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Bibliography of Particle Image Velocimetry Using Imaging Methods: 1917–1995

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Bibliography of Particle
Velocimetry Using Imaging
Methods: 1917-1995
DLR, Göttingen Anniversary Edition
___________________________

RONALD J. ADRIAN

September 2009

i
© Ronald J. Adrian, 2009

ii
Preface to the DLR, Göttingen Anniversary Edition

Sometime in 1990 Dr. Jeurgen Kompenhans visited the University of


Illinois to discuss PIV with my research group. He gave a seminar to us,
and we spent many worthwhile hours sharing our thoughts on the PIV
technique. During the course of this conversation he suggested that I
should publish a bibliography. As explained in the preface to the original
edition, this seemed to be within easy reach, since I had a collection of
500 papers already in hand. For years thereafter I conscientiously kept
copies of every PIV and PIV-related paper that I came across, and
entered their citations into a digital citation index. But there was never a
logical stopping point because, in hindsight, the rate of publication of
PIV papers was growing exponentially. By 1995, the rate of publication
began to overwhelm my enthusiasm for this project. Further, it was
becoming clear that citation search engines were becoming good enough
to replace manual compilation (although I still fancied that a
bibliography compiled by one knowledgeable in the field would be
superior to a machine search.) So, I followed the advice I once heard
attributed to Prof. Eli Sternberg, to wit “when your desk becomes too
cluttered with papers, it is time to publish.” The bibliography appeared
as a report of the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics in
1996. With the financial assistance of TSI, Inc. a number of copies were
printed and distributed, both by TAM and by TSI, and at that point, my
days as a bibliographer were over. I was not sure whether to thank
Jeurgen for his suggestion, or complain about getting me involved in
such a long project, but since it was over, I could only be happy.
I have always held a deep respect and admiration for Jeurgen
Kompenhans and his group working on PIV at DLR, Göttingen. They
have led the field in numerous important developments and they are
without question, the most successful group in the world of aerodynamic
applications of PIV. Their book on PIV is a gem that has enabled many
investigators to get a good start in PIV and to practice it with skill and
knowledge. It is also tangible proof of the generosity with which they

iii
have shared their knowledge through personal exchanges, publication
and the teaching of short courses.
In this, the 25th anniversary year of the entry of DLR, Göttingen into
PIV, it is indeed appropriate to celebrate by looking back over the
development of the field. Much can be learned about science and applied
research by experiencing the growth of a field from its inception. It is
also appropriate to thank the group led by Dr. Kompenhans at DLR,
Göttingen for their many contributions and their generosity. To this end,
I have prepared this DLR, Göttingen Special Edition of the PIV
bibliography and am pleased to dedicate it to Jeurgen and his colleagues.
Many of the references cannot be found by search engines, so it may still
serve a small useful purpose. To make it easier to use, the bibliography
has been converted to BibTex by Durella O’Donnell and Jon Baltzer who
deserve sincere thanks. I hope DLR will be able to make the BibTex files
available in the internet for searching.
In conclusion, I offer my most sincere congratulations and enthusiastic
thanks to DLR Göttingen for its many accomplishments in the field of
PIV and for outstanding professional leadership.

RONALD J. ADRIAN
Tempe
August, 2009

iv
Preface to the 1996 edition
______________________

In 1981, when I first became interested in PIV, it did not appear


necessary to know more than a few references on the subject: the
pioneering papers by Simpkins and Dudderar (1977, 1978), Barker and
Fourney (1977), Grousson and Mallick (1977), the series of papers
published by Roland Meynart during the course of his Ph.D. thesis at the
Free University of Brussels, and a few others. As is often the case, this
blissful unawareness of the literature eventually gave way to the
realization that there were many other papers that were also important,
especially those written by the community of researchers in solid
mechanics, whose work in laser speckle photography formed the
foundation for the development of laser speckle velocimetry for fluid
mechanics. Even so, by 1983, when I first published in this area, one
could feel reasonably expert having read not many more than a few
dozen articles.

