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BUEDEED DE RD DEDUCE REDD DDR DODDS DEPP SSSR Se ee Ee Let ee de ee Facultad de Ci as y Matern DEPARTANENT 0 DE oreo BIBLIOTE! DEPARTAMENTO DE ATaNOMA UNIVERSIDAD DE CONCEPCION APUNTES DE CLASES ASTROFISICA ESTELAR PROF. WOLFGANG GIEREN DICIEMBRE 2010 asso: 2010 Xenon 6 CAPITULO 1 nn ww eee eae AAS AASALADADADUUVLAVLALBVAVTAVEVLAUVALALLLLLLD Diclaucio, de le er iclins q areca OfAreirte de una S4frella Aapende de A) bautuesider intasien de Le ghelle b) Se dishancia Cae yale Pe Polvo tutererlela ; ASG battery Por el umm@nte gus ete ma de precallk J v de eshelly idesheas | a diotaucies Sfrety fentoa, wea gertinds apaeater dickwte, DRESSES SS TESTE TE 4 talc siveealeee eee de mea hella, a parte de SK magu ited fe, requiee la datenn) aca. s* Sree, Peel AL su dhaude, = Problaice garam! metde dicecte | Jeomeha es el Poralase Hamomehic, ; Shella Cxana desclle + Ba vemeity a la, ghielle leone, ( casi toda!) ue eipe en el clele AB reflesa el MOM uiete obidel de Le Teepe aleededes de CL. Con p= poralaje € angle Paraliches) = Vecwes echella Grane — Tiere, Cas 2-0) tomes Bustle Pathe Le D thee Gru DEDEDE DEER ER BEEBE RSBEED i (At = Uelae Curedte) tan p = 1AU fa Saree ‘3 < © ES Wy paquate © [S86 «to py @> tan Cp) = p (rad) Am didancia Gi. 4% ! =) op Cad) = 1 Aw /4 EAvesitn de vad! axes a Saguute cle ace C'S: 2 -) a SU) = Glas 18h &e Sos 206KI0 © (rad) fe Ted | rrements The figure "5 89 to salen veal the distance to the star dis much greater than 1 AU, so che parallax angle, p, would normal _be very small, " where pi’) is the parallax angle measured in are Seconds. Substituting this into equation (2.15) gives git AU = 2.06 x 105/p(") (2.16) This gives the distance to the star in AU (1 AU = 1.50 x 10° km}, This method suggests a convenient unit for aeasuring distances. We define the parsec {abbre. vaated pc) as the distance of a star that produces parallax angle p of 1 are sec. From equation {2.16}, we can see that 1 pe 06 < 10° AU (or 3.09 x 10" Jam, or 3.26 light years}. We rewrite equation (2.16) as aipe) = sip) faa Remember, as an object moves farther away. the parallax angle decreases. Therefore, a star at a distance of 2 pe will have a parallax angle of 0.5 are sec 2 CONTINUOUS RADIATION FROM STARS Box 2.1.) Angular measure The natural have a crele of radius R, and two lines f te making an angle 6 with each ottve; the ry nded: by the two ty 2 = @traayn, where 8{rad) 1s the value of @ mea sured in ull creumference of a eve sponding to a full evcle rm: that a full or be 27 radians, This tel that 15 360%, 5 equal to 2a radans. or $80" ts equal to a raddans. IF acters wath very small angles, andl nea: urements in arc econ (are comversent, We can comert measurernants by sang 130 co! (7) = otra) 120". 6" 60 wad 1 = 206 x 10°@¢rad When we take the derivatives of trigonarnetric func tions (for example, ¢(sin Odd = cos B), ot os assured that the angles are in radians I not. a conversion factor must be carried through the diferentiation ‘When angles expressed in radians have a value that jis much less than uni approximate them iy we can ne a Taylor senes to ano") (0) = sin ( : s0(0) = sm (0) + 0 = costo) =6 a" tan(O) = tan (0) + @ snot) ae Ve = 8 sec7(9) cos(@) = = 1-0 sn(0} Note that for «mail 8, sin @ and tan # are both approx mately equal to B,¢0 they must be equal to each other (Remember in each of the above expressions, @ must be expressed in radians) - enctonces eit o6 «lo p (reas lo eee at = 2.06 [0 hedccion da pl") law p (rad) en Cutrega Lancia ea Aw Definicia 4 fosses 2 = Kistaucia da ue Shella Giyo Cpe elaje a“ pe P< . 13 Sdalpe = 206 clo AU = 3.07W\O bu = 3.26 ateka wy she unided de Shae Hace = aay po Le ghdte mal Gtane CPoxine Guten) Have « Prmeare Pa Vers = isiea lb eateene- ca] Hitede pli Coe lete w locope | tom 44. 0. —_ —_ a —_ —_ aoe ae = —_ al ae = ae a = o a C Hpporces) Gr CAIA , mediciue de p da ~ 10% ose, sith @ Precisim de ~ 3%, Seok esi ce > Calibracies -fludameatet de Le" ecole de diotancia,” | Paguitud ab solute Ga megirth obselite M da tn fall = La maguitd apareule que tedia si tu Molaucla Sena Ags lope pen MS Meaguihed apatite Oe ah, Gaya dictaucia 2d M= “ & dyrica Aue & tlds de yodieeey da Ue fo sa wif (be Wise Qaegia vadiahva sadegee ae La cupehicre de ue ¢ fea de radio dy qe es YTAX > pe anidak oe alven Cla euagia tedncida por faks I/a> J 5 => mM = 2.5 Log [bltopd /b (4 po) 4 = Us lesa ant = Slog (dfde) - = Sleg (4/lop) = Slegd - Slog Clee) al > moh a Slegd-S [da pe) M-H = necdule de dicfauca de la fel Como indice po rants magiituls a didauca he MMC lode Ca a2 de Le etectle J > ConeCiad 2 obvvaly A Cm,M dd & ecw 6e deters ra o Pporke de ee mote S lega-S Qos diate "EU @ m+ nediSe Saupe 2 Cerocitudo MA Le ebdla , Ghalaue se dictauc ic A ae " inst Can wasn! aga tine oS [00 ec | We ana tS Cae as M= m- (Sleg4-s) By Giteaaies 2a) s-C lo-S) = $-5 =6 M=z 0 wv eisuminege (LY) cA) PPOTTTT TTL SALVA SLLL. — a ol aot al al *) aa at ae = ” Me er un fender mrdulateic Cinlefrencia 2 Bln medic dispasive Cprsua 3 willed Ai fiaccia> genea us expecte erpece Visible + leagihabes de endehaprex. ci $b e mus - cepedles Meroe tecet weitere hectic Salen =e [A= | Bugshen = 1m Velacidek de Propagacien cde grdey clack magni hicos en A vacio es C= Guct = 3x 10% u/s, whepediat de A | ae ve fecuencia de la aude (AHete~ tepsh Eland: A= Coo nm Clue veiled : su feauuca es ‘ L ay ene ee Mele atte Goon (Oo) m Gidas ececloagiétins : laupn eWehite CE) y magnet cr (8), ELB, qua te gerqan ridbrament 4 Se propaga. Gu c al espacio ( ELELE) Sin necesided Ai tn wedio mauleral EB sak face 4 ccuncimes A Maxtoell : gorda, clechmmaguihiia, Cam 2 sy Colucigres A ete, CGracines ee eh vacie ( Lensidel de Cages eich, 4 Crentes ze ) Lape EF, vores en ah teuye , Gtwa un Compe B, vara at , y We versa Table 18-1 Classical Physics Maxweits equations bveget (of F iru «ced sre) = (Chace insie)/ 0 Uv x r= = 2% cine integral of Feound a Jop) ~ ~ (Fux of txoaah she loop) bi ve (as of brah a dsed surface) ~ © We Py x B= 24% Atttegratot 8 arountatoop) ~ (Current shcoush the loop)/«2 42 crm Bt eb) cecnlate ce Thee GRatterna once ein)» ~ 2 tema nus not Paton Low of motion Zeyh where nee a 0 Vie (ewtoe's lw, with Einstein's modileasion) Srowtaton rao mental law that electric charge fs conserved —any flow of charge must come ome supply. Moxwell appresiate this difieulty and proposed that it cou voided by adding the term 9/0 to the right-hand side of Eq. (18 1; he the the fourth equation in Table (3-1 BRSGEABARREREREBRBEERY ASAT AL WwW. evKe fas not yet customary in Maxweif’s time to think in terms of abstract ‘Maxell dizaussed his ideas in terms of a model in which the vacuum wali ‘laste solid. He also tried to explain the meaning of fis.new equation inter the mechanical model. There was much relvetance 1o accept his theory, fi fause of the model, and second because there was at frst no experimental feation, Today. we understand beter that What counts are the equations then tnd not the model used to ge them. We may only question whether the equ are ttue or false. This is answered by doing experiments, and untold numba ipefiments have confirmed Maxwells equations, tf we laXe away the scaT fhe used to build it, we find that Maxwell's beautiful edifice stands on #s own bought together nd beautiful theory ificlty Moxwell discovered. ‘Taking the eivergence of his equation (IY in 8-1), we must have thatthe divergence of the right-hand side is eco: wea Sedas cechomagehtas de Als Webcam ate > Gettos host Ns exfemadanente Largs = eReche clachomongit He ; Region » v Cle) Radic > [me £3xlo" li frowerte Feo hm ~ [here sue unemise Vigibu ‘Yoo ~ Foo hm aie - 25 < lo” lu lo ~ too nm 2S x1o¥ - 2 xfs % Tans, X O.[ = fo ny 3 viele Zxto* Age g < Ol ne > 3xto® ~ Kferetes Lfenica, pra detector tadieeevawion ve de ber dt fereites yauge ~ Om lumane : cansitty fon $00 ~Aow mm (qr teuote la regia en que ch Sol vada Cag ede ce eu Codaptaciant) ) ¢ erSia. ~ athe engl rellacies era. Sobte tede eb especho eum, ~ atwfoa feoweste bloqguea le mania dh la Ns. tee eet Cran sparencin totel o porciaty = r yokio C2 lewl Tadiotliscplas > 14Se IR Calgue, Vetere, ete {=lo nw} - 1985 Vis Le E neg sie: Se puede elector Goo eee iom radiacin, de Le anh en tedas Ge vaging dl espache em, Gracie, ao Obseratein en aspacia CHST! UM 5 ithe IR) hada, KH Mesto: X} ut, arte woot | stor | wory sna, Bueiges yong. oo orFal 90°99 ~ 1 wb ~epn) xe Vv Pers oy) PFT Mery? e905 ~ Pen RETRO -< 4909g = @ryrinsy AP5 490R~ 1 eqaid ) eps HOg—erau mraenyed par “2 Arne “ad pu Kadiatier AL ‘spe wages (" blackbedy”) : Stree yodia. ch wiry bien apioxiwacian Bue Onepe meg | Caja negra, teupeatea T , cr equillme radiahve len Sty aletdedores J = Ux Grnpe hegre url Wn especho Gubnue Coraclenshee Gen depende SOlauente Ac fa sempre dice T Rs CKicle ten telacion Simpl eahe T, y eee, (es ZS Por, La Crak La eueision de radiacigs es medKime) ; Ape = Gnd 6 0, 2540.em K max G : a AG 22 NOX IO nm K ey de Wien ~ lh leg de Wier Penile win ehuacier preciia de teurperatia Supe ficial de wa ertella , a pou bs ce su © Specke Conhuwe Aerdst Soli. Auay * Soonm CSc A) Ht ¢ => T= 2 Ae a(e nm kK = 5800 K Z[euple 2. Tera . CT) « B00 K > ue que De es el “Peak del especto blackbod., AaB ieels ¢ x 2 Ue xfo nm K ies Seo K cl Pook ate en el (RQ i eet ici ai itis cites ate iam i eal i i i = 266% um & loO00 aK = lo SNe oy Seta eee ere oS o, ©: ae PASE ny, e= 67 ley de Stefom 5 . Rol Reman” S= must a SFxlo” erg [a2 k's = "Gusta do Sef 6 BeUrnane! = = oo AT por facts 2: > © ansede por cts = 2 ale! ‘ oad Be Patan ui hella we A Le porcliehe ile Redawmenlle 7S Se Lot = eusgia telat rediotiva culida, 2 Cen ae is oS Por Segundo al espacie oa a han qa Mal pli cov S=cT aha Supe free. mm HLA ashe. Si g esha, radio BR, entuces: Pope Lb Syere Sih ff eugle: lanineridod de Sol T= S800 « nag R = Foo Of0 Rm 2 4 aS aC Fxtovem) CS2« 10° ere, /Cn2 kY 5] x[S200 23.99 «t0 ets (= 3.49 x1Po does) we \ot cog > Ley de Planck : - ~ oo: lye de Aric clisi he Pe odyan beprecucie el empeche as de Le Cunpo nego. le ektak’ TloT)= 2kT Vv “by de Reulergh—Fes” oe ke (So Boihiou, = 13e x10" erg 1K ee ee Nee, SUUEELL Ry de Kauleid- Jeans Kpreduc Livy erxpetinancal fora v's pequece , pro fala Poa Ve Grandes dende Dae Ch ukishe fk uv" I Planck ex Meo eutate ua fruula (sin feswa!y “ad bec’ aye €Produce el especie Sleckbed Con creck hey pon toda, SS ccs ae Nar: - a 2 Toor) = 2Be0e he Seeuats “Planck” Po ee { | Goa. ae erg: sha ley Hepredue lay de Rassle’ gla- Jeaus eer de feedrencia, Lajas 3 fee hat hy a z-c/2 ce; ore 2 TO*D= La). = me + engin Vadiada por un 2 Gre Po tage Se eine teocliva tO) - 2he Ae Ty, ehe AG CA+AA), err Por Len unde y wei dak de ora pie telacia he denuable a pas ce Koica cldsicn, Tce de Planch; dl asumic que ch Llchbeds Quite oungia cn forma Charhtada eh milhple, de La contided Chu) ; Erideucia eu faves 5 2x Pl Acie ack atects boty alictyle 2 . Joo Singer en (IFES hy = A + ym Célechm) Ne : os “us > Lr es Grpuste Pos park elas kL? pn s) . del euegias eeraleous sit frecrancia’ Al foten es > repli Cacion del Lipetesis de Planck en abe postenees, le expentuents cleo share, La jeclidar ASice de La dualidad ode - Prdaw qxe lux, G Ode, 2im, Om Generel a 2 ange echoudadk de AL Gonads, = Geniactos eats — fluje cbsevads Jo bad 9 bad = ce lowviete ba ye? de sto tinge en we dfetneia aw mee Bn drake, : mo m,-m, = 2.5 les Cbad/ban) = Colek , , ) » J ] ) J ) , ) Colores de lan ateles ———— —= , ) ) , , , ] , ) J dela ohel. > % Grate o ste pe A, Aa (wu) uBuejeneyy, rey?! yeadwoh ») 001 0004 y0k s0L Ee = T T A T pf a re ! aap? 4 ge em (2H) Aouenbaiy pl He oq vO = gO g 0b vi 0b e Ob z0b b o3 @Q > 2. onaineg f 2 id = eOL = 2 = 25 & wipoipe yp . om : 90h L JOjOIANeNIN paseljuj a wunjoeds Gm99q4rnna y) a1gsiA aifam abr wn wrod “eonaroayy 5% sernpe eh “wyerpes wrragul 2a) O29 AN BAAN) Id NWI si oT onmerte A tee oteella , cl Slo se Pore hey hegative CM wre ORL) 5 pore tan Bfeelln de T mene, el ude Cole & bd porhes (me sob oreo >} Plecyiee hehe & Ghaureiae macianles 4SSon) ren ¢ 0 4 yw SSS um) Cohaeiarraepretg eens? mpm = BaV = 2.Sley LIG)/TOD) + eat EAD, DO: = wtesidads promote, ole el Fate ole le, fio -> Si T de une Shell, anmeute > TANT EOAgZ) disuinaye > B-V AR stat nurye. C mes Sault = abel, goles Sm Clectes uw veqa, Say fia, ~~ Asumiends Oe ehell radia Cur un pe fede Grape uageo, der medicimes de flije en A, , Ar CS ETA), BAD) see seh cients pos deter nes su exeela Cove cde Plauk, y prs tate su seu permtisa > wedicice de Coles ("-fotandma” ) prover Lay fepemtive, de atielles ( kemala! ) ) > ) ) ) ) ) : — ) ) ) ) p ) ) Guar rege 4 = a 15 (5000 K) Lag (3000 K) PART | PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY STARS 1g B 19000 8) eee Lag (15000 = (19000 sere 8 cs000 K a at Log Frequency Frequency (10/8 H2) | Bach spre Nee si the ak {ensure hehe osu sberer ehngs ¢ | Rater tener Note abo eta rswecy at: yt of Une spectrin, 8 = 550 nm, (The Earth Was fe lakieay pres of wore ran an csr ont. an average temperate of about. 100K. what | RSet mene eavelength des the Farts Blakbody spectrin tongs minermy sanorya ter olaie Dwar Peak? {wreerae, for ti sen nf acl oat Speco sntclerver ns ebemen mente OE! b Pes 2 hes of eR STAYE FEMERE 5 Gigem he wavelength, we solve equation (251 for the temperate ‘which allows this tance is reached, the lack body i in equitibrium. re TFigare 25 shows some sample blackbody spee- tea. IFwe compare these spectra #0 thove oF Acual ‘This love to the temperature of the Su sara, se that the setual spect are very much (hy Given the vemperature, we solve eeution (25) like blackbody specten, Notice that in any wave fr the wavelet length range, 9 hotter blackbody gives off more energy than 3 cooler blackbody ofthe same size, 4 = ‘We als see that a the temperature increases the ea ofthe spactruim shifts to shorter wavelengths. = 3 10" am ‘The relationship between the savelengr®s at 29 x 10nmk S270 Sem a 29% 10'nm 200% which the peak ocCUTE, Ans and temperature, 7, 1 ie very simple, (eis given by Wee's displacement = 10 wan tae ‘his sin the infrared part of the spectra 20 10am 5) tren hough (oe Bahn ing oF alton we Shreae glenn nthe wale arate tm this law, we must use temperamure Of 2° syecicum, Simitarly. objects around us that are at 2 en ee ieaaiba Tea un eres Kelvin scale she temperatine om the CESS PS nar of ee rain me ars besos) reat spectr, th rye ible ih Fernie Using WT UaplcrmentTow Te weigh hat wee om surounsing a eae rane ose icky eet spall refeted suniht oF aif aesnecemurreca inthe wddle ofthe table gh Amal ~ 290% 107? am CAPITULO 2 RRRURR Rt ercererercercaccacceccecacaccanacn.......- [PART PROPERTIES OF ORDWARY STARS P LZ GRA. Wor iow Varig OG ence ie | [Fre enone prove tb ie Fo aoe pre ana we cant ses cin pecans me pte whne lh bag tt Bet The ea fg ha spre ot 2 pate rou pr. One evan re ee "© elor mag om he we fw show pa 0 on he rer the tape of oe 3.2 | Spectral types When spect were taken of sam other than the Sun, they alto sowed absorption spectra Presumably the contnwows radiation produced ia sar passes through an atmosphere in whieh {he absorption lines are produced. Not all tar. have absorption lines atthe same wavelength "Atronoers bean fo classi and ceil the spectra, een theo they sil di not understand the mechanism or producing the ines. This poinss ‘ua importane general echniquein astronomy studying lrgenombers of objet ook fr se cel trends In one very important study, over 3200000 stars wre cased by Are ump Cone ‘ihe Harvard Col "The beacon ‘OF that study was Heer Duper ad he catalog of stellar specs vas nated afer him. The sas (Sisciog a 0 toon by ther BD numbers (One set of spectra lines common to sony sears was recognized a belonging tothe element dnydrogen The stars were clsifled according to ‘Be stonget pages oon nex Ts [Siien A stars have te strongest hydrogen ins, “ © Tg | cpio te Oe toma inion ed tron ine (i ok ek cn fp wi ort or mle ple of preduoe spe! Tet See tee arcane Caer cre cate te -seboan ie now lone hog he o> caro nan ores Ts tn prose absorp io ‘stars the next strongest, and so on. Theve later designations were called spectral cases or spre: type. We now know that the different spectra ‘ypes correspond to different sueface tempers tures. However, che seqvence A, By... is not 2 lemperatureordered sequence. For reasons we will discuss below, hydrogen lines are strongest ‘intermediate temperature stars. ‘Toespectral classes we use in order of decreas ‘en OEE CE Wet each ofthese clases into ten wbeasses ened ‘bya tlumber fom zero w@ nine: rexammple, the seguenee 078,09, 80, Bi, 2....,B9.A0.At, (for 0 stars the few hottest subelasses are not sed) For some of the hotter spectal types, we ven use lf subclasses, for example, BLS, (c was originally thought that stars became cooler as they evolved, so that the temperate sequence 6 Lineas especlales cu‘ Specker dle, erbellar S1 Robot Kivehheff ex abe : a’ rors St Coliecle emrte un @specte — Cusisk de bes) GM te tadaciea, ete ote Rien, FS) el mists gan se italic une fale de vontinws , ny wie, Lites, qua en 2 agortcen BR mise aloe Pests ew able cla v des v expecho de absecio ) SSssesssesesVeegess oS Gon he cede Le dtm, aga, died, Las A's Be Ne, Gale te predte La Ulan A cuirion fo obs acid) S& Corachushca, fan este especie Fonwacie de | de le, Grea erpechals : Bsus, Stn Orfemnmte de Scattering he PoWade, C= nuclesr de He ) Pe altran de orp Caw, e277 fue el Piuwe de desabae la & he bey adctrme seve ecte video arga. posihva (7) aN un Ce a Coyga. telal_ = O J ex dhifa, Shall, alededes del nucles, S14 wuibe waBace 1 Gubadiccion a bys clisi te, | baie: Jeon = ake Wedele be exp lice el mga a Le eumicinn de urn srechals BO ee a a ae ee ee ex 48S Balues luvesbgs ol are ae Lvien dat hideigec. CH gy ete oo Vc k- we) R= Corrtante dr Rydber \ A= G1 17636 nm Rg 4! ~ ihe, foun Anes hay A! ren By SiS oo tt cbsevade, pra be Liven, ques eH eur Co absorb) 2 Ge Le pork Ui Ke oe apeche Pes eeuple: he3 +> we PCE a) => r= GSE. 47 bm Co 6504.74 ) sta sg Le Bien Hy BY os He Le Geel cte pees he besa ingame erpliacia, Aria pore ete Poeiatin Nids Bols + pekll a exislecta ee ctetes hivels, as ety © oSi tes panes Kao” pos nw en cl store 4 HH Cel Mass Staple da ted ) Coda nivel Here Wee Cae gin Priate: CE, » Fin a a) oe Posben Produce Mauch cloug Cute ste ‘ainsale da euegion etaclonane DP ew algun Stade de rages euegia Poste from ohe da meun euagia, ww la tee tn fete ee, euagia ¢ oda per be Risen. da Ly euasion de lip 2 Shade tuo lucida | E,-Ey, s hy ~ vie Vet, ak Stee Prada Paseo um Bode 2 hares eongia Po LA absecisy de ton Pol xs 2s igual a © G&-&,) “} thereporacisn del Guceplc de fot, & Eiuslen (iter) age, ensic exogia de Le bivele © are rela" dal afer a. HH; Bole perhta que el lemmerha angular Fete C per Su Route. Clerata oital) es - ) ) ee i = eS ee h) Cutence, : ) Rie, ue ES corsa Se) polis ae Ghia C= Sistaudia AL uecee) A + . Quclee Haw Carga te pe mM Cet em Cue > nov. al tedes wo J] \ Ee = bm ) Sets ia leon Cero asi que Epp te para v5 0° Se Eee Uaidase ' Cgs 5 Coma ex Uunidads clackortih cay ecu = Bileee. ~ « < 4.8 x lo a 7 ewwgia total Catena Eby y del “each es : i , om p Ex tov - = ) : baits ae 2 yO e0 Weer treet Cieclos beplc, que Fo > ae. ¢ . ’ | ae (es < 2 RT Fetes 3 eqs) ‘ a L 2 Z v2 ww» E=$f-£-=-45 B® | an = : 5 : Renahva > clechon. es Liqade al uudeo da + Bla euegia Pare Calenlos lo radion T da lo, oebite, Pamctidas, Bole Usd su Concepts dL Weert ausila Cunt tede: nel2, 3.6 | = 5s Ps | pow she ex 925i bu « €2 = Piha ay agit, = 7" Nee Cn etasye G Snrq: t= ° Lvereceier pot mov. dul maces © m—> Mee 9 9995 me i AZ =O. Morte 6 CS pease reducida” ) I (we) Pamcte Celontos La, eungia de tele Le Stade del cetewee A Lidudgene El atede Wal = atede Redasretel New enagia ~ 1 et mm) ee = Wn) (4.8 x10 an CFM Ke mS) he cw) 6.63% 10-7 ens) a PREIS. 