You are on page 1of 96
4 > ie ) ) d 9 ) 3 CEOEOSCHSHOHKRHOSHOCHHHKESLUEY a CaucuLus, 1. Umits and Conkinuity 2. Aifferentiotion i 3. Refirite Integrals anaproper Integrals > 44, Paxtiod Arfferentiakion s. Muilipl. Integeals 6. Vector Aifferertiotion T., Veckor ntegreion a &. Fourter Series wetonddtion and Coleus Ub dafinad' as scence acegleration, & vendtion - . chon: Actalobion behwcen two Ads ae La ungue Yee st FOOY iy Explicit Pusnetioms—> ef OG a 2 9nd oct Aependant indspendort vaniobl voniobls iy, Smplict_firdion > (20%, =X) C whee we BLED 4 AE yw tity Composite _fameioni—> B= FOU? fe: x tb fonction of om Function. | Some- Specdal_finctors—> > Even Ranckton > fos FOO Ee coex, Pet, ~~~ iy Odd function: —> fews —FO0 Be ans, x) ==. Gil) Modulus Fanchion: > x 5 KPO 7 gous l= )-x 3 x <0 ba O3 o 7 f= to x#e Gy) Step - furction/ Greatest Integer Fanchon] fooz. Len © 2 thee, nN 2K ened Se Eral= #5. 07999 = Symmetric _finpertics thy curve: —> het fOoy=c. be Me er Qt ve FoR contolns only even powers te WH $m yd = fooy Han dk aymmeble about. ¥- aed4- diy Go Fos combats only even powers Py he fOo-y)= fory? Hhun He UW dymmebic abou > axis. d ) a a oo oovgovesg y eooev0cv0ue jcoceoeoeao Gil) Sf FOuyy= FCI). ARs, He carve _aymmebic olbout as = & 4. himit of a-function:—> fet 00 be defined &m dabsted radeh bour- ho 4 aeR, Hon, LER w sold to be Smit qy fod a % opprooch a. of for ae €>0 3 S>0 such thd jgoo—t] <€ whenever ]x-al< 6. heft Smit > shin x<0, XO fim “fou = im 4f0-b) xa or hoo ‘Riga Laat lakin”. >a, XS Yim. foo, = “tim Fah) seo oh Hoo A init exile YF LHL = RAL Indaterminole Romi 9, B, OFM, mm, Orie — © ruc) dunever we hove tim £2. ar Sor SI = tim 2 xa 900 of mera gio ~ indsterminote. Bhis rut opplied unl we ont free from forn. (This rule called Lnospited Rut’) Shomdond fits —> non (Ch Airey eal at X40 xX a diy ai w) ~) wd wily Be Aid oo . Xoo ae willy Brey An mx HHO x40 0) Rim. (ee "= lee 2 Ve, Lm [esx+a anbx] “= € xo oT & x40 = ony) Sins, [i xs 0 < ea ab Qusstions > Basiont 3 De de os Bae oa R40 x Ain 2 oO Fi 5 Sol":— Gm I BK my Bain Oo XO AIN2X x40 AlN 2% + 2K COS2~ 9 5 = bm 9 5% o ae Deo dx 4 2.00. 2% — x Andre 2 Sess 2 ; - og wa Creek ae as 70 Calin ox) /xe a 4 nA? O50 ao 26 Bre Ane a 2 ~ ES xe K x FC wt Wo) 2 oO 4 ca) <4 SI im Pain (EP xa oo z Roxy 2 5 Ce a «Sim y = ye 4 too s. bm Se, X30 Cot X ga Nim IY dim ee 0 cot 40 ease cr i xo 2 OL CcOCCHHOHKECHCOCHOHHHVGHKVSGVDODOWY 4. Lim tan % XB fog (esx) eatin fim NK tm Atm HAR bag (CHEE een dime x ahr cate 3 _— s. Um ton% oe 5 sd a ca Ft as Umit doem't exists CF LHL # RHE) (ea cata a Z = = 6. Bm Ainx fog? c : - te a0 : gation Bim Ain tog? = Gin bog Um 2. = m0 HOO" pppoe 2, .Ae7O , — Ceseex cok tin, Cas age Hers), = = = 0. Note:—> co 5 aah tog, = de ce 3 apt . TB Oe) ton Te x4 2 SAN fm 1) ton Es tim £0 2 Bm 1 mH = xT cot reas Beosec™ (BX) 2 er 2 RK Notes th Bm Ain) 50, WD Um Ain (Ya), deeenote : x40 x0 exists. i dim An (%) = 4 mee ry | | ~B. Gn [4-4 fog (4490) Ub 4 x40 + boi co tb (a-L x0 0) x SAM My at = = im {= ge) = Um [- ot 2% Lim lawn? i X90 2 a = 2 tw (nee ae 12 x40 xe Fr2e' 2 ob 2 2 - 8 > fey y= % fogn Bie [lag yT = in Getags) 2 hay (ity 2) = 0 x0 x0 COCHSHOHCHECLCHOCHOOKOSGLOVORODB0000 1 Bim (eos 12. Lim (age 4 qo Sire geo eo-1] e Notes Mh we hove P form, fim [$00] x90 Vainx. tee Urn Ue ain) : x40 ac AL [te ainx - eet eee oa ; ‘} : Yat 1G. dim. (ess) ™ 1 [emt] Qin ace ane , eosx-t in got mo Sil | -y ze se ea NE 15. (z nasty” = ae Ao = ae eae ¥ slawe 2 REO = A. 16 Lim (ee*) KAD. 2 5 Nhe ob 2x3 6 7. Sim (Leesxt gansx) = 2 =e = e°. x0 0° | eooeoevoe oe eooeoooooengoscoo0oon0s0090 a4 18. Un [ 2 con x + 3 ain» ] Ss x0 Ye = ba Roxx + 3 ¥, im 2 oem RAIMA] = tin a tim [eae & sinter]! X90 KA0 2 = doemot extets. Cl LHEFRUL for Lim oy 0 19. Sim PI = 9 x0 Sot": LHL =, Lim PE di \-h} y xaom hao oh RAL = Bim BD im Oe hao tue #, RHE 2. Brat doct exiete 29. Lim [x7 doesr’t exists whn a ib a xa car Redi'ne. U2) Raltpnad now) Cy Snbeger ” aati 2 Sot WF asd . tue = Lm [xd =f x27 pars Sim (xd 2 xt tucg¢ RHE => Bint doen't exiehs Continuity of a function —> w Continuity at a point: —> A fe? Bb gold to be continue fim foo = flo KO at a pont asa , if Gi Continuity ty _on_tnterwe+ A 4” foo & posd to be continue in [a,b] tf it Aotiafies dhe fottousing tree conditions: = (o> ft continunus NE 7 € Cov P? by Bm. Foor J + xa’ ce Bim _ foo= Ft) nab Py ay x#D rts foo = hack its continuity ae 222 — ok x= 2. bn gone tn, 8s te Go Bur of x22, fOr? foo not continumw, of = 2- (ss 5 x#0 aiy fo0= 2 é 3 Keo Bm (443-1) me % Yc fim foo Bin 3 =e x40 240 Ci 2. foo continuous at x= O- 1 ph OK ed . 4 . z 3 xe Box 3 Lexet 3 3 bo xz ‘dhun ushich aN "fettouing & dese Co) foo UL YAY continuous ob x=0 (OF foo is diocamtinious at x= 4 6 foo YU continuous ak x et wd) bse St" to) 410 =O, - + Joooeeoeeoooevocococovocve000g0gFS90909000% 2. Differentiation > A fu” foo B sold 40 be differentials at . e ; Pesce ie tire aicesicom ten 3 : aoe a one g Pinte. 4 vepretented by fo. heft_Hand Aedvative:> fim 4¢e- 8) HO. Hoo ee Right Hond_Aervatives— Bim lerhd “$60. Ano re Necessary cond” fora fu to be differentiobl Lup = RMD. Note niyo = bd & Trek differentisbl ok x=07 ap = Bm FOnAHO 2 Be Ih 2 = hoo Th loo: oh gaps fim lord HO . 4 hao 4h - ae LDF RHO Net differential diy [x-a) Uw not differential ok x=a. Gi laxsb) is not differentiablk of xs far Quito d. feos ba ae Peat Ve-2) Os differerHioblb at x = ———- 0 t-1 2 a. Lek fem e [art] be defined in the tntervel (0,47 fan, iO Foo continue 4 differertiobls ey foo eh = Continuo bo non- differentiabl te) foo not Continua but differentiob td) Joo Boner differentials nev continvous 7 Be SY FOO = IRD ashore ER, thin, foo at x0 (a) corinucus but not differential () Once “Hi fferentiobl’ luk not duice HO Twice diffeventiabl: bub not thrice Cd) Thrice differentiable 8 sot: xt 5 xr0 = foor PE ye 5 eg © 5 eso $oo)= 0, LHL=0, -RHL= O- t= Um flo“) = J) 2 tae hee ~h 2 hao RD = Lim -HOI- HOG hao wm hae § ‘2 LHD= RHD =>. differentiobli 1 3x2 Ko a Flos = “a ~Bx? , mx 20 . o , x20 6x XO ° Hex) = WEP oy f -ex, eo = Ola 0 , xed fe 6 2 PO y= ~t 0 -x<0 not diff. x= 0 loOCCOCHHECLOLCORSFFDOKLOVOODSVOFI9O0099009 u z 4. R fOr aC R+x %20 ae Shin $60 oF x20 0) Continuows £ diffeventiabl continuous bur not differiadtiobly Co Bifferentiail bur not continuous td) Neier diff. nor continu = conHinuous StS floy= 2402.2, LHE= 9-022, RHL= 2t+O=2 Lupe bw [2 A)I-2 1 oe Non - Bifferentiobl. Gin (24h=2)e 1" RHD= hao Noteit >’ Evdy differentiotl fo? Ba continuous, fu" iy Buk every continuous 4h not differentiobl, Mean-:Vobue Theorem *—> w® Rolle’e_Sheovernt—> fet poo be defined in Ta.b] At ik Aobiefies Hwee cond: foo continuous fu” th ca, ’) Ue FLO ue differentiablt fe? tn (o,b) te fears Ft) , dun, Sure exits oftleott one point ¢ €-Ca,b)) whee 4-4 $'ee7.