In 1990 Juergen Kompenhans inquired about a list of references to


PIV and related subjects. By that time I had collected a file of more than
500 papers, and it seemed that a bibliography would be useful to workers
already in the field and make it easier for newcomers to enter. Thus
encouraged by an expression of interest, and by the thought that it would
not require much more than a hundred or so papers to complete the set of
citations, I set about producing this bibliography in what I hoped, would
take only a few months. Five years and more than one thousand
references later, it would be charitable to call this under-estimate of the
effort required naive. Fortunately, there is a satisfaction and a sense of
security in gaining a thorough grasp of the literature. Moreover, I have
learned many things that I would have missed otherwise, so the work has
had its rewards. I now hope that the reader will also find it possible to
derive some benefits from the use of this compilation.
v
I wish to express my appreciation to TSI, Inc. for supporting the
production of this report, and for providing a means of disseminating it
to a larger group of researchers than would normally be possible. They
have full permission to distribute this report to whoever would benefit
from it. TSI, Inc. also encouraged and supported the creation of a
companion electronic version of this bibliography using professional
bibliographic software and the relatively detailed classification
according to topical index numbers that was needed to take advantage of
the software's capability to perform fast, cross-referenced searches and
compilations using multiple fields. The classification that appears in this
report is a direct spin-off from the work on the electronic version.

Lastly, I am grateful to Darlene Mathine, Athan Chilton, Akmal


Saddiq and Chris Tomkins, all of whom provided valuable assistance in
the preparation of this work.

RONALD J. ADRIAN
Urbana
March, 1996

vi
Introduction

Introduction to the 1996 edition


Imaging methods for measuring the velocities of particles in fluid flow
fields capture two-dimensional or three-dimensional images of the
particles at two or more instants and infer the particle velocity from the
displacements of the images. The particle velocities are normally
interpreted to be the velocity of the underlying fluid motion if the
particles are small or neutrally buoyant; but the particles may also be
suspended matter in multiphase flow, in which case the particle velocity
and fluid velocity may differ. From an image of a particle it is also
possible to measure the size of the particle and sometimes its
temperature. The principle aspect of these methods which distinguishes
them from point-wise particle measurement techniques such as laser
Doppler velocimetry is that they obtain velocity field data. That is the
velocity data as a function of position on two- or possibly three-
dimensional domains.

The primary subjects of this bibliography are experimental


methods that use imaging techniques to measure particle velocities,
either to infer fluid flow fields or to study multiphase flow. The generic
names for these techniques are well-known: particle streak velocimetry
(PSV), laser speckle velocimetry (LSV), particle image velocimetry
(PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Various other terms-
pulsed light velocimetry (PLV), particle image displacement velocimetry
(PIDV), particle displacement velocimetry (PDV), digital particle image
velocimetry (DPIV), etc. - refer to essentially the same methods or minor
variants thereof. Holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) and
photogrammetric particle tracking velocimetry (PPTV) are three-
dimensional methods that can be implemented as LSV, PIV or PTV.
This bibliography is intended to be a complete compilation of all
accessible publications concerning these subjects. Because of their close
relationship to particle velocimetry techniques, relevant works on non-
particle-based methods of velocimetry such as scalar image velocimetry,
general image velocimetry, and Doppler global velocimetry have been
included routinely, as have particle-image-based, non-velocimetric
techniques which are natural adjuncts to particle image velocimetry such
as particle sizing and particle thermometry .
vii
Introduction

