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Module 3: Mathematics Solution4: d / product of times = difference in speed /

difference in time
Let the initial time = T hour
Part A: TIME AND Then the new time = [ T+2(1/2)] hour
=> 600/T(T+5/2) = 12/(5/2)
DISTANCE
=> T(T+5/2) = 125 => T = 10
:. The required time = 10+2(1/2) = 12(1/2) hours
AVERAGE SPEED:
Example1: A car travels 600 km in 11 hours and another
DISTANCE COVERED IS DIFFERENT
800 km in 17 hours. Find the
Example5: A car travels for 11 hours. Out of this, it travels
average speed of the car
100 km at a certain speed and then it increases its speed
during the entire journey.
by 15 km/hr to cover the remaining 280 km. Find the time
Solution1: Here, distance
it takes to travel the span of 280 km.
and time are known.
Solution5: Given that
average speed =(d1 + d2) /(
Speed difference total time d2 d1
T1 + T2)
V1 - V2 T1 + T2 100 280
= (600 + 800) / (11+17) = 50
15 11
km/hour
Use (V1 - V2), because, here V1 and V2 are not to be found
out separately.
Example2: A bus moves 300 km at a speed of 45 km per
V1- V2 = d1/T1 - d2/T2
hour and then it increases its speed to 60 km per hour to
15= 280/x - 100/(11-x) (assume, x = time to travel 280 km)
travel another 500 km. Find the average speed of the bus.
3= 56/x - 20/(11-x) :. x = 7
Solution2: Here distance and speed are known. Time is not
:. the car travels the span of 280 km in 7 hours
known.
:. We use the relation,
Example6: A
average speed = [d1 + d2] /
car travels a
[d1/V1+ d2/V2]
distance of
average speed = (300+500) /
170 km in 2
(300/45+500/60)
hours partly at
= 800 / (20/3+ 25/3) = (800 *
a speed of 100
3) /45 = 53(1/3) km per hour
km/hr and
partly at 50
DISTANCE COVERED IS
km/hr. Find the distance travelled at speed of 100 km/hr.
SAME
Solution6: Given that:
Example3: An increase in the speed of a car by 10 km per
total distance total time
hour saves 30 minutes in a journey of 100 km. Find the
(d1 + d2) (T1 + T2) V1 V2
initial speed of the car.
170 2 100 50
Solution3: Let the initial speed of the car = V km/hr
Use (T1 + T2), because, here, T1 and T2 are not to be
The new speed of the car = (V + 10) km/hr.
found out separately.
Product of speeds / distance = difference in speed /
:. T1 + T2 = d1/ V1 + d2/ V2 (Time reference is used)
difference in time
2 = (x/100)+(170-x/50) (assume x = distance covered
V(V+10) / 100 = 10/ (30/60) [:. 30 minutes = 30/60 hour]
at 100 km/hr)
V (V + 10) = 2,000
x= 140
V (V + 10) = 40 * 50
:. The car travelled 140 km
Without further solving, it appears that V = 40 km/h.
at the speed of 100 km/hr.