<0 db fagronge’s meen Valin Theor? fat f00, P+ defined tn [2,¥J ak. th sakisfies Live cond”: tay four veombinuows: fo" oo E97 te) $00 differentiat fo" in (4,6) * oO thin, J attest ons point ¢, iy (a,b) At {le = fey = $00 b-a Note: 4, fO0 & defied oy La,ash] Ate (a foo U conkinudt th Ca, arh) 9 te) FOO U differentiak in Co, a+h) fhin F 8 ECO, At $larhy= far+h f'lar0h) Guution: > {oo dhe muan- vols 'c? fer. the qu" feree® Calinx = A ghey = Er [eos n te dina] +e Lab cox) = 2 AO & glecys 2e inc = 0 > 7 O,rN, 52K, - 2. dha man vous ‘ce? for dha fu” gon = oe Hab in [0,4] &- Ca) 2+ 2 tb), 2 D 222 (a) None is e G oy = satin flo = -6 f= 64-96 +44-6 = 6 Gly BaP S ia9.4 Ht — $10) fic = Bea treat = fy = FH0) 4-0 = och woes Aas 12 o oO o oO 9 9 Oo 9 8 8 3. 3 @ ° 0 Q. e ° e ° e e ° e @ e e e ° e 22 or 3B. She vols YE ay JO- HO= Ch-o) $105) for the fe? foo= Axts Bere, w& [a,b] & b. = @y ta te ba (ey boa @) bra Sot slo 2ZAx +B goss He = FO) b- a = DAS +B = HOH, Avs b+ c)— Ao" Barc) = Avis bbs (Ao seen’ 7 b-a © bea > QAYE B= tbs aA+B baa . BBE AE. 4, Thee mean-valut.'e' for, the pe “foo = Bx Seal to ar [tt Hote Sf Hu fe? foo ce palyrowial ef "digvee 2 te ‘quaibeatte hin, ¢ uals be the overege. volur 4 atu extrem: vol Hh fot iy given dhtewal Ce C= ath ey F00 W defined HIGH) 5. de volun of 6 € (0,1) for He fu fooe bogex wm (1.2) using on appropriate mron- valur theorem % —_. SA floos > fost Es $= bog = floe bog. 4 ‘ {ro : aU aes UES cmenG Seer sing LMVT, ai e-t OF £24 baa ° 2: ee 6" LMNT cannot be applied for fo) 4O0 % not continues th y fooe 2) en 11,11 eecome 1 c-4,0) o2) fo0 wu not differentiobl. tn (1,1) tw ag b ta) Fl FU Sat®:> 4100 = ah = 4 Bes =. foo U nok differentiabl Fo =o ne tea HO = Be BHL:= ad sem fo Rus, dim $lorh) = Lim : too eee Luz RAL = $10) =° 1, Rotts Brae canriot Ie copplied for foo Cay: ft a nok: contro th y chy”? of X=0 ee => continues = pera) ta (+207 (-2,0] coy foo ‘not differentiable tm 2,0) VS FOP # FO) iw) bec B.S logs abe ond fret 4 4 8 fu om =—- Van tas, Bower $ upper bounds of Garin bot Foo be defined in C0,17 8y Cs (0,1) At $100 = fo - Ho 7-6 > ford pan FFloog < Feed. < Max pooh OSE Legw-12ed : 5 Leg < tet did Cauchy's Mean- Vodus Theorem >—+ fer foxy 4 gr ba defined a closed Sterol [a,b] wt thay Aaltefy ths cond”: Cay FOO" god an continuous tn Ca, b] Ue) fO9. 4 god: an differential ty Ca, 2) Co), goo #0 at” nm €.Ca,b) | thin, B cela) At glo) _— gter- fle wotgleey gee 7 .gt@ ee Quustionn:—> p _ 2 e*% ty 60,1) Je She rnnan-val fer de fu" foox.e £ geo =e > Fe = ef sponge Be e - 7 fore d gine t : c 2 ety OW -P (BU Je -e* We)-t i > 42% 2 > eons 2. fooz dinx 4 goo= cox [-Byop ee: 2 ets fogs CK, loos -alnx Fo Nm © (-B,0) go, HOTA “gee g (@) - gt) cooeoeaewoooooooouocoooooo OD GBOGOHOODBIBVO 10 => cote =—3 DS ¢= = € (E.e) Uh) Taylov's Shemerm: > o8 (Generalized Mian valu sntorer) fer foo be defined “fm La, ath] at e au continuows tm [a,ath) wo $44", 4" we) $F te 1 Fh wu differentiable in (a, ath? “puns $ @ € COs). +t co) R sa 1 2 wo tw + Re E toy + K4glor 4-7 + RK Flash) = fay. Fite + Ke gio) 4 reat casters gy eh Gee FP Car 8) (ny for, PEN > feng hagronge’s dom = L > Cauchy's sferrecq yernaindsn 4 ernaindx Caled wha’ ph, Rn Eg (a4 8h) coed n 0) §" (a4 OF) Taylor's Series! Ag nao, Rn, thn 2 3m, xh) = feane Aft + HE gtary BE GMa se --— florh) = $ no 31 f ty foo = fla + Gea) Fed + B gttany == i a Taylew’s 2 Sewer expansion yoo. about =o Win Foy = flor + % HO + 2 gM@4--- Ba Taylor's series ay expansion BH -F00., aboouk = 0. (Maclaurian's Sevier) Quetionns—> f. the coeff. A 2 th the Taylor's Seren expansion of costx “abou x=o uw —— tayo we) ys a) 2 >, " sbi coeff. oh xr = SO) 2-2 a-t. 2) 2 Usher, #100 = = Ain ax flo = dewey $MCOD= 2. She coeff of Gnd dn the Taylor's. sevies expansion of e* about ta) ave “ ay Sati e coeff. Of OR)? tS: powes ewer expondion eX sin 3. dhe Sin othe ateencting powsr of -(t-K) Ue ——. w 2 oy, Bat o€ ca Noms x71 3 on 3 3 x. Sot > cof Qos = FW L eH EN} é == usher, FOO ea cose Pegs Sa sine case > 20D = eM gMooe 4. wthich, of the fotloutg fot ashe would Rave only odd power 4 “sevice expansion, about x= 0, % on Atk Taylor's (ey cos x? gy ain 23 a) Ain 2 tb) C08 x =m ~©FCOSCKOCHCOCHHOHeEOKCGOHOKLOMHVIODXIOD 5. the Taylor's Sewies exparuion a} foxy = tantx obout x=0 i SH poy ft) + x F110) + RE GMC0) 4 --- ay foo = torte tor = toto. =o flee) = "Od = $00 = ast a FCO) 3 ae ax y a a aes G6. She powen semes exparuim dg) AINX bout X=K ———- SI heb eRe thin f= ANH) abour t s- dint abet fo t eobfe Ba ia. t a STH ieee eee 2 By 7 7. for Hu fu" "| Bnsex approximation around x22 2 oa Yowe WUE [Ba 2G - UIE Fd 4 -- = gt FOO = flo) + (a) f+ C ed Gnean approx. -* _ eS = f+ Gade = 74 mene ox = €a-% 83, Definite. Integrals: Dheovem:> Let FO0 UB a continuous 2° dufirad iy Ca,bJ ¢ FOO bev tht “artis! duxivative of “foo “Hun [foo dx 2 -F tb). Fea IO o Hotes» dé “yoo ae . J feo ax] = OY) de ge ae wed , Properties of efit Sotepe ee otete w [°g00 du = — [3 doe a we a b c b diy Yc € (aye) Hen, jas ax = WWseee + Nees '. ad e @ a aid fax ax = fiom ax ° ° aoe wy) i TO dee Joos fox a 2(gorax 3 foo omen Ce { # dx = 3 is odd 6 Sap 499 cy Be Zz [foods 5 fF Fflaa-nd= foo Oe J foo. dx = ! : u a : ° ° 5 Fe =- Od a - a wid J x goo dee Q fgwde 5 flare fo 2 ° fee . 