A number of references to related and/or ancillary subjects have


also been included, but without an effort to treat them exhaustively. The
intent is to give the user of the bibliography an easy entrée to the
literature concerning subjects that are likely be of supplemental interest.
Thus, the reader will find references for books on general optics; light
scattering by particles; particle fluid dynamics as it relates to the ability
of particles to follow fluid motion; special topics in optical technology,
such as spatial light modulators, that relate to processing methods for
PIV; general holography; and holographic recording of particle images.
Selected classic papers on laser speckle photography of the deformation
and motion of solid surfaces have been included, both to provide a
historical perspective and to acknowledge the contributions of those
works, which constitute the foundations for the development of LSV and
PIV in fluid mechanics. Selected recent works in solid mechanics have
also been included if they contain matter that could be imported
profitably into the fluid mechanics context. Lastly, there is a sampling
of works on other methods of measuring fluid flow field quantities,
especially those that could be combined with particle-based methods to
measure two or more different quantities: planar laser induced
fluorescence, tomographic interferometry, focusing schlieren, magnetic
resonance imaging, etc. These works often provide a useful counterpoint
against which the pros and cons of particle-based methods can be
evaluated.
Each reference has been classified according to a descriptor code
number found on the last line below the reference. The descriptor codes
are defined in the list that follows this Introduction. Each code number
consists of a main heading number that may be followed by a hyphen
and a subheading number. Multiple descriptors are separated by a slash.
Thus, 7-3/4-5 describes an article that treats the interrogation of PIV
images in conjunction with a method of determining the direction of
motion. The code 14-1/6 describes an article that deals with a multiphase
flow application using particle tracking velocimetry.
To be included in the printed bibliography, a work had to meet the
criterion of being accessible. In particular, publications from conferences
were not included if they were not available from an established

viii
Introduction

professional society or from a publishing house. Papers presented in


proceedings of symposia and conferences that were published by local
organizers (denoted by descriptor "1-4") are often difficult to obtain after
a few years; and, moreover, they are often published elsewhere at a later
date. Thus, they have not been listed in the printed bibliography. They
have, however, been entered into the electronic bibliography since one
purpose of this format is to locate the most current references in the
field.

The second criterion was that the work must deal with quantitative
aspects of measurement, in contrast to qualitative flow visualization. For
example, particle streak techniques have a very long and widespread
history as a means of visualizing flow patterns, but usually without
extracting quantitative velocity data from the streaks. Hence, these
works were not included, while work describing the development of
automatic, computer-controlled interrogation method for PSV has been
included.
A bibliography such as this offers insights into the development of
the field, and a few of these will be mentioned here. The earliest
quantitative particle-based measurement found in this bibliography is a
by J. L. Naylor and B. A. Frazier, "Preliminary report upon an
experimental method of investigating, by aid of kinematographic
photography, the history of eddying flow past a model immersed in
water", in Technical Report of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
for the Year 1917-1918, Vol. 1, 1917. (I am indebted to S. Moleshko for
uncovering this reference.) In their experiment Naylor and Frazier
recorded particle images on successive frames of a cinematic film. To
interrogate the film they used a pin to mark each particle location on a
piece of paper under the film, and then used images from several frames
to form streaks. They did this for 80 frames. Thus, the early work on
particle tracking velocimetry, while performed manually, also had an
80:1 dynamic range and no directional ambiguity! A copy of the main
figure from this work is reproduced above. It is remarkably similar in
quality and detail to results one can find in modern papers, showing that
much of the progress in PTV has been in the automation of the tracking
process, rather than the fundamental method itself.
ix
Introduction

FIGURE 1. Early particle tracking measurements of two-dimensional


unsteady flow around a cylinder were made using cinematography.
Figure reprinted from Naylor and Frazier (1917).

It is revealing to track the growth of the field according to the


publication rate. Figure 2 and Figure 3 show the number of accessible
publications published each year since 1974 on linear and semi-
logarithmic scales, respectively. 1977 was a watershed year for imaging
methods in fluid mechanics. Prior to this date the publications came
from measurement methods in solid mechanics. In 1977 four papers
appeared on laser speckle velocimetry (Dudderar and Simpkins 1977;
Berezin and Kudrinskii 1977; Grousson and Mallick 1977; and Barker
and Fourney 1977), two on holographic particle velocimetry (Royer
1977; Yano 1977), two on stereographic photogrammetric velocimetry
(Brodkey 1977; Elkins, et al. 1977), and one on interrogation by optical
correlation (Gara 1977). This spurt of activity is clearly visible in Figure
2. The increased activity during 1982-1984 was largely attributable to

x
Introduction

the work of R. Meynart, and 1984 marked the introduction of PIV, with
increased activity in the succeeding few years.