Example4: Due to bad


Example7: If a truck travels
road, the speed of a
a distance of 240 km in 6
motorcycle is reduced by
hours, partly at a speed of
12 km/hr and it now takes
60 km/hr and partly at 30
2(1/2) hours more to
km/hr, then find the time
cover the same distance
for which it travels at 60
of 600km. Find the time it
km/hr.
now takes to cover the
Solution7: Given that
distance.
total distance total time
d1 + d2 t1+ t2 V1 V2
240 6 60 30
Use (d1 + d2), because here d1 and d2 are not to be found will it travel in 15 minutes?
out separately. 4. If a man walks to his office at 3/4 of his usual rate, he
So we find, reaches office 1/3 of an hour later than usual.
d1 + d2 = V1*T1 + V2*T2· What is his usual time to reach office?
240 = 60 * x + 30 * (6 - x), (assume x = time of travel at 5. If a man walks to his office at 5/4 of his usual rate, he
60 km/hr) reaches office 30 min. early than usual. What is his usual
x=2 :.The truck travels 2 hours at 60 km/hr time to reach office?
6. If I walk at 3km/h, I miss a train by 2 minutes. If
Example8: A man takes 4 however, I walk at 4km/h, I reach the station 2 minutes
hours 30 minutes in before the arrival of the train. How far do I walk to reach
walking to a certain place the station?
and riding back. He would 7. Excluding stoppages, the speed of a train is 45km/h, and
have gained 1 hour 45 including stoppages, it is 36km/h, For how many minutes
minutes by riding both does the train stop per hour?
ways. How long would he 8. A man covers a certain distance on auto rickshaw. Had it
take to walk both ways? moved 3 km/h faster, he would have taken 40 minutes less.
Solution8: Time for walking both ways - time by mixed (i.e. If it had moved 2 km/h slower, he would have taken 40
walking + riding) = time gained minutes more. Find the distance.
time for walking both ways -4(1/2) = +1(3/4) 9. A thief escapes
time for walking both ways = 4(1/2) +1(3/4) in a car at a speed
= 6(1/4) hours. of 40 km/h. After
:. The man will take 6(1/4) hours to cover the same distance half an hour a police
if he walks both ways. car sets off to
catch the thief at
TIME AND DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO MOVING 50 km/h . After
BODIES what time from the
Example9: Two men, P and Q, start walking from a hotel at theft will the police
2 km/hr and 2(1/2) km/hr respectively. By how many km car overtake the
will they be apart at the end of 3(1/2) hours, if thief?
(i) they walk in opposite directions Hint: Distance to be covered by the thief and by the
(ii) they walk in the same direction. police car is same.
Solution9: Let after time 't' police catches the thief, V1*T1 = V2*T2
(i) When they walk in opposite direction, then P and Q will :. T*40= (T-1/2) * 50 :. T = 2(1/2)hours.
be (2 + 2(1/2)) km or 4(1/2) km apart in 1 hour. 10. A man travels in a car
:.at the end of 3(1/2) hours, they will be 3(1/2) * 4(1/2) km from X to Y at a speed of 77
= 15(3/4) km apart. km/h and returns back at 33
(ii) When they walk in the same direction, then P and Q km/h from Y to X. Find the
will be [2(1/2) - 2] km or (1/2) km apart in 1 hour average speed of the journey.
:. at the end of 3(1/2) hours, they will be [(1/2) * 3(1/2) km 11. A man travels on a
= 1(3/4) km, apart. scooter from A to B at a speed
of 30 km/h and returns back
Practice Exercises. from B to A at 20 km/h. The total! journey was performed
Questions: by him in 10 hours. Find the distance from A to B.
1. Find the distance covered by a car moving at 20 meters Hint: Let the distance be 'd' km
per second for 3 hours. d/30+d/20 = T1+T2 = 10(given)
Hint: Remember 1 d = (10*30*20)/(30+20)=120km.
meter per second = 12. A long distance runner runs 9 laps of a 400 meters
18/5 km/h. track everyday. His timings (in min.) for four consecutive
:. d= Vt days are 88, 96, 89, and 87 respectively. On an average,
= 20 * 18/5 * 3 km, = how many meters/minute does the runner cover?
216 km Hint: Average speed (meter/minutes) = Total distance
2. Find the time taken /Total time =(9*400*4)/(88 + 96 + 89 + 87) = 40
to cover a distance of meter/minutes
0.9 km by a bullock cart 13. A man performs 2/25 fraction of his total journey by
moving at 0.25 meter/s. bus, 21/50 by car and the remaining 2 km on foot. Find the
3. A train travels at 90 distance of the total journey.
km/h. How many meters Hint: Let total journey = x km.
(2/25)x + (21/50)x +2 = x . days and then Maurice leaves. Mary finishes the remaining
x=4 work alone. In how many days is the total work finished?
14. Normally it takes 3 hours for a train to run from A to Solution3: Let the total work be finished in 'T' days.
B. One day, due to a minor trouble, the train had to reduce no. of days Mary worked/ alone time + no. of days Maurice
the speed by 12 km/h and so it took 3/4 of an hour more worked /alone time = 1
than usual. What is the distance from A to B. (T/10)+(3/15)=1 :.(T/10)=1-(1/15) :.T= 10*(4/5)= 8
Hint: Let d be the distance from A to B. :. Total work is finished in 8 days.
(d/T1) - (d2/T2) = V1 - V2