8 wit f $08 = n {forex 5 gf floras Foo 2 aeons he ma dx). ff Ant dx = J con dot = > 2d Zod |r Won? ‘ feraycy Yn wb gdd chase, | ; “Toe 5 en iw even | ny BB oo J Birt xe, a x die ae : [emany (mana? - 47> 2@0 an Wa yc ushin még ahs ever wore { OL; cthuwiee Quustion— Kp s. ftom ate : 5 tare + cote ter § fOO = fone =) f (048-2) F ent x Te 7 5 ref $O 2 Ee. B. a 4 a fers flere a Jeoeceoeoeeoeeooooooon0eo0d 990050009953 2. (a= oe le cob ee dx = ak al 2 Be zs dn & Wie « SBR soi B22 od = 2 af teesel de ° ta) eyo 7 of % Cad. Noni Ei Me 7 R. — le | cove Be + {eco ae ° Ma . *M 2 =. Ane | = sina : a se t-tn 4 2 - 4 [Gxts 1) dx a 4 3 go 4 4 3 4 =| f=] A peeet ° aa 2 3 ” ‘ [8 [x] dx & —_. Ml n A) cn @ Nom. fay nina) Coy poner) a a 1 2 3 St 1s fod eft ax a fads s ° 1 2 = OF (2-1 208-214-624 ay [nenat} er a 1 5 7 J xc dx Uw ——: ° ~ aL ub) OS te _ Be si yon an = ° ' [xoow” due fiacwx dx os 4 ° s a, 8. J tog Uonx) dx Pafso Sot Replat x by (Ex) - ™ re { tog eat x ° Aa 5 x 2 0 ee Shey ee oe cot] dx = j S09 {tors cotx] de COSOCHOSCHCHOHOHOLOCOOKLDGFLUOSSOOGCSZ09N099N9 Ny 3. nx) u \ tog (14409) da ok fog?) Bileg2 OE beg2 Gd) Nome a “ wy Stow ts (U4 fan (Ex) dx | sy ore - (we re . fog (3+ Lot) A: J wot Sea* a ; = J (og (2/irtons) “4% A, Ma Ay s x =f [55 2° hog UFtem] de = fey dx -| Jong (Utter) dx ° ross 5 omy eS 1 ai teig2 dx= KE dog e [oop #2 Ey mote Kya % ocd 40. dx iw gti 12 0 Codd 48) . it. j log Wa Aine) de ae = Ane) . 7 Ursin LL Seg [Ife 2 a pty => Odd fu? eed Oa alin Tim) 4 1s 0 x sar (x sine gis (ae ° my 4 2 : Soh fim ae S [Ae ae If pracoocs fee ° . looooeoeeoeoonovv00v0oveosoo0G0Qo0050905 959 gles die 2 goo 4 14 cox x. aoe Ef ANX dye 2 Peco fut, cox ek = —dinx dx= dt a => i: k (= = -K [ton't Le fotent! ey — ton! ey 2 tae? z { i zt \ : =. ~ q x Bef de a _ J ates? na betta: (ek-K ab co 2n cars ae x Aida dix > Ot 4 Btanhne we! fl 2a-a5 foo. | yoo de = 2 a 2f'foven a ° 3 i Fl2a-w = —fPO ye fF sg Ly Slice 2) f Beex de et tan. tab tone at aed das ak o hove ete 2x 20) { ace ‘av| Ws. He {WG a Continuous fo" definad “th [0,1] abun fh in Lo, aten fim \ ro fn SE Oo wey wm eX fey) GY) ° = ‘ ee . 3am . Ub) dir aa Sinn ,4 a i ay e u +40 i = Um -[ptoxt - fox 0] 40 = 0) Me 4 16. f cos’x de 35 3 Gy Me 2 : Gx tx Ex tor Ar - 17. f gin case dx ———" ° ean = RDRORERUD TUxIZRIOX GREK YNZ mh 1a. f Binere eassBx de 2 got re (en RID ye ORIRSKEKE wens ‘ Ne 19. fain Coxe, dx 3 Sat ae GRACE SHED an ’ PBXMROXTRSR EX ” ° cooceeceoeoovoeoevoocoosoooodvo0sy ei Me 20. [sine cose dn ——. I 3 Neo pe sot T= (SK3K1) (TXSX8XD EL AUKADK OK BK ESKUKD 2 x at. f Aine dx on x SA" Ls af Antice doc © 20 { Joo des % oO. o 2f foo dx 5 za-w.= FOO ° ant oni) = Abn. Wie! eee ax2x J Ain a) Hx dx x 7 22. j Aine east dx’ ———+ 8 3 Sa Soke = ainlin Giese? = # $0 120 x as [aide cate dx : gate gercag = Ancor = FOP "a nds 2 j divx cot dx 3 = 92K (xt) 2K BRD ky = TeSK ant 2K 2h | Ainix cosbx dx ~ 9K an sath . inh 6 > sat T= 2 fe x cos dee oxo | ante eos8s dx ° ° Ne = meee dintix cos8x doo ° Bx GHYRTESKBEY 4 12KIOK BK EX AR? " 2 Note: he bg a Me Note f Aina eosBx dx = Kf sinc endPhe dx +o ° Nhe: 28. 6[ Tain x cox de : ° ee aie f HO a = | - of seg ee 3 3p is 3 0 3..7 ga. Impwper ntegrols :—> 7 b fF Firat Rind? J foo de t as-@ tn: b= (or) both a i b 2 . re [foo ex, J 400 dee J foo doe oe Le ve eal. b 10 Ore A Kind > fsa dx fa fb ay finite but foo u : a LO infinite for som x € [a,b]. 5 4 ' a 3 en J tqere dx, J EX gy, j 1 i, i x gna ° ° ° a F 9 Convergence of _an_ Improper Integrals > ° ed eres Gees : 9 Nf foo dx = finite Han, ik Uo convergent tmproper tart a a 4 [$00 dese thfinite, than, Sb sk a divergent onproper. integral : a Quuation: > : J. find Se convergente of, {etloving _Senproper entegrots o eK c Fite 2a ob f x Ainx de ——- 3 © att Ls x (eer -W tated] = infinite which aivogent dmpreper intgged « ec@aoocoanogvooevoouceoocooodgun ° tid i eS cor px dx = ———. ~o ax Bt —= fe casba dx = Lae [ox cosbx + b sinbs’] “oy ° [0 es px + pnp] 20 =-_@ 6 = rite oh p> Le: convergence iver PL & vn Poe ° we a 8x42, 5 3 3 DF Wm Sr. Janene os dx «{ [oe o wd Gen Gey J) oengew > J Geapeen 2 ener 9 2 #=—: |=-\= = ty (2) oO CAD OD x2 x4 ae a t . F 2 3 9 a= ty (2) 2EAN| 5 tog (SB) = tate 2 1st eka =e 2 % dNogent & : 5 bm cal : 2 Pes, ANegert improper _tntegral 8 @ . ei =~ Componison Test > hn fox first Kind __tmproper_ tntegrale > ; se (a) het 0€ foo € goo, thin, | : : b b &. J 4 dx converges of fae rs convergent a ° a” * . . . fo b. ~ h a j goo ee divege J foo & divergent a ~ a x te) Aimit form: fet foo $ geo be BB two poritve fu2 At Bro Ft monexera, finite) “Hin (Poo ax f x00 G69 A ax {qo dx both comveygent or divergent saya a eoeooceaoesocooooaoooooecoussd BO (SI) > LOH ON 7S > 1) fa oy Ket HE) oe " Mihed Hh ek guns at, Ht : eA qee in Os cork aR Quo Ua giver hs, mallee = 1 > Comergent fora, $00 OB alae convergent oO 9 coececeooveooveocoqgov09990F05909 99 - ot > go> toatl — fant xi TE [aw A Sat! Ax ae fOr 2 fen i 18 2 a aya ma0e goo af dea = ak \" = infinite, = divergent: 1 foo & , also droge . Componisan Tet for_tha_decond Kind oft “ope ep @) Limit form> Ler foo F goo be hoo we get AE dy ‘0’ & a pont of discontinuity and him foo = Oy xaat goo (non-zero 4 --finite) be fe ok res go> (nén-zero 4 finite) e diy ‘Bo a. pot, Qh discontinuity and pe : K b b : : shun, fa dx 4 fae dae bath converge Cor) diez Se a Ae ne a Me Bt am < 4K >0 . ~— % er ae Mo D 1 < Rf th fo gan aie | 22x = finte = convengert +8 Soh Lo. ter, goose Bn fy xlogx watt goo 2 1 Lak geo CoMKCFCHHOKHOOSGOGDVGOOFDIVGIFIIIIVA joc 6 @ 3. loge tog? —l— an = 1 5 — tnfieil eee | Siege foto 7 fogt | = infirite, =p diveger! ° 2% ; . 