5a [ee = Pomalop a5 = 0.0525 nw Vasa Libeor el @ dal uncles Grande cl atone de i ce Colwonfa a. su glade ee ewmgia cd 2IZC Vv [= " Pe beatles, Goan biudivs ae Ak tne} Ho pli4ae (Zibiee) § RB6N eh Appa! ‘ . : Hablaum de loritecian , ~— = - we E,= 13.0 ev) (@) sa pusde Tee say, os 1BiC MV | oy Ge * ae = ee roe a> i €,.- 36 aol el a Slev Figure 5.6 Balmer lines produced by the Bohr hydrogen atom. (a) Emis- ssion lines. (b) Absorption lines, Energy (eV) { were bf Rs wi4) tg lal ‘yan level dlagram for the Balmer lines (downward arrc ‘s) Ou ve 2 chhene LO tenia a Saluw heR &) = 3S dae R= (4) cme (¥T?) ie La emegia do un fete Cen tide , © absebide) debe te Iquat a A ference oe la eungia de le 2 shader she Lo Gale ctare la tausicia : > E-e.: hy s he (Cvrsec !] eB: I fan im on se = RoR) = eee a Balen | 2486806406046) 86646664488 > La fone AL Ralue reproduc las A's da todas le fausiciome de nivela Gapoisves (W224 S 2.5 al wivel julerios mse = le aed. Balusy a See de aha = toda Ly frasiclas a ms (d= 2Cr-4I)D = en UV — med = Sere da Pascle , eu el infareyo Medde do Belr KL otome te Ho = ho exples eh porque de les portladss ( cranbtacts po Soe, Slites ho vadian Cuda, @.m,) eulerdiniets mos piefurte pa ce Broglic Hei foubes, Scisdinge » DUAL. OD — PARTICKLA > & ey ctr 1 descba Gos —fanc Gae, ale, ada, EEA ome, me erhoge Le prebabilidad da bolts We 2 Cy Ue lage expocificer, Gy un mai caching ecpeci fe L wave Wadia ce 5 qo tam Beck aus } e e e e e e e e e e a Q a q ‘ 4 q q ‘ , ‘ ‘ ' ‘ q ‘ ez wu eZO wu 9 Z01 souse\. oeuity ~~ 228 crarrens ) THE MYDROGES ATOM, da: 2ptm=9) 2p om) (2) 2ekmnt) Vaan = i+ a? ag) 19% Sinden ap (m=0) Yao pom) My YT TULL LLALLALLLAL LLL yeimr-1) Yon apa e 3am =0) ee Geeteniy ry VV ae **© sin@cos@e* 3d om 3d (m2) : ’ * * nn eee ee eevee eee eee TU SU TEE UT EEE “4 The fundary condition tht the wave fanetion (goto ro anti) caues the neger no appear (compare to the panicle m a bow, the finite square-well,ané the sonic oselate) The solutions the radial equation ce TableS-Land Appendix) are pelynemilsin ries an exponential, «7, where isthe principal quantum huraer. The radial equation (938) contain a term wth (PR dr Ths second derivative with respett9r produces ‘fem proportional to 2 Thus eads mo soluons forthe ‘lectron energy proportional o nt The energy levels the hydrogen atom are quantized. We give each enersy level a sersl numer mand write 640) where ina pestveimeger(1,2,3,..}. According tothe Schringer equation the energy levels do not depend on the valves of the quantum numbers andm,, Forexample, the 2sand2p stateshavethesameenergyeventhoughthey hae different racial probability distributions Figure 8:6 shows the energy levels ofan eleetzon in the hydrogen Pa FIGURE 8.2 Probability of Gnding the electron a8 2 function of eadive (ors hydrogen stom in the fs ‘sched sate. ‘Tree arto posible state-n-= and ¢ = called 2s sae ‘ora and =I called the 2p sate. The ares under eich cure ‘normalized tity 83 mune quan noms 229 FIGURE 4 Probab of ang te eto» faetio of radius fora hysrogen atom in che second ‘Frees tre possible states-n ~ Sand /~ Deal the state n= Jani/= Lealedshe Spine, or n~3 and = ellie Sa stte The aren under each carve nora 0 ny EXAMPLE 8-7 Use the wave functions in Table 8-1 10 ealeulate the energies ofthe 2r and 2p states, SOLUTION: The radial wave function forthe 2s state is and “The radial equation (6.39) with € = Ois ere Comparison of the terms gives the electron energy, =, Therefore, the redial equation gives gmc | Ser, Spore : -.aeaeaesD. um number / specifies the orbital angular [momentum of the electron. Zero orbital angular momet corresponds to spherical symmetry since the separa a constant (8.34) is zero and there is no angular depen soce. There isa Himit on how large ¢ say b ‘vahic of 7. The solution requires that £ <1. For ifm L then # = 0, thats, here is no Ip state, If fis ot ‘equal to zero, the wave function vanishes at the ongin (see Table 8-1 and Figure 8-5) and the wave function 1s proportional to. Number, 2% ‘The Magnetic Quantui “The quantum umber m, has appeared in the solution for F4Q). The separation constant Cyis equal fo minus one ‘mes the square of an integer(m,), The minimum value of -mi ig f and the maximum value is f For the 2p wave functions, there are three possibi for mz =10, and +1, Por m,= 0, the wave funetion (see ‘Table $-1) is proportiaaal to cos@ and the electron is most likely to be found near the z axis, We can see from Figure 4-5 that the average of the z component of angular mo- mentum (Z,) is 2er0 when m,~= 0, {turns out that the = component of angular momentum is exactly zero when m, = 0, For m= =1 or my = ~1, the wave function is praportionsl to sin@ and the electron is most likely to be found ndar the x-y plane, The exact value of L, 8 h for im, =+1 and A for m,=—1, We summarize these resuits with: md. 846) where mr may take on integer values from ~£10 Thetotal number of states for a given value of € is 26-4 1. The = irzetion is special in spherical coordinates because the polarangle is mensured with especttothez axis, Allofthe ‘wave functions squared are symmetric about the = axi that is, | does not depend on ¢. The quantization condition (8 46) is similar to that used in the Bohr mode}, where the electron isassumed to havea circular trajectory. In this case, the 2 direction isthe direction perpendicular to the plane of the orbit, Inthe Bohr model, the minimum value of [CJ is A, whereas in the Schrddinges formulation (8.46) it is zero. if both the total angular momentum and the z compo~ nent of angular momentum are quantized, then the angular momentum cannot point in an arbitrary dizeetion in space. “Angularmomentum quantization isobservabie when there isa magnetic field that selects a special direction in space. ‘The magnetic field causes a shift in the atomic energy na TIRFE QUANTUM NeMARS 233 level by am amount that is proportional to the quantorn number m,..We shall discuss the reason foe this in the next section. Thus, m, is known as the magmetic quantum umber Angular momentum quantization is illustrated Figure B-7, where we plot, versus (Zé L,?)"* (Noted Liv bse -k). ‘The uncertainty principle tells us that we may not simultaneously know the exact values of any two compos rents ofthe angular momentum. For example, if, and, were known exactly, then we would know the exact trajectory, position, and momentum of the particle in the ‘ey plane. Ifthez component of angular momentum (8.46) is known exacily, then nothing is knawn about the a2 ‘muthal angle. Both the magnitude of the electron crbital angular momentum £ and the 2 component 4, way be specified exacily. The direction of Lis not known; how ever, L is constrained te lie on a cone (Figure 8-8) “Thesolution to the SchrSdinger equation gives three ‘quantum nambers for un electron in the frydrogen wm, The primary quantum number n gives the iron energy, where m= 1,2, 3, .. The orbital quantum number ives the electron orbital angular moment b= {GDA where £=0, 1,2,3,... n=. The magnetic quantum ‘numbsr m, gives the 2 component of orbital angular * Challenging Operators in Quantum Mechanies ‘The Sehrédinger equation may be written as 1 2 E Slew) vevwezy. wan where the symbol p* is defined to be C) a2 fe tomer mele tinyed n=2,fe1,yed neBlanyed ne adel my=d FIGURE 8-5 Sketches of yf! for the hydrogen atom in three dim Iuythen = 1 state,(b) then 2states, and (c)then= 3siates. After R, Eisbe Pls of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei, and Particles, Wiley (vopyrie Axckihucies de prokabilidal de eu trtios dh dachsn esnick, Quantum 2 1985) em ch atte da H aot foc Zeeman (> spliting de Lines, etpecharg , con = Presence de un Crue woud hee =z % = Ro caches Augulas L : {z Ls (ecen h R= 01,2, nhl a Sole pusde set: Las gh tor Wy Cake —2 4 +% = C2E +1 Valeres) > > ; oi Camas » todo lm otads> rec. al ui Cue , Vols de nr feu la Wi sure a Bon Congo B (ua free : Me) : wivels BD adqui ere. lke prin ne adicigual que dapande de Milan Gimli. de ee ae. a B L eusgia adiciael = UW = Eee > pon vives de €#O , aparece. a 1) nivds o : que Cewespevda, a a lo Seale, valees da my posills e- Feeds ctedo 2P Chee 22) | valves de me de -1, 0,4! ° —_ 4 D> a whede , 2a presecia de we Glepe a, "splits ; eu 3 wivele, de cuegior dshude, > una Riven Cin Grego magus hea da “Prem cra, Vey lib! alee ec. pes River ce “fre Guoncia, pekrella tmoarchtet , Lol , 9% iuleetelor, aa) =a v vaecta a ) o 4Tmec = 2 ¥T mee } = elece Deemc, = Redick (os de Av pemtte dafere Lor |B | \ . + Yuancom maeenaaucs and Wave-artcle Duality Ist Figure 5.13 Spliting of absorption lines by the Zeomsa eft. case (called the normal Zeeman effect) are and vet ar (5.20) ng a OIPPPATTARATANAAAANAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA ARRAN CAPITULO 3 | Echelle, bina: y masas ectelares ry Soh bay atelar courte G sisteme binana, BB INARIAS FISBALES » cle esbele,, dubas Wile adi dred ment Se ebi tay ° Boreas EPR TROSCOPICAS + Ee eh expecke de bem ctrl, . le Riuee, erpechaly a fae Camente sf retikss the ee, B aghk A ne prin > “ Doppler sich”. A wees re yen anbes afella, en el epeche Com puste (" double ~ Linea Rac tin @ Pi biuates" > PWARIAS SCUPANTES: Cane 4 Lat demuerta eclipses Cpimone 4 segumsane) queue sepite, gered Gucnte compacta Pua dloute o dedi di la Compote pruei par Bul Stews Bg lke A La Orble A sivheme Y Gtheldinke Com Linen de Urte Trewa hacia el sirtenn no oGure an Riven recta (mov. propied sike demustra Wobble,” > prerencia de una Shella Conpaten Cinachh ) > > > : PEINACTAS AFRoMETRICAS : motets de ure erbelle ; eee , ) CSivius Ay B, Guo ejemplo Grecide) un cideme binado erpect fe Pek PRtnane Ge a bel de ure di ote, Glegaie, auslsis de biuata , y Porkaleswete de b. ¢ he Cn ttgade Le weierec date A lo masas 4 & de la, ehelly Ctb. leminesideds — disdacciar) my ust riers cur pers as contrac ‘aramcters of es ineludig ‘geet peo ind hain ing omer pe ut sly oo: he censions Som. dhe sas deecnising inde te munow oF ‘von about he the dist be caleabted. FIGURE 7 An ascorete in, which conn one visible membres. The s#Se6) compen Is mpi by dhe eclisiry moon Ute oburvasie star fesse. The proper maven of he ‘pte refed in the alghie main Fhe eer of mis + Astramsteie binary, If one member of s binary is sigifcantly brighter than the ‘ter, may not be possible ro observe both members directly In such a ease the existence af the unseen member may be dedsced by observing ihe setiatory motion ‘ofthe viable componan. Sage Newion’s fs fw eequires that a constant velocity bemeistained by a mast Uns force is acing upon il, such an ossilatory bees wr Feguites hat anorber mass be present (see Fg. 71). + Eetipsing binary. For binaries that have bit planes oriented proximately ston: the line of sigh! ofthe observes, ne star may pecially pass in front ofthe ett, ‘locking te light of the ecipted component (see Fi. 7.2). Such a system is reoun sizable by egular variations in the amount of igh received atthe telescope. Not only ‘do observations ofthese ligh curves reveal he presence af two stars, but the at can ‘also provide infomation about relative effective temperatures and radi ofeach star teased on the dephs ofthe ight eure minima and the lengths ofthe eclipses. Details ‘ef such on analysis willbe discussed in Section 73. + Spectrum binary. A spectrum binary is system wit two superimposed, Indepen. ent, discernible spectia. The Doppler effec (Bq. 435) causes the spectral Lines of star tobe shifted from their ret frame wavelenglbs if that ar has 2 gozero 73 ial velocity Since the suri a binary systero are cocstntly in mesion abot their rutoal center of mass, dre must necessarily be periodic shifis in the wavelength ‘of every specral line ofeach sur (unless the orbital plane is exactly perpendicular ‘0 the line of sigh, of couse), Ts also apparent that when the lines of one sta ve Diveshifted, the line of te other mast be redehfied relative tothe wavelengths that ‘wouldbe produced ifthe stars were moving with he constant velocity ofthe center sass. However, it may be thatthe oil period isso long thatthe time dependence of the spectral wavelengths isnot readily apparent. tn any ease, sF one satis net ‘overwhelmingly more luminous than is companion and itis not possible to resolve ‘cach star sepataey, tay sil be posible i recognize the object a a binary system by observing the superimposed and oppositely Doppler shifted spectra, | PART L_ PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY STARS NW Se Tha binary sytem x shown T bowe; the lighe curve, on Tamer secondary passes | Fiermately an font of and Behind che primary Most of the ‘ing. as poston Coe elit fom boeh srg Wea the secondary eclpees dhe primary, pur ofthe prerary light js Bode apd dere a dip in che meno, as pio. ‘Wen we secon. pases abi di hac at 28 Be “ight is lose Since the secondary is nos as hor 25 the primacy The en of epeness no as grt 2 a A (0) arto he ighc curve forthe eclping bina ee ree tiaewana oe cecigre pat ofthe or (0) B50] 5.21 Doppler shift ‘A Doppler shift is @ change in the wavelength (and frequency) of a wave, resulting from the motion ofthe source and/or the observer. It is most easily visualized for a sound wave or a water wave, Path of Visible Star GEL. Asrometns bimy Two sars orbit ahoue a com mon center of mats, which in turn moves aerass the #7 fainter starts £20 fing to et, 40 we only see the brighe= {sar moring ack and forth across the path ofthe center ef where the waves are moving through a particular lastie medium (Fig 5.) 5.2.1 Moving sources and observers We first look at the case of the moving observer, If the observer is moving toward the source, thea, the waves will be encountered more frequently than if the observer were standing still. This means that the observed frequency of the wave increases. If the Frequency increases, then the wavelength decreases. If the observer is moving, away from the source then the situation is reversed. Waves will be encountered fess fre quently: the frequency decreases; the wave: length therefore increases. It should he noted ‘that if the observer moves perpendicular to the line joining the source and observer. no shift will be observed ‘We now look at the case of the moving source. Each wavefront is now emitted in a different place. Ifthe source is moving toward the observer, the waves will be emitted closer together than if the source were standing still, This means the wavelength decreases. The decreased wavelength, results in an increased frequency. If the source is moving away from the observer, the waves wil be emitted farther apart than if the source were standing still. The wavelength increases and (he frequency decreases. Again. if the source is mow ing perpendicular to the line joining the source and observer, no shift results, Chapter 7 inary Systems and Stellar Parameters 109) pete OSCR Om Ee os Os OAT OSS 06S 7S ‘ona tse AIGURET2 TeV mapinwe ug cane of ed ont Uh ove tr aso hte z “Astron. J. 103, 657 15) . Phase On! Bt - 2.6284 dio Even if the Doppler shifts are nt significant (ifthe orbital plane is pe tothe nue of sigh or instance) t ay stil be possible to detect 10 368 of tapos spectra f they originate from stars that have significantly éifferent ecaces (sce the discussion of spectral casses in Section 8.1), «Spectroscopic inary, Ibe pri of hinary system mot profits om areal movon hasacomponent along ihe Tine of sght.0 periodic shits ieee nl be observable. Assuming thatthe luminosities of he stars ae comp totrepecta wil be observable. However if onestaris much move line other, then the spectrum ‘aly singlet of periodically way! the existence ofa binary star sys tarween spectra and orbital phase fora speewoscope binary sar system “these specific clasifcations ae not muvaly exclusive. For instane, mun sytem could be bth an eclipsing and specoscope Bary. It alo tm Systems canbe sigificanly more useful than others io prov Characersies, Three types of systems ca binaries eorabined ith parallax information: st vinielc ener a complet ort and elipsing. doube-line, spectroscopic binaries aay Vey pes Feppeyen +) wayne YD PP MODIPIM saniesqo pub aosnos uaemag uoKoU ‘oalOj—4 AUD 51 8,04 JonaUBy anrasqo oy) Ag wees sy “payiwa 9g 0} snogo jsa! 12410890 uD piomey 92:n0s © WOH vowou anon (0) Z1-E aaaBIy a at o at Q) a hor a ©) ; c oy Figure 7. The pevote shift i space! fnruen of» ovbline #8 eae Tan The zie evens ofthe pees of Sa ood eee Me our diferent pau during che orbit: (a) star 1 is mow 7a Soe sherri star 2 is mving amy, () Pou ts hav ern ear tothe Une of sight () sar 1 8 seeding fem ‘elocitos pepe tar 2 is appfoocing, ond (3) again both stars have “Mosites perpendicane to the ine of st o Ts pg Speen Binaies (2) EA ® Figure 7.5 («) Two cceular orbits whose plane lie isis of te observer, (b) The obaeved curve esp ‘are the velocities of star 1, star 2, cen oF mass, eapectvely. Set tale] Gasissioset nn | tr pad of 2 as Te Sap ar 085 pou thea] lucty aon te Fine of sight ss ¥ e089. However, 5 Went) 56 The radial velocity changes sign every halt and cepeats periodically This is shown in iy. 5.5 The period of the motion ie the cincume fevence, Zr. divided bythe speed ¥.