(d/3) -[d/3(3/4)] = 12 Example4: Singvi and Ravi can do a job alone in 10 days and
d = 180km. 12 days respectively. Singvi starts the work and after 6
Answer key: days Ravi also joins to finish the work together. For how
1. 216 km many days Ravi actually worked on the job?
2. 1h Solution4: Let the work be finished in T days,
3. 22,500m (no. of days Singvi worked /alone time) + (no. of days Ravi
4. 1h worked/alone time)=1
5. 2(1/2) (T/10)+(T-6)/12= 1
6. 4/5km T=(90/11) :. Ravi worked for T - 6 i.e. (90/11) - 6 = 2(2/11)
7. 12min days.
8. 40km
9. 2(1/2)hr after the theft Example5: A
10. 46.2km/h and B can do a
11. 120km. piece of work in
12. 40m 12 days, B and C
13. 4km in 15 days, C
14. 180km and A in 20
days. How long
Part B: TIME, WORK AND WAGES would each take
separately to do
BASIC CONCEPTS: Total amount of a complete job (or the same work?
assigned job) =1, always, unless otherwise specified. Solution5:
1 day's work by any person = ( 1/alone time)th part of total L.C.M. of 12, 15 and 20 = 60 = L, say A and B can do in T1 =
work 12 days, C absent; B and C can do in T2 = 15 days, A
absent; C and A can do in T3 = 20 days, B absent. Alone
Example1: Tuktuki time for A =(2L)/ [(L/T1)+(L/T3)-(L/(T2)] =
and Rasmani can do a ((2*60)/((60/12)+(60/20)-(60/15))=(120/(5+3-4)=30 days
job alone in 20 days Similarly, alone times for B and C can be found out.
and 30 days
respectively. In how Example6: A Husband and Wife can do a job in 15 hours
many days the job and 10 hours respectively. They began the work together
will be finished if but Husband leaves
they work together? after some hours and
Solution1: Here, we Wife finishes the
can use a direct remaining job in 5
formula, if a = 20, b hours. After how many
=30, then Combined hours did Husband
required time =ab/(a+b) =(20 * 30)/(20 + 30) = 12 days. leave?
Solution6: In this
Example2: Mohan and Sohan can do a job in 12 days. Sohan problem, the total time
alone can finish it in 28 days. In how many days can Mohan for completion is
alone finish the work? neither known nor to
Solution2: Short-Cut if T = 12, a = 28 & b=? be found out. Hence
1/12=1/28+1/b total time T is not be
Then b =(28*12)/(28-12)= 21 considered, but assume
Mohan can alone finish the work in 21 days. that P works for x
hours, then using the
Example3: Mary and Maurice can do a piece of work in 10
days and 15 days respectively. They work together for 3
concept, (no. of hours P worked /alone time for P) + (no. of If they are working for 1 hour atternately, Anil beginning,
hours Q worked /alone time for Q)=1 (x/15)+(x+5)/10=1 in how hours will the computer be assembled?
x = 3 :. P leaves after 3 hours. Solution10: After 10 hours of combined, but alternate
working, we get the part of computer assembled = AniI's 5
Example7: Ramesh is thrice as good a workman as Bipan, hours work + Sunil's 5 hours work. = 5*(1/10)+5*(1/12) =
and is therefore able to finish a piece of work in 40 days (11/12) th Remaining part = 1-(11/12)=(1/12) th Now, at the
less than Bipan. Find the time in which they can do it start of 11th hour, Anil will work. Time taken by Anil to
working together. do(1/12) th work = 10 *(1/12) hour =(5/6) hour .. Total time
Solution7: Since Ramesh is thrice as good a workman as = 10 hours + (5/6) hours = 10(5/6) hours. :. the computer
Bipan, then if Ramesh does a job in 1 day, Bipan will do the will be assembled in 10(5/6) hours.
same in 3 days and the difference is 3 - 1 = 2 days. :. For
40 days difference (20 * 2), Ramesh does in 20 days, Bipan Example11: Two friends
in (20 * 3) = 60 days. Now, (Ramesh + Bipan)'s 1 day work = take a piece of work for
(1/20)+(1/60)=(1/15) :. the required time is 15 days .. Rs 960. One alone could
do it in 12 days, the other
Example8: Two workers A in 16 days. With the
and B working together assistance of an expert
completed a job in 5 days. they finish it in 4 days.
If A worked twice as How much renumeration
efficiently as he actually the expert should get?
did and B worked (1/3) as Solution11: First
efficiently as he actually friend's 4 day's work =
did, the work would have (4/12)=(1/3) (Since, the
been completed in 3 days. work is finished in 4 days, when expert assists) second
Find the time taken by A to friend's 4 day's work =(4/16)=(1/4)
complete the job alone. The expert's 4 day's work =1-(1/3)+(1/4)=(5/12)
Solution8: Let 'A' alone Now, total wages of Rs 960 is to be distributed among two
complete the job in 'a' days friends and the expert in proportion to the amount of work
and B in 'b' days. done by each of them. So, 960 is to be divided in the
Then, (1/a)+(1/b)=(1/5) (eqn 1) proportion of (1/3):(1/4):(5/12) or 4:3:5 :. Share of expert
(i.e. 1 day's combined work) and in second case, A works
twice efficiently, so A's 1 day work = 2 * (1/a) and B works
(1/3) as efficiently, so B's 1 day work = (1/3)*(1/b) :.
combined 1 day's work = (1/3) =(2/a)+(1/3b) (6/a)+(1/b)=1
(eqn 2)
Solving (1) and (2), we get, a = 6(1/4) :. A completes the job
alone in 6(1/4)days.