2 PR ox ; \ loge oa _dveget hich a th fottowsing fer & abietty bounded 2 2 (a) x? cb) &* wok wy 4, which gh following Sotegrals ie unboundsd + Nu : 2, 1 Po oens, « soak 4 Erde ©) J tone dx) Jee dx gy J ice i x ° 3 I Mu fy re lag aecx |, S tog & = Me . a ‘ «. we Hag U2 | = _tnfinite a . ° o o Comal é oe fit ak og Ge | Sh a fhun ushids of the Gotlows ode day 1,4, om convergent Hols ieeo Yue conwegent, 3 Uk divelgent co 1 & coca 1, w converges @ 3,4 1, ou degen SAMA Ce > (QAI. ON BT . RK. ethan. ustich too 1, ttn w) tl WP UEG cA) -Orby 1, ° ioe ¥ : red rt A tog], * tog | = tnfinte 2.OoMs: cooeoeoeoeooeoeceoeoeoco oo ovueoeodooocHnoaf fF Bim Seg Shim en x40” Bt x10 m0 1g = Hnite . Gamma _fanction +> [w= j ea ax (nro) ° Note [T= 1 wy = diy av Sone Yo n>o dy) [ay = int wo onezt Mm (gern g, im 1 . B(x dagad.! doe = J Gly -t BAM hak, dogxs-£ > x=e" & dx fe (Rete pet Pst 54 t= fe ee) ce) ar = fé far = Be “3° a ee - 1 > lead? Log S ect °F" Sage S seer Beto _finctlon:—> pom) = f 7" Cea dx (m0, Note: dy elinyny = ptn,m) diy ptony = frm na 1-1 2 ont diy porn) = { x" de = J ad 3. Gam? aa aallogs n>o) dx ae 2) cCoeeoeevoecoHECDVHKVGVHOBGIGVFVA®IIIS mel aw penny = af sin”™"6 col" 9 ae uw ° ™ . ten [ Anlo ‘cost6 db = 4p (ths 2H) 2 (pr-bs 9? 9) Qusstions—> 2 2 i J tde-xin® dx =. 8 get coher 2 Het =e bak de = 16 dt des 4dt ' : \ 24 at 164 (16-160) Gab. = tehea £-0"° at no on = bet B24) = axie’ tT = aie x 1x10! 12) 2 i 3 By 2 f 2 49D gL : 2 Cray" og ° 4 Ce) Pg 3h x m+ [ & = [> jn | ee J (a8 4 (ie? Ss es « pl4,9) + p94) ax TG xIS Lax SURel Te » Aad " apis = 7 3 3. J (A) ao Sot": hot =xX= ten > dx= Aec*® Ad ™ ™p Ts tan 2 3 4 we do = tont6/ase"6) ap J ey ace a = erates " SS y 3 we e z & vie Ee al shat? 7 eS tak w= fo ap ft $Oeh Qo FOGY) Bye Pe tm TO 8% hoo | oh aye Bie thn, fouaeNc sD - s ey ko kK. Stmiloy, wz, Tz BZ and so om. 2 axe By2 ” Bxdy Fomageneous function ?—> Bee oe aged? y Ned diy a4 grees ned iy eye Pp ne Bate 2x4 By Me Fle kg) = kM FOGQ tar FEerg) wa Romegeneous f” Note GQ fOuy> Ba homogeneout fu? wath degree th’, then 2” 6 (x) 0 fry = yy Ory) sy Euler's “Thasrem:—5 $) funy) Remagentous ful. oth agree ‘nw , than, (ay uate = ng wo 2 TF 4 oxy SH ay FF. nw-og om, ox Endy oye . Note MOLD.= FOOyIs FUP FACED sesure Td $ . am Romogeraous fat estth “digree i nd pveupectively » Shen, ea ta)ainc oe Radia che “Ue) “le a + ty © eae qe Be © momanfir PONG + poprh “eye Note 4 fu a a homegéncous PoP én two voriololes x $Y sith dug 'n? than, wy x Sey ae 7 FW LFW Oe 4 yu ee Lr Foy [Fw -J Oxt @xdy ay? Total Aiffere Hun, afr toto devvalive of ‘Zant. ‘tb gz z Of. dey DE, te at ax dt By or K Re fog oshve = BIEY rye Pee» COCCHOHOHOHOSCOCHHOOOHOVOVIGTIIOVOOIIIS Total differential coefficient, dz = 2 dx + OF dy Ox ay Noted sp fOuy) =e Han Smplidt “AP, thn, dy. - Fx dx Fy diy Yo ze fouyr ehare x= Blur dye H (UY? than, OF Ox 5 BF. ay . Ox ou Oy Bu 4 = DE Oey BL. ae Wax! By ay BV Quustions -—> a te Ree any 2 gine. dz. bz. at oe : an ~ = eX siny x. a: =. Stain 4. neon cms = eX (4b at? cosy) = = (4ing + a dng + Bye y fr dees Peyh Total durivotive Py. arent: ouhere 9 Sy Ow Conmucted Q the by the yelation seers yes a ——- - € Ber het, use y dui. Bu dey OH dau 2x. an 24. ‘ 2d « se a dy my to oe 3 o 2 9 9 3 2. 98 a. 2 9 3° 3 9 °° 3 e 8 98 ° e °e °e e e e o e oO Now, fOups Hay ty= t dy 2 - fe 2 - 2x9 dx fs x 2y 2 (axes dus any +2 (- BB) = ay = (SE) B. us fOcregyt qe cy) thin; Ure L . yy coy? ay <7 fat NERY 6 aE RE ey ae gy + ge” ee 7 . Ux = $0 oe + ge) ‘iS 5 qo a 1” ux = yoo + ge ante ge + joe =e gi ~ c f Ugy oe? "Or. + o? gies) ‘ 4. Ue $ (ery, Syn az, Az 28) thin, Gtnch HU = (aS, W)tu, — GY Buz ) -4ue GIN RE ax-3y, » Az By az, et Grd us ftv4.4) oe, OA BE. BE w= Se Ox". Ot Bx eRe OT AD bun = 12 fy 12 he Uy= 26. oe 4 BE. My BE wt ar ay ds 89 ot 8y = fy B+ @ + fe O a Gey = “Whe 4+ 12 $5 Ux + Guy = 124, — Ife ues Sf. Bry OF. B84 OE, BE dx Bz Ba Oe 2) Be = fy (OD + Fe CO fe Saber FE me os Poets BS. § wt 24% tan, wax + yey + zu, = ———.. x co XY We) YE to xe way o a as t : BAS Ue Yue Ruy = OU EO Gens) 6 pe 9 than, re he age x fox + Bry Sing + Yo Hy = —— Bp te wor-ep. WAL @ ep wy ay aH st ne 3- a 2 ur tt yi TW we cower” [4 , dha, Ma yy = aly yl oy eda. a et to ttenu Yd tone nd Boh te gs era COoeeCooeHoHoOLLOOCOVEGVOOODDOIIODBII®G xunt yey = MSO ty cosee = -l tanu gu 20 Kesec Cott 28 2y 8. 3} ue ea () p than, Puyo + OMY ty Hy Uys = : Cu 6) 0 we wi SP e sm ne2t=t Mugs yay = nS - et oy = Ftw few eu . 2 Ot Bay toy * M99 = Foy Pewnty = ot. gh ze FCb) tT gy) than. Xr Bey Feat RY Beth cee ee nz adi» the grew fu She un of swe fhoreagencows gor bowing degre nf 7 Aespectivey “ ° Ky 4 YEy 4 20 Loot roy & prey = (nf -npe tren yg +fer on = nz fo. we Ain Yy) + cee (hg, Hun, Me 5 ee a wx to 2 wx * 9 % v SA TY uy = OU =O ‘Cen eo) = Ue ld. ay 3 Maxima _¢ Minima :— For _qunction of _Stngl Variable > —> FOO Moxa eee 4 Foo < fd No FOO mina xs FF fOOR FO W% Method: (iy find 4/60 Gir quate 4100 = 0. for obloining sh Malinery points aii) At each Arotion any pt find $0 Ca) Hf") > 0° Hun FOO hos minima af x= x0- tb): ¥ tx) <0 Bam. $00, Rai mardma At "He=%e- Shan $00 thar no extreme of x=x LO QF eK = ond ib co” caltid “Evithead point F Qusstions > a. a a 1. tha qo goo = 2x2 BP = 36x 410 hor a. minimum vate ob me . coy 2 ces 3 co -2 wd -3 ape BAN gto s 6x2 6x -36 =O moot => x2 x-6 50 => XEhB oar fo = 12-6 f" 09) = whay-6 = 2-6 0 > maxima ak x= xeon f’ Olgng = 12@-& 7° S minima at x23 Sha moximuim veliue a fu _ eine aA oh, ER coax : “e we Ya Ma 7 2 5 we weF ek we We OO st fog ee ML oe coo 9 elem FOO os Rowe max: volus oshin Cainx— 608%) AL be max. Seb, qe = Ainx = Coax foes eee > x = 7%, > 3K . gen = Aint cox 2 foo 2 Lad so iia oF rl 5 ete > minima es = dia ok BE Placer = acd ZL On =p monte x eb gO + 8 " a B. for the qe foc = x, minimum appeam of x= ——" me yy sO en @ e-1 BA hk, ye XX me fog y= x Sogn . = i+lo mL + fogx * a" > YF yuetegn =o 1 > “= he Conder fo) = GCL4)? ube 2 ER, Han, FO Haw 2) Only one minime of Only fise minim Ce) three minina i (a) three maxima ‘eooeoeoeveaocooveoccoucvvotuuvooss get floods Oa flow) #224) = 0 => x= 2,0 Pl) = Bxt4 fo) = -4 <0 = Mosima oF =o f= Bx4-4 20 => minima of %=2 ie (2) = 8x4 -4 70 => minima af x=-2 5. Mo foo = a bogx atx Rar an extreme, vals ak x5 oy 2 Hn a 4 b & 2,4 ww) 2 tay AB, FE z 2 cad FOO = D+ebxel =o ‘. % : > as 2bx*-x =O > QxeP-KA =O > a2 =0. 