PIV CITATIONS PER YEAR

200
180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
81

91
73

75

77

79

83

85

87

89

93

95
19

19
19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19

19
YEAR

FIGURE 2. Number of accessible publications per year: 1973-1995.

On average it is clear from Figure 3 that the growth of


publications has been exponential since 1975, and has not begun to
approach saturation at the time of printing. (The count of 1995 papers is
estimated to be ten per cent low because the search for 1995 publications
is not as complete as for less recent years. Also, the bibliography of 1995
publications contains a smaller fraction of ancillary subjects than in
previous years.) The number of publications per year (counting only
accessible publications) is approximated by 10exp(0.15(Y-1975)) where
Y is the year. At this rate of growth the doubling period is 4.6 years.

xi
Introduction

EXPONENTIAL GROWTH OF PIV CITATIONS

1000

100

10

1
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000
YEAR

FIGURE 3. The number of publications per year on imaging velocimetry


is growing exponentially.

xii
Subject Index

SUBJECT INDEX NUMBERS

0 General Information
0-0 Books on optics, signal processing, light scattering,
particles, etc.
0-1 Related technologies
0-2 Related topics
1 General PIV/PTV Literature
1-1 Monographs, introductions, reviews, bibliographies and
histories
1-2 Catalogs, bulletins
1-3 Proceedings of conferences, symposia, workshops
(available thru a publishing house or society)
1-4 Proceedings of conferences, symposia, workshops
(not available thru a publishing house or society)
2 Particles
2-1 Particle dynamics
2-2 Light scattering and fluorescence
2-3 Particles for PIV
2-4 Generation and dispersion
3 Image Formation and Recording
3-1 Two-dimensional image formation
3-2 Three-dimensional image formation
3-3 Imaging elements and technology
3-4 Photographic films and techniques
3-5 Video camera technology
3-6 Other recording technologies
4 Optical Systems
4-1 Lasers and light sources
4-2 Light sheet systems
4-3 Volumetric systems
4-4 Stereo systems and third component
4-5 Directional ambiguity
4-6 Video systems
4-7 Time resolved systems
xiii
Subject Index

5 Image Processing
5-1 Digital image acquisition
5-2 Image enhancement
5-3 Spatial filtering
5-4 Digital FFT analysis and correlation
5-5 Optical correlation
5-6 Fringe analysis
6 Low Image Density PIV: Particle Tracking Velocimetry
6-1 Particle streak and multi-exposure velocimetry
6-2 Theory
6-3 Pre-processing and centroid location
6-4 Interrogation: pairing, displacement pdf, tracking
6-5 Optimization and performance
6-6 Validation and post-processing
6-7 Vector field validation and interpolation
6-8 Techniques
7 High Image Density PIV
7-1 Theory
7-2 Pre-processing
7-3 Interrogation-Young's fringe analysis, FT of Young's
fringes, autocorrelation, cross-correlation, displacement
pdf
7-4 Optimization criteria, performance, and statistical biasing
7-5 Validation and post-processing
7-6 Techniques
8 Laser Speckle Velocimetry
8-1 Speckle theory
8-2 Interrogation: Young’s fringe analysis, FT of Young's
fringes, spatial filtering
8-3 Techniques
9 Photogrammetric PTV
9-1 Particle location and identification
9-2 Vector field reconstruction
9-3 Applications
9-4 Validation and post-processing
xiv
Subject Index