Example9: Kaberi takes twice as much time as Kanti and


thrice as much as Kalpana to finish a piece of work. They
together finish the work in one day. Find the time taken by
each of them to finish the work. Solution9 Here, the alone
time of Kaberi is related to the alone times of other two
persons, so assume the alone time of Kaberi = x, then,
alone time of Kanti = (x/2) and of Kalpana =(x/3) Kaberi's =(5/12)*960=Rs 400 Hence, the expert should get Rs 400.
1 day work + Kanti's 1 day work + Kalpana's 1 day work =
combined 1 day's work 1/x+1/(x/2)+1/(x/3)=1/1 x=6 :. Practice Questions:
Alone time for Kaberi = 6 days, for Kanti =(6/2)= 3 days, 1. Ram can polish the floor of a building in 16 days. Find
Kalpana =(6/3) = 2 the work done by Ram in one day.
days. 2. Mukesh can do (2/7) th of an work in 1 day. In how
many days can he complete the same work? Example: A
Example10: Anil and person 'P' can alone do a work in 10 days and 'Q' can do it
Sunil working in 15 days. What amount of work is done by P and Q
separately can together in one day?
assemble a computer 3. A person 'P' can alone do a work in 10 days and 'Q' can
in 10 hours and 12 do it in 15 days. What amount of work is done by P and Q
hours respectively. together in one day?
4. Three persons Ramesh, Suresh and Kana can do a job
alone in 10 days, 12 days and 15 days respectively. In how
many days they can finish the job working together?
5. A person 'M' can do a job in 15 days. How much of the
job is done by him in 7 days?
6. Two friends A and B can do a work alone in 12 days and
8 days respectively. Find the amount of work done by them
in 4 days.
7. Two persons P and Q can do a piece of work alone in 10
days and 15 days respectively. If P works for 2 days and Q
works for 5 days, then find the total amount of work done.
8. Dipa and Avik can do a piece of work in 20 days and 30
days respectively. They work together and Dipa leaves 5
days before the work is finished. Avik finishes the
remaining work alone. In how many days is the total work
finished?
Answer Key:
1. (1/16) th
2. 3(1/2) days

3. (1/6)th part of total work.


4. 4 days
5. (7/15)th the part of work
6. (5/6)th
7. (8/15)th
8. Total work is finished in 15 days.

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