2b cice beet 21> 5 Ba -2 B A=-2 ' 2b 6G. Shs maximum vole Qo foo = xex-2 im f-4-4J, & ——- oy 18 te) 10 Y= 225 (A) tndaterminete is feey = Qu-l =O a eet bo? f i. 2 flog = 2 50 > mintma of x= 1 fray = 16 Fly = 10 9 ecvoeoceoa4aoecoooovoeseaocoooe2osovooooag ‘Moxima { Minima for fu. of two vonlables :—> ok het “xe fOoy, cota, p= 82, ge 82, re BZ yo Sz pe Se Ox ‘ad Ox?” Oxdy ey? Method: cy Find pg, 2, 484 Gly Equote ps q te xe for obtaining th stadtonony coyote Git) At ‘each Atdonany pont find “r,s ER. fo} At-W? >0 , A> Sun. He fu” FoUYhas Qiminimas ot “thak stolonay “paint cy at AS 0, <0 “than gouy he & “maxtme ob thot” shoMoriony point. coy Ho oat- 4 <0, thins £00 fics rie'extrems of that Atationiony point ¢ tt ce kndun as Saddli pot Qusstons:—> $ the fe? FORD = sa yacx 20 as oo (min. oF (3,0) ey max. af (3,0) ce) 3,0) & a Saddle point td) nore eo Bethe fe" fou y) = xa (ay. max, ov rox. ec) min. (A) max. Got pe Bk bey HO eS ge By>— gax = 0 ot ‘at or ok, -ta,ay &f aro ced 2,1) cd) (~2, 0) ta,ay (a,a) & a ys ox QB eeeSCSOKOOKOOGOKVGovOVGCOFGOBZIIOIVIIG its % material for scorutuchon cyt A dactarguter box open of ahs 4op ub to have a Srotiomes 2 pO, than the dimuntiona dp the box duguivting the Least (a) B, 2,2 of 44, 2 co) 16,1,2 @ 6,8,4 Bot» fet the — diimention QA th box Bw Gye > Ayre 32 S= Rey + 2yz +.Bez : he foup = xy + re + ar expe tee Sue ¢ 20° . ( Solving ed, ye dhe distone behveen the argh ond a point niomet to ib on aves z= ttxy Boo.” car cori of i td) None se ker PL yz) be on She Aurfatte ge l4exy’ pao Tabayt ant = Aaya xyat conider, f © ayheny +t p= x+y is seting =O, Y= qe 2ysx=o wee ee } ates = 4-1 = 3 20 abo FO te minima of x= 0,920 2,920. we hove geisoci > zeet D= JT Constrained Maxima § Kagrange’s method q undetermined mulliptiers:—> fet fOUyrz) 4 Pouyrers ¢, Han ¥ s Fooyiz) = flay) + aAgoaye) = ote OE Ox Ox songe's &" ee ee a Fzr0 te BEY a Bao ee ee = wrange's Multiplier a bog "a P Qusstione:—> J. dhe volun of “He gresteat parellitopipad Khot can be trsembed by an, ee ; elupse 2 ys Zed. a —_. eee f > abe Babe ce? §=Yobe « abe a 38 3h & 3 Set am, 2y 28 be cimuntlon fh porolubepiped, sabia = “BRfe = fOGY*) Fre @yz+ 22% 24 > oF $ Gz. cy * ee sR a eo a a Mee ne aayehs eee 4 G a & 5 oo coo eooeoveooeeooocoosc os oO9ORFIUYISY Sa Melua Ve Baye = Babe | Vv 2. re min vol ) xayax? csture xayaxsd ub —. troy mt - co 4 Ys a 3 ws got fz Gaye gfe xaytecd Pa f+ag = Pos 2x A Sp TA 2K Pye dyer nae OD fps teen nae fin = eat = Bxte 4S 5. Multiple Integrals —> : ; Doubl_integralin fet foug> Pe defined af! aach point! tn Xb pe veer R, sen ts doubl nkegvat a, ff Jory dedye sy coher, continul! Rg La feng) br the veg © ensures she existente He integra): Methods _Evaluakion'—r cases: fet Sha Limits of integroHon be gene tye ae? 4 x2q.4 G . ao pM y= B00 [[sopeea ‘| [oevea ne je sito c xe Y28,09 . Vertica) stip sUdad aver GG te gh cue Cose 2 hen fhe Bits of tntegration ons x2 8100S x= gy th gor Fo y=, Th xeB eg. dae [Jamp 44 = J [ise esy a Hortzentat Stolp yed) B= 69) Cose3:— hn Hu Limite ou x= 10 x2G 4 yad, toyed, JJ doup deay = f [fiw | bx 4 a Yed, xe 6 24) de yedy | [Ss] ay shee yea, 7S Quistiona— ie oe dhe setoaieg ws oD ay 7) de dy ai fT omy, 1 a (ates af 3 \ aera ad : festoey = Wtsayy! = 5. 3 as. ot A dil | ex” - : m1? Go 0 (x x)de = [xet-e ay" oN 2 [ae etey-C1) = 3e%-7. 2. She volun A Sng aeag ober: Rw a rugion th the Powe gquaa- svant ar the ellipse x2, ¥* H+ ¥eta—_. (of ee* wy abe wo ta at g a z a y DY CO, perizontol SbaP aie 6 a Sey = a1? PAI 4 ye0 ® = { @ ohyty oe ° an a . ae eh att * a 6 6” Sag ope valaa of ffogiedy “esters, Rio veplon Yam, aye? fF gz “ xeo bh ———" ee xtyent2 =O => C1) (X42) = 0 1. pte of tntersedtton 6 G4) > x Conidn tha vertical sip ys xt feo ys 2% xe O bl oo ox 4 ex fest fps a {fF] dx = Se. . 2 Tia 15 R x20 gen? a loc oe ooeneoeooeoseovovOS 9VOG900I959 PYLE A. ns vols ff y2 pind ddd, ushure, (Re She wpe biundid a : by thr gemiciets v= 2a es8 above Mu titel Ua 82 *h So™—> =O bo 2acox8 * 8 coe IZ. ol (2a,0) 6 3 Mh. ~-gge08® = [ae i: vt dy a ap gS eae ave S] Je ‘ pope Mee f Batesssd 4in® ap 3 Le gat pease Te Pte 2a pene } s-agpegyh Fae “Change odo. 6 Gants mains Question > + thy vole oo be. 4. 9 4 f [¢ dy da got Given Mills om y=x fo y= 0 a A 5 aa > By reversing the order of Cntegration f J soon dyae 7 bet repre ated a4, ox 9 a 2 8 os 46 5 eo J sop ey dx Sor | fous dee ay A | [sone dy Oo xt . orig ° Ye Vo ta J [ov dx dy xg SAN Given Sirnits ane X=0 Woo x22 Yer yore. Horizontal Shp. yeOrke y= 4 wey to xe as 4 Sha order of cote =f [soe Leos to By change os 4 : a ff sg a ay thin g 4 ——- “hp SAN Given Limits on =x 22 yok wy x= 0 fy x28 By changing Miite, yoo fo yee xe 0 te xehy 2. qe ay Ccoeoooeoooooooooogononvr97HOGS0000 Triple Integrals —> Let fouy2) be definsd of each poll tn the Ro spa dan ste beipl Inteqrol a \ {fica dx dy de. g het x= Bory) to z= Bouy) Ye VG to ys Be? meg 3D X=, dn YO BE) IJ fongiz) dx dy de fou) dz dy a g REG Gayo R= BUSY) 0 2. ths Voi ff ee vegiow pounded . y R ta plant bo, gro, ho $ kayteet & = 1X ex a Dae a | { foe dy de =f fy cexcyy dy oe 2 © od 6 x = (ro - BY dx [ [tee 3], 1 1 % ee Wr tags Ce] = 3 3 ee 2 x E J nau ly 74 ° COCCHOHOHCHOHHOHCOHHOGEOHLGOIVGODIOGIOVIIS dn a doubk ctr if x= fer) q aye Han, [Jae |[eay |g] du dy = [Jeu Is] dudv Rg R “s where, [T]— Socation of transformation used! $0 broruform ons Agstim fo another ax Oe Qu av las (22) = ae CE D(a? ey 2 : Su «(OY __ Cartesian Porm —» Polax Form 1—» Gay 4, 8S. came : - X= TOO, ys Tend Ox oe {cose —¥8ine is, = | ae | =¥ ay By Ane, Eee r Or ee ace => ff geayy dx dye ff ¥cner x as ae nee R TR a. pl ategrad, xe fuser ys ghee) az h(a? thin, iff forge dx dy de = Jf yuo Ist dia dy de R R 2: Ox a & SS BEGY 2) KW) = SR = where, (T= 3 (225) = By, a we Ny as oo. Be Oe ‘ad g Se Cartesian 40 CylindnteoS felon ferrn :—> uy Ge, 8,2) xe res, ys TENG Zaz eos8 =O ° \ie xin® re38 ° xa ° ° - 4 If Boye) dx dy de = {ff 4.071 0,32) 5 daa de RQ Rg Cartesian “HO _Spharieod » folon- Foi Ou) cy, 6,8) Yk ain® coos Ys V8ind Mtg, ze Teese snd cos 6 21 cas0 Coss Kvsin® cing We}. wt Smee eho, mS Vers sing eine cos “4? gin ees8 oe Ly sind ae Pour) de asf pone, gi ane dv 49 as pegs aartgae II R R Qusations —> 1 Evoluate i, & _egayty ‘ I 3. & dx ay ¥ SAMS tek xevend, ye rane, than [Ne Sh $ xtayre v? ee a Xo to eo mk 2 cooeooeoeooeoooooooooosrouvuseous: Da ene dr do dy 7 aes St ze to ze Steet & Petey? Bayt’ Using -spharieal.. coordinates, Kersh cos, Yr TRO Sing, ze TeEeO Paghe?