$0.P = 2/a i we substitate equation (5) into equation 4, we find that the spectral Hines shift back and fort, wih a shift gives by AAPA = (We) cos fot 5a far we lave heen considering the situation {nv which the observer is in the plane ofthe orbit, lEthe observer is not sn the plate af the omit, ene Doppler shift will be reduced (Fig. 5.7). [Ft i the angle between the plane of the oabit and the line of che sky. ther the projection of any ve ily in te plane of the orbit into the line of sight ‘sy sim The angle 13s known asthe tcination of Le ot Sey steer on plane The line ashe some angesths | fe of he by The lief they ined abe pe ‘Oral Phone (335 day [teoes eels ieantcames eee | SS the orbit, Tals glues usw radial velocsty for ant ‘orbiting star = vsin eos 67 5.3 | Binary stars and circular orbits In this section ee wil see how Newton's haves of ‘motion and gravitation can be applied to binary stars in circular orbits, Circular orbits ute not the most general case of orbital motion, but the analysis is most straightforward, and most of the basic points are clearly illustrated. In the next section we will goto the general case of eiipeical orbits ‘We consider two stars. of masses m, and rs ofbiting theie common center of mass at dis: tances rand 1, respectively (big, 58). from the iu Goer eke | ison cues i is Sivane en ovbite Civerlor : V Cobital) s Castes | peo Vy Vana palod! canente : Vis view Cwt) ws > = vel. angular (we 2) Tv, CGautla su Sighe Cada medic perode Sha vy 5 BX te (wi) > Ad vane ~ co Cut) ‘ . a7 , ot ba debide a La biuata Hens ure tuc race, & cer eh glare del ciale C que es L sob La Luma de vista hacia cb sister, eutoris Lk preqeccion de Vi tu al plane de La bvbite es Voaui | ecb es Le qa obte vane!) on q > Le velcided tadicl da La ebella en mov. orbital es Vy = V Seu Cor (wt) pbeella, Crm mages My, me ovbifarts altetecls cle su ceude de mate Comin , ee Bitheca, del CM de + 4 Cex veloc dade obi toly Yi Ve Row def. del CH 2 My T= My ty (6a) pupergaue que eb CM del sistema Shel 2. repere (, Bek obsewade 2te a. ea ctr) EL peiods obit Ceemut pom onto, sbello, !) EEOC EE EE Tae grata. eralg : Lishancia ene eslrella es > Fa G Mime = Tqratt, solve aube, cefelle, (any i Ve LD F Came une acelvacon VA 0 frta centeat | > fugre Sole Stella t es: & Te mye [=m % | 2% Gime 2 (epee) 2 aT om rm Ga % 22 3 ys ITN 2 2 de ghellas del ti rhein m (1+ Bt) e ae Ged lnceta et en (S16) . t : JZ +e Ais a 3 &\z sls \F | + ' a | | PPR RRRPPPRARARRAARRARRRARRRRRRRRA KAR D2IPPRPPPPELLAAAAA: P2 Cm tm) - re > dekerniuadon cbievacet & PC fil!) yg R Edrega Capt) 5 Me Be heqon Meas 2 reat — ele bikada, eel! Praute oA 2 empeckn Urise > SD hy m, wbiduels (ech es el Core deol Chel. + L Darel + aaa det Sol UWawus eb Sslee © Lol Titwa) Ge cisteme Giulia > vale (6.20) me Horo Me | (Mp + H-) = Mo => Mees yt? oO a Pt S eee eco ieeca) ganic are algae RTE eek (6.09 «16% dyn coe G2) CB.IL« 10" <) 3 Si CxPrejaum » ex (Seza) : R> Aw 4 2 mth, > Mo fe Ro = Cute.) P P +s als ee eee eT 9 $ Gu sistomn sola, porn ( Sot 4+ aulguie planet >) , Cm y+ m,) oe Mey = 4A Ca wrase, Solos ) sae Sa > a 7 > Gaga) = Pareja a0 35 lu, Ae keplar dale nett ed elon bes plon cle ? Petiedss white A Lo planets tufesan sur dstacia ek GLC otuntenk Orb be Crataes !) a P a uuplaxe cde R pos > R= &4n) = (B) Cvyau) ea ee le = cent = ve todiod = vel rabioh dg Vow = Vz emt i 3 | \ a Be Uy | wre CMe + Xe) [sei = mt Cee 2 = P o BD padialy qa nee “ oe Cue 4y,,) = (mt Sele & { Cmte, ee ae " buepkeays Sect | _ Poe} a ome Lz Ao Cb. eclippouls) | D> Seee =~ ne < 40° fee Rivcile infers al Les oblecuier ve Rimrle inferno al Vale wi tm,) verdadere binaia aalipsaule (3 C= 40°) tS Vip = bo Rants sa War = 20 kul 4 ial m=? ? = lo ate ‘sing equation (52) om ee) (6.67 x 10" Maym cenifg)(2 x 10)" sis foes) = 245010" ew 5.47 Elliptical orbits S4.1 Geometry of ellipses In general, orbiting bodies follow elliptical paths Acicle is use a special cate of an ellipse Ta this section, we generalize the results ftom the prev ‘ous section from circular orbits wo elliptical ‘orbits. The basic underlying physical ideas are the We fist review the geometry ofan ellipse, as shown in Fig. 89, We deseribe the elipse by Its semi-major axis ¢ and semiminor axis b, Each point on the ellipse satisfies the condition that fved points called fort (singular fons). is eon stant. Ifr and rare these two distance: then Spey romp, Dig BA] Geom a in Te gh oe nae | jor acs thelr fe verter a The ‘Gs wr ac Fan Th ceil a the ‘ances rom the tw fc pees onthe ele are nd? | +4 risa constant We ean ee that fora point on the sexnimajor axis (and the ellipse). this sums ie 2e, so it must be 2e everywhere, Thats rer ete (625) The, lof an ellipse is the distance between the foc, divided by 24, A circle Is an ellipse of eccentitity zero (both foci are at the same point, the center of the cirele} The eccer ‘icity of any ellipse muscbe less than unity. From the point where the curve crosses the ralnor as rar=as Becta (an sore) $529 In a binary system, the center of mass of the ‘wo stars will be at one focus on the ellipse. The farthest point ftom that focus is called the apas: tron, From the figure, we see that the distance fom the focus to this point rlapastron) = oft +e) (6304) ‘The closest point tothe focus ic called the pert castro. Is dittance from the focus 's peraston) = of3 ~ €) (6300) ‘The average of these two values isa, the semi- major axis. Tis is the quantity that replaces che radius of 2 circular oxbit in our study of binary ass, 1 fs useful to have an expression for the ‘llipse, relating the variables r and @, From the law of cosines, we see that PoP (ane + tran) cove tsa) Using equation (528) ges [cic Cote ze 5.42 Angular momentum in elliptical orbits ‘The gravitational force berween two objects always acts along the line joining the two objects. The ‘center of mass also lies along this live This means that the foreeon either object points directly fem ‘that object rowards the center of mass, Therefore, these foroes can exert no torques about the center ofmans Ifthere are no torques about the center of > Guava de velod dak radial mo es ~ Co Curt) meinen | ‘Chapter 7 Binary Stars and Stellar Parameters | | paseaaaaeaae a: 210 x» e=03 Cures de vel “sq ry { poo > de una Linanag lew ecceAi cidade a Woraa or ds os 10 12 14 18 18 2 22 Time on) Figure 7.6 The eccentricity and the orientation of the orbits, w ‘ermine the ape of ie ral ws cae ere = TO Mo, a= 2 AU, €= 0.3, #= 30", with an axis rotation= 45°, a oe ee eg. a ee — a ee _ARAUCARIA PROJECT. DETERMINATION OF THE LARGE AGT "LATE:TYPE ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEMS. I OGLE 12, ty B,Twourson?, Daanine Gaaczvs!, WoLscaNc GHEREN, ANORZES UDAL SH ee eT a uate Mont Zatowigw Roe aczcowse!, Fasto BRESOLIN. AND ROLE ETS Kuperrat va Szeweny Dan MT noni ule, coer, Oi, pragma Sem¥@ato i) Le vie nbe cuemeer@uipo ees) sei@usiele * way Univer terry, A dose ‘ ene Geet 3 eta Bae Suet Panes, A PIO I22. SA ttc nics Unie Cus de Cl gas Aas piety os Wocew Koperi I, 1-22 Wit, Poa Te ont H 9012, USA: sin Grzecons Prerazsisn) “Depend “mtr Aswoom, Leto awa Manon, 2659 Ween "pe 208 Maen: punished 0 ay Tecra 208 December ABSTRACT swe have amayse te den ein nary stom OOLEDSIOI?.- S123 fa Ne LAC eh ert of ae Oh congo ae ein tonpagirs, dealt oa Salas of He Optics! avitional Lens wih sm: fering eng oy cued Tor bh component Sel Naver a rl ape wees nay sustem measured ouside te Se Toe eos sban a aot sven iS Se ts fandamentlpysiel Scametere Using 8 suface wigeness 7 = Gt TOF giant are we have calculate Serie ieee panos Ug 4 Sve cance mano 18.0 na, wha iin wl eng) © (be spi ad ie 1s ine MC whieh We hve ove ed Ohh We 9 Saray More sine en 3 gt te ick on he seme of De ood ad ena beaning eleva Nasu 1, mac Rede fr the eatin ofthe vars snk, 1 ora re eingbna: ecescpc— dc le pics det ad i= Melanie Clots sarap cio essneoe arom avai de tod avalide (eo teeperete nad) : dawem g *) (2x tog) ¢ sex 4 (on, tm, (He) = 4 10 g)G.IC x 2m (6.64 «16 ryt = 10.2 He Yartm de lo, meso : —t = V2 = Ver Zo me Te Fate ee > mez 2m, Mw lo > 2mm, = 3m, = lo2ety € 3 7 m= 34 Mo > m,=(to2-34) = 68M © ‘ , ‘ 4 , ‘ ‘ . 4 : Resullede parr mates ho ta ehella, e la Seaancie @rucrpor CMS) dol Magma HR: La tS 6 une Seorenca de mases : ~O.1Mg (M8) lucte ~ Som, Shella, wee masivas aA MS co we Cobienly Brisk Ue Wlade masa - nes > Le masa determine eb liga ae ahella a le HS > Sw Tg Lb > su radio Con Ls agent) Qilacion masa- leniiosidod ¢ Lhe ~(HK Leo pra OBHeLM< Bry ("Mase lntemadia,” > Meo 3h6 % he oh ¢ hes pequete | = = =— —4 ap ses 8 = m0 =2 od = “a expres the si = ° a aD gap ifs andes z ss Sut asysem | voor he i of the el secs and he ane 2 a 2 > > a: 2 Bh. spends only 008 Be spect of ols oats aos. AS 8 = the mas of oe tether m OF p> eich side 3 B rex vals fo Besendins oie fi fen 9 ain ee each ls 8 Be overt vente of psn Heoweve. se eapsing Spectoscopic Binaries — oe OF seme Routed yeeroe be Leelee} a vendita faGuRe 77 us, 1980) Doppler shit will be noticeable i he aspsciroscopss binary scar system will be selection effet associated {si i) © 2/3 is mone representative ‘Evaloating masses of binaries has Iuminosity relation for the large raj the goals ofthe next several chapters sto investiga fundamental physical principles. re —— Daas ma cer sym BOM a ‘The masseluminasty relation, (Dats fom Popper Ar 199 na Rex Aston, Arps. 8, inclination angle i very small iis more likely that ered if differs signiBicaaly from O°. This wth detesing binary systems suggests that a larger valu of shown the existence of a well-defined mas yf stars in the sky (see Fig. 7.7). One of the ovigin ofthis relation in terms of ‘Using Ectipses to Determine Radi and Ratios of Temperatures ‘A pood estimate of jis possible in the special situation that » spectroscopic binary star fystem ie observed to be an eclipsing system as wel. Unless the distance of separation betveen the components ofthe binary is not mmc I lager than the sum of the radi ofthe stars involved, an eclipsing system implies that ¢ must be close to 90°, as saggested in Fig, 78. Even if were assumed that i = 90° while the actual value was closer 7S" an-evor of only 109% would result in the calculation of sin’ ¢ and inthe determination of mem. Fromthelightcurvesproducedby eclipsing binaries, itis possible improve heestimate ‘offs further. Figore 79 indicates that ifthe smaller star is completely eclipsed hy the Farge one daring the period of occultation. Similarly. even the ‘nearly constant rininnany will occur in the measured brightness of the systetr ough the larger star will not be fully hidden from view when the smaller companion passes in front of it, constant wnoun ‘of ae will sill be obscured for time, and again ‘nearly constant, though diminishes Snviuntof ight will be cbserved. When one saris rot completly eclipsed by is companios (Fig 7.103, the minima are ne longer Constant. implying tha i must he fess dan “Diba vans firclten . EME A Fancinn iniciat de masa 6 descile La finci de diohibucin de Le masa, Go aie hater Lap ehetes en unq ibe mole cles (beg Cw) ve bos CH A4)) Rg. SAB Rete Losackenchea priucipal » Pele aumuerte de N hacia aa Delerutvacion eaprwca en Cutarler de etelle, evens can joven que be gel, ma masivar tedavia shai. ala MS; shade de tte 10% - tot ate ) a ekely vdeo Pose Se Aatenuinacion empivien iyclyen : Biuara eclipsantes Fg Sl demushe el pureci prc > paki precise pore Shella, d. tedr Ls hpe a pesbrabs Sta preeries ~ 1% pork) 2 (qemmaimente mers piecitos qua mdtede | perque Feauiere Couecitecende da dirtancia da te Shell f.4 > 2. Hedicien directa iedefromehica , qi al Carte G. Agoluci me, aug lare Mee SOO pee teolve le discs da alguter after [con diame angulare vel. qvands D | Ged De Grande y distancia ote ume Sled = = = a Si TT yl se Gureide R Le ey de Seay Bout x te, dole Kink » P= &6 ace Ejeuple: binanka edlipfau Deppla shifo pura Hy CAs 6562.8 A): Lvales marine) > - y > Ddg = 042K (Shella ma, Pequeta) ; Drg = 0.0688 C a@upatea) . ro B wh Ae vccidal vadial: foerne de sen > orbits B Sek ~ Gren lee » oy perp eeu = SA eh ec : “a Nee 0.068 >» = G0 Cedipas!) 6 See Sat = 3.310 Cm/s [= 33 buss] i velecdal crupiienk Paquera A di vodis be tu ohile 2: = Wye i ae a fy ASAIO ey, me FS ALLS De oak maven gaa la Coupeunt. we, Glavde dal Sistewa : Sirs ar a s BL nID? cm/s 5 ae 0.%o Au Uma de los masay t , ; 3 ) mtu, = a fer ns a fe H a-Asta, , i ‘ a, Lomas, a. Me 5 a a Aa, Pre ats!) 3 = Nig t+ he = ee IS. te aM Meee ch Te > My? LBM » Mp? IBA My ™ _ _ ae ybe Lea Cura de ne dh Sirteum ce oben : ty-t. = tF hove. ¢ , @ tent, = 164 die @ le . > x, Ws sath pte = Re xto om = be Re ' C1 Rye 6.46 x10" cm) ; (es + Vv) ; te? ee Cet) = 3 Rp ‘ ( , Gualisis del sistema eutrege : , ( the = 13.7 Hy mye 3M > demaidels te = 340 Rs vee LIRG ~ Foudies se pusde obteun ded Ca Gua de Le dole bisana 2ciprante, La Tate te La, tengeaters, afeckua, de Se Componnnts + idea @ Couperrant Coated ha Lacy vecibida Amat (9 eclipses, cy aquella veciSida Cuauds Bube Couptrentes Sm visible Cun loo% by ~ mluitie bee Profiede : Crodo La shill wer Callerte Pore detides de La stele Wes fra, porquc Root! Dworke aube eclipses se tapa el tisinc area Cupeficial. Guaube abo, eheller aten Vacibles un lod% > luteusided tolel medida Po cb datecty ¢ ; 2 2 3,7 k (Tr, Fig + Te, a) [bs win Gasket qe Aapende be le distcia de Le Sinaia . 4 la nehvalrre deh delects : t | * sia a 7 5 Ae tz a a te | it i 3 au aged odes “ Hua ‘ valecidad relate & Le, 2 éfelu, Asuuitate qe a hella Wate pagueia ela wee CoG eute > lua Tecibida droante Rie ee pimette a: poo ae 8 8 = kT, Fe Late & Coahibucion da be Abela Pequcra qu sot ecli praude cH Ble KeDuent. ‘3 dete, Wiese sequndane Lue veciGida S ? 1 pas ppacde, docontende Once dapaba 7o la poauese Leone b & KfEL de Corer, Se pide la rater de Le prefendi dak dal wikilee Prone / bef del weitilsc Say ae Bo7 Be = Rs C sande erxprasiend antenors} GU) ,- Bs Fre 4 4 = Ses ~ (#2) S Tee Tee : \ Sen, posa cd cha author : Mya. = mar? Bg a: mM = C3 Mallu Prunanes ac 3 nfaie Sequandonie : a Pees bok : . ~ * ys 6 8 P > Ss = Joo’ mete~ Maun (S 2 0.048 0 » 8 « toot Metie = Mane) = 0.26 Bo t = scl): Be = 1—Befde 2 Lo bote. | BT TB Te oh a Et ¢ =(peN 23.99) LM a CAPITULO 4 0 0 i in 6 i i in i eo i i i te ts ot bi a ns hs ss st ds me me ml tect ee ‘Characteristics ° Hottest blue-white stars with few lines, ‘le absorption lines strongest at B2 HI (Balmer) absorption lines becoming stronger. A F ‘Yellow-white stare. continue to strengthen as . G Fel, other neutral metal lines becoming stronger. K Cool orange stars. nd K Mines strongest at KO, becoming, Spectra dominated by. n especialy titanium oxi Se ‘Table 8.1 Harvard Spectral Claasiication. [2 Wate de dower de i ge pee wider de lumen, Gu velocidads eute vy (vee J n= tefat N- often po ee eh de volume Ms masa clone T = eperodie CK = 1 z wethule BH talbeleeeks): AN L £00) dv = fiaccie, ae pos Keule, lel ao, ha \ ol Gy mn lecidodg Cte cy, Gale £0) eee <( m % 2 -mv Apr bf rae ve \2er dv = | Tere pertne Harwin ey Ce ss yo eee . May m™m Len atte Ah aa, Chole. autre Si 4b fewer Gee Bei habicel mys Ae eelsy, sete Sobre Susy PrsibMle, uivele de euegia C" excifacia.”) : 5 C= ectliee tae f ex wivela CL 5 4 (S-e)/-)1- gt eer) Ks sh buch oe ae Psy 4) © Be CRmau. " 9i,9; = "pare stedchen de ler wives 0,4. 5s 7a dmhivds i5, "Sy depend. Solamente cle ! Tol... Pa ee ee a eo ee ee ee ae ae ee ae ae se Formation of Spectral Lines Giound Seaves oy | Bnew Bi ev) 5 rer ee oe | as eal io 0 -yo | 16 2 vere_ben) Fist Eacived States & | Energy Fa Cpe Fst n bom ey rr 0 He | 20 0 -w2 21 1 4/2 211 -We 21 0 +/2 21 0 2 21-1 HA 241-1 __-12 Ji rantuen Numbers and Energies for the Hydrogen Avorn ‘Table 82 2 | 0055 eins ae aie io i000 igure 8.6 Na/{Oe-+ Ny) fom the Boltemann Agu temp erativa eb nuuse de atrun ene Slade fade torher Cust) S$ igual al Vitae de atten @. ab pie elado exe todo (wad)? ge 4” 2h % Ob ale ye F565 gat hee « 9,> 8 he , 0+ Cee: /er re k si = (3.4 413.6) SRT => ed & 8 2 Pas WORT = Ze a2 = 10.2 eV /beT = ~ Se 10.2 eV (hT ys e loz _ 2, (4) Coustank d. Rolfemans = @cit4 elo eV/k s I Me = aed ORY ee cele = 254 (86210 VK) BLD) : w 8Soe0k ! sy betta’ Riven de Balwar , que requr ren ates de en cl Clade na2, heu entero Su mora ia temsided fora una lerpemtea muco bene C4S20)l Il > hay qu Consider tl efrcle de La imi tacion No < Nduwe de oterme en etado de Ihr Qecion C No ‘ (i+) > Ni 2 bia (2 me RT ) -h. / RT ~—00CUlUD e ae me @i \ We a 5 a Te, nls —§ - . 2. g« g ZBBB BBB BABA ABBBABABABABAABBAAAALAALBLSALALAASLSOO&OO&OQ&OOQOOA : = "ecuneie, de Soha oes 4 ‘ co | (ES-E,/ RT Bs fuscion de parce! : 2s 9, + 2 9 e " 4 22 : LA a loi Par Casita Que le odmum iui Cals a4 fruals el facts de Ro Hemaue, Para bas dabetit dodo vale, de [ nduede Claclstues Zibser /vsbusnen ee Mme = asa dol caches : is Cuagia de IEW TAG Or U cjemple Hi se tequiers [Ce Pua Corveahe HI >t 7% >Ape Bev) = hg ey devoniuoder de ba ectacionds Sala porque’ une Mayr densidad de elackignes pos, Lea Unc oy exe de Yetoubinacien (« Prowse invaso ale laienc.g) [ ioe te > ote webs | + tt > vit 1&4 + 2 BPs Z ete, 8.1 The Formation of Spectral Lines 4 V1? Osby kK trdo Nooo T0000 K000——«20000 Tempertare(K) 25,000 Figure 8.6 Nyy, [Bona for ‘hydrogen from the Saba equation. 