appropriate sectors within society. Japanese has borrowed extensively from English to derive new words as part of modernization. Issues of linguistic purism often play a significant role in lexical expansion. regardless of whether it comes from the language’s own process of word formation or from heavy borrowing from another language. the rise of print capitalism. After the creation of grammars and dictionaries in the 18th century. Rapid lexical expansion is aided by the use of new terms in textbooks and professional publications. such as when a country gains independence from a colonial power or when there is a change in the language education policy. While some languages such as Japanese and Hungarian have experienced rapid lexical expansion to meet the demands of modernization. 4. The most significant force in modernization is the expansion of the lexicon. other languages such as Hindi and Arabic have failed to do so. 4.accompanied by the adoption of the south-east Midlands variety of English. industrialization. as the print language. spoken in London. this variety became entrenched as the prestigious variety of English. Modernization often occurs when a language undergoes a shift in status. urbanization.
in turn. only to name a few. or to promote linguistic purism. Robert B. such as language status. Frequently. For example. it can establish a law that requires teachers to teach only in this language or that textbooks are written using only this language’s script. state or local government system aims to influence aspects of language. . ranging from primary schools to universities. a change in methods of teaching an official language or the development of a bilingual language program. corpuses are revised and the changes are finally introduced to society on a national. distribution and literacy through education. Baldauf describe the sectors’ six principal goals: 1.1. but it is more commonly associated with government planning.Acquisition planning is a type of language planning in which a national. The responsibilities of education sectors vary by country. acquisition planning is often used to promote language revitalization. In this way. new dictionaries and educational materials will need to be revised in schools in order to maintain effective language acquisition. 4. This. such as an alteration in student textbook formatting. This process of change can entail a variety of modifications. The education sector The education ministry or education sector of government is typically in charge of making national language acquisition decisions based on state and local evaluation reports.3. would support the elevation of the language’s status or could increase its prestige. if a government decides to raise the status level of a certain language or change its level of prestige. acquisition planning is integrated into a larger language planning process in which the statuses of languages are evaluated. To decide what languages should be taught within the curriculum. Kaplan and Richard B. Acquisition planning can also be used by non-governmental organizations. state or local level through education systems. which can change a language’s status or reverse a language shift. In a case where a government revises a corpus.
It is important therefore that government goals. 4. To involve local communities. 6. such as economic and political planning.2. Acquisition planning can also be financially draining. Some states prefer instruction only in the official language. such as those described above. 5.3. To determine what materials will be used and how they will be incorporated into syllabi. To determine the amount and quality of teacher training. be organized and planned carefully. there are several problems that must be considered. but some aim to foster linguistic and thus social diversity by encouraging teaching in several mother tongue languages. Deciding on which language of instruction would be most beneficial to effective communication on the local and state level is a task requiring thoughtful planning and is surrounded by debate. To establish a local and state assessment system to monitor progress. the effects of planning methods can never be certain. governments must consider the effects on other aspects of state planning. 4.2. Some proposed acquisition changes could also be too drastic or instituted too suddenly without proper planning and organization. Even with a solid evaluation and assessment system. One reason some states prefer a single language of instruction is that it supports national unity and homogeneity. Problems Although acquisition planning can be useful to governments. especially in many countries that were once colonized. Some states prefer incorporating different . so adequate planning and awareness of financial resources is essential. 4. 3. To determine financial costs.3.3. Multilingualism There is also a growing concern over the treatment of multilingualism in education.
4.languages in order to help students learn better by giving them diverse perspectives. . Although these organizations do not hold official power. effecting acquisition. thus affecting the materials students are exposed to in schools. 4. These organizations often create their own dictionaries and grammar books. such as the Académie Français of France or the Real Academia Española of Spain. Non-governmental organizations In addition to the education sector. there are non-governmental sectors or organizations that have a significant impact on language acquisition. such as with educational materials. they influence government planning decisions.3.
accested:20-03-2010.1998. "Sociolinguistic Typology of Multilingualism". http://www. Wardhaugh. Ronald. The Hague: Mouton Publishers. Eds.html. Hoffman. William A.An Introduction to Sociolinguistic. Joshua Fishman. Readings in the Sociology of Language. "Ethical Issues in Status Planning.An introduction to Bilingualism…… Stewart.com/languageplanning. Ed. 1983.Answer." Progress in Language Planning: International Perspectives. Juan Cobarrubias and Joshua Fishman. Massacuhusetts:Blackwell Publisher Ltd.Charlote. Juan.References Cobarrubias. New York: Mouton Publishers. 1968. .