9-5 Techniques
10 Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry
10-1 Particle holography
10-2 Holographic PTV
10-3 Holographic PIV
10-4 Holographic Techniques
11 Multi-phase flow
11-1 Particle images
11-2 Measurement of particle concentration
11-3 Measurement of particle size
11-4 Lagrangian particle trajectories
11-5 Joint measurement of fluid velocity and suspension velocity
12 Special Topics
12-1 Statistical analysis and averaging of turbulence
measurements
12-2 Measurement of vorticity and rate of strain
12-3 Refraction effects
13 Related field measurement methods
13-1 Molecular markers
13-2 Magnetic resonance imaging
13-3 PLIF
13-4 Doppler shift methods-Doppler global, scanned lidar, etc.
13-5 Temperature measurements
13-6 Density measurement and visualization (Schlieren,
interferometry, tomography, etc)
14 Applications
14-1 Multiphase flow
14-2 Rotating Machinery
14-3 Turbulence
14-4 Combustion
14-5 Aerodynamics
14-6 Separated flow
14-7 Complex flows
14-8 Free surface flows
14-9 Free shear flows
xv
Subject Index

14-10 Wall turbulence


14-11 Stratified and buoyant flow
14-12 Lagrangian data
14-13 Vorticity and derivative fields
14-14 Compressible flow
14-15 Unsteady flow
14-16 Laminar and non-Newtonian flow
14-17 Rotating flow
14-18 Acoustics

xvi
Alphabetical PIV References

Bibliography of Particle
Velocimetry Using Imaging
Methods: 1917-1995
DLR, Göttingen Anniversary Edition
___________________________

Section 1. Citations listed alphabetically

1
Alphabetical PIV References

ABE, T. & AMARA, A. 1995 Application of particle-tracking velocimetry to visualization of


flows in imitative compound open-channel with vegetated zone. In Flow Visualization VII (ed.
J. P. Crowder), pp. 701–707. New York: Begell House, 1/14-8.
ABOUELATA, M. 1977 The microstructure of the photographic image. In Neblett’s Handbook of
Photography and Reprography, pp. 197–233. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 0-0/3-4.
ABRAMSON, N. 1978 Light-in-flight recording by holography. Opt. Lett. 3, 121, 4-1.
ADAMCZYK, A. A. & RIMAI, L. 1988 2-Dimensional particle tracking velocimetry (PTV):
technique and image processing algorithms. Exp. Fluids 6, 373–380, 6-4.
ADAMCZYK, A. A. & RIMAI, L. 1988 Reconstruction of a 3-dimensional flow field from or-
thogonal views of seed track video images. Exp. Fluids 6, 380–386, 4-3/9-2.
ADELSON, E. 1991 Mechanisms for motion perception. Opt. and Photon News 2, 24–30, 0-2.
ADELSON, E. H. & BERGEN, J. R. 1985 Spatiotemporal energy models for the perception of
motion. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 2, 284–299, 0-2.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1981 Measurement potential of laser speckle velocimetry. In Flow Visualization
and Laser Velocimetry for Wind Tunnels. Langley Res. C.: NASA, 1-4/7-3/5-5.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1983 Laser velocimetry. In Fluid Mechanics Measurements (ed. R. J. Goldstein),
pp. 155–244. Washington, DC: Hemisphere, 0-0.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1984 Scattering particle characteristics and their effect on pulsed laser measure-
ments of fluid flow: speckle velocimetry vs particle image velocimetry. Appl. Opt. 23, 1690–1691,
2-2/6-2/7-2.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1985 Multi-point vector measurement by pulsed laser velocimetry with image
compression. In Proc. Intl. Symp. Fluids Control and Meas. (ed. M. Harada et al.), pp. 1087–
1093. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1-3/5-4/7-3.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1986 An image shifting technique to resolve directional ambiguity in double-pulsed
velocimetry. Appl. Opt. 25, 3855–3858, 4-5.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1986 Multi-point optical measurements of simultaneous vectors in unsteady flow-a
review. Intl. J. Heat Fluid Flow 7, 127–145, 4-5.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1988 Double exposure, multiple-field particle image velocimetry for turbulent
probability density. Opt. Lasers Engr. 9, 211–228, 6-8/12-1.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1988 Statistical properties of particle image velocimetry measurements in turbulent
flow. In Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mech. III , pp. 115–129. Lisbon: Ladoan, Inst. Superior
Tecnico, 6-2/7-1/7-4.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1991 Optical instrumentation for measurement of fluid velocity fields. In Fluid
Engineering, Korea-U.S. Progress (ed. J. H. Kim, J. M. Hyun & C. O. Lee), pp. 311–330.
Washington, D. C.: Hemisphere, 1-1/7-6.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1991 Particle-imaging techniques for experimental fluid mechanics. Ann Rev. Fluid
Mech. 23, 261–304, 1-1.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1993 On the contribution of multi-point experimental techniques to the study of
turbulence. In New Concepts and Approaches in Turbulence (ed. T. Dracos & A. Tsinober),
pp. 341–348. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag, 14-3.
ADRIAN, R. J. 1995 Limiting resolution of particle image velocimetry for turbulent flow. In
Advances in Turbulence Research-1995, Proc. 2nd Turbulence Research Assoc. Conf., pp. 1–19.
Pohang: Pohang Inst. Tech, 7-1/3-1.

