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El Filibusterismo

Chapter 7: Simoun

- Basilio discovered Simoun to be Ibarra who buried his mom on that exact spot 13 years ago
- Basilio pursued Science
- Simoun disclosed all his plans to Basilio and decided not to kill him

Chapter 10: Wealth and Misery

- Simoun sold jewels

- Cabesang Tales wanted to buy Maria Clara’s jewelry
- The next day, Cabesang Tales escaped and stole Simoun’s revolver to join the Tulisanes
- He murdered 3 people and put soil in their mouth with his name written with blood
- Rizal mentioned real names of Calamba victims

Chapter 39: The Final Chapter

- Simoun took refuge in Padre Florentino’s house

- He drank some chemical to kill himself
- He told Padre Florentino all his secrets and the things he has done
- Simoun died and Padre Florentino threw his prized jewels into the Pacific

The Rizal-Pastells Correspondence by Raul Bonoan, 1996

- Self-love
- ‘I do not aspire for external fame and renown;… my only desire is to do what is possible, what
lies in my hands, what is necessary. I have seen a little ray of light and I believe it is my duty to
point it out to my countrymen.’
- Religions make men not enemies of each other, but brothers and good brothers at that
- ‘I know there are kinder trees providing kinder shades, but in the midst of darkness that reigns
over my fatherland, I search not for shades but for light.’
- ‘I agree that intelligence cannot encompass all forms of knowledge and all truths’
- ‘super natural light is much more perfect than human reason’
- I do not mean to disregard what the sacred books, dogmas, precepts have to say. On the
contrary these books are the final analysis.
- Those who consume more than they produce incur the hatred of the world, and victory belongs
only to the one who seeks the perfection of others as well as his own
- ‘we are in perfect agreement with regard to the existence of God’
- Man makes his own God according to his own image and likeness and then attributes his to his
own works
- I believe in revelation
- The church too bears the human imprint (the church has flaws too)
- ‘for me, Christ Man is greater than Christ God.’

The Religiosity of the Filipino People by Dr. Jose Rizal

- ‘the religious fervor of the people.’

- ‘ it is not unusual to hear one who once exalted his faith and morality afterwards laugh and
despise what he had so highly praised.’
- ‘ at first one promises himself to say the whole naked truth; later he will be obliged to dress and
adorn to make it acceptable; afterwards he will have to hide it to put it in its place a manikin,
which, if it is not a lie, ought to resemble it very closely.’
- ‘two parts: one dealing with internal worship and the other with external religious ceremonies.’
A. Internal worship

Idea of Divinity

- ‘ nobody on earth has an exact and perfect idea of God.’; ‘man is not expected to do more than
his strength would allow.’
- ‘ the clarity of our idea of the creator will depend on the degree of our ignorance or the
development of intellectual faculties.’
- The typical Christians believe in: existence of God, the unity of God and the Trinity, full
understanding of eternity
- ‘the Filipino person is an obedient and humble believer. If his reason encounters an obstacle or
else an anomaly with which he disagrees, he will not seek a hypothesis to explain it; on the
contrary, he will smother with scruples or silent protests in the fire of his faith or in his great
confidence in the mysterious.;

The virgins and the saints

- The virgin as the Mother of the Savior and the virgin as the different images that represent her.
- ‘ it is not the idea but the symbol that they venerate and worship.’
- ‘so great are their faith and confidence to these saints that almost never do they ask God for the
object of their desires.’
- ‘the most miraculous images are the worst made, the oldest or the ones that inspire great terror
or respect’

Immortality of the Soul

- Some towns believe that those who are not Christian have no soul and so they look upon the
Chinese as entirely different beings.
Idea of Future Life