236 Chapter 8 The Classification of Stellar Spectra Ny song ~ jj Nyuau Lo eg Soar To a00 15,000 «30.000 Figure 8.7 N2/Niow for hydrogen from the Boltzmann and Saha equs- tions BSH es (Oui tacde FP Beserle || LA fetefen tolar (Te DHe k) Hee wk H) [NC hton de Ge) = Soe.c0e Cabelas Ue intersidake reletiven de de bo Bivam de absm cio da Bales CH) y Ly Chem Hy k deh “at Gi > dea balay nities 4. cdrne nein de H. 2L piwe Ble 2xcitede Chaz) que prrdaten & in de Bobuer , 4 cla al udwee de atop de aver imitade C= GAR) ta cechowy e eb oe fardaureatel , qua producer boy Zirem Hy k. > te ec. de Saka pare Clale el grade Ae IMR, ate = SRK ae Hg & 2. em cc. de Boltemany para Caleta la Bakbucis de le cdechiore, ete el Slade frndanentel 4 oh whet n= presies clue tremicn Pole foimpon bh Sol Dect Dad 7F 2s Pe x IS dyn/cm Cernciha de Saba : Noa. 2 Bha ( ZH me ery gueer Ni hy Be * = he pends He qeemplatade por Pe, pet ley dui ga, deck : Pe = ng kT > Neat | 2RT tin ( N: R 3 mkt We out Ww ) ae a ee Saat HRdiegene : ed [¥) 2 2 eT @E (nett aoe nae Ve Sarg ’ aye! : Xr? 13.6 eV 5 oe) A " nN “ (tse ay 2) x. (caus “sdeusenie ee (6.63 xlo% >) = 13.6 U/(C8C2 #10 eV/K )CSIAK )I x Cada. WYO WE~=7 fy => I = Ft? x{0 = ave ey [B400 dtawo de He LL fection tea toler, % isritade C Hit) ! > prdckeotmente ped el Hs a. foren do adtrusy Kate, 2 Ts SMek eee + Grote de dln fen a el Prue 4 bode Heidel paee = 2n CH) faay_« 20 cLoncart)-cneareD (Cond a Rr. 20y “(Sek)] Neur | ~4 SG CuO pene 202, 600, Boo > } Oo oF ste Liguidicat Outre 202 wilens de ctrum de H Sole Kise Se en Grenhe a. Puce Glade 2kctitede a T= = SP Kk, {Pads Goto a Ca prduccie de la, Riess de falls. OR rR a a ae ee ee re ae Catoo ty (GT) = oe l~ he ae HID > swam Wem Mayes porte de ley otrun de Co oni teclor , ew Compesoits Coy H FRentiouse de POrHicion porn Glee: 22132 eye 2-2 > 7 Sp T Me Ap /RT a 2bkT 2p ¢ 27m, kT T (SE) = Sette (semi) Os aes He EG Be We FSFDK, pocket tede lo Stuer de Co Sk trGntation Una VO Initedn | C Rate: kT 05e EL en expo G > paquets Combis on oe Hee afeck draind tie fob de, eee 5 Vales $ Alot: Crate de le img Cal ala a. ch efoto wel ' Copate ba prodncw G, Riaa Hy k ? Wrawe Likes K (A= 39338) Ey, = 3.12 [ a] 9. - Ge D/ eT 3 i } wat Se . — te Mag 3 = 3724lO = See Ldosuertel, Copare de Produce a Rinna K di GT Tydun an la fetta Solar Guackcamente fede Le Otome de Go Se Cotaha, Wa ver iiinds CGP) YG A Stade ftanetl 9 ~+tde lo dtores * e « « « e e e : a 266 ies, Cai, fede meno une Shan Qi etude : : al Gp pracie Roy Lime, k Cy HD ‘ « / r Clasificacren da. hyo esi 9 the Fa Yine becomes weiker, This explains * vy the Ha line is strongest in mie termper sr, and why che original scheme of classifying ecient owe ere otra Orr tu a of rene sad hee gene ee star bid trong 2/0 (trconium one) tines 29 opposed fo TO lines, we cal ian ype. _x Temperatures ange from 3300 m:5000 K. There ate many Hines ftom neweralanetals, The H Ines are stronger tha in M stars bat most ‘ofthe His el inthe ground stare _G.Teaspersnae in the range 5000-6000 K. The "Oa. star, The B lines ze stronger om Ctl) salar spectrum, be gave the strongest lines Teter These Cai Hines are the Hand Kies ins sequence. _E Temperatures rzmge ror 6000 to 7500 X.The ‘nes area lite strooger than in Gta. The SanfeedrnetlSnes are also stromger ‘A Temperatures range from 7300 t 20 000 K. © peese stars ace white-Vor f= calor. They Ihave the roengpr W Seas, as cf iemiane Ss 2B Terperaoe ce see oe MOTOR a ed ‘bepincing @ weikm Decaase tht tempera: ‘res high enough to tmcizew significant ‘action of the hydrogen. The lines of neutral dad singly fonined beliam begin to appear (cise there-are rbstively few Hines in. B42 SFECTRALLINESIN STARS J 38 SSeS | PART PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY STARS and the Kinetic temperatute is Ty, Finally. g and i, -vate the statistical weights of the ground elec ‘Tronic states of X, and ¥., {assuming that mest Of each specs iw ta the ground electronic ate) ‘he Satha equation fos 8 WHat “The Sahs equation has the same exponential energy dependence as the Boltzmann distribution, However, there is an additional factor of T. This comes from the fact that a free electron bas more states available to it at higher Ty than at lower Ty In addition there is a factor of n, on the left, This is because a higher abundance of electrons leads to a higher rate of recombinations, driving down the fraction of atoms that are ionized. Just 2s we did with the excitation temperature in the Boltzmann ‘equation, we can define an fonization temperature ‘which makes the Saha equation correct. even if the gas is not in thermodynamic equilibrium. In this equation n, is the number of electrons from all sources, since any electron can combine with a hydrogen on (for example) no matter where that electron came from (hydrogen, helium, etc) In many situations, virtually all of the ions are hydrogen, That is because hydrogen is by far the most abundant element, and because the next most abundant element, helitm, és very hhard to ionize. In that case, the number of elec trons is equal to the number of positive fons, "+. (3:0) 05) Tonization Fraction 4 Te 2x iat ‘Temperature (K) Fig] The ato of loerons to dhe wal namber of Feige atoms neural pls on). for an electron deny aopropriate to sare We che Suns [ue 31| Tonization energies a | ved Doubby ores a ” vo & He we S88 P c 3 was + N 45 6 io ° 136 351 Pi NaC 3t 473 ¥ ry \a 38 yy @ fal ng Fa fe 79 162 is e & q U so the left side of equation (2.10) simplifies UMASS wine where isthe number of neutrals, Tis HRS nelle ctor of ne makes even this simpler form of UA the Saha equation harder to solve for (Helo) than the Boltzmann equation isto sofve for the ratio of Jevel populations. In Fig. 38, we show the ratio mnjng ee a function of temperature, for 2 vate of tte reasonable for stars like the Sun. "The ionization energies of some common atomis are given in Table 3.1. This table s useful in Geciding which ions you are likely to encounter Gt various temperatures. In. designating ionized ‘atoms, there isa shorthand that has been adopted. ‘The roman numeral I is used to designate the neutral species, I the singly ionized species. (1 the doubly ionized species, and 50 on. Kor exainy pile, neutral hydrogen is HO). ionized hydrogen (8°) is Hl), doubly ionized carbon is CID. 3.43 Intensities of spectral lines ‘Weare now in a position to discuss the intensities of various absorption lines jm stars, We will & Hevas an example to see the combined effects of excitation and ionization, At low temperatures Ersentially al of hydrogen is neutral, and most of jr is in the ground state, Since little H will be in the second state, there will be few chances for Ha, absorption. The Ha line will be weak. ‘As we go to moderate temperatures, most of the bydrogen is still neutral. However, more of the hydrogen is in excited states, meaning that a reasonable amount will be in level 2, He: absorp tion is possible. As the temperature increases. the ‘Hw absorption becomes stronger. Diag Herta sprue ~ feu Sra \oricK) Absolute V Magnitude TRENT OTTTTTTTTT TeTTTTET TTT L - 7 Lo 10000 (oejogyreniais) oney Anson rc. 2.-H-R dngram. The wes ofthe ope cites eae tothe nub of arse petal stor. There we 113.246 stor pl Lethe > 2 L = 3.49 wt0% Hs] vinutsliaeluvilisn dln Q 0 mo KOM Spectral Type snd Wuinosity ols, The allot cil epresens five or fewer Ms + 4.48 OO OOOO EEO TSE STS SCC SCC SCC SECC SSE SEO SO -R diagram. E- 7.0) Figure 8.13 Lines of constant radius on the Wo.006 6000 re 's Hertzsprung-Ruseell | | : i a 40,000 20,000 i é i j & uti AL VT LY Caper 8. The Clasfeaton of let Specs fF othe hydeogen Baker ines im types AD a FIGURE B15 A comriom ofthe strengths of the bykoge aaah abe Ba rae es und 1 ‘arm, a0 IV, AD. a eae aged neve wo avorton nes apenT Saat hr Alas Represemarive lar Speco, Cavey of TO FIGURE 16 Luminosity lasts on the HER digram, (ge fh Keer, urs and Stlar CUTE 6 as EI 989. wh the fermisionf Cambridge Universi Press) Clases de Luinossood Flovgau~ Reewar ) tipe de ediella , Suparsiganie de exten Leino tidad > Db - de mete Limleridad 2 = giganter Luminerar : as gigautes howales > a Sub ~ gigantes y eclella, bla Sedeeucda Puncpal (Terenas) D @nane, Llauta, at oue Caan. eufaudatuiarte de eo, Unens Engau clans tute hactwal ¢ es Guseawncia dal Piucipio da inGAdumbre CHlerrenbers) : Ax dpe TC po wehualera adulatis dele matercd (dts trbvale fobr eb Cuol be Meader, AG. ati k da eungia se Weve a Cobo pe: we © OCupe Ua hive excited. de eungia fole pe ta At my Got , La eumgin de ede nivel We pide Ser dahda Co in faite precisit. Tetewe gue Stele de tuugian Ho —— Sie rem) 2, = fa: a A => fetes Guy encde © absebe 2. ma thaysicda entre Dively Hen Gh Tatge ar de Xs CE a J > Collerke Precise da para ba fucndf: dean oer pe clerabodg tle de Onda ded fede t tier Te ‘ 2 jens Wak i i fediien tm % tale WiC Bd ® Seb at ae, | Se waa teder hak Eiege + at, = Ot 10% span € ew dtme de WH Game! 4 uae o poe, Lk ven Hy de A ESE nm, Bho hE x IS” nm axe ADS Mey peguere Pee fui! » » > » > > pe. > cHJau clave cute _Dopple : - egies Une dénwie, otra 2 we 507 de masam Ce mueve, de ded a (a siskibucicn de vided dads de Tax woe ~ velocidad eo paras 4 yu — Xs da lem ptersg eurbdn Co siobide) tm atte ee 5m cH veleidaly Sm " Doppler = shi flea" po ay yu. & & Welz Le eusetaancin & que Wet Riten espectal se eudaucha (moe ole dab euc, Wahu)» Po Efewga? pa ctrem de H en ly foto fen del Sol. CTs SFR RY, al" Doppla broadening’ de Ltven Hy es Ad = 0.043 nm > [ooo vee Wa, State gue el eu Saudaurec wat, 3, Exsoudatceck pry presi C" broadening pos Colisicues’): Si ek Hemp. promadio entre La, GUsiouss de bee ete Goulmde a Str < al Henge natal ("OU febust ) da bo ead de tuergia CAP Guak (os) fein sg Cones, G4 abs de. ocume nataluerte » Cate Se Inductor e > At se acole, y Patanh dos Cuneta , 2 be: in ra um Unsauhamieite de te he de. li fotos ,o CBhade exacts de + § Qkr he dansidad de houses dele cu Oy = Se wasted * ms oa & le Ate q > A= 2.36415 8 nm ( Gop a “abt / pager em stelle, Je ateefo DEWSAS mee o Puc. Dek sa deleikat 9,5, The Profiles of Spectral Lines am the lower number densities in their extended atmospheres. Pressure broadening (with the width ofthe line profile proportional ton) broadens the lines formed in the denser atmospheres of main-sequence stars, where collisions occur more frequently Example9.5.3. Again, consider the hydrogen atoms in the Sun's photosphere, where the temperature is 5777 K and the number density of hydrogen stoms is about 15 x 102 mo. Then the pressure broadening of the Her line should be roughly AA % 2.36 x 107% nm, Which is comparable to the result for natural broadening found earlier. However, if the umber density of the atoms in the atmosphere of a star is larger, the line width ‘witl be larger as well—more than an order of magnitude larger in some cases. The Voigt Profile ‘The total ine profil, called a Voigt profile, is due to the contzibutions of both the Doppler ‘und damping profiles. The wiger line profile for Doppler broadening dominates near thé ‘central wavelength 2o. Farther from Aq, however, the exponential decrease in the line depth for Doppler broadening rieans ths there is a transition toa damping profilin the wings at ‘distance of about 1.8 times the Doppler value of (A), from the center ofthe line. Thus line profiles tend to have Doppler cores and. wings. Figure 9,19 schematically See Sad damping be pr a p deplas ? AL ~ rel ® ol semies 4 Adh~d ¢ = os} a0) a» Winelcagth unas Schematic darping and Doppler line profiles, scaled so they have the sane equiv- lent wih, Vuevvvvv par tol a he mo a. mara: w 0.1 7 oO Me Sine wae sticlla de pecr waa, Sooo Heupo de vida Stelas wv a € 525) Poe I a Cutabn que a Le lone oe ly Ms Hing aide hls a Ho 2 | te we 2. M Ke Fue be Shells Mosivas | amq arila a MS vive, WA Vida ar) poe o & Comparacion Lay CLARO THlas, EUS “deme cha! 4 ene gieg wilews View Vepidanente | > es ihe on Les bivena, 4 Le masa, hevucda, » fable, 2h Weta, He le, Bbella, ra la fe Gen Pree: pal Can, ~plo. ew, relad e ah de alla wraga Cf func: i de “oa” ) Wate ~ luminesidad CM-L) oad a a) \ 4 4 1 1 ‘ ‘ r r r r e e « « e e e e € € -e@ e e e e e e e@ e « & 2>3P3P8989000028022LL2 ri os PART) PROPERTIES OF ORDINARY STARS less abundant than hydrogen but their absorption Innes are as strong as Ha. We have already seen in Chapter 3 that chis can result from the combined effects of excitation and ionization. 6.3.3 Doppler broadening of spectral lines When We study the lines with good spectral reSo- Jution, we ean look at the details of the line pro- file. The lines are broadened by Doppler shifts due to the random motions of the atoms and ions in the gas (Figs. 6.12 and 6.13). If all the atoms were at rest, all the photons from a given transition would emerge with 2 very small spread in wavelength, However, the atoms are moving with random speeds in random directions. We therefore see a spread in the Doppler shifts. and the line is broad- ened, This process is called Doppler broadening. If the gas is hotter, the spread in speeds is greater, and thus the Doppler broadening is also greater. If in addition to these random motions all the objects Pix x Taiicalwiporemedenia containing the particles have some overall motion, that just shifts the center wavelength of the line. the broadening would still be the same. We can estimate the broadening as a fan oftemperature, If 77 is the average of of the random velocities in a gas, and m is mass per particle, the average kinetic energy. particle is {1/2)m'¥¥, If we hy ea ‘monatomic gas, this shottld equal (3/2)K7. giving (zie = B/2KT (620 Solving for 'v* gives wie 3kTim | Taking the square root gives the mot mean square 2 49 287 mS 37 Radial Velocit 5.2 5! Doppler broadening The top shows ie (rs om) mace oF group of parle. The purple vectors are ponents, which produce the Doppler shit For each particle, | rdaneiied by 2 number the radia velocities ae plied | below The ive profile s dhe sur of af the indica Doppler shied signals and with mary more parsiles t | would tave a smooth appearance | fro} speed \ ia OEY (er ™ wes us an estimate of the range of speeds| wwe vill encounter. (The range will be larger since ‘we can have atoms coming toward us of a from us, and since some atoms will be m faster than this average, but the radial velocity is reduced since only the component of motio along the line of sight contributtes to the Dopp broadening }To find the actual wavelength ran: over which the line is spread out, we would cs te Doppler shift expression in equation Example 6.1 Doppler broadening Estimate the wavelength broadening inthe fia ina gas composed of hydrogen atoms at T~ $300 w g S eu ergis de vablacten peat AY CA+AAD, qa Pua e4 at weve AL arta dA al degule sélide dQ = sere A de et Baye Tadat 4A & ea + WAddt dA@e seu® dod at Light leaving tap dausidad de ene 2 dal Camps de vodiacisn : uy ad = Cuergia per Wided da Volume, 2 , Con Lys i onda, be ae? CA, Atad) Light entering wap Figure 9.2 Cylindrical “trap” for messuring energy density 1. dt yah ~g[Tdaan = (n> aa vad. s Be wars Badd = amhe / A cape moe? che Resien de vadlacien : fetus Ucvan Meuttim por be fant ne prelates peesion e ( Caubic de E de un foto F Cubic dep > se =F , fra ejecida sober aa Sugeficce » por ej Sarple en veflexien dal pote yesulfe ae. ube presien J Poo Un Compe de padiacion \fohepice : Peay Od = resign wadiativa efacide por tots OD lerg de Gude tate A y CA4d2) -+ { Tay aFead ae (R coded) ad wr Tr 4 ee \ ( Tar & © sero dedd 20 Ero ul aE Tak Read Cofat) dal qos de Rtewes : iudegiacias Sobee A: Ce Pai | Tees AX o Si raBiacis @ de Gunpe bases CIES Bette Qo Pei * B(8oa = B= VLUVVS SSS SDSS DODD DO TT ANUS Rosultebe : Pra CHeper resi la Presicn de (evoPegiea Vaal es es igual a 2 de a detsided Ae cuagia total Cortenida en a Coupo de Yadioci& _ ee ‘a blackbody Guve for Suns 2 Z 2 lective Heuany trates. a oe (stk « Figure 9.5 The spectrum of the Sun. The dashed line is the enrve of wu idea! beckhody having the Sun's effective temperature. (Figure feurn Atoms. Stars, and Nebulae, Revised Edition, Harvard University sess. Cambridge, MA, L971.) temperature” offott is required to obtain @ more accurate value of the surface Fippire 9.3 shows that the Sun's spectrum deviates substantially from the shape of the blackhody Planck function, By. because solar absorption lines res ight from the Sun's continuous specttum. The decrease in intensity produced iE ale deme teties of metalic absorption lines in the solar spectrin is cope cially otfective: this effect is celled line blanketing. Tn fact, there are many mensures of a star's temperatire: wective temperature obtained from the Stefan-Boltzms ‘emperatiure scales include the following: «¢ Theexcitation temperature, defined by the Boltzn Tn_addition illo. stellar mann equation (84) « The ionization temperature, defined by the Sala equation ($6) se kinetic temperature, contained in the Maxwell-Boleainaun tribution. Eq. (8.1). «+ ‘The color temperature, obtained by fitting the shape of a star's con: ' sinuous spectrum to the Planck function, Eq. (3.20). uores are the same for the simple case of a gas confined witht nid blackbody tadiation will come into These teniperal L ‘box The coufined gas particles a Fea Bahia Verse (LI) for more deta concerning the deterasnatin ofp 22288 OBL BABARAABBARBRARARRARRAALEA pero ole Sihuacien de egualibic ereadimaunice ne se da Povo an, Buella ts Oxigle Un flaaje da ates que a Capa hocia el apacg sinenbarge : Ag Stancin eater deequy de oteun , elechons 4 -frirng® & nw [oom (Sh) 7 See ste Actanda Ts Gute > este bx aqui lirie eave dt is tale local CLTEYE C sigckea oH porbeutes sia, efedivameds euloraba, ae Una box" ae T coustauta J = Bi secci.en 5 Uakguiar pie Cee gue Terrteve fetving abe te lint de LAR Cen ume fin divecei ) Se Unwe absocies . Absocien Tu cleye seatteuivs de fotos , ol Igual qua la ededon absercie da fotos po atone © 12, Carats drousicewy elechouica, a wives Supgenore da e egeerrrs f a ba obsocoue , inclugende Protec de Scatterus, Core una dSuiKucon de la iubeusided zy da uh bor de lur wmenecromehce dod. Vale: Gubiode Ty , AT ie ~I, ds ( bichencia Teawde > y densidad dal ga, g ») a) a4te-K ¢ Tas "A" 5 DT diominuge CHs = bpacided. Ce Coetcianle de ablorcias ) fat gl a, s 4ass = _ nT (ee ds rer see) il¢ Ta, TA , Tyge E Ces) SERPS SESSUUUVESTE VY v ~y, Ss a ip it SVVCVEVEVEVEVVEBSEVEsssyys ss “KY SS | asunigde : >I<«te “oS 9K ~~ 20 hoe Cautiag a losge . del Comine S itensided delays ex pourcelmente ! Rehetidal Spkta C ophea dopa” > TH: 7 LG =- keds > Sfieca en Ty , eke vee, pesicien s=o inter, y fu (sss) que. lea. Wajeds un har de fotos de levg. de ord, XS g = Gy e- Ln de AT, AG Te Bier [Kees ve paquets cael © es aproxmoun ala Repufice alee Veh Teo erly Sugeficre de une hele, " Gnlgue valde A Che aay Mond gu ab sovke |) Aedes T) va Celt, Lacia eb iuteteas da La etelle > profuabidod ophea (ucla 7 The cde un Lar de lua Que bn Vajode una dittaucia S Pare lage al lope de la ate fa es: S _ alt = -(kygas OF ° t ‘ s & Supekere =O: 2 T= { Kg ds ° Spt : donde T (= YB. e le pf sian una Aistauca S del pe da La atnerfra, Lacia el inten d Le ehella Cale lage del vaye de Lard > fs. oom Fo) Sguifica: si rane de Wd 1D “hyo Pole en el (ubedoy asl , 2 j ot | w jafousdad dd ber da let ha distinuaide por facts 2 pe OSE Catcihide Ueqa a ba Supefcie yy 22 Capa A Cencerte> Se epacideh, 9 profuntidel Gia con (adh Una eicbe Gqades | eae as | = Ry He Amension A’sica [ow g'3 “Gross feck 6 abse phe,” ° fou Aas pak sr phian pe Goan of atl T we Hee Kime sia 02 uw neta.) S vale 4 We Ale Supefer hacka. ak ludenos ae Atte ig T Sor feeds funciona de A | ( ( « ‘ ( q ( ‘ ( ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ ( ¢ ¢ « ‘ ‘ ¢ s € c € « « « « « « « ( 4 ( ( ( « ‘ t , L { ‘ § ‘ 2 PRA Uy Yayo de lot Poe Carden Pe au Volumen de ge Trl 1 > gas “ep camente Jruese CopRatt, thik”) C porque gle tayo Vee de gran plofindided, 4 la deusidek & gvaude , © Kes Grote. poe ede A Oo La Gobinaci& da tedes ete factres J} , , \ ‘ St Thee | 1 > Ge s6 ‘ OPH Comers de dale ade El wi ue 9% Cochnsfea de tne glen) prada Jee Oph catmente grreso pos ue valos specific aA, 4 o delgade Porn uy valor da A di fre ute Cegle : Attn & LQ Tiewa 2 ~ Sphtomete celgada pou Lat Usk ) = * Graesa FORO Vay o> Xx Crate: by > Kye 2 Opacdad dal matical afelor a deleniuada por La ecion de Come inteacheh Ls foto, ou la porbats, Jak ga, C ctemm, ines 5 © Bibs) Pbsscia | 4 Scodtenus Aube Tmuver fotos, da un bar fu We dehotrueda divecci a ay ost Ga tibusyen a pla epaci dod Ky atel 4o2 : ices be ablercion ia el verulleds de une Vanacias Yapide, & K ew d ) uy tpe de Prowese gre Gon buyer al opacidad dal wadenal slo: C= quiten -foteus, dal vaue, ere Defra! Lode diveccia ) ‘5 kw Com a un kive de hagas eurcla he, tos fon eu dweecion abitbata D> peultele we de a) 4h) 6 al Seatlern dal fotos Tera a) 2. Absocies “bouud-free C bgade~ Like) + = te ote = lenvencta, Ctr. Crads uu fotos aria @, te eed. Co id) 4 Rave sudicieule euegia porn Tori tele > Se qirdug un e Qk de Caalgure energie Gusha i 1. [eausicpes botud- bound C Ligade ~ Cigaee] 56 Gx athe 9 ie, haw fausidas de un civel de G . , auugia diced a che > Ky 1 = opacidad botud-howd. Sele g ~ FO Pam aqualle, “hy cates qhe produce, wat b ‘Piso Wyveto: amide, a ut vel Vefeves | Com Curision « « « « « « « « > tedo ae = rc aS [im eral | Ln nanaladarracill X, ~ eehobitel wo Purdea, lace uh @ 2 de vaver-G very Desh Proleo @ frat de una cpacidek Cont nea c Ky, bed [miele vfs de Gralqui a, an Wer enchary 28 a j Proton inveto a la Abe iacitecien 4 La reteub! nace Se un € Ribm Gr uy ie J+ Cuisien de Ane o wes fotons ax divecriens osbitiano, 2 Abeocien "fra fer (Bbw Pike) : : Sw Pree Scatterivg : ~ €, ca de it ih, absorbe me p+ Y Qatreida : ok cuegie mee PiSorcia dak 164 hecesane breBenter Tren . Sle Protec Pade 5 Curiae pos fotos de Ganlges sy 4 es fuente de Lae epcrdod Cork nua, r kK, ft em 2 e Pidida euegio Coombe Pore Gala da. wy 1 Rush eude wy ton € 2udsion freo- fen: te Unue § Brews stable,” -" vadiaGén de frenade } Prole Se ikveste + ee Ae Staten Pe ocd eres bres F iy foto & desiade Cue akgosbide !) pe Ge e Cbre L' Tho Sey Soteiuss J La Seccien Hanrveral Gq ( asx Gt bide (a piobabildal de ya ale purC&e 6Gaura] S : a) ray pequeta Ce soy hun PAqUREO O Move te C) b) iwhopendigule cle ta Sigh de Ode ele Los Sf -E, 2 2S S. 7 at) 2 6,65% lo cm e y Tew sog Jattening 2 itp ortente @. (o> atic cf da lo p aiclle, CALIENTES donde Aga, 3 ~ tolelicodte joxirede ; C7 ei 4 ee eliaiuader!] , y deriua la epacidal D fotinen Cle nderos Glieute de la lela, , J ) > ) » Babunes Sump : Cungin de un € eu oltre de Hy th bo Sfole exci tade Ch=2) es E,=~ (36a “t = - 3.40 7 felons Cer Cuaron > X, = B.t0 predon ionites Lp otrum de H en nad > dr debe we & nh | wo re he . e.cree (0? 