2
Alphabetical PIV References

ADRIAN, R. J., ASANUMA, T., DURAO, D. F. G., DURST, F. & WHITELAW, J. H.


1989 Applications of Laser Anemometry to Fluid Mechanics. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1-3.
ADRIAN, R. J., DURAO, D. F. G., DURST, F., ASANUMA, T. & WHITELAW, J. H.
1988 Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics- III . Lisbon: Ladoan, Instituto Superior Tecnico,
1-1.
ADRIAN, R. J., DURAO, D. F. G., DURST, F., HEITOR, M. V., MAEDA, M. &
WHITELAW, J. H. 1993 Laser Techniques and Applications in Fluid Mechanics. Berlin:
Springer, 1-3.
ADRIAN, R. J., DURAO, D. F. G., DURST, F., MAEDA, M. & WHITELAW, J. H. 1991
Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1-3.
ADRIAN, R. J., DURAO, D. F. G., DURST, F., MISHINA, H. & WHITELAW, J. H.
1986 Laser Anemometry in Fluid Mechanics II . Lisbon: Ladoan, Inst Superior Tecnico, 1-1.
ADRIAN, R. J., MEINHART, C. D., BARNHART, D. H. & PAPEN, G. C. 1993 An HPIV
system for turbulence research. In Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (ed. E. P. Rood),
pp. 17–22. New York: ASME, 1-3/10-3.
ADRIAN, R. J., OFFUTT, P. W., HANRATTY, T. J., LIU, Z. C. & LANDRETH, C. C.
1990 Studies of liquid turbulence using double-pulsed particle correlation. In Appl. of Laser
Techniques to Fluid Mech. (ed. R. J. Adrian et al.), pp. 435–450. Berlin: Springer-Verlag,
1-3/14-3/14-11.
ADRIAN, R. J. & YAO, C. S. 1983 Development of pulsed laser velocimetry (PLV) for measure-
ment of turbulent flow. In Proc. 8th Turbulence Symp. (ed. X. B. Reed et al.), pp. 170–186.
Univ. Missouri-Rolla, 1-3/7-1/7-3.
ADRIAN, R. J. & YAO, C. S. 1984 Pulsed laser technique application to liquid and gaseous
flows and the scattering power of seed materials. Appl. Opt. 24, 44–52, 4-2/2-2/3-1.
AGHAJAN, H. K., SCHAPER, C. D. & KAILATH, T. 1993 Machine vision techniques for
subpixel estimation of critical dimensions. Optical Engineering 32, 828–838, 6-3.
AGUI, J. C. & JIMENEZ, J. 1987 On the performance of particle tracking. J. Fluid Mech. 185,
447–468, 6-5/6-6.
AKBARI, H. & BJELKHAGEN, H. I. 1986 Holography in 15-foot bubble chamber at Fermilab.
In Practical Holography, pp. 7–12. Bellingham, WA: SPIE, 10-1.
AKIN, O. & ROCKWELL, D. 1994 Flow structure in a radial flow pumping system using high-
image-density particle image velocimetry. J. Fluids Engr. 116, 538–544, 14-2/7-6.
AKIN, O. & ROCKWELL, D. 1994 Interaction of zones of flow separation in a centrifugal
impeller-stationary vane system. Exp. Fluids 17, 427–433, 14-2/7.
AKINO, N., KUNUGI, T., UEDA, M. & KUROSAWA, A. 1988 Liquid crystal thermometry
based on automatic color evaluation and applications to measure turbulent heat transfer. In
Transport Phenomena in Turbulent Flows, pp. 807–820. New York: Hemisphere, 13-5.
AKIYAMA, M., IKEZAKI, A. & SUGIYAMA, H. 1989 Flow visualization in curved square duct
using image processing controlled by microcomputer. In Flow visualization V (ed. R. Reznicek),
pp. 203–208. Washington: Hemisphere, 6-4.
AKIYAMA, M., SUZUKI, M. & NISHIWAKI, I. 1977 Transport phenomena of ventilating
flows in a rectangular room. In Flow Visualization (ed. T. Asanuma), pp. 135–142. New York:
McGraw-Hill, 6-8/14-7.
AKIYAMA, M., SUZUKI, M., NISHIWAKI, I., ARNOLD, W., HINSCH, K. & PLATEN,
W. 1986 Analysis of non-stationary flows by evaluating the fringe visibility in speckle velocime-
try. In Flow visualization IV (ed. C. Veret), pp. 127–132. Wash. DC: Hemisphere, 8-3.