- Heaven, hell, and purgatory

Virtue and Sin

- ‘the people, defective or scanty education, without any idea or exact knowledge of their
religion, naturally judge things according to their education and ability and are many times
deceived by the surface or appearance rather than by their fundamental merit.’
- ‘quite often their intelligence cannot grasp the true meaning of Christian doctrines. They adapt
themselves to the character and imitate if not their virtues, at least their defects.’
- ‘you can maltreat him, slap him, and kill his mortal life. You can do all this and even more and no
one will say you are a bad Christian so long as you hear mass, you confess, you take communion,
and attend processions, praying all day and fasting on days marked on the calendar.’
- ‘the commandments of the church are more respected than the law of God’
B. External Worship


- ‘perhaps they [Filipinos] are the only catholics who still preserve primitive traditions.’
- The most common prayers are the rosary and the novena
- Masses are the most powerful means to which a man can resort to obtain Divine Will

Promises and Offerings


- Pilgrimage to Our Lady of Antipolo is the most important in the archipelago

Veneration Without Understanding by Renato Constantino

- ‘in the histories of many nations, the national revolution represents the peak of achievements to
which the minds of man return time and again in reverence and for a renewal of faith in
- Almost always the leader of that revolution becomes the principal hero of the people
- ‘our national hero was not the leader of our Revolution. In fact, he repudiated the revolution.’
- Rizalists have taken the easy way out
- Rizal repudiated the one act which really synthesized our nationalist aspiration, and yet we
consider him a nationalist leader.
- Rizal was an American-sponsored hero. It took two forms: encouraging of a rizal cult and
minimizing or even vilifying the importance of other heroes.
- Governor William Howard Taft was the one who suggested that the Filipinos be given a national
- Aguinaldo was too militant, Bonifacio was too radical, and Mabini unregenerate
- ‘the Americans favoured a hero who would not run against the grain of American colonial
- ‘the Americans especially emphasized that Rizal was a reformer, not a separatist.’
- ‘rizal belonged to the right social class [ilustrados], the class that they [Americans] were
cultivating and building up for leadership.’
- ‘the study of his life and workds has developed into a cult distorting role and the place of Rizal in
our history.’
- If there had been no rizal, another talent would have appeared
- ‘Rizal saw more clearly than his contemporaries and felt with more intensity the problems of the
- Rizal was a limited Filipino who fought for national unity although afraid of the revolution and
fought for his mother country in his own ilustrado way.
- Rizal lived through a period of economic changes accompanied with cultural and political
- Hispanization became the conscious manifestation of economic struggle.
- ‘he had to become a Spanish first before becoming a Filipino.’
- ‘instead of making Filipinos closer to spain, the propaganda gave root to separation.’; ‘the drive
for hispanization became a development of a distinct national consciousness.’
- Filipino Nationhood: the winning of our name as a race, the recognition of our people as one,
and the elevation of the indio into Filipino.
- Filipino: Spaniards born in the Philippines; Indio: natives
- Limited Filipinos: those who spoke in the name of the people but were not really of the people
- All the principal characters in rizal’s books belonged to the principalia
- ‘his class position, his upbringing and his foreign education were profound influences which
constituted a limitation on his understanding of his countrymen.
- ‘rizal, therefore, was an ilustrado hero whose life’s mission corresponded in a general way to the
wishes and aspirations of the people.’
- ‘he died for his people, yet his repudiation of the revolution was an act against the people’; rizal
was acting from patriotic moves.
- Liberty and independence is different: ‘a people can be free without being independent, and a
people can be independent without being free.’
- Rizal avoided the use of the term independence
- The ilustrados were the hispanized sector of our population
- Rizal and the propagandists were the embodiment of consciousness without movement while
Bonifacio and the Katipunan embodied the unity of revolutionary consciousness and
revolutionary practice.
- ‘we must see rizal historically’
- Hero worship must be critical and historical
- Many of rizal’s social criticisms are still valid today because certain aspects of our life are still
carry-overs of the feudal and colonial society of his time
- ‘we need new heroes who can help us solve our pressing problems. We cannot rely on rizal
- ‘the true hero is one with the masses’