= 72 > ORS 6 ot Boa Ot ME om | A th ~ 1 — =F Pg [gal o] RAE GU aie aS) 49 8 = aint | ain mae + | po [sea SER BAM a4 Th mh ; . ae J ano [|Z] 60 ox . am m e ; Z a = 2. = ar [-cise], o# x B. By a change o variable ~(U)= uv fyture em doubt: tntgr the integrand fy? changes £0 F(UY, ZB) BUY) shan Beary ores. cb) aww te) cay et v u Sot? qv) = IT) = ~ Mave w ae ft a el) ae we ue u bengthee, Areas 4 Votummen ? > ay Length 4 on arc A a ure Yr fod Behwern the tinae amy BRE ms re dee : x Aid length A an ore a wunte Ha flO 4 yo gO peiven = & totet, : % & & st . dc)? 4 (28) tf [a & ally Aven dj the region bounded by thr cure y= foo $ gogo ey bE Meaty oe 5 “ % ay gro . J (gan - fe] dx ww) j dy ox, dy) Shu, value 4 dotid 4x=% about, X-axis UY, x . Ne f Ky dx % : so abouk | ye ole bs VE \ wx ay My In_polor_-fem'— dy obouk tnitiod Bina (he. B= o) a a Ve, | 28 43 dno d8 a2 1 Gd avout fim O= E- & j ax yPens8 dO Boks 8s COCCHOHCHOOCHOHOHOHOOCOOHHOYOVVVGUSS Gusttions a ‘ a 2. The Langth A se eve y= axe behween X20 81 (0) 0.27 We) 0-67 «) 1 gh 22 Sot > 36h = =] = 122 3h. Je 2. he Bangi op tha esive, x2 cos*®, ys Aino behwaan O= 0 8 Ne h- ™ Jinn ee Sain ye J [Gor cane Cento wey? ap ace : Te BBs J GenocueyTererars a = 2 3. She ania bounded by dha pro povebsta y= 2x% £ xt: fina 29-4 aaa 4 uw SAPs Ps of -Onbgvnector— ys 2ty-4)™ > ye dlyt4te-By) - S ry?-liy4+a2 =0 => ys 17 t [208=85" te Ae The area behwern She caver ype ax $ ws Ay 4, - Y 4 pee aA Jem) a = Ds 5. She volums generated by revolving the asta boundsd by paabicta 28x and vt Sine X=2 about y-axis & (fh 28% () 5K (oy 1278 Coors Ss 126 Ss Totad a Ne J 26 63 sind AB: come) 3 6, py , Ocn 8-0 K Qa) = { 0 AD Cassy . 3 ° 1 Baan fr jecoso at Gmodo= At COCCOCHOHCOCEOCOCOOOHOKHHDODFSHOAVRBPOIDDFDIPDIID “oy! Nector Cateusbue! * Position Vectvs—+ She Im porametric Oxbs 1) (BI coe (2B) Gio xB = [ANE] An (ab -ton -to thy plore oo. Gil) Area. A panda rar (Gxb).e = a EXE) 34 position Vector of the point PO Yre) Gy Hh Apoce i Rexteyjezk, ile bays ~ eo Ke xt ts ywss awk Ce Be bis bts byk A\b + ab, + osb5 where i vector] unit Jangth perpendi Scalon ‘Twiplt_Froductai—> contoins @ $ Bey th. k ‘ A Oo % by ba. ob 2 oe & § 6 3 2 | AexAe| os Cc. COED) CE @) 8 = faxb| } A 2 {abe}. - ~ Or Oy Bye Ga S Notei—s Gy Volume of pavallilopiped, Ve [te be) Ub Volume gf kebaRadwon, y Vector 6. Vector Rib = Fl be He vector can 4 mer Fw Hoe Ua te vaitabl tun’ di vepresents a Nelodity “Veter! ar Notes tb dE & a: Vector in the, divection: of -dongent Poe Bec ar : at shok pant Gi FOO B constont in raagrituds thin F- aiiy FED vector with” fixad divecton hun, Ex dab erties» ket “P(N 3 BU) be dhe vector ful qe hy scalow yordobls ney Boy and $B be a scaler fom Shan, cooceoo@eoeoeoeooeceooeoocooveoaogcodooo ooo 900 vs Paint Rinetion+ AR vals J function depends on potion | point, Shen 3 in aid fo be poinh fer. Seaton foiit faneHon:—> §) $0 each point POLyr=) & agin R a space Ha unit sealord amodated with Jt, Mun, BO yz) Ba scalar point function th Aer ff alk pots Go Hs agin R of. apace fogetfur with the deaton voluts forms a pealor field. Grime the emp. Tuyen) ak any point, om a body 4 9 Besley point function ond hs madium it self Ua dealer “field Vector “fetnt Rinehion: aha eloaty af “any Fim “Eq a partidinin 0 ftuid flow 4 d- vedio pomt fu” Vector _Rifferéntial Operatet:—>- (del) ¥ v= 7 lo vk ti zie ° ale, % . fovel Sunfor—> fat fouijsed be a seston field megn than : the ret df points satefying BCX. y2) =¢ .,whye, ce! iw an avtitrary const, constitutes a jor ] Aujace colle (evet-'surfaces. Grodient_of a Scalar function: —> fet pi yrx) ba a differentiable Acohas pt. fu” ‘than potest gq scalar adinstea by gey wo Vg = TB PW kw L Ox oy Oz Neder formal to pinfau ¥ Td unit vector nermal fe surfau dt - (wer . Deeg Sy yee (ein logy) = 6 a +8 ¥.Celn logy) senteg™ Ee conlog ey Bx ak’ G,2) Ww. Be lol dena, Te unit A a cuntred sah lovigin aRe anit normed ak. a Played to the pimfer ofA aphire Oj Sha ecto Oks (b> (= ze Z) (of Cow) so tay PEI har ge xtaytext a Fos axteryi ork FH Lamteaydtek . xteyd+ ek. W98l feat eng et COKSKCTCHOKOHCHOHOGVOGoOGCVCOCO9DGVIVSODGCISIIGOOI.S ooo “Directional Aerivokive:—* sha directional divivative a a dlifferentiablr scak $e" onyx) in tte diection 4 TU given by Ad = Vg. a val het, T= 7b, thin AA= Vp.t = (Bis O85, WR).t Rit Se! = 238 ‘Ox het BG ttn AAs, We-b, “ES AV ol bpeer8- = - (Fal oe has max. vals of coo =4 # be: ustun 820 te. Se ee maxi de Ue. Dhavefore, * tha vol 4 tha ~ divectiona!. davivakive & da tha dlvection Angle behwan thy novmol to He ” prefauss of ah pt: a stvterection Iatun of the anh etn She ae be © be ah one bres Ae urfacie BOY = ce Br yx) > com = Wut VS [FoI 1¥ 9%) Buuston—> ih rection. { 2 " Al B Sy divectiond) dimhative fz xy" yeh zx! glng te Hs Songer? 8 wet, yet Sze th cok Gn) wu : the cone > Nedlor ep of thr cueve given Jey) aan Rey = xt C+ yop ace & : 3 rl 4 Ppa OR o. =. Caape3k = @ Caotpe av kl a.b.= Vg. $b = [et nano + tay 42) J+ (oye 8] tgs Aas long. the Mra wiht maken oogl ky. Siu divectionol duvvotive of B= me abto,1) zo with positive Rada UL St = xtagyd eneosd C4 halnd > eno + anOF gies» Drv veetor eg” of a ut Gna which malus an angle © with tve x- ax L vl Mot th es C4 SOF: coooeooeoooooeococoouse ev Googe see tos doug wy 2 R= cossd te sinad fe % NO. = Vg-R 2 1, nh 2 5S. dhs okest Soke encrease = xyz ok €2,-1,2) U rr 4 4 a SA Hy gaye C4 weg + xryk zy ee Blea) = — Bt 6] 4k Greatest date | cnereate (or) max: val A DD. = IWgl = Faaeanie = ieredat: Shs ongh blo AR aufass ayezt=sg g rdeytZ=3 ok 201,25 eee So fat, Bye nyt WG Hants ryt aek S 37 Ate ay tak BL casay = META? tur, Ppa ages Ss We,= deta dy k = Vee at -23-k Gay © * coe = Voy Fh. _ eee = 6 . 