3
Alphabetical PIV References

ALAHYARI, A. & LONGMIRE, E. K. 1994 Particle image velocimetry in a variable density


flow: application to a dynamically evolving microburst. Exp. Fluids 17, 434–440, 7/12-3/14-11.
ALAHYARI, A. & LONGMIRE, E. K. 1995 Dynamics of experimentally simulated microbursts.
AIAA J. 33, 2128–2136, 7/14-11.
ALAHYARI, A. & LONGMIRE, E. K. 1995 Light scattering by irregular particles in the
Rayleigh-Gans-Debye approximation. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 28, 1304–1308, 2-2.
ALBERT, R. & FARRELL, P. V. 1994 Droplet sizing using the shifrin inversion. J. Fluids Engr.
116, 357–362, 11-3.
ALEXANDER, B. F. & NG, K. C. 1991 Elimination of systematic error in subpixel accuracy
centroid estimation. Opt. Engr. 30, 1320–1331, 6-3.
ALTMAN, D. B. 1988 Critical layer in accelerating two-layer flows. J. Fluid Mech. 197, 429, 6-1.
ALTMAN, D. B. 1991 Statistics of optimal particle streak photography. Phys. Fluids A. 3, 2132–
2137, 6-1.
ANDERS, K., ROTH, N. & FROHN, A. 1993 The velocity change of ethanol droplets during
collision with a wall analysed by image processing. Exp. Fluids 15, 91–96, 6-8/14-1.
ANDERSON, D. J., MORGAN, R. D., MCCLUSKEY, D. R., JONES, J. D. C., EASSON,
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Bibliography of Particle
Velocimetry Using Imaging
Methods: 1917-1995
DLR, Göttingen Anniversary Edition
___________________________

Section 2. Citations listed chronologically

80
Chronological PIV References

1917
NAYLER, J. L. & FRAZER, B. A. 1917 Preliminary report upon an experimental method of
investigating, by the aid of kinematographic photography, the history of eddying flow past
a model immersed in water. Tech. Rep.. Technical Report of the Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics for the Year 1917-1918, London, 6.

1932
FAGE, A. & TOWNEND, H. C. H. 1932 An examination of turbulent flow with an ultramicro-
scope. Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A. 135, 656–677, 14-10/6-1.