2g s)(B.o lO chk 2 "Ok, (3.4) C160 x16) er = 8.649 x10" Com [eV = Leo nt eg dN 4 OHA Uauliede © pam Ke SCHR Le opacidoh de Le achurfin 2 llan arene bracawenk > afluje euitide Kicuinuye Consspowbientennente . > sm Produce em le Spaclver slelors ch Bales pep pan he 3049 R | = meageheh del Baline Sump dopeude di ln dtrun de H €u we2 de spon bl, ~ Gla faeces Aeptrde da lo tempat, We La cuacion da Boltrmauy an NORE UD vate SnmNNIanS RaNNSD SS pT? Bale Suuy 6 Ue di Cader de 1 4 Porerte made (a terpratua de la ote fun a telou Cig Ae BEWA sit x eo ek dee dal LU0 WL dal Sistema UBV > Balue Seer disminuye & flujo ex WL > aymocte meguited UL > atrmenle Coles CU~8) obsevwde de la Shella | ~ elec = marie Cromde Na /nggy = Mex 5 OX ook CAs) > Pw able deh Ree Spechet A ch vale Medide he Cu-z) tg -_* thus hie la maKien da wracia dal val : Sean de eta teoamiere WY Te Mefrowa Be edd ng meee DOO DSOBRAERRRRARRARAARARARARRRARRARRARAR ee aw Se ee ee ee ee ee ee eae eS ee ‘Sensitivity function SiR) o Figure 3.11 Sensitivity functions 5( Le 05 2) for U, B, and V filters. @ 05 mS 20 By Figure 3.10 Color-color diagram for mein-sequence stars, ‘The dashed line is for » blackbod Teel Praha de la Opacidad Butuua em le, ote & feo ekloe 6 9 tera lnente C ehella ho Crhiewobamenrte Calieds) La Lolo iociaacer da bn isves 1 = H- : dme 2 ligade fa giluente ater poten = paegia de iBitacicn @ mary baja , X= 0.954 eV > Peters om A« he = IRtoo NA | [6 too A x 0.3 eV . 2, Infrawene Grate Purda, Qiifole Un decle a ut ion de H > ls 4 Comrh ten Una Prete Wapovtante de epacidal. Gutiuus dgde eb [ufiansje CuCaue a todo Av meas C epbhee!) + pon abelln ms Glete CABO), lo toon : be apastio, (ola ver a C porque xy | > fle- is witecica de le dtmus dH = Protac wa, [apostate Pose. geracs la opacided Co hues ~ pos & shells wer Caliate ( ohdln OD: be jena, wach 2 pos (gergecion da lo atin de H 7 Statenug de a CThOure Seated) 6 el ploGe Aout uante pore ba opacider Codi nua Ct Fler imitacid dal He > - Shells fie - Woletla, Sobreviver ex lo, atworfvo, 1 Gorkibuce a Kiyo Kg bey wade, Litem de vhsmcie. Producrdac por Wtleclo, da Poca Ai w >! bandas de abses cid > Opa.cidad total K =Sd Rs Qruwader Pos teda> be Protea are Copi busyen a la opacidad, , Porn ate X. ai No Cenase sehen Ky * KS ob + Keng + Kae tes) ) Wee #LCA Ae aac « ppreeeneeeeeeAeaeneaptnnantaerineeencc. gels I ns) pacides hedia, Peouads ade Sobre Wy Yate Lidude de A & pude Vee un” opacidok Wadia de Resseland * W Cetsdoud) = £ ( Gepost Clon quiuica, dausidod, teupratuse } ay Si Kae 2C1+X) se Ry ~ Cl-®)C14x) S a = S Sabeing, indepent. | KR, = o2Ci4+x) ag! Bx ) es oie i eee ee ee oe eee ae ee > opacidad madia de Rerelaud = prouadio de lo sume de lo Gutibucos iudiuideal a ke: Kprtedang ~ Mm + Mp + Kiet Res ) ) ) ) ) ) ) , r Calale de ore = tia laren pase Gu pbadora tapider 4 potest C pose cede ber Tauge>r de Coupes.cise, 3, T J KK vs, TL / Pore Couap ef1Cie fa (08 2) = 0.0 u DP (eres 4 poe Vas diferends da la deusidad dal o> Logis tem? ge!) . s ‘ 7 3 LopeT®) les T Ck) Figure 9.10 Rosselaad mean ity. The curves are labeled by the value ‘of the density (logo a in g cm~ jata from Rogers and Iglesias, Ap. J. Suppl, 79, 507, 1992. . a ? a) - hecuacion en pleb, clepis dal Peak, sige K~ T ( Carrode por obserC ows, bE o ff & lo Str.) jleh ted Convengenr , Pare. T Maley olf, hacia te tlie © Vales Qik qe gute Gusdant = & (eleckan Seattaites), Gator: ~ todo ol Ge ehlor ce ey Ode ons dade 3 ke lay clackious, a. stade Rigade, a We fe 8 Tag Jose ehalle Colles CHpe B-o) la letasided ex ch Gubhue 5 Sy Ld) de Guepe wgte J Estechwe de Rives, pela 3 : Cote Zi ten Qaim, a 2echal + 4, = Cutro de la Uren, nee “a ( obseciet ) " « alu aie te lade 2 ale de nee: fe 2 $%) (4~% “Pre fanidad’ de Ca Lite Cmxine a. A =AQ) om gee B ilecidod da Lun Liter empechel : de mantras de B tics Reade , “au cleo eaervalaule’, Ww: we ands Cex Ad=dk san. vecta usule que ve anid a Re =o 3 1 C aku) yp Wye CEA 6 [gual te Gua data de La Linea , © Sea : Ben B lu tegcd founda sobie w= {7 gy [ toda la Liven de ue Fe lade al ofe Sevuevsvesese 2 PAS Lue Live en el Rrpachs Vicible de ue Shella v > Tet width af lal-t ~ maxi mene E (Ewan ° @», ] = dithaucia Cea A) de un Lote al che medida dgude Fo- Fy 1 Fo- By a? de hme Chee pbepretacies : Ky da la xtuerfea ekles 3 makila poe A= =A, Eee absescigu) 4 sui key Lacie ta, alo 69 flay (odhodGu Ommete) . th Gute Che de la Gu? Se nce por Oba ela ateofer , dnd T We Quer C veer dor us K~ 435 |) ’ , ne ’ . pete eo ee he Me fchyy 8 ’ # We wages sole 4 Wes) g d “os Das andy CA) Ob Do dex qe bene » Sine OFA Que Do ta Knee “ Figure 8.18 ste ahape of yin pct it = dade Ay hacia ccune cm Caper (ref! Ly ale, foreetion dala Guee aepte sy Va tea fe acs profaedo 4 alien ter CL dowd Ky es menor quae Ae — Ky 6 marine & Kechie de La Looe Ay Adewinuge Kece * aban’ dale Cues. = Ceubes CAD des Une os fore Bu Pegi one was, abe, C= fie) dete ovhu ds fae , donde Ky tanonty O8 Apo wsmge = pofl dela Lien Correia por colsisnes AAAAAARARAAARRARARRARA Cpresidn RR OPO OPPO PLLLRARARARRRARARRARRA Eusanddauich de le Litem epecdale : hay 3 proto Pencipols . Cale Une de ello produc Su Casractenschco Pal de la Linea. Easandauieuke ' ketwat! Linen erpechals predacicer por atrun ain aisldr J Sim moviient » he Predon sar Ww Puifetrede calqader (Oy, 0) Cone Curecrencia dab Puuci pio da MGsh dumber de Heiselen : ©) Camus oCupe Un Siade RN Patnanece en el Sole ux At waeey toh , Y S Rein de ole eplade ne Puede tenn un vale 2kacte, sino La euagia E Koh Nota: Sole eo qdade n=! AEs = em oe At aT at ate Yay Grande, 4 4Ex0 la webdunbe de by valore de euagia & le de Wwele iuvolacrede en Kure tausicla, dal elechaA, Geeva una Ae Paeci eu le Valne & A do le fotore que c obsobe Co euiter) a. ata rausicions : a ee ee Bote gaeera Guo, River Ge bh Pep L Gorespadi ote w pie ® al “Matwal breakeuity' Cuye CAN) ex. 2 Is . (AN), = Ao paar Kenpo prowedio \ * ) ! , ) ) ) ) ) ) ) P ) Te At Poa una Haucicie, . Porkales Che: (5% euplo : ate. & H i Oivee Hy ( fraccicie, cube Wivele d= 6563.8 | pare cubs he2 gus? ) Wiuds 253 At= ton%s Ls Ady, CH = 2420 R= We hpia pre el & £4 SA datas Bbw Necture, de, Rives, Spe bral ; ) Era fan het Zute da “Deppler Frew da un ye ) Be wtb Sash bui de, Fegun Kishib. de Haxusell, 2 See te abittana . Su vele cided wes probable 2 Vuap ” a Se Wuever Cor veloc: habs De Produc Ux efecto Dopple Porque eu ls ists de obsm a, wa atone nomalinente Hew ben veloc dod yada positive, 2 Magatva #0: AMA, = tlylZz Pm be taute Spyauen Gee ak aideo da una Linea por gle afeck % er 2d] | ZkT2n2 y= 2Ay jae tat wer Cr), = 72 aS < m Berd, Sol T= SAK. Foun Hy (ddr), = OFSA - Sto ag wv [O00 Very Weare Gis zh eusandamiacte natovel | § Perfil de Dopple, Courade po: te proto Poor w& wre apeciale, , e te que la pre ofuutidod , Wc ea, teed, Chocks x, Ss Hoos, Cae), dasminoge Cap nttnlinale hacia lo, ale. paw el " exponencial teil" pe La Ueki bucion de veloc dods da Haxuret? an ah ee Saudaauni ante de Doppla ar»), , ewgarkcs Waouyos ae ary (werhaad) | pro la peels upehe ae (a whecidek de La Uven lacia Le ola ¢ mud wae waite 3 Cour le pofil, so Dehetre Te Cabuciag da Rud Ca ebsenade) da haan DBR BLAABBRALAOAOALALAL4ALOAADAABADBOBDBOA S22 eB ee == »# ; * \ MP Cardia cule por Prete 4 coli siones) . MN ively de ereegia da be atrun © (Sree Se Putuban meen a) coliciane divecta, Co, obo actos 9 b) ex trader Be Caner ler un ion (Su Compe eleiehice > Babe pretecy atortan eb Bt Crectuatd de la, fraucicions Melchdvica, (fae hay hope suficienk Poa efecto fe geese a DA teas 2 = Ah = x ne |} kt sari poker 2 Po Te ™ deacon ' = , S =" CoWisin cross feckon me Shy : C wide probabi ded be a Colistas, ) 2 eri efecto explica Le clog de Laninosidad : o Sapogiqante y gi gaxte ene otnefeo. muy extendide, 7 Con valerg de Ko muy baie > Ar» S paquetic Poa Supegiganis _ gigauts D> Liven Son dalgads, Shello, Cor atmesfoe, dexsas ( SR Cuan pacipal cuaus, blake) Heur Valores Muche tus gvends pose aA > Rican Ser mor omdisy ae la & Aigauts = e e 2 2 - p > - Pa (+ ™ supe: Sol, T+ S¥e&, nCH)= LSelo GH tat -4 plow tte , pa Hy se coleda Shs 2410 A, on & (gnposadte al Vales dal cus. natwal cde ela Luan. Pel de Usigh : p= Sup pesician le lo pofile da Ciken Comadsr Pol p eus, Doppla, 4 ens. presse . Cutie de una Uuort Aouiitiade pos Depple . A Mstauda & ~ L& Oy, CDoypla’) dol Gute > de. ba Urea, eh pe fl Carrade pos, prasise usp ente dotrivar f uae Bees aS i oles Ceres awd Hawebiva tala! } , ) , , os pet afar > denpdel Columue, 93 a 0 eae 8 S alitacclf ACAD deh £ Finure 9.20 voige profes of the Kline of Ca Ib The shal i Colon) enge is produ = 34<10" ona cm, and the Jone ae-ten_times ; aaah agreed Gog Rae es eet noes NNO, chur fos @f Tatroduction to Stellar Atmospheres and Interiors, Oxford University Press, afl « New York, 1973.) « TMobile Sitagle pase Colenlos oh poRL de wine (eens : ~ ebb fee. bela Ghella = fissnhe de rodiacies dil Guapo Keg = atone por eecinm de Oa tes fen yerueven sfotoues de sk gg Gpache Canine, pom fermar Loy Linen, de absercish 2 = han gee asin Lop valores poe teurpemtaa , deusidal « Gousgesicite quitaitm are aha" Lite forcing, lager” 2 ~ T 4g detentta, GQ imgorlancia de Dopple breadering, @ y pressete broadening de (as Cuan, Cy se wa, & ca ln 26. be Belftmrann 4 Soha J : % oe ‘ . - « cobain dexsiby Ce dentbok 4 Glumun ) : = nutewe de eft gy de Us Cede clemacte , Jor umidod de Grea, Are fe ee Croaba por eucina de la felofean = N Lem J ctu hubs de aren ent, dade el cheavader Lacie Le -fotes-fom da (a Ghalla, docleadna N cthn de ete especie] ~ ton 2c. BelPraun 4 Sala se puede Colale, Poa Ty 3 en La cage pov eucine da Lo pti fea, aun facia d& le N atom em La Colmmua peda absorber une Riree dabei toke, LE Nal. Ng sa detencina Cunporaude Nitrogen 7 8.00 15 x 107$ Iron 26 187 29x 107 Magnesium = 12 7.58 1.0 « 10-8 Silicon 4 7.55 Li x 107$ Sulfur 16 7a 5.7.x 1074 ‘Table 9.2 The Most ‘Abundant Elements in the Solar Photos] The relative abundance of an tis given by loeyg(Nu/ Ns +12, and the Grevesse , Solar Atmosp! faterior, A. N. Cox, W. C. ~ Livingston, and M. S. Matthews (eds.), ‘The University of Arizona Press, ‘Tucson, AZ, 1991.) | (2 u hun de H, hay 10 ateun de He ~ Pose da 10 = clemtte may abudants y ~ Io? coun de O -. okurbande, de by alemeder a le atuarfen dl Lol ) Coucden Wity Lia Gm aqullig euGrale, eo metemts ge, “akusbantinn CALs, govaen itfeaacion Lésien ase, verkingic teers, fudawe tals, Gree: = Wuceetiulesic de lo demede Livan Comes’ OSetuanda de la enlacia, etelas = Perduccion de bey elemeutes peads pa Suparkoves. - Bis Bary qe prodage aA H y te Prterdial won eh Gua ch Univers Guat. cu birtoia oO ° a = = a < oC TABARBAIRAITAETKKTATTAETATTTTATLALRLULULVLULALRRNARARARARRBRR ES Eshele, de la SeGua ca preci pal see ok cog ie (i Euesia Pe Hence granted seo: C9 fra uni foam, moma M adic R , deusidod @ > ue evs grees we ie Spot = UW = tabay. pe fram tede Su Wra clade «LOO hace La Ca figuocio fob St esta ye Reve vo. T, ek fra, pee Glecar ue Gaya dy bore da radie de e: peti sah) aud): — EMG) 44 7 x a oe \ wes > 1uc)e- Edn telewed Au = ed = ¢ (yeas) } =-@(4n)(¥n) ¢ er dy en eutortim eb tabaie tole da Agregar Copa, dads yoo o@ VER, interoue: R & 2 = Jaud = ~ 4A) (s¥as at aor hes 2 tak ets : u ¢ et ee 1 =-¢ (4028) Me Jae (4 ye os z as eta Sg POM ae Fe ee eee eee Me cee Heratea Se La obelbe aleica : Pos porbala : 3% LT 7 Ges Ke 2 ner N= hums fel de “< 2 poucula, que Cortewe La ehelle Shoe Wee de ue pubes Me were doth de lee belle > Ke 3) (M/n er * gractationt Ufhau’ © Mawpe cae Gut a lbla Prduia “Gas on & cueg is Pot. Gow taci sel ee Ye © arey . hs = Gi)ek Sol: toc = 2m to mg t LR 4xie en ls = Sxtots = 2x10 uke —m = cos awe: (icra ehsk 2B Fxlo aus (etideuce qeolegica) SR > 4 xJot ado > euagia Polocial geatitac sal sole pedna Cubse fe de Be Reng D telelmerk rh cient | Jes che lade: ch feereur Vek i chee em eget Love —~— Zladfche > ee au tes = ot a Cayvau erwin = 2 Grau lewcice. Zrget °F wt) = Ly lof ate Kad = = C8 scale de heiape Hebabelte Keebis') > cmagic temic de whe eletla ( Sel) taubie, es lesuforak de Gaba Lo pe fonte H erupe neclen besica a “ Wucles atetnics ~ lo cm Komwete mm Sk A protues Cte) y werhonrer (¢=e) a2 = = - ~ 4 >) Clemo ceftcide por Wituune de profrner eu su nircles : 2 C" ude atcuri col) Cosge del nucko : +2e teeth Gu nck 2 eu adealete: Wants C@= 92) by hey clewente Gy 2292, peo prodeccion = arhifcial > Muck. Kew aenwes de 2 proteus No weetoues Noes siwile o iguka 2B, Le dedteucta Noe @ vis kk Pom bucks may prado — seeps : Seu uucles dal tlyue clement C9 misue a> peo on N dic ha he 4 24N . % f) ] siempe TH OH u, f ch. 3 “+ x N H won dentene ete nucleme Pose clout, OT ee el ode. dul tarmac me dal nucleo , % LC Si eusgre oteclive |) u Supen a \F, > proteer queda 5 Be un ni cleo nbsh Caw mentees, GK. craltnes = rol de le nentimer : garantie le etebildos de ley oe Gregie de bypuent ct “ys = trakaye pasa Sepasos bes oan ab huckee | Ra. 9.3) tai Bandton, On Cronde © e. neler. wa, ofa. chee binds bey eu? are tla atch ela ay Se ay x ts se. Sab maRne ta Fe ai ; a0 Fhudes mor Stedte! e4 3 bs ON a a a Figure 10.9 The binding energy per nucleon, £y/A, as function of mass umber, A As BEN = Wiuwe de pretences + udu ce neutemes dal wudeo Shape SASS CR) se Pibare euegi& eu fasion 556: se Rikwa euegia Por d = nuclesr Gr A a4 ProGre inves e € Asie) = Con su A cieule weersia, einen Aepawle pore Supescs (a, barera. repulsive de Coulems , shel, rrasivas Gn T (Guba) be tufciedemede alte Puede producy nucles Gde ver wos Pesades - Prodmch fal d eta Cadena A fisimes es el hiewe , que Se qeusra en sravds Camtideba, ex an SWT Le exqlosion final A le, hells > Ene J SSCvesets 4 x Fi op + ; mW uv mw 3 ° oe ra = nf y KK MA > 2 = nase del Uclee ¢ meres qi C2m, + Nm, pow L be Wists vale 1s own, Peo E, er ~ eo E, Cauclee) > dapreciable J a0qi0 ae repose al proto t F E Es Cues Fg) Ca xo" edt = 1B xlo ery Go Mel = 94 xto” ev = 2 cuergia be Ligam Qunte del uiclos de dorterne Hy ls dats obsevecionds £9: mos 1 GPE« oO a mys Lead «id ¥ Ng mye 3.3436 «fo = 2 , © O%~%e de La crenmgia da Hepore del pote. 1 pegueie, pee Licitwente pad ibe, La wore de Ue Uleclee SikuaPr & Mtror gue ba Minn de lo martes cle S Compmrentes Cp ny) et dakeh de mane (hook *R1 J wi Ge Logra far ora: Diotmer y/o ben Wores Rebves De frmat uu nucleo » la eumgia Am chebe Gib . 5 r & > en be proleseo Ne ee ee eT TST SST STS SST VUSTVeVTSeSeseeeseseseeesees ~~ Reacciomes nncleares igko, uy Kenton derto de un Uedes @ etal Ln nenhon Libre deCoe eperterccamente seis at Aasinbegiacid f° por La e jateaccion debi tw 10 minute Ye aut heutine 4 Qatonr : 7 ae 6 2 Wea dl n ee > cugin dh ph sg < euegia Ale cil D> excel sistews ve ee el eo " protes eck & La wenn energie, > eb Sistem ferniue tn Ble Htabe [ wudes, Avene, ata ‘ x digmete ai ta, frausicignes * Aataims tate os date a gc, Waban ee ane Co fe tudle un buco He, C=" part Gata 2") ’ “aacaimign gi: dminkepacit de iu wade 0 tani Cuter Stade de eregia Ae un hucles , 24 Le col te euide un fote ¢ euageh co a +h Tange cn raye> & ° 6 a, TM 16s ecm nucle. . Fuegia poteucial, de der kudes © 41,42) de mana, Com, mz) Pocble Gaya velocidad telabva Fe reeees potencial repulsive te ¥ Cen roy.00) be Coulsmb (Yr) ln Ts pak ada 2 acrertea Sa hele se vd ——_— wv °O | exci Aistaucia be Separacion , iT LJ 1S dehencial aciack Piedees Class camente , port oe Zi se Puede eases los ta alk parosks 1 Ce&v, me Egyso) . Agus vebota > Wo Je predas fui pore eu TK Fy we 69.42 P Statleing entre 9, 9 4 - Th cain Cnt on: POeRGabes Tene, Prepiedada de Suda > existe une Probabilidad cle Poser ba barren potacial, y Unga a la detancia Corte a Le Gul domina el Polactal uadea > fasid CL? elect T ) Probab L dod ¢ Pore elects Tere : > (Phe _ be) E= euegia a de la fosktla beh(2M reat BAC) = [Compre | — ASNT Tee se a Cece mee rat o LC cragosiera) T > depeche dal plorina T weyers ery an 2 2 2» » 2 2 ad = = 2 2 2 = 2 = = 2 2m a = a a ay Ts mc CD mee Poul | en eb gan Cos Velecidole. atta, , fag, TMaxteell di chi), =aeererereer ee eT eee eee Tea Mobabildab ‘de fusion Cuwideds aki Mano, ) nergy (keV) Figure 10,6 ‘The Gamow peak arises from the contribution of the e-*/*7 Maxwell-Boltzmann high-energy tail and the e~*F~'” Coulomb batzier penetration term. This curve represents the collision of two protons at the Satine eae Oe ae a ‘central temperature of the Sun. Note that 2!" and € Save been multiplied by 10° and 10°, respectively, to more readily illustrate ‘he functional dependence on energy. tava Yerulfaute , t Tela ly Head ew * =* Camo Peak 4 ‘ ‘ ( 4 uf i ‘ ( a t ( t « a ( « « ¢ ¢ ¢ 6 ¢ e e ¢ © o 6 @ ® e @ @ 6 6 ® oe ° * 6 ® 4 4 4 9 Le f e 9 * a | Re ies “ome niece Ho-> Me: Coheug proton ~ prots Gp eset Ullt = y H+ Ho TH te +% an P neues mez) *y + m > “te t hudenca. de a = _ - ue qo a Cees i eae m2 He, +7 He, > He +H, 4+! euyeetnn 2 face, ~ = ee xr { PCTaunet] Yeaccien (0 : da dh howbe a le Coda ei: a wecesite, Gree une Fes uanke Poul Cube , (OUR que £8 puston CejevOs Euargia b ene a ete Use (2) Care ng (tte) ice Vers ¢ Balan veto: Se tovierter 4 profes en Un uncles He ee we 26, 2y, 2ei | +H, > > “He, t2e+ We +2 2B Capa auils laa _ erad (callernsg > —> O.SI He > Caleta. at Le . dal ga, ‘S am La uaaym pov be da te eau g ia ek ges > + yucleo & atte Hew wee moa < 4+ profoues : T ap = (He) = 0.00% (Ym,) JOOP ™, Le ar vol. sO futueade gue LW Wore Solos Mmiclalmen te om awSishe de Lolo Prot | 0.00% x Mg Sta Aiponst Tae Seana aN “og Gow piotre Pe > E= 0.00 = vie . E=00 Hoe eae * one $,.5. beat ake jf VIoh de lo er Ther” “ca ete tu pee: © ~ eee eo tak ver Ep = euagin pe fesies de protoses en el Ciclo pp, Geunode por game de Gor, po Jaginde vata de TAS IK (Gute dat Sol) yale que ,x*at =I 3 2 T/h¢ ee ~ OX | Cag ag SJ tm TF Ao? k ° Ene Qumenle Sen siblemente Com (a feu pratire. dak plasin ~ Protese Whepeadieute alteuakvo de Produces “We, a parks de 'H, ese Cele CNO (Bedha [43a) este Pietese Usa “huclem de CN 9 0 Ge talisaderes C= ne s¢ Crsunens) ~ Biferecig matela Cm Piotee pi a T=lTxlok, - Hy : ges Cen 7 T; : Deperdarcia de Tadeo Warpu Perghelie, da baja masa, cm T (torte) bare Aetna, chidde pp en la geuracia de euagia dnsank LA Secusucio Prucipal Den whelle de ala Waa daulua el Clele Cro OOOO SSAASSSSSEASSEAAEEEEERER e Cee vt Cay ~ iguely poe M* 11 MQ) n af e < otesey dy fasion A wucleer mo, pole : 8 Py a Nrotme Hpla-% > Guvesion de “He, a Cy seydy: ; Yus atte, ze *RBe C Begins: 4 | He + Me Bes woes eee 8 q | Bey t+ He, “Co + ‘ at = so! ‘ Exr SPU CGE Vik] oma | f Quanto he 10%o nT 4 > er AT 2 dromihca! Le Ae po Seventy —Protme dl teguree Tx lok poe que &3, sen £0 ~ Grounds hay Su fetes tuclesr de COnke - qGemado Po el Powe Bh) parle la genwean da oxigeue segue i ¥ 'e Coptaa de + ss O, + Pasa. C, He, é & ( Part ala, ol y IG ‘ ro sees nuches = be + H “2 Ney, +& We PRode En Shella, subcistemente mesives se obk eucn feurparturcy Combals arin mayoves , 4 b> Products huclamer Uegen a “ posibls 5 Pr aero Cocke, surkina | a «~ 6«lo Kk 6 : Oo, + 2 He, W a, ' ~ Cosbe, burtis 4 . Wea oo uy Ne, + He, 7 G 3 “+ Na, + P Fd | Mo. + % zy, (ot, + & - 4 es ATC tebe x lo K ote oxygen Luring, siteten i , a “He + i ie 'e 1%), 2 e 7 r 4 O, 4+ o,f oe € oxygen Stems ieg Sig t He, Bl 4+ Pe my 3 Si 4n adem de Lay og teella, RIS ent ~ Wenkfer prcate fsice inpetends D> Seng de SOracguer Cyr folatiion veproduten lo, caracleickcs, obsevedo, C mason, rade, Later nosidots eupaatros +) : moriter Crtelase ~ S@ @Sutee +» + eLella, Sou afei co, > sitchen esfe'ica C9 propiedads Aista sole vanity yodtsdwer te / > Se Kd wre ebella ex Caga, efic, de graeser dt equlibuo hide stitce : Wireless @ Ciliudeo , Cora, dA, alta dv 5 Q hay 3 fuerte, Sobte él : = ese dl Glude (Fy) le ateleana bacia ch Gate > 4g debe $e exaclawenrt bala tesds Pooks fasta igual a ts, actranse vadialmete hacia face. Bote famre se sagiva por Woe Kfrece di lo oresin eudee le. Posecioues C Cue infer bol Cilio) ty Crtar) C cra Supence) Yesulled, + No hea em Raote neta Solr Lk Clings 3 eacliboe Liteste Kee Coden, Z2epla: hn Bi fea ene , VRAKS?, VASe Oy aga...) (dv = els) dr da masa del Clindree: dm= € Austad graveded sobre Cilledre : ic Paice GUO 4 Healt date HQ) = 40 [so sds r ° fo yeas ecraufaidne euhe era es da SAU = YTV ely)de a a Sige 3 Sighs fica t diveccion de Ty = hacia abajo ( tahe Ate 36) (84 2 4ntew) | J fee a ape li Com expen pore din : Pivtdsd Ad =~ [ENG] eG) dr dA KB diferencia f. Lg a PW)AA : $= VGA = Poth dA = CPG - Peta) aA si “- luo Kfeerda da Previn = Plrtde) -— PA) 3 A? es hegatve Pagel Pd er nan Ge Phtde} ; ) ) ) | i r= { PG) - L?+ar]) dae Se > kPa , ) J q+ Fp 2 6 2 — (ENS) shad -dPaa <0 [1 AA, +42, ue | ee - (eno) se) poe Cu. gi Ls at = -@h) g) = Cunt dab equilibne bi dre stance Spe cee be presies de 9% outa wre Sella Aisuinuase del Cake lace fuse la presion Combia Wer rapide uote Con t miewha, wo, cdehso al go Cg mage SAM mans % Fy mage 2 AP debe so ware | 3 a a? es ~ 8 > a ceaicety ag close po que sigs wege, Fo eu ele Luge ¢ mayor, le que requires um AP wrasse entre Le Cora infedors 4 Super ore del cade « Cplicadc. : ghuacr de le presign Gaubal en cl Sol : Sol = uns fla Capa > d= ae =P tetee > es del Sol. e = M/p 2 ? {GoM \ = (EH\/ 4 M > Ba (Sls -PE)- oe 33 2 - 2 3m 3 (G.ca xe" dp oF (sf) (2x10 9) (3x loon)? & 0 = xtc dyfen [x10 atm C gm s'J t Trecke = Nols «10% da Zone | a : ¥ dhe Veils ale: preciso, vhtenide fos ee wd ver dal sa a nw 20% ese vale : 2% 10 atm \\ SOSSOeSOeeaSeRaReeeeeaeeeeeeee & & esaga20a280883222832833283°9299299392399 bso ~ Macbiat VF Volumen del ge, del ga, ideal : = NRT N= Qosh'Gale, en V Meant hae "Be a egite tox ne S Py = resign del op, v ns deusidad da obeule, Con] > 9, = wht Si mM = masa prrmedia de lo parabola, dal gas ( que coukeue Mfseutes empecia, , difereele mara, ) e Ke Ess B= deuridak de masa dol gos mM = ® 4 > 9p. gki Der: Perse Kuolaculas Pauedio , Mi S in ea 2M 2 Mae promadia. , my ty unideda de Om = my mys LG? 109 i (mame da | ote * % 28 de Hidigeus > a rN ke Se Pak, Cx presar eurecuiunm de ly face’ fuer A tea Xe Veowa total de H Ye Moa thi de He haara teal Al gen MOva tole ad go> we Mati A Na, Gaede tT dae <1 More “etal dal Gao ~ E z wees ti LA> = Pinualio Padiiads de rx Rei +a), 2 Sched ceweuter > He eal gay, Sard AY SIYDVIssssvssvsvsvsysvyvsevesee eee Te 8 FN Yorn th ge fofaluenk isni rade : 2s nites de @ Ribves ‘ Fos 1Oni TAcion ee 3 l42ay 2 Completa. de especie = 2X+3Y +(Lt8). Aine Qporte Le Gib frusisis detellode Aluwate qui’: < 4h), : a he ixtgy ta? t Por. la “hpica Gouge sion de Shella, joveues ee repo Xzo.% , T2028, 2+ 0,02 , Se obtare : pn? 1.30 pit 0.62 Peesion total dal Goo , inclujtnde La presiy da radiacig, & eutsrce : Po: gkT ater Sen ax 2566510 * cag on K* ite oe = Pemnh Eadiaciay,. Ciemplo tere retire G@ubel det Lol : R Supculiae quo + 0 ce My ~ Vale Nery dal ae ideal g.& m pete de nae % dasprecialle Un Suposi Cie, —> em "e/anes aN + ~ wep = 062 ( dhun= > T= iui xto k ae tofaluante 1OUY toHdEr Sry Todale Shou did dor * Galas dat. Tp 58a ler k st) aoe act eectnaey yg) b.06% Pe [ett ato” dey fen) Cungia we Predutida pe taaiude Cx algita Volumen debe se igual a flje Heb de enegia qe Sale de ate volume, Po io tiude Def.: Els) = Cuegia uucleor ey) oe Ger eada Saguds L Y Unideb he masa, Ce diskauia T dal cous) Ka eurteute: | fesdy-La)= 4tedy eed 4 above de Su BeQeudencia be Ts a Gu La region iets Cantey da ea ghella usual el 52 cS wdodelmente inci rede + kticlem + eleclses ; > datate tpice de la PG cal, 2 es Cy we tre!) > a pafor be la, alte, deusidote y presisrec, sigue egal la ley dal ges perfect Cidead): b. a. F i. ee ot , | = nkT Bie R= Gusteule de qe, , 2 €3xi6 Fk’ bs PHF Masa Proumedia de la, Z faleule, en uiidads de La woe de un dtp de H: 4 2 (> gor = toleliserte ieuitad.) eee eee eee TTT TT TESTE TTT | (103) ent of mass M and then use released the energy its present Protestar is en calculate 1 its present ource, ‘This (10.4) ©. idle of elmholtz in 2 timescale, res the rate for the Sun geological + so that a nnystery for zation that an shining quantum é relatively energy to arges. The iastead of of clear the centre ‘or nuclear drogen (by * hydrogen sout 10" K, come their Fig, 10.1. The equilibrium of a main-sequence star is determined 10.1 The formation of main-sequence stars wat two factors Balance of forces: gravity is balanced uilibrium depen reduction of nucle a ae FF energy at the conte (eo: (the surfa ee i Fee ph ed Ge " ey, He ze 1 eu eletrect> pesade fv: frnccics de le basa teh eu H C> Hey Mans Kay 4R = 1 Conepesicie. quiiuica Soloe (K20.92, 20.26, 230.63) chfonewen pve JX" AL 2 (2) Coa2) + (3) (0.25) + (%)C008) = 1.643 . a e061 [vale dese depeude Poco da le Comp gutta ecache da una x) si X=l CH pu) > yp So ha eeuatien Lesica provieus de ba Muideacies dale marusee Cone [a euogia hucim , gewmeda eta tra Geto de una efella, Se tanspeta a Su Suparticie Har de opciones: Chormelwente AQubas vcrmer ss Sims eugatnerte en di feeuts, reed, EP ee 3? Pp Bees aa la healla b S ste Ae eu RAPIACN : é Rausperk de enngia poe RAP je 7 3 Nisin Acta lade ti hega tke REUACE Pasa le nperadusn Tet 5 DY Su VORA Gar: | ke 3.7 ¥ anh qin ced | = * epacided * | wide, Gree ek Wuatenol | slelar absade la vadiacin va ; Cle felines > Kitwension de Kt [bmg ins /usase,.\ \ * Species das suagal de abtmcicn , por Uaidod de rasa : leo Valores numenter de K Para te, table, Aan tani, ie yalees Aw s> T Y Congei chew Art ee, Con 3 ks Le + Teo Tac T EE ES LA EL IE SSS VTSSEVeeees &) Taper de euwgia ps Conveccion : ~ Gewvecci@n eg al Wmotituieude hichulemt de clears cle masa ta Myeccies volical que oCure Crank La tempeotora VoMa ind tatmente en feume Valco [ "aire coli ete are fan baja, te Stable Una Cralecie, velck to nete es thanspeeter Calor dgde la trun wa, Caliente —> la wey Bia J — Beican, de la Guvection ef ethvemadauente CBruph Code Cuo exisk dain tne tema Gmplefa 4 exacta) Sign btn Aletlla ConveccianaCane Guauile 7 Oe Una, VaRion eu Sa intener, el Gradiate & T © AT/de) cree Aemosiade Cextede et" grad. det adiabdhce } Ex ea sitrecier, vale : ' : ' ( { , i , 3 i , t 4 c [ t « ( ‘ i « € « Grae de euagian Waclear : Onda to la facise EG)= €(8,T, Conges. queiicica) Cag /-g] Lone me Cro de Ky Chicka table Wun, poe Gale im valees de E em facies de sl up. La hepedeccia de E do T, Qea lo vabe, Cadena, Gin Poduton a8 ences BS Mwy Framde Upp = ~T, > Exo: Solo eu Wes yeqjion Coral VelaK Vette Pequeia. : fe mie dee ua ghella [= 2¢ Sfetucaly Kdiuaues . met eg ae da I@ pide J | Set} Gupich de seuscrones Gu detnbe la ot ? 3 eS omen Fue me Tan 3 [ equitin. hidioshehee - C Coseacion de la mara J) 4. Ss ( Consertition de La energia) dee taal acion] ( ear spsde a fu Co Awe, Guecivas a be aloclla , (4) se peony re per ee A Trrauspatede euergia per Om Prag A be, eenec sores Arfecercrale da le Shweta, fe a6 Cecuacoude %tx de} opacided C te bles) (5S) Ps >) () Kk (D_.€ Coup. je RAL cle vkcloer ftoa & eueg eps ee Peek a eee ae ain y ol > ea) el eeaee | y “ ti a iu R Ww - J \ x4 : os . Oo | ae = x ein i 3 > £Ps a : | 69 Te Fog F. er ae pe oe | 2 ian x yebelva ecole bon yuowte Ae eCuacigres, hax que agregas Lan" Gudiciones de tewtrne” Jee el Gite 9 Le pepe dele efella Gouhe : cbiawede vale HOSED y LOJsO fave o = = wr" - > a 2 r oP = P Sagehicrer meus cbvie, paw SIR)K ol Gute) y [CDE raw _ > apa. BQ)=0 2 2 2 2 , - - - , , - A “Terstuan Wg Rassell : TR) = 0 (mye: TA= Te] Lfaiachue A wun Celle eG eaeia pubcpel uae SJ] dedeyuctede Por ste Masato My se Cougesicre quing (A; Esteuchua de la, chetle de le ue La Secnentia pine’ pal pa CHS): + Tek ase tahegan Ler yeodeler de ahello, MS Gumenten Gur la Masa de una Make que Solkrfactiauente Cad La sedracia paucrpal obsevada en et Sagan He (eb) La relaci&n M-L obseroda qarn lop abel, au le MS veprodance, = tuodeler dermtelan que + pom H< L3H, et hudes 6 yadiahvo , Y la regiss extema de (a ehella & Convectva ( Sol!) . pore Moiz: al reves — (& Copa Cuvectva e@. afvelle, de Me l3tg es Coda ve Wey protwede Cunnde Me meh pagiaina 5 fon Me OBMy La shell coy Hlalmete Convechves -~ pas MELE Ho: dewina el Ciclo pp a MELIMe! tf CNo ct it 4 ent, Ch ps >) La ssetn Aapaeuces de E da la ttepsetere Shella Gry ae Ho q2uee uk = Le Sef Crete mete Ftambe PRe Que Couvacc’s agar ieee Wala Stee ee uank & jrauspecte ke emergian 2 Poe afte, a tella, Mae Wasi Vis ~ Cy SES ioid el may Luen adurde de lo cuaehe de leo meaty CTRL, M) Con lo, ob Senses, a MS Se tubtbe botante bie. | 5 files yetoude Waar: eae. adetisohe = Covece, cba, eucap. antenoy X = 0.93 2 = 0,02 q edad = 4.82 x10 ate Gudusimes : ~ Coupes cies quiuicy cel autre ha Caubiade , cduratle Ahempe o. Lo Secumca pouci pal, desde XTOH 7 O34 Chey) Y= 0.22 > 0.64 Cex) > Gaubic de efuchwa itera Cmespméicue Corse ~ 1UCemerte de Lo da vw 40% Sol 4 evolu cee’ - (uceuerts de R de ~ 10% tuo, aU de La BaAms | EL Weddle Stauded dal Sol erbege Ly Cordictons, Couche: 7, oF LSE ry i ® = 2Sex tor dy cm Ss. = 162 gen” X = 0.336 Yy 0.64% ~ ta eum de Maso Geauecion da Cungia wucloas p~ a Preteso Pp ho she a el Terho sing a te 0.1.2 CK lol®) > X(cuteo) es uka caren de vara, J ° Newbine problem (Wits 3) Se. eS ee ee ee ee 382 Figure 11.1 A schematic diagram of the Sun’s interior ILL The Solar Interior 400 519 S70 5650 C5 ao ae ate SO ‘Time (10? yo) Figure 11.2 ‘he evolution ofthe Sun from ta bith. to the proer As ‘result of changes in is internal composition, Tanger suid brighter. The solid lines indicate its radius and Taminoeley wile the clashed line represents its effective temperature. ‘The radius and luminos- ity curves are relative to present-day values, (Date from Gusik, private communication, 1994.) 383 Mass fretion °%e OT 02 03 4 03 06 07 08 09 10 ais (IRQ Figure 11.8 The abundances of fH, jHe, and {He as a function of radius for the Sun. (Data Taaik, private communication, 160 40 120 109 80 60 “Temmpersure (10° R) 40 20 OM oor 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 Radius (r/R) 10 ‘Figure 11.4 The temperature in the solar interior as s function of radius. (Data from Guzik, private communication, 1994.) Se eee re =e SS eS SS SST =_— == =" Luminosity (2%) & 00, ho OT 02 05 04 05 06 07 OE 09 10 Radins (ARS Figure 11.5 The interior luminosity of the Sun as a function of radius. ‘communication, 1994.) (Data from Gurik, private amu prodec Por Prete rp oGuve db fae (10 ergs 7 om") woe 8 one -ai a2 03 Gs 05 06 07 08 09 10 ain (7) Figure 11.6 ‘The derivative ofthe Sun's interior lomincsity with respect ards, showing the Jocation of the grestest contribution to the ener , private ‘communication, 1994.) ‘ : Cion de BUGIS nuclew hey dia eu vr 1 Ro aa, ao} \ vo} \ 100 \ B r sarer os ba 03 08 07 08 09 18 Radi (7%) tion of radius. Vigure 11.7 The density structure of the Sun as a funct (ihn from Gusik, private communication, 1994) Pressure (10"7 dynes exo") os °%o Ol 10 09 os 7 Interior mass (MJ) 03 02 at 07703 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Readius (FR) ——ed 2 ol if \0 01 02 03 No eee 04 05 06 07 OB 09 10 Radius (rR) Figure 11.9 ‘The interior mass a a function of radius for the Sup, (Det from Guaik, private communication, 1994.) — nee —~ e 2& a del Sot 4 La acne fon _ e = Gila Al Sol 6 bien deftuida C" clasp > en ba lar ‘ VisiSle Porque be ote fra, ee Coubia su Proftidal ¢ spheaa T C= Keds] * ephaalk, thin’ a : "tack Qe iy? muy vapidauente, ti Sols ~ S00 faa 6 C qa Cowesperde a 0.07 Ro ) ~ A Capa da grist de ~ S00 kum , de La Cook ematan (Gasi) pede Lo foleues que logian 2, Copat del Sol) & Unue a Lotofoa ew * Piso’ da Gq febifeo Ts Seo k eu el +epe ‘ » T= 44o0 K > Por enCita dal pepe A La -foterfea , T aumewte tow la Aistauca dal Gute foles ~ & imagens, steadon Con £ Une de inde-fereucia, COA Way Ongerte) Cartador Sole A'S qua pollens, basi comente dak Pise C-fnde) dele fotsfea re olieve & Graumlaciss = Vesultede de woitaitedo vahtal de elemeters de > COnbieds Sle, foo boon) a. le tae de Gaweccia, del Sol qe Buiete Thmedotarrente pss Aebaje Boe, Ln tet fee, . tolacion det Sol: ck Sch mueslea Tota cia, deenciol : el peli obe de tolacie, tet YONA Com la Lobb hating ccunde: Pot = 26 dio obsavable Anecawmeute Pola = = 3% dias Pu es aude, Solaces , & dfreds Lak det Sot Ted Th eee Chapter 11 The Sun Figure 11.14 ‘The thicknesses of the components of the Sun's atsasphere ‘The lnase of the photosphere ws located at r= 1. | ! 397 Figure 11.15 Granulation at the base of the photosphere is due to the rising and falling gas’ ‘bubbles produced by the underlying convection zone. (Courtesy of W. Livingston and the National Optical Astronomy Obsorva- tories.) Figure 11.16 A spectrum of a portion of the photospheric granulation slowing abootption fines that indicate the presence of radial motions. Wise Fev'to the leit are toward shorter wavelengths ond are Dluesbified while ‘riggles to the right are redshifted. (Courtesy of W. Livingston and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.) mS EAA ADAM AABAARAARAARANVSVSNSSRSS i Cromnfua ; Saas ile be a ttn - ) ) i ) ) ) ) ) ’ ) y- ) ’ ) ) , , , , j J Exlensin + 2000 bu. Cha, bata doncided : ~~ ree VEta, Wkuer que en la fot fea (> ae my poco intensidel ala radiacten Cotuun evnoda mle fold Fie.) To lncremonta dede U4oo K Crepe & La foes fra) a 2Se0e K CL cue evideuciade pos Rivas, a deh oe alee nome CHR, Ra,.7 Que requiere. ste teupeatusa fora Su Produceian Cec. de Saka] Gausaute eclipses Sclove tele , Se sbseva el especls fro flash” de La Cremer fem C ewision 1). Qorm: le free Gubtnun bilWaule , be fulton, ne ele | C tedles de Krebloff } be eh gor tenme, Caliente da ba CoQunes fer Produce Lt A packs de Rirecs de emisien Por Uncima dela Coomofea viene Una Cara eiclenm cle A> mas , G Covene Solar: visible tolamente durante ating So larg -fotele, Qchtasion: vo Ro = deusided » Crbiemmihbiatide ate is Porliesle, poo, TNewa Heue 10" Yee en Le actumfes , a wivel dol rao | > Groen & teusparete poe yodiacia, de trde, la, A's Cweucg radsie ) presencia de Rison da euch de jwres altawmente. TOxt ponds Cpe. XIV! ] Wedicn Gua la. ferry erecta dela Gree 4 2 2xfo°k Cs Ceufivmode ped aualisis de ae delta Deppler de lo, Livan, predacida, Corona aula een a - wal hae 11.2 The Solar Atmosphere: (®) to) Figure 11.21 {a) The quiet solar corona seen during ¢ total solar eclipse 954. "The shape of the corona is elongated along the Sun's equator Tourtesy of J.D. R. Bahng and K. L, Hallam.) (b) The active corona londs to havea very complex structure, This image of the July 11, 1901 Gclipst isa composite o once Photographs that was processed electronically. Courtesy of S. Albers.) eae tA AAAAAAAAAAGADERERLS 2 3 x alta Seb {00 fem tog Height em) A ise pte Figure 11.19 ‘The temperature (solid line) and nurnber density Sac (Gotted line) of the upper atmosphere of a igure Fon Marske The Solar Nealon Regn to bridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992.) al 405 eees 11.2 The Solar Atmosphere . @ Cactus Tot Ry de, ccteusigy obbaukente (641) 2a Hn rem < wget 9 ithe ae igure 11.22 A section of the x-ray emission spectrum of the solar corons. (i"youee from Parkinson, Astron. Asirophys., 2, 215, 1973) 395 jel increase Figare 11.13 ‘The solar disk appears sharp becat however, note also in optical depth with distance through the photosphes the effect of limb darkening Sunsp visible on the st lik, ax well, (Courtesy of The Observatories of che Caznegie Institution oi Wash ngion } 113 The Solar Cycle 4i7 200 Bees BSS sB8 EB ‘Sunspot number g g 3 5 Year Figure 11,28 The number of sunspots between 1700 and 1992 indicates an 11-year periodicity. (Data from the National iter for Atmospheric rr aeiror carrees bebsasaus Figure 11.29 The butterfly diagram, showing sunspot latitudes with time. (Adapted from a figure courtesy of J. A. Eddy, High Altitude Observatory:) to! ae £m 2) ee TT __ a ER EE SD ~ se obseva. ~ twhidde. Ziuge en la, Corona , Cove GuseCeonca dala densidad may baja C5 vausici dug clechsuicas dade hivele " fuelerted las” Dp) ~ hag ty flje de pabalea, eurngeh co, que Corstertenente Sake dal Sol C" outflow") 7: el Vieuto Soles ~ et View Solar Cota Una perdide cle more Locrlante de dt = = 3x 10" Moface Ls 16 Sigui f'Comte oun LA eyolucion del Sol e eu Ip aie MC padide) ¢ apenas ~ [5° He J 3. Compe magia ty eb "Ciclo Solos”: Ritane de manda, Slars ana Pedokicamenle , Gy P= Il ate U4, le kt Leliogiefren } ~ mance, = ligars de furtes Couper magne bcs B C evdeuce obsevacgual : espechor truade ex, matces flare datutvestan fre te splithus le Zeeman, a ba, Riree 4 I autes de GG, manda, = Kubra Ckametes ~ 30 00 fu, Olrededes: peruinbn [ eshreha ce flomete , praleley : ~ tmbra + i) = [d00 Gauss 1 da spus, kau Ctcle Couplat Sela, i Polardad dak Coupe Bl~ Lipelor) del Sk se interes pole N +> pole S > > > > > > > > > > > » > > > > > > > . > > > > > > > > » > ) > > ) , , ) , , J , ) f ) pole S pow { eke Gde Hew P= 2% alo fe hele meng tice 420 dal” Sal “Chapter 11 The Sun Rigen s? ‘Tho global magnetic Geld orientation of the Sun, slow with: he magnetic polarity of sunspots during wuccesive 11-year periods, = despa & late & Polatiidad del Camps B se invi = da pus de 22, reresm a le poor dad into DARD Ab Gabebeeneeeaneaee eeeeeancadarsces6dacaaseebswere wie ee ee ee ee ee eae ee a) eae eee eee Ty | | Figure 11.24 (2) The characteristic dipole magnetic field of 6 current Joop. (b) The globel magnetic field of the Sun. The dashed lines show the field of a perfect magnetic dipole, Cauige B dal Sol : Gita da Sol, es = Guage bipolox ae (a) ~ Wnbra: T= 3700 K > flinje de wadiaciae es po facts (2) 248 mews Que ale ito fa altededes du a manchea > Cols “wegre da la, Mancha, | ~ Se observe git, Grande N C mando, Solares) = MaxiMe, Le Aismiuuye por ~ oly ee pose Tera. - flares 2 = eve euphvo eu le Sepaficie sola pend devocion + ~ (00,0d0 Rin Solr Supa feie > ~(o? a0, oe eungia ok espacio ite plearetanc ec. tome - bho © poricule , Vieile Soler) ) gon ¢ de le Llases : emerge. en regions ce IZ iuterco ; roa pe “haw tfeeacin de. 2usgin wangtad Bea ; way ELEY J, alu Cenele on el Compo z | Qu nn cudhica da be poh cules ) - Pewee : os Super flas 3 clevacié. : kota Sov. 6b» my ; ( , adele, Ct" sta SP oh J: obsevades Masdete eu eu * maguedc yan oble chen” Cips> ee , BY a. J Fe M k-m & ~ er, de ue Sa exp Gor pes Presacia de wan cley, estable, ex Fesician , GLe Gubven vine Porte sige! ificahva de Supeficin total de la Shela. Come (sn gtidla tote , Lb vana mm Peneds de cotacie, de LA efeella EE IEE ES EE EI! EE IIE EE! EO ee ae ae KO konwel (h< (0,200 bu) Peowten Co, en be supeficce dal Lol Z CxCagc wal. Ch ~ S00, 660 lem) CAPITULO 8 =. | UC CU re seer ee eee eT eC C CCE SE SESS SES SESESESCSESeeeeses ned arb LI sansiion a Figure 12.2 A dust cloud can either scatter or absorb light that passes through it. The amount of scattering and absorption depends on the murn- ber density of particles, the wavelength of the light, and the thicknoss of the cloud. Since shorter wavelengths are affected more significantly than longer ones, a star lying behind the cloud appears reddened to observer ‘A. Observer B sees the scattered shorter wavelengths as » blue reflection nebula. L*kshulose de reflexion 4 reie profeide en heusmision Cc veddening Porque SCacHt erica de foterer eu & lve es wx | F + ~ A tecmacion de Las atielLas ‘ ; ‘ — Sly, nate el Hedic lidere rela, C ISH) ' = Hels Chest! uy niobes OSCOns tan Polve HS 5 gas (a eT i - , ' ' | : | Uxtucer tudeerteley Producide por Satten Yabsecion de La Lar de ahve Mo, Guz obanesa al ish efecto sobre Magu eb aporite m) | oa) debilte fluderde tadjacio (9 My Aumeton Samus . . A) eu fe My My + Sloxd S + ay (ao = a (4g C curojecius ub de la Lr Shela, ob forms pu ok (Sm) ; tech da qua el Sotteing eg w Xt > Scotenus afect. Picdowinantemete o Lut atu , e U asec, Select va. 2 Uva, de exhucias ) b) " yeddeu WN: gos aba Cpe HE) wolemler C9.¢, H, , Co,.. pro tausie. Wolemle Sraude , 4 haleale, Orgduica, ! ) Polvo : Gramm de grafite, 95 sth cate (0.25 38) > geusran absence Selective Y Polanrade dla Lr Stelar C Grane no so, esfencs ) wenpertrle deuiuante del ISH: gos de Widtogeue (Gwe HT, HT 4 H, ) u “4 LR AD, eu masa. dal | St OS SSSVSVVVV Ue ee ee eee eee eee ee ee eee eee axhucion iuleesdle es Seleckva as Sooo vant) Figure 12.3 Interstellar extinction curves along the lines of sight to three stars, The dashed lines represent the observational data and the solid lines are theoretical fits. Tbe U, B, and V wavelength bands are indicated for reference, (Figure adapted from Mathis, Annu. Rev, Astron. Astrophys, 28, 37, 1990. Reproduced with permission from the Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 28, ©1900 by Annual Reviews Inc.) ; ¢ prodmccign de (a vablacion de 21 Gy dal telerme de H news Ree be Spine { euagia Paaayos “a er hezht co Lvs 1420 HH Sela Figure 12.4 When the spins of the electron and proton in a hydrogen atom go from being aligned to antialigned, a 21cm wavelength photon is emitted, ‘ago bela fl H te fone de nuber di fsa iou0 Tes muy baa ( lo- 20k) +tode Lo otrus de H stan eu 2 4ede Fundamental NO Se ProdaCen Rirers de ni sion vi Ae io, Reig Le, ObSC tu of Specko VY sible Ltronsicion, de bel ~> N=2,3,.. produc Elva be absecion ee el uy J no Brel Heo de mubes de HI en eb [SH 2 posible BGioko, a ba ee & 21 ce Gadi) S 1420 tHe © spine fap © telakre al e eu el cchmers de 4) « « = vag! si HE se Produte, Cota de Shella, Soveus 5 Masi Vos Gaya, abuudate vadiacia UL jones In dts & H. by Ga vet uacla de elechoue cn Lo jones de H S€ Geurran Rives de ewigion C Posh culomente Hey qua be do & Gly Yoo a tBidues He, Se habla de " nebula, de 2uision' oeeeee A ft cheated oeeiad aha? zl Lugar dat uaciuritel de lo ehellar soy ley . Giant weleala clouds ( GNC.) £ Polve tas marclade| a D Dace Ap! csp T 28 K n= 100-260 fot. Sep? picciade Gor m= 105~ Jo Y Pe 5 als OB! & ieee Boi daulie, tata en Molec. clouds ma, Bapacts, aie Bok. globule CO ~Ipe, Tr 10k, | Leo0 Ho, , J n> lot acd tuts Heme. Shdlle Soyeus pow SW Gute SY¥YY¥D _— a tus hue moleclas Puele Colapsar hacia Su Gutro ss 2kK<«e tl Z 2K+U = 0 J 4g Supra presion de ga, Nube de go efica Reve we «® Gu Hos mora dla mule S Re Rez rade 0 ke 3nbtT one ME com 4 ’ ' \ > Gudicia fora Colop so 2K < 1M se escnke Ou, : few equi ibne vale teortum Vivial: a aK, LT aS G Me $i densidad = ©) = gel ey SR > He= g, twez a FR. =/3 \'5 lor e¥presion pora QR, ( ae, ) ‘ a Udicion Poa colapse es: M.> Ma -(2e- (eum, Geusalucde, el Citene [Hy "mone dk Jeans’ ] y*( ran y" de beans ole SAK > feces 24, didertrds, Posy de la witma nube Si jaute terole Calas % Colapse Gautecoual se ivicia en gla pats Awalisis: asume CGudicors Seacla (C simebla afc da la wube, no vote, ne kay Cargo me agua t co ) eeeeeee@neeeee0e202@0200000000000000600600008082080808280828088860888848088286880608088686 Kee C Seuple de nube Con | Ho) paeese + iniclalmente: I Ho, Gupsicion Solo, M> My “ nube es inicialmente oph@uek dalgada 9 -fotrwec Capo, tolapse proede a Tit Gstaule c' lolagse isotenaice SS deisideh aumeda ior rapidamet ene Cuto de la nube C porqus Souths ee bigeanente haasos dade Ua Prucpie J + nube alcaura ULeges a Say ophcaimente gGeuesca Cin Hae cposente poua fetues) > Caudle ete Suited, reqyiow Gute de la tube es + SAU ec radi o, 4 ek * quor~hyadocele equilbnie” D Sigua Cou haccion , Pere lente durante el Glapre Giatteci aul ce le nule ew gia. pot. Gantacoel Ui se farsfome eu Cale: que Se radia hacia frzra, Cue Yodiacion Ae Gauge haeo eu eb ie frowe} o CT = bajaty | > ahjtt Ve ee IR Ljare cate “IL soeece! 1 te Ble fore a ube ex Colapse » Peo ba ex equilibre Casinkidostiticn cu Su Con lye A s Came a ~estella | cue la Comenrnds Su eyolucion lacia a secreucia preci pal a < HO € Luger deude fasion Hrcnucleas H > te Pate, en ful ) eka gg idk cates po Scala de Kspe pasa. + 2és,° chensided « fc eh lapte : "-frea- fl te pico: Whey miles de ates we ~~ ee ~~ 08 N ° *S ~ 6 04 02 Leese oC ‘Time (103 y7) Figure 12.5 ‘Theratio ofthe radius relative to its initial value as a function of time for the homologous collapse of a molecular cloud. ‘The collapse is = ‘sumed to be isothermal, beginning with 3 density of pp = 2x10~"" s em-*, Lolapse garda cismat de une nuke lola cular, Grade MH, > Hy Caza de Jeans’) oC 60 40 Logis) 30 20 19 09, ‘00 10 2 30 40 30 ‘Time (10? 2) Figure 12.6 The ratio of the clovd’s density relative to its initial value ag ction of time for the isothermal, homologous collapse of a moleculac cloud with on initial density of po = 2x 107% g em? Evolucien glelar pre -Secaencia musi pal © ~ Crtude la seat tue Cenlal de la nube an Glopte Gaur ~ 2oooK , Poa, 2 CHa: &) Colapse se Vuolve mics mo, Leute Segue Kalig- Helglelh tue Saale ( ~ fot ate) BY te puoto- Shella eu Crfaccion se Wale 10dh Convects 4 tvelusionn a ls lege dat Hayashi track | ques GH veh ev el Aagaina -2 > belo willsnes de ale ~ Poabnete Lege @ ta Sedrencie. prucipal devde. a) Reinn A Conhaccion : Shiclla tn equ. bre Lido nti tice plaue, for Piuume vee b) a facind Krusouuclea, H > He, Yo be Ciclo pp yle Cro, rGure, alee ey equil bie ee Ex Gabe Lo uu loe% : antes Guvesion de. eurgin pet. Garr facoual en euegia deine ca Hesonk cb Colopre, Gubrie parte de L ) Unile e CHRugter : = Luwinesided mixin que une Shella de Moea M pusde tenes sin Pada su equilibie Lidrorhehee : Ley ees M Csi Lob , Presion de radlocian Onesie. a fugoas La presi de Fae > pardise da masa ) Swerewwew wee eS Vee eee Se ele ele l,l hhh ~ Shilley ex “Uppe HS": Te Saooo kK , K203. E cones, a e-Satteiug (= Gud) _ 3e PLA = LSxlo i eag/s 9 pus Me dol, : ba B.SnIeL, que es ~ 3x LC MS, Fore star) 1 Shilo, Jen masivas eeCuenher, (oka Ae Leg 9H grande, Mrloote: * Wminous yas rpetle de Coreg Canta > Capa Oefchote = Me vepide pb Arment, Pimon, Wace ues uclaates ty Conve. Shella todavia, Aisin Se vodie Lot | nee > > > > > , . ’ ’ , , , , , ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ) ) ) oa tog € vogm? 32 o +r z 7 jag m— shows the number of stars Per Figure 12.9 The initial mass functio® &, wrt area of the Milky Way's disk pet uni aterval of logarithmic roass that solar unite. (Figure js produced ia different mass int “Masses are in adapted from Rane, Astron. ‘Astrophys., 184, 104, 1987.) ube moleorlos flagmenta, Se -fownron was Cusnde Uae W qua és Wane gqrombs, abel, de Lajas mater, Shella, muy mentivo, S00 exhensdatcaute YO, P ohn a Pp a) IMF , Hn, _ Sobella, rmasivas jorizan H ea su altcdedes > * tea res Hi Lawler veys Po auisin de LN Atous Hy ) nda, UEC fe obSe On VAKO> (lo-20 , a vem mar) highs mase Shon 24 aSociaciones OB qe te Ou Crbe, bony Grau tect raluntnte bgader C Ligeasente > poo tldn an Prtye de diselacisn = st Ge em nube bunleale se Leanoaon Vata, sfrello, oB > & presen de yadvacian gtueads for alles Pusde pasar se for (a frmacis A Sheller Ah sin rube ~ belle, Tawi : shell pre Ms de baja, masa, ; cysaia ‘a loudider dehc, da polve’ > fasutes IK Sor iwdiCahver pou veqi snes de fouecion da efrellas . waelie gow Totacign | Tans ene, * exparding stall que ala Stelle jafertes CT 200k) “sopla” at apacio Cvideucia en ley ecpeche> por el “pet P Cygui” de Ht oe C que Coutienn un " Glire le fled obser phon edge J C genuol : elellos Gn Gpa, da man en ekpansia, Aamus, Wau ? Gygui - patil, en 50, Riva, spechal, ) = algunm pre eiele, frrnan cisco de ale Cign 4 cuenta jeb de gabole L sobre plane dal se ( der Jeb, en Awe Ccignr epusle,)} obi et HH | terbig- Hare / 123 Pre-Main-Sequence Evolution 39 38 37 36 35 oat) Figure 12.11 The positions of TTouri sters on the H-R diagram, The sizes of the circles indicate the rate of rotation, Stars with strong emission lines are indicat ‘circles and weak emission line stars are re sented by open circles. Theoretical pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks are also included, (Figure from Bertout, Annu, Rev. Astron. Astrophys.. 27, 351, 1989. Reproduced with permission from the Annual Review of ‘Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 27, ©1989 by Annual Reviews Inc.) Viner de eurision en ley apechm di sfielle, T Taun Son Wun GaseGuncia & la exguicion de Cape, od sa, © ine damtoden pofilee " PCygni” ) 2 que OMe VERS Cone Gntin de rapide Yotacion C Wamtwtin Qugulor de la pieto- ehiella 2 Cox seug duusante Colopre Ge ted ual > Intensity ‘Blueshift eo Resshitt (a) Figure 12.12 (1) Aspectza ine exbiting » Cygni profile is character~ wy abroad emission peak with a superimpose. ‘iveshifted absorption txough. (b) AP ‘Cg profil is produced by anexpending masa shell. The Saision peak is due to the outward movement & material perpendicular fo the line of sight, while the blueshifeed ‘absorption festure js caused br the approaching matter in he shaded sexton intercepting photons coming from the central star. CAPITULO 9 SIAAAAARSRARRRRRARRARRALAEREE RAK = 7 7 = = Evolucion eclelos tu La Secreucia Pwucipal , 4 Posten or han Aunttete dade el Sol Leal a (2AM 4S xo ake . Rate ; ~ Gcle pp geuwa He , a Cmte de H Fw ce dnuclee aumota begun Ley deli gos ideal, Prerea di su! neye, 7 nudes Gubae para oumete su T 4 ZS. PO Pods Seyortar oh pase ca la g fpralla - trehaccigh del nucleo 4 Plaacis, de euesia Gvaut. peteecial : Vp se vada | Wy Vea a, Onnerte le E Hemaica CHeoreue Vital) 9 T Gracles) Gece - pe €_~ ¢ xt * prodmecion de eueyia raid / ten. ¢ Oumente a pao gue X dmiuuge ey nucles raulode: Lo ounete | seeds a Ry T > Sol eta authe putes I-2 ek el track da euducts b Li pon 4M CBs. Bk = Gun ab “si itu TOC CCT CTT TSC CCT TCS TET EE Traudioe beca el ‘ grant braud,” . Qn Shella, de mas bale, - inf euedio, (& No): nucles al fil dt Ho buaieg oasiste deo He (casi uy leo%) = lade we Cobende que borde deh huclic PF Coro ke hay fuante de emagia unclear , Coles fluye cab Corfe > barda, > T= Gust eu el tudes eufro C" isetherteal lore’) Como wudeo wupae, densidad vo en anmeih eRe a. Wo rapide oe ee OO IOI ISS | ~ g feels de! Le ebita Glee ax dal nudee > Curgia graxt. ie Libera en Fran GnKded _ Para a Las poster exteno, de a Saban > Yopida OxPAn sion an he Cog. ; a hella onwenta Su Vode rapidement ( en Scale dy Rewege Aenvtcn da lobe [phate uct & b Oneeee! Pig boy ‘ > ex HRD se cbse el * Hotespenrs gap MM foc freon cue TAKS y [2giar de gigante voy) Dorin eta foc oGene my (dpidamente —> potes eieello, fe obSovan ee ofa fore Corte - f ~ Lerbeprune, gap aumerte pave ekelle po, masiva, CAT. me yrande enhe punto aoa + Hemepe LaF disuinuye clraure § Comnente Croke la mara de a Shella Gece j g. Fl ci et a i i a ae cal a te te a a a BIRIVIVIIsssvsssssssesvssessvvevseevsevvsevvrvevre ee so 9 pees » sr | , 's s 10 a0 hs 4 Z z mt 5 9 Me 30 20k Log (L) 6 — oof = LOf- \, O5Mo\, | peed aati ee es -2.0! a5 44 43.42 4) 40 39 38 37 36 35 LOG (Te) Figure 13.1 Main-sequence and post-main-sequence evolutionary tracks of stars with an initisl composition of X = 0.708, Y = 0.272, and (Figure from Tben, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., 5, 571, 1967. Reproduced with permission from the Annual Review of Astronomy ond ‘Astrophysics, Volume 5, ©1967 by Annual Reviews Inc.) 486 Chapter 13. Post-Main-Sequence Stellar Evolution (in years) ere ‘Mass “Time Interval Between Points ( (Mp)| 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 1s | L010 (7) 2.270 (3) 755 a) 2144 (7) 6.053 (5) 9-113 (4) 1477 (6) 6.552(4) gsd7 (7) 2373 (6) 1.372 (6) 7.882 (5) 4.857 (5) 2212 {8) 1.042 (T) 1.088 (7) 4.508 (6) 4.238 (6) ‘4g02 (8) 1647 (7) 3696 (7) 1.810 (7) 3.829 (7) 1553 (9) 8.10 (7) 3.4908) 1.049 (8) 22 (8) 2803 (9) 1.824 (8) 1.045 (9) 1-468 (8) 24 (8) 210) 7(9) 2(9)_ 1.20 (9) 1.57 (9) im years) Time Interval Between Points (g)| 6-7 7-8 8-9 9) 35 (4) TIT) 620(5) 19 ( 15 9 490 (5) 9.50 (4) 3.28 (6) 1.55 (5) 5 6.05 (6) 1.02 (6) 9.00 (6) 9.30 (5) 3 2.51.(7) 4.08 (7) _ 6.00 (6) 13.1, Measured in Table 13.1 The Time Intervals Between Points in Fig. of “Bata from Then, Annu ‘Years (powers of 10 are given 19 parentheses Reus Astron. Aetrophys,, 5, 571, 1967,) i ii. il dl ii he ae de a ik ie ae! ile oli. ai i x io i @aaananeaeBnbaoeaanaeennaannhand ee ea a Bahbesanhe b&b ee ee Orr eS eee ew SN See Se Vee Se ee eee Vee ee Ve eee eee Ee 5 Oe Puke > ae Ag Oty ae ome ee mg Come eaisle un Riuite inferior a Ty ( ~ 3500 -"Yoonkj C Rik de Hagaski D4 enedla ve expaudigude , sublets « l Kage de Rian de Hoyos, Que he — > ahen L tube, a Te Court CP enuil Nnaedcked > eshella tebe Casi VehCalnerte en el Hogrome H-R hacia una GiCAuTe RorA ce red giant braved” + Eu esha Arce, el ga de elachoues enol -~ -> nucles de He de Bn mbetle ya es dogenecgde por ak euarae Oivtneide de La densidad , 8, cguryartyatinbln da La Conboceiss Cont umada Wtfom este tetena del | Gigawle veqo: SN lex wucles da helio degeugede Pata okite Cdodavia six fusion |) peo = 5% nas ola Cop pe Geel be, Ce: Lucie H— He une obublen da + SORQ & rating baja densidad y baja +enpe- wrote Ragu deal » Gweehwo Unga ek eerrtocde Cortnde T Crurclers aleaurs, el Vale: Wecedate Para la foie Hewmc ( process Sot) ae * Heliun Pach! iy Libearion de. finda ene fia eu al uuces que! T ibe lo foficiende pre -Femove bea che aCe > plasun perfecto! ver ae poesion dbeuicn > precios Cpguaansid de we Wuclee tube OxPondit | & las EVON NTION OF THK STARS L erry eae platosphere hydrogen foe Z Emre a 5 (a) main sequence (b) postman. sequence Figure B.A. The structure of a sir {aap Ais amin sevens 21d (eae eee ete eet eMaustion i | ee 20400 10,000 $002,500 effective femperature (K) Figure 8.4, Ascent_of a low-mass sar to the red-giant branch. (Adapted trom Teko Tben, Aim, Rev. Aste clp..8, 1967, 571.) degenerate ‘helium core, 1? R, nA | igure 8.5. The simcture ofa red glut. The felt figure shows the tire sar Toa Soe er oteeatere Te igh gure sews a ct ul the corg, tal mass of a fowe-mass sir ¢ ith of the total volumé, Ahurn det un akell, co, doe evrtes da euefa uucles + ‘ . , a 1 phew Ow expansion © * buckles: Wea~c Cesbblh edie pate estab; probaceiie de engin L copa Hw He Le menm inhtwte Ga anter = bias ma om jeshella ha tuigeade, a L & const SOE ede ) a le Teguiade och dafame HOR a la tame hited OC heitndal brands’) HB > eed reer seer bran Uegade * bum tetel brand! se comoten' tas Opener a) te > CE tata by H > He eu ua toga de fp OcB > HB SIMUL TANEA MENTE | seine Bedale Aepanda de a tase de pledide da mara anfeiiot Eehnchim lnfema de Una extelle on La Patan hom tm del : 4 oO nudes Gu fasion Hee GC, Gwestve, T x 108k , per au Cina, Cape Com fasion! Hp He per Gnaluam, we atascfen de v~ SRe que slawa 48 radi ove EE GyelucieS post > lumnttertes brew’ Le Ses, He en al uncles se acaba % be puclas alerfras de nueva } Sin froin ~> T Conga) cuinentea ~% ee Copa enciuan luce co: Hoe be Le = Cc 3 Pee eutioan, cope 150 EVOLUTION OF THE STARS L BE 4 ere gant brand OP w eek Gast vant J 2°) hewaratel z = f \ \ : \ \ . r 10,000 5,000 2.300 effective temperature (K) gore 846, Descent ofa Jow.mas jth poor heavy-clement abundances (Population 1 star) he tp of die rosin, “Track A corresponds (0 a star ‘wluch suffered a cclatively | ‘sant phase of stellar evolution, Track Bf ensresponds to & stir Sear ea TUTE Ts of nase (Adapecd fom Iho str pt, 1967, S71) en, Am. Re. A SBE MR, Bd — buns teviperatures roughly > ¢c,0 equal 10 10° K i boom core + radiative envelope lO R, SoA aha el yu N.7. The structure of « hori ar, The left Argue sows the eave sta fom core to pliotosphere. The righ! Ture show an enkarged picture of fhe region near the core. L PDARHSSPSSPSPSSPSSPKLSPKRPSRRAESRRRAORASeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaeeeanee Evolution of Lovw-Mass Stars, 1st degenerals carbon-oxygen core shar (except Oey Soaall Core) is again fly Guveckve — f/ (Bilin previone RB Phare) > evolves agpia alone, 3 Desi: ; : B unin hydrogen: Howgecte Gack. Dat uring sel nplotic giant, The figur core (0 pliotosphere. The irged picture of the region near Finite 88, tie left sh the evse, AGB stew ae double - Shell burning ster Como (a Capa es totalmente Couveckva, La & fella elu one ro Sag tba Vet a by Lage dal track da Hayech: 182 FvoLUnON oF s wf Zak E ol a Ew 2 2 wl 7 0 3 6 ” 2 time (19° yp Figure 89, ‘Thermal rstivation oscillations assented with Irelnamashell flashes. (Adapaod tres MI Sehnwzsclulel amd R Eile, Ap 4,180, 1967, 961) cuitly Sensitive to temperature changes asthe rpkesalphia reaction is — then it will also increase further hefore the excess heat hava chance to dilfose away. Thus, a thermal runaway uses, The runaway is checked only afier considerable expansion ofthe htyer and the app ance of envection (9 carry away the excess heat, But the hhasic problem remains, After the runaway is checked, an when the star Lies 0 adopt dhe “natural” double shell-huning configuration appropriate fer this stage of its evolution fie. when a tries (0 “relax” Back to the “patural” stage of cqilibviu), 1 finds itself in the sane itliculty, Thuis, the star undergoes a series of “thermal relaxation oscillations” which consist of one or more sharp pulses ef extra energy generation follawed by rela tively long periods of quiet evolution (Figure 89} 4\ thermal runaway is followed by the develop convectiv ig shel Some workers. igestes that the inner camvection 201 feet ta the outer convective envelop hydrogen burning shell (sce Figure 8.8) If this happens, the prudcts of Netium burning, carbon and oxygen. as be brought to Iie surkace of the asymptotic red giant. ‘This speculation ray explain the so-called “carbon stars” as well as the 1 beluavior ota star knows ts 'G Sapitiae. Herb ial their coll that F “one which extends from the hela: urning shell stably Ulrich and Scalo, have sua Hy con and Ke wave foun Hi SARS € red planetary nebula supergiant os asymptotic giaat red a sant J horizontal 94 z ranch J subgiant 3 i ~ inain-sequence dwarf whitedwat “Caoling 4 Lo eee 1 — 40,00 20,000 10,000 5,000 effective temperature (K) ‘Figure 8.40. The compiste evolution of a owas star foom she, wut ssquency (0 g.avive ahwatl, The track front the asymptotic ‘lant branch to a while dwarf (via a planetary nebula) is un ‘ert and is shown asa dasied curve. 