46 aa a ewe (¥9) 171 Testa. dTewar «136 = 62 crt (Se 7 TM TAT am ten cabinoy vedne oith rapstitn a $b vee Hoa EXE) = aa OE (2B) ane A _ Byte a gate = oth -coley 2 oth (3 2 ath (a.B)™ Alvergence of a Vector fundini—> get Fox ys) the differential vector point functton shun OF, Oh, 2B ax dy Be é - t al 7 t fk a2 2 B a Fy q Fy, Note ssi}, ai Scalan Potential’ flincHon:—> fer every dstationt vector 3 as function. at F-Vo «thr Note:-ath cunt (grad 8) = 3 ° av Cust F) = = vive) = 7S aly div (ged 8) = di ee wae tae & Qxt byt Oe E20 shin P & caltid solenoidal Vector. tahise, 2 os Rapladion : operotor = Rt4 RIF BE be Beal’. g BG & sold to be Acalon potential fu”. eGooeoooecoooooeocooveveogoevsse 39 fo dhe vols oh WC ¥) = whe Feats gir zk ins) e) n-29™ co nvt3 @D Cngayyt and tance which a Shs dottowing Joendidtal tay x27 te) +7 oS a es = SO MT 2 Axl a My e Mek bee ea 1 A & TON) = Br 4 Sy Ox ay Oz OF = BOM =e OH XAT ar ex ax BM a nr = ; 4 = Ment Siri Oe wan | O63 oan Pz2 > = »; Of 2 Man ?z oN, = y fs « FOP) a Br nv? Cxtayary eed Bx? env? ae = ayPans™ = (rsa) Now, for aebneidel. FF) ='0 x . = => mass o > 2 (Ero. bc, 2 & Pa (stsrypt ~txz 5 + any? ® Supreunts velocity vector Hen (2,2,-D. a coneipendivg whan vebedlty ob 62,2, -4 AR rs ae om Fe 1 3 8 me & ob \ = 3200 -12p42k aeteay toe" \2,9,-1) tart = t= ope K 5. Souyr= ary yo $ V7s= 0 ten, a= - . tay 2 bj 3 oo -2 da -3 my sat? ve= 8%, 8B, Mio * Ox* dy? G2? > mae Day — Cy =o => 4. My Ea (Seater yi + ocean y + (72 any) uw sotinetdal then A =. 0 4 rm => BS eAtTEO BH ABHIZ s. Pe Sez t- Teyi de Wax +72), thin F.CIKE) of 53-29 w 0. (GQ Fe Cearysapts oxy “20d & Cox ey 22) RU Seton “Getlr fn thin abe = . oreo Bee & Sot set 7 is ao xk = a 68 a ax an a manyeaz” bxnay-n Gacy +3: 2 te 4) #7 (4-0) ak [6-29 7. Vector Integration — > Hine _tnteprals+ An antegrol Qvoluated over a cunve tu call Dine Oabegrat . far, Fooy2) = Gos T+ BL be a differentobl pot chine function dufirsd ak cath pet én the came fe? thin its Lin [Fe = [Grane f4y+ &dz) oO a 9 oO 9 o o 8 COCO OHOCHOCHOOEODYTVEDOS “Note 8c & a closed ave Shun Sine integers 4 F over 'c? catted Sreutation a F ce. fio. 2 & Work dons by afore: the Sotad work dora by a fone th meveg oh pantie dong a cme ‘eh Nice Note: $1 Fd Grotatonal thin, th Sins integrt 4 Fu indspendsrd oak poth. te. uhin F & érrotaHonal uve hove Pa Vo whe Se spear. potentiol fu” than, fro = By- Fa a t. dhe vote off FAR hue, Fe aayhs ¥ Jotsing. pls (0,0) FB) a ke no f Fed® = Je dx + Rdy 4 Ade) = [Guy d - ¥¥4y) ¢ ze [e : wy gene Ba tardy dx + Ax bx dx] 3 dy = bred ° = 8 " along Cy yeod a dys dxde Pa fleny ax- a4) 1 ci SI Jb 2) da - xt.ox dx] = & 6 Now, along G yex 2 dy = dx ° {Fox = J Bx over - x8 dx] % " Bo The Wald. [Getty da + Cx Byidy] uohure, Te” a Hy Gets j| : Lf Dodie 2, with cenbe of cae in xy plan i __ ca) an te) an “ey = UK ih - BR Sure, Co ayre whiner Xhe cue w& dh we wap fer peek Foe cn a Biain® > diz asine de, dys 2ane de ig : J (@x2en0 + AX 2sinb) G Aen dB) + (2x2CH16 —3x2gin6) (2eHs640) ] 3 ei _ 8 = {rt cw Ain co: 16 AInrD dO + Gear's AB — 12. Aindeosd AO] J [~ 24 stro eot8 08 — ° m COLCOCHOCEOSCOHOHOCOLODGO99DT50009N9900% ho Yhe vols dh { FAR, ocho, = Qyaa) + xeps (yzrok along HR. Une ey HO Gy G01) $ Co4,4) ws ‘a 6,41) 3 CBU) a Sot cy Alora thot st- Ome x50, z=] = dxso ,de=0 1 JF-ax = [ray = [mz ay = 0. Gi Ys Zale. Bede, dezo jFax = [eax = { (2yesrax B Joa = 5x15 = on € . ° o S. ha fotol worte dons, by .aefore’ F= (8x 46y)t- Wage J 20x22 Re dm moving @ ports along a ut. int Joring thy pls. C0, 0, 0}. 4 42 te Gi Ree LYE OE Bom ao 2 MeO = BRat ney Woy B-z, 1-0 2-0 > xek, yah, zat da zat, dys 2dh.n.den dF ‘ [Fax = ((ax+ Bay = G85) G c t = [leeees dt 4 (tux2exst) (2k) + (2oxt x 9t®), 343 FG the Gru Gilegeal [BR AR ou Be oayeta ote] a ty from "Ah argin (0.0.09 fo te opt 0,1) & —_. tao we) 4 ond ~ (8) connot bi determintd usithoul rpeifying ARs path . t i k & & & That wey Ylang — 2a aR (xz x y ze 2x2) Fe SG a Boy, 5. BE 4 a iy ee ae = mye a Be ez». Bew ax 39 oe ‘thu feted diffeventioton Q = 38 os og as me * BS tat gb.de EB anye dee 4 Rte dy + oy de = dtxtyz) 2 §t nye Ee fre = Bo- Ba = Bey) — Beo,0,0) a es no Theorem tn a Plane:—> het Moy) 4 Nay) bbe: continuo fe! ind fy the loeed Re fhasing continous 1 onder posta! duivetive definid bh ‘egton bound by He Closed eure ‘Ch Han, i € flrraee naps Sf (2 = a) de 4y “es @ysators— Evaluate ¢ Cart By dx + (ay — Gayrdy s eshirs, © Ga cume bound lc ul by x=0. yo 4 xyes Sat": Mz 3x7 By? am OMe ei = oy oe N= dy -bxy - 3 N ox 77 od 1 SM OMS Joy Ox by » $. Max +Ndy = i [@- Bm) de dy px [ny om ay = oo . . 1 sf Ux) dx = 5 TO 3 So Suabaiabe if (Bx By) axa ty " 3. Evoluate f xy dy - ytd jeshee, ¢ Ua. Aquane cut from ah fest % from by th Bus xelaged- gta May > COCO ECHOES EHOOOCOOLOVOODPESI9VII994N ” : on om. 5 if! ex. a “d toa f [ syeeay = 3. 2 a Surfoce Integr Integral? —> “tet Fouynrs Ata GIs GK ba differentiable " 2 ¢ mdx + Ndy ec Nector point fu dafieud over dre gunfou Soften, He wurfas batege & fear = [ER de $ ‘S : Uidheve, WW unit -ouhwond draum ni 3 ko the 2 MORO 7D LAS = f@ayex #6 dude 4 Fy'deidy ) ti. HR HL projedion ‘5! _on do Ky plas Han, paras {( FF dedy \F _ ii on ARR) ib SYR, eee plo than, {er as = {J gn dude ‘ & wet! Gib Rae ple ahr gware (( pt dxde jena Sf W al cOoCeCooeoeOoDoOOCOGLOXxXB299NS902900I99 Ge Muthed LE stions:—> mot meee J. dhe volun of Fin ds ywhne, Fe zle xp oaytz k ond SU. s S gent dhe the gurfou She eytndy Rapete tmdadtd in perwan 203 255+ GaN hak he ay? Tg = axts ays We NG. . gxbr 2h \vst Ae ay ae RUEYD a “OR x cep. aut dydz “oqa) oF su! of ye sade z= Oye ait (Sex), dz = 90. 6 2. She valu df f EB ds, whee, Fe treet — Gf tyzk 8 su swfou s 4 Du ube boundid by x20, xt, GEO get es Zl bh {FW as = ees over Sy fn X-¥ plont (OAPR): 220, ne -& Porat do oxy plans (SARC) zat, Hak | R= yee y [Faas [Ps ee = ffsray oy > R o38 tn yz plan, (oaRe) xco, Het) F-R=-4%z =0 oversSsi- dn-X-2 plareCocg ay over Sei- poo nH “pp ee pont U BRap™ ij ty dx de = GL vg Rs beng ty = Aeny Weds = [ffiven dz dy dx oo 8 4 ce 7 3 Sh 5 c “PNelume Integral >> bat Fouy = AUP AT ARK be de dutfenemtiabe: Veck poinr fo" datinsd tn Vetus VV, Hun, its votume integra aw fee Site. ge & Acolor point fu , Hun, | dv ‘ o 9 Guustions : D4. -Evotuate [yF-dN cane , Fe Qt aey t= any F- 4k ond Vc dhs veglors 2 = 5 Bounded by dhe. plone X59, JO. RO S$ dxr2yeze 4. 