1934
SIMMENS, L. F. G. & SALTER, C. 1934 Experimental investigation and analysis of the velocity
variations in turbulent flow. Proc. Roy. Soc. London 145 A, 212, 6-8/14-3.

1949
KOVASZNAY, L. S. G. 1949 Technique for the optical measurement of turbulence in high speed
flow. In Heat Trans. and Fluid Mech. Inst., pp. 211–222. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of California, 7-3.

1951
MCKAY, H. C. 1951 Three Dimensional Photography. Minneapolis: Jones Press, 4-4.

1952
CAFFYN, J. E. & UNDERWOOD, R. M. 1952 An improved method for the measurement of
the velocity profiles in liquids. Nature 169, 239–240, 6.

1955
UBEROI, M. S. & KOVASZNAY, L. S. G. 1955 Analysis of turbulence density fluctuations by
the shadow method. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 19–24, 13-6.

1957
REICHARDT, W. 1957 Autokorrelationsauswertung als functionsprinzip des zentralnervensys-
tems. Zeitschrift Naturforschung 12b, 447–457, 5-4.

81
Chronological PIV References

1958
WINTER, E. F. 1958 Flow visualization techniques applied to combustion problems. J. Roy. Aero.
Soc. 62, 268–276, 14-4.

1959
SOO, S. L., TIEN, C. L. & KADAMBI, V. 1959 Determination of turbulence characteristics
of solid particles in a two-phase stream by optical autocorrelation. Rev. Sci. Instrum . 30,
821–824, 5-5.

1961
van MEEL, D. A. & VERMIJJ, H. 1961 A method for flow visualization and measurement of
velocity vectors in three-dimensional flow patterns in water models by using colour photography.
Appl. Sci. Res. 10, 109–117, 4-4.

1963
BECKMANN, P. & SPIZZICHINO, A. 1963 The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from
Rough Surfaces. London: Pergamon, 1-1/1-2.

1964
van der LUGT, A. 1964 Signal detection by complex spatial filtering. IEEE Trans. Inform Theory
IT-10, 139–145, 5-5.
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Mech. 18, 302–314, 2-1.

1965
GOLDFISCHER, L. I. 1965 Autocorrelation function and power spectrum density of laser pro-
duced speckle patterns. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 247–253, 8-1.

1966
COX, A. 1966 Photographic Optics. London: Focal, 0-0.
HJELMFELT, A. T. & MOCKROS, L. F. 1966 Motion of discrete particles in turbulent fluid.
Appl. Sci. Res. 16, 149–161, 2-1.
MEES, C. E. K. & JAMES, T. H. 1966 The Theory of the Photographic Process. New York:
Macmillan, 0-0/3-4.
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accelerating in a viscous fluid. J. Fluid Mech. 25, 591–592, 2-1.
THOMPSON, B. J. & WARD, J. H. 1966 Particle holography. Sci. Res. 37, 10-1.
WEAVER, C. S. & GOODMAN, J. W. 1966 A technique for optically convolving two functions.
Appl. Opt. 5, 1248, 5-5.

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1967
BRESLIN, J. A. & EMRICH, R. J. 1967 Precision measurement of parabolic profile for laminar
flow of air between parallel plates. Phys. Fluids. 10, 2289–2292, 4-1/6-8.
CLAYTON, B. R. & MASSEY, B. S. 1967 Flow visualization in water: a review of techniques.
J. Sci. Intrum. 44, 2–11, 1-1.
GOODMAN, J. W. 1967 Film-grain noise in wavefront-reconstruction imaging. J. Opt. Soc. Am.
57, 493–502, 3-4/10-1.
KINOSHITA, R. 1967 An analysis of the movement of flood waters by aerial photography, con-
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POPOVICH, A. T. & HUMMEL, R. L. 1967 A new method for non-disturbing turbulent flow
measurements very close to a wall. Chem. Engr. Sci. 22, 21–25, 13-1/14-10.
POPOVICH, A. T. & HUMMEL, R. L. 1967 Experimental study of the viscous sublayer in
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1968
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