3 So P a eae Be r ° Beat ER aay be. 2h: on ete eset Q 2 ri Pcl gine 2. he Velie df an object expressed tn spherical coordinate dvag de) iV ———" tb) E Ck ca) & FE WE oe ae Me” \ os hn . st OV | J ing et 409. a (eos AB . ; 7 ; enclo Gouse- Alvergence Tnesrern +> par PhMip S be a closed surtor t+ QU Fak be the differenttabl Vector ~ aig a veurn VE Faye) point fi" diftid over S, shan, fre 2 { aw? av s v he evaluate [F-AAS yeshee, Fe sets yds REE Shia coed serge = enclosing a Notas wu —- WV we wae wav. ecooceooooeeoooooocncg 2 tha volus we dydz + y dxdz+zdxdy), whne S a aw 4. 4 nay), a surfs db cytindes xaxt= 16 4 y=0 do y=3, diy & a sphere ay red B. Evaluate fUCraypaszy ds owe, Sue he susfau wtaytazted . ‘6 ; pee i E.We a sys S22 Lay We Ve 2 xtvyieck \ea\ tot, Fj tE ADEE Be R= At Ayr Faz s Roe tye szh es > Rex, Fe ey fee 3z (danrdv = 6N= Sx yRKI = OF. Nv a > % & " rant 4 or %. " a Fe Gro syss Bek g sy A. dhe vols qf FA as. ober F weet ae 5 surfou OE) 2942.8 OF ZE3) st GLK = Bx -34+ 8X = 16x-3 Coeoeoooooooovaoocovv ev 9OFHFUVBG9II> “sy @voluate [ F.A ds, vdwe, P= axt—2yJe 2k, kolan oven ‘whe aagie : ‘s boundid by xay=4 8 Zo to Z23. 2 J j (4-4y +22) dx dy dz ae a = 2f [Grats slo dx dz on ° a4 f° sf ia22) AGHt dx dz 74 fate (ee rear] dz * eeeie eee eee eae 3 : ak [ Garyde” = 84K te olso.*~ as e A Note: we con. Actve “thi aloove’ probliim tn pdlor form = nat % the 6. Syalabe: fie. FF dS jatahove ¢ E = batt es Pe E ward S$ & ‘s Buna boundsd by agtazhe 38 § x=0 Ho KE? ait [gar wast [ av GPa 0. 4 , a closed ‘Stoke's ‘Theorem: fat S be on open surface boundid bey Stoke's _Iheover, * 5 ial jecker fu” coe C$ FYE TABI be oo cbiferertiobls vector deftrad over 'S', am § F.dN # © te $G dn + Rady + de) © Qusiog: J the valu of LF dX, ute Fe getexe pe myk 8 a cuwe xayts th XY plans & wo) oO be) 4 ce) 2 cad 3 Si Vers cP & 2 Z| -ties HFly-y) +k(K-2) eo yh 3 = (caxF.F ds = [o-Rds = 0 5F ‘Ss. s Caf soc Wa Geukat” dhike” 2. thy vols’ & [Fed ohwe, Fe ue st xP = DE. = atayy { #8 = [ eeeP-F 9s © s tat .R—> y plant JF a = [pFoea dxdy { [ 2eta dc dy ¢ CS (BL g t heb Ma res, _ vr gin8 reaps nt, fale fl = Lax = Pydr ae = 3K), fea ce ) oB. Evoluate fly derz dy +x dz), stare Cou the cue f tntersecHon ot qt A aypazte ob 8 xtx= 0. & OD Sol OF = ylacja ek 9 os ; e we. | & 4 & . e 9 2 8 @ Jz tMlo-ysfti-or +k (O-9 mx 8 o 7 8 a y z aati 2 E a oe She Gntersection ah" sphure oayhazte ct Gath Ah plane xez= a & a deh & AR plont. xezea | uit AB an diamuler, usher A (,0,0)° 4 8(0,9, 8)" Ag = Jove. = a cOoooeoaooeoeonoooegoovnoeouegavoaonnnu0n0d”d . Fourier Seven» ket foo be @ periodic fu dafined in (os-cine) with period 2t, thin, she fourier sewer of foo given by, Ss os oo On COS AEX 4 by sin NRX Foo + Z, [an cos nm + aa) shoe, Oo. An S bn ar fourier coeff. given. by, cant =e i He) A dee + { a Le On = ine 3.005 DRX de t \# t cant b= foo nm de © Note» [-€,t0, Co, 207 21-8, 8] Gry [6,20] Pixckitet's Conditios:—> A. fu" sald to. sabisfy divdulet's cond” tf th foo and Te thkegrate ou -firke Sain allied dh foo hos finite no. finite discontinsdtes ; Wily foo hos finite “Noe maxima’ § minima! Note:—> 3}, foo & Jsckefied opivichtel's caid” sun Mu fourier series & convergent: be): Shan’ “fourier Convergence: cd A fG0 Be combinnows oF X= € CO) series of fod oF ~=C converges fo FLO» Wy 8Y GOOG discontinuo vs at x= E (arb) thin fourier Betes A foo = to im FOO Bm FOO a ae te xsa wb converges © Wis fourter Seviek gf fo ok Hy end pot ple tL [te Po + Yin Feo] aah Kak ° 9 oO 3 oO oO 9 3 ° 3 e 3 Qo 3 8 e o e e e e °e ° ° e oe eo @ e oO Fourtey Sentes of Even 4 Odd function in 660) ©) (n/n) Ho G) Fourier Series o} an even function s—> o m= os Oy, Cos MEX Fox + 2 e Q ee = EY gee ax by t ane 2 (foo con AR a qf com ARE de iy Fourier Sevier. dj an Odd funckion > 2 Honf - Range Seres Series —> : & vey ngs, Sone asin 0,6) 4 ee: Foods 2 4 FS ancos NK See grel 4 oS i Og = 2 i = { 400 dx ts, whe, t ane 2 (‘pis eos AR ay ¢ f+ a iy Holt - Renge Kine” dried tn (0, U)*— Foose Do bn re n=l t where, bre 2 dn hee de L J 4e0 “7 @uuations > : f. dhs coeff. of sin oe tha fourier series exparuion of foe = x8. GR) w © is gy o ws Ww w&) mE SATE Even fu" Panes, coeff- A Aine = © 0 5 -24x<0 2 KR fos { £3 oxen than thy kenmn Srdipendont of x tr Mea fourier “darler A] foo we ro tb) 1 we Ye @. 2 aoe SAM Herve, 2,2) => be 2 is tet Ppa ee foe 2d ae 8 | Indapendant term oe = My Bathe qu foo= ee 3 -KExdO . . RAY 5 Oe KER oS thon Goo hos followig eves by Sh expansion (eo both. (4) cannot be dabermninad., oy eosire, ww) Aine mad -KE-x 40 gt f= 4 ~ hal y ocx £R HH 5 KZRwO ae 5 0% KR = fb0 > ben fr. cr frye oro ur 3 OK eo ’ Bhan the coeff. of coe nme 7 @/° wy co Lb w noe ne sis SAM (2,2) => LED dy L {' foo com Pe ax ely Coe " ° Vy 2 203 sXe 0 bx & (0-93 s. foorx? mh Eryx} Rot af - cos 2x 4) CSB it 2 Ay baba e--e —— ee ra get a co) BR ws Ar (d) Nor: Vara 12 : Pave Mi AR XEK, OS = for 4 Bm F9] - aak” EL [ran] = xe 2 2g: 2 yy ls RE RY ee et at S| oO oO 9 9 9 9 o o 8 3 ° ° e 3 o 3 8 e 2 e e e ° @ e e e e e 9 eo Oo 6. A fu" with period 2x te shown below fou thin fourier series U a, foos B & ain mR cosy nS} bre flow = FON" = “even fur = casine. series ot 7 - as= 2 goo dee % ft. ae = 4 : © ao 2 Mel 2 2yox U qT Sn CON] te conitant enn tn Hu cosine Aertes of foun 2taem to F(R) YW 6) co (Sat) (a) Nor Sas Oe : Paes x?) S] foa=% G expressed on a Ralf range cosa sere th [0,2] than She coeff o core te 4 ; ws Ww) s, wo td) Non Dg. an ate ttewal (0,5) a const. CU exprested Of 0 had 9 5 vronge Bina peries Hun coeff oY sm Sx ib a: 9 @ 2) 6 cw Se ae Sk SK, SK 9 9 gd Foo = D bn dinnx Fee 3 nal : Ke 5 by = 2 j S09 -pinm de © 9 x% 2 x ; eat ¢, sin'Sx doe a a x ° 7 i 9 ef = 2% (ey : : x s Jo soa Pan ices 3 oe . ocooeoeooeooeooaoooocogoovdsd ra