2,500 surfiice temperature and chemical composition (espe~ cially for s-process elements) just in the course of one ccude! To find such profoud elranges in a normal star ‘occurring right before one’s eyes must have provided unique experience in astronomy. Planetary Nebulae and White Dwarfs Another complication is that considerable mass loss nay oveitr on the asymptotic giant branch, Observations suggest that asymptotic branch stars beyond the red- giant tip lose mass very rapidly, Among the many prom ising mechanisms which have been considered is the suggestion that small specks of dust may form in the cool, atmospheres and be driven out subsequently by the leulations, radiation pressure of the star. Quantitative unfortunately, are glifcult, Observations i Uva originally had less thas about six sol seem to lose so much mass during such high-luminosity stages that they become (perhaps periodically) planetary nebulae illuminated by a hot central core (Color Plate 8) SeahehBABARRARRRORROEAaRBRBEES hod bE Fig, 10.12. The evolutionary tracks of three. low-mass _stars_of slightly different converge on the giant_brancl ‘After they have undergone the helium t flash: (at the top of the giant branch}, they ‘cn facta ne a HE ranch stars (HB) ‘and evolve through the instability strip as rae varial roken Tine. D shows the positions of the RR. Lyraes (RR) ‘and-at the W Virgins stars (W), which Population If Cepheids. The tracks, which depend strot rizontal branch, converge pt Noranch ~ the track on this om the asvmptonic giant branch (AGB). (From 267 smunnen of the hip of the R48" crfella, varables Cpulsrules du Koo 22 Lyrae y WI Viv = Shiela, de baja masa, CE 2Me) eu a fae port seGaeucia Prnci pal CHB , © Comins a AGB pas lo W Vad) 09 Toe im_as they 0 ; m> esliedlla alacn en Louble Shell buertnk ag Chage" sue Tx Cort ce sul lade ; ettuall, Sube de nuevo ~ vekeoluante ex eb Mapas. H-R et | asyyn pte he Gaont brand,” hala Waa SUPER EL 6AWTE RODBA cis Ooree R ~ 300 Re a5 piiedide de rote . e ? KE _ notebk fi rad © Paes J A esta Lamivesided was alta 4 vadto Lraude a abdlla Gece maa saa Se cbteva Come Linn “atbulesa planelaia Que rodea La = esheln -» cshella Crtal Calieuk CT 10 K) cvewtialuente plady toda su Ahn cite —> ge debaje Cat hueles) €s Ua Cnaua \ t fs! blante C5) My < Mey, © L4H) nudes & a Carkeye— OX1Qu0 clefelles de la Wuolucia, desde ela Fae gente astupty hea hacia el esbade Lush de una Cuane blauca no te Corot ble. todavia. PRPRPIPVP PPP PVP PSPS PCKKKCKEILIETELEELELLLRLTRLELKERLLELERERERREERE ‘Tee e REC TEES OT OTTE ET ERT CEO eee Oe cca 13.4 Stellar Clusters 531 = > e 10. 22. 21 2, ~04 00 04 08 1216 8-5 Figure 13.27 A color-magnitude diagram for M3, an old globular cluster. maior cated: main sequence (MS); blue stragglers (BS); the main-sequence turn-off point (TO); the subgiant branch of hydrogen shell burning (SGB); the red giant branch along the ‘Hayashi track, prior to helium core burning (RGB); ‘the horizontal branch uring helium core burning (HB); the asymptotic giant branch during hy- Grogen and helium shell burning (AGB); post-AGB evolution proceeding ta the white dwarf phase (P-AGB). (Figure from Renzini and Fusi Pec, Annu, Rev. Astron. Astroj 7, 86, 199, 1988. Reproduced with permis- sion from the Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 26, ©1988 by Annual Reviews Inc.) BS = blue shogglen ( por encima da temeff paint) 2 Ghelle en clox binary sy 3 lamsfreda de H dy Cupad am > se prolongs el Reuys de ida en La MS porque la shea eld recibiend. H Pose fegute Genmands eungia Con el Cicle rr larcusion qa pol: tee, bey fases jamosticadss pov la fern oe erolcio, g4ales eter prsents 2 Atiyds basic & bueus enhe tema y cbievacia, 0 a were yy SS 7es"errVrVeerwY wryreeewe oe * My sayttetdatds yea er te os 1012 14 18 18 20 22 24 av Figure 13.28 A col ade diagram for the young double galactic cluster, h_and_x Perse eee Ghar the meat inabive starr are pulling Seay Hom the maln Sequence while the low-mase stars in the middle of to the main sequence. Red giants are the diagram are still contracting ont prevent in the upper right-hand corner of the diagraro. (Figure adapted from Wildey, Ap. J. Suppl, 8, 439, 1964.) 54 Chapter 13. Post-Main-Sequence Stellar Evolution * s e >, 9 eoeeseese¢es & & aon? io BR 249xl0 aucg a ° ° e ‘ e e e e a a a ‘ 9 a e a 4 a a a 4 a 4 c 4 4 4 4 4 i. 4 4 ‘ Figure 18.29 A composite color-magnitude diagram for a set of Popula- tion I galactic ister The aie viol magnitude is indicated on the left-hand vertical axis end the age of the cluster, its tum-off point, is labeled on the right-hand side. (Figure adapted from aa original diagram by A. Sandage.) ' aS ae ~—_Twrewrvre Ve eee ee Vee See See eee ee eee ee eee eee ee eee eee ee eS o Figure 13.4 The evolution of a 5 Mg star from the zero-age main se- quonce to the ie plant fe Tuminosity 1s given in solar waits. (Figure from fben, Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys, 5, 571, 1967. Hoproduced with permission from the Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 5, ©1967 by Annual Reviews Inc.) Guolucs on deren Shella de mara ‘nekrmedia C5 Mo) 495 496, Chapter 13 Post-Main-Sequence Stellar Evolution 67 10 14 13,14 Ns © Time (10” yr) Figure 13.5 The structure of a 5 Mg star as a function of time. Note that che time nxis is nol linear. Cloudy regions represent convection zones, dots ianging composition, and stripes designate regions where a signifinnt amount of energy is being generated by nuclear reactions ‘Although the numbers on the top of the diagram correspond to those. ip Fig. 13.4, this evolutionary model is based on calculations carried out by another research group. (Figure adapted from Kippenhabn, Thomas, and Weigert, 2. Astrophys., 61, 241, 1965.) SS a ae Sw ee Oe SS ee eee Paes SS ST Eee eh 498 1H burning shell He core Figure 13. oaching the red giant branch with, core and a hy Tog shell shorth nt. from Iben, Ap. J., 143, 483, 1966.) Apledla de BY Unevde alGaure eb Peto de LA YOwme de Gigante Ye 13.2. Late Stages of Stellar Evolution Sot igure 19.8 AS Mo stat on (or approaching) the asymptotic giant branch with a carbon-axygen core and hy ‘and helium-burning shells follow- liygpoint 31 in Fig, 13.4. Nove that relative to the surface radius, the seale sine chile and core have been increased by a factor of 100 for clari ‘Tinta from Then, Ap. J, 148, 483, 1966.) Evolucion fuat de esbellos masivas C2 849) hucles vudeag Taumeta en él ' Pe "slells Suess Gy H- os Stu ckoa He - bumivg Sole ov C ~ bumiog L oO — bameiesg q an : Tedxio kK: & Snes i a 3 Produc fut: “Foye = posh de Le Garva Eg /nudedt versus A D> Shella La produce un hucles de hi ere Cmata 3M para run atiella de LONG & Ca CHM 2.5 4p “ So He M : Lomo ©, 0, St burnivg Produce, Cada ved Meus euersia Per fsa, 9 po le tent Code Vet Meum energia Pos grame ce Gucbushlle | = Kempo fora Coda Seaeucia veocRve, Piguet & mes toute, © Pre Pode Produces sefcente cnegia po saguude Pore marten la luni vosideah dela gteel !) ore. wun ghella de 20Mo : 4 C#AHS) = 1o* aay CH ~ buming) & Cts He buci ns) = & Cope C butuing) + © Gre O bumuiedy = 200 dias 4 Coe S oa = ; 10° ates 113. The Fate of Massive Stars out oo eset ayeeentag \ EY en eing xen vein ‘Sifich ‘Oxygen baming ‘Geaag” Sticon burning a Wgure 13.14 The onionlike interior of ¢ massive star that has evolved wuugh core silicon burning. Inert regions of processed material are sand- ‘wiclied between the nuclear burning shells, The drawing is not to scale, Se eee eS Oe eS se ee ae ee eee SS ee ~ Ctkeude ote meleral en exp au sion bre bajade sm demsidak a tat Pinte de Uegos a Se Oph comets daloade a ~ o> cin dal Gude da ly sedeelle { 44 > totes eseapan ( eugia total ~ [0 er) os SN visible alere! Ste Gere Kem ca, da plss dal inicio de La side Ae clogue en eb Conte Obsevacie, : La SN Gea a lnutuosidad | ahcnn, tna" pooh, Lamitesity® ce 1o"® erg /S [stot I que & dan alla que CGompi te Con La lurnine sida de Ua aya laxia eure Sh event: lolapse Cotectofcs de uu uicles de Fe. ~~~ Orda de cleegha DD ecciss da la Copa dale ahella ALeyvaciauaue eile : se rao 4 MAK ~ juteemente de Loa oe a io als Cry x - 1a] eu ~ 2nd = da pus Mowiuacten de Lb Gut nual Po ~ Cmoy Jai - epecha : Riven de H 6 qu excha ec le Copa extua de La pre- Supeterrtad_ River de matale, pesads> Pek F Gy gut l= ekpausion rogida) > velocidad de expansion cle la Gyn exptelsada es ~ 2o.tvoo Re /s bs wae ) 516 Figure 13.16 The characteristic shay These are composite Tight curves, 1985.) BELOW MAXIMUM LIGHT ™ BELOW MAXIMUM LIGHT ™3 pernovee. Chapter 13 Post-Main-Sequence Stellar Evolution ee ea a8 DAYS AFTER MAXIMUM LIGHT a iad DAYS AFTER MAXIMUM UGHT ‘of Type IEP and Type TL light ‘based on the observations of (Figures from Doggett and Branch, Astron. J., 90, 2803, BUEERTRERERRRER ORR Ree eet annneecni... aS ee ee ee eee eee eS eee ee ee ‘Amount (NIN) Figure 13.17 3” CSC Time () ‘The radioactive decay of $Ni, with a halflife of ty = 6.1 days. There Ts 50% chance t) hat any given 3$Ni atom will decay during a time interval of 6.1 days. If the original sample is entirely com) SEN, after n successive half-lives the fraction of Ni atoms remaining. ig 2- ee a _ —— ) @ --ttunca de SN DT: we lta te Coda SO ate en HWe w& maalayovin, no fon obsevalle por duct exhuchd coc: SN LISA wa Type Lr iwear ) = keule de Swi se Arh nginern 2 aL Cl ~P c* platea” ) i a i ee - front de Laminesided “extra en Le> Svs K-P la desiu begrocie yadio act de “Nise que Se Produjo eu ron Cantided dexaude : choqua achave dela sefrella qe a el platen cs La wtaclea da la Buda de — 6 > ' yp. Nut 6 die Ee Me se sraus fro > G, woes, dol i) 1 0. é OD gf el f Se ~ Cis + # + Nizg Cs, i Ve F i >a eumaian Ubsada a ota reacciau do desintegracion se la Uevan cle, ve, G 3 Le depesitan ea Gaga. expansive C galve el ve que encapa |) ye Cope LR pada Porteretmente ol 2 pacio whe exba- foul de Luminesidead pos de iulagacis fe aa” NL wptiera al platean a la Gaia de Lat de ke Sw -P. Cewe el niitwo de be nudes de “Nios fe reduce a la wided Code Gla —> eb platoon Mere ~ 20 Ma Ce STR N CONE) meter ga 2 De -S_ » > oO. yy > p Coy ck products da Le de sindeg acion deb Noe, . : . . P thes yadioackvo y dacee , Cx Cy F TF dias Seguin : > » se $6. + / > @, * a te tute > » Craude La Lemivesided de la SN ba decors age Hewge, ‘ ; Se pltde detector Ca Ceubibucion a la lk po Co, . PEL decaimeat radioachve otune Sarvs an anol A\N owe ae at A As Gust > oN Ce) N rae N huge ei cial de Leo ~ = e = 2 (hy Coa i huclee fadioach us On2 | N(Ty,) = Ye eu la muesha A= | at, -ATy AT ue, z Cy2 |enpenh Pgre “32 > Gu2= At mOta be cusgia dapositeda o La Gpa 2xpausiva da GQ Sw SY pendionte de (a Gave de lea Lolomaihen a~ J log een eA = - O484A 7 lea, ya Mek (2.5) blest 2 4 owed at At OMe peed = Lore Lu2 . Eu, > > > e > 4 > > > > » > » » >» > » > » > > D D > madicien de La perditute de la Gore de lat euteage Ci > pratt. deka el nucle radieackia, que petencia (= sumeicha A enegiay La luniuesidod Le SN Cote facin deh tempo 13.3 The Fate of Massive Stars sa “1 logio(L) era s 1000 Days since outburst Figure 13.20 The bolometric light curve of SN 1987A through the fis+ 1444 days after the explosion. ed Ines show the contributions pect Tive isotopes produced by the shock wave. The canes ass are estimated to be Ni (and later $$Co), 0.075 Mo; §7Co, 0.009 Mo (five times the solar abundance); 44, 1 x 10-4 Mg; and 2Na, Dx 10* Mo, (Figure from Suntaef et aly, Ap. J Lett, $64, 188, 1992, . ae > aYQuarate de SN > mucin Conocider > 9 eigle Wo, four. : Crab Nebula eu Goustel, “(eure » Covab desided del Gugesje) i Temaueule de ANT observoda eu yeke de (ost eu China . Todavia expade Cor ~ [800 kuls 4 Kew. Le Bxto! Lo 3 Cuyge tirade ig el pulsar = Shella de nenhones gee Guede de La asglosion de Sn C Guveasion da cuegia Chu Rea votacioual en aus ia yodiohva Crodiacien Sucoberio y ) preaute: B2T . . ol Co “HAY Sept sw 1987 QA ec la LHC: vaus Rage Slants ere, nein, bunt dyde St (987 AL 3] lwas auter Se a Uegoda de les fotore de la SN el Tab 23 ce [289 2 Povewa oataccies ce ote dk une frente ° 7 eu a Sol! Cia, en na ew USA + = fancies! Cachan J = cagultede ebgevaci oral Super~ teportente quer Gu Frm” que teen’ beta de explo simes Su T 2 Covecte. De arte detecciones dil vz results adame, ques my.) & [6 NV = Qicle Supers a tue Cros SQ) Passa de repere cal nents Ne _ SE ee ee ee ee! eae ee ee ee ee www Ve Ve VV VUE VS VVesssEETSSOVVSVSVSVeVSeSeVeeeeseeeeseeseeeeeTeee 2 Chapter 14 Stellar Pulsation saa . Pr ld is measured in Julian days; Julian day’ 1. 4713 8.c., and JD 2435000 is September 14, 1954. (Courtesy of Janet A. Mattei, AAVSO Director.) CAPITULO 10 POSORROSOOReRRARAAnaaeaSGeeZeeeHaGK KE ERRREQRRERK CECE SR ~~ eww SS SSS CTCF SECT PFCVIVIVIIIOP VIII I IIVIISVISFSsesVeeeeeeeeeeTeeeEe Copter 14 Stellar Pulsation ee L Tisage of Population Radial or Type Periods Type __Nonradial Tong-Period Variables 100-700 days Tir R Classical Cepheids 1-50 days I R W Virginis stars 2-45 days 1 R RR Lyrae sters 1.5-24 hours si R 8 Scuti stars 1-8 hours 1 RNR 6 Cephel stars 3-7 hours I RNR 22 Ceti stars 100-1000 seconds I NR ‘Table 14.1 Pulsating Stars, de La gulsacion estelor ¢ waite, deduce oropiedades ca log elect | - gulfaci mes 4 se estchue judeme [ andlegauente a by onder sm Pirduacidas eu Hewturetry ia frmnacion Sobre Comd'ch rar fucken Ac La Tiesra Certuctusa dy densidad 2 j “= Pulsacr ones todiales + Products de fade, de Souids ataciouans eu el juteno che la que uecesifa Una Cuda Peiiede ae palcacion, TW, = Reupe Crodio R, densidad de Seuide da obavesa La afella Sa Gast = deusidah Prduedia’ Be tec eel velocided de Sonido adiabaten (= dQ=0, ne bay fgets Ae Vee vee aes (- Spam su ge mecuanice) # . oy D = prosisu da ae > ge dausided Mo - + Pr a parle de . > ap. éMes ,_ 6S L406 er * ay eT aa 2 ra 2 2 2 2 ao a - > P@e-dtds [rer ~ETes CR *) ° L-P(R)201} g ° _— tine! a 2x radie de | SF “ > Pr i Pebsacren a: = .2( Ge a 2 ae jz b@Te 3 (er ‘ rend penedn~ dersidod pomedio: BT oe nas woul deusided promedio. defen | U2aes ? Us al pointe ce guboacié BP@WADWBVAasVIesIAesIVsaewveeswesere wFasgs FIIFIssIFsIsIFIVISFIVIVIVVIVIIFI sss Ves Ve See Ve eee TTT 550 organ pipe and in_a ster for me, and (¢) the second over- hoy difeete moder vadiale de puliacier ce Le Orde be fovide efacienanas [ auslege a un ergate }: mode feta crcdal Uno bay weds) Confinade s purass © atin (un wedo, a 0.6 R ) az obuvecion, Sequide Ovutere Cds Wweder, a~ 0.5 4 0.22) Nole: ee l& vane bpe da vaialle pe pu Lacie, tadiol , sa le, Copas extedores ch los Shella qe pubson is 4 he bes inteneves | Yarabi, leferdan 4 | Se esivellas de ~ S-1S Mo crurtende 9 | t Cogloid totabi lity ship" cu fu eve lucien ; post ~ MS i see A eveluctm + Cer He - uk! we ; web SSihg oo Sb Grae Mayme en el 2. Crossing | = Tb ~ 0: «= 2= lwo dos Modes de palsacier 3 Furvainental goa la, magena, |. Poets & Betedes Cote Ftaudies Posi Me 266 Stellar structure and evolution e pp blue Looe Couch Phare of Ligh mast Lak a ae, Stes eveluie, roe Soa \—— pee pulsaci MaBion { Cofeisas? Fig. 10.11. Evolutionary tracks durin, jing, for stars of intermediate mass. The, ian por sare eee dune se ah ‘lars more massive than about Takes them throu the instability strip (mai ‘a broken line), where they are observe ie Caphed weaves (Pe ( ne ange at ‘Weigert, ee bulsaconres atables (= Op li tad Ge Houde) eu Cefeide por "mecouisme KK": ~ durante Grmpierite , achuofre Aumenta epacidel ¥ absobe color ~ duromde Gusighiole expancia , deesidod K sulnuye D Kdisinuge, se Liboe La tdsun Gehdedr Ae eungia tn fornn cle Color qua se absebil durante Compresiee auterier tebe este es un " Cuagia porodicamente, pam Coupense: lor perdices de eregia dttronle Lm fases de Coupresics “ wecoui sine de Valvulea gre iKoecte ES YS ee oe ear.agrwaearmweakaeaagannaness 184 or 08 08 oni onase Figure 3: Left Panel: the orbital -band light curve of the Cepheid-containing binary system LMC-OGLE-CEP0227, after removal of the intrinsic brightness variation of the Cepheid component together with the solution, as obtained with the Wilson Devinney code. Right Panel: the pulsational I-band light curve of the Cepheid i in the binary system, folded on a pulsation period of 3.8 days. This asymmetric, " large-amplitude light curve is. characteristic fora classical fundamental mode § Cepheid pulsator. aad DDD DDD DDI) Sanus nun taimet tok , 3.50 bbe Cue 4.00 4.50 7000 ;- | Pe < Be Yadius vanahe RIR yi v, (km/s) 6 7 8 max. “0 1 2'3 4 5 Expausion valecity me (days) aaa = a > 2 i Cepheid vanathous 3 lep Ps 5.34 d Cephercd von anens | Lents ees dob oy { . , Gack nets, Cer \ b) Velocidad radial J Gua de lee Curva de velocidad radial, * lowe Te tarbics Vora Ce pu loook ) dieak @ ey Cicle de pulsacion ) Retrces ca Ure de laud CS Vth dda jes a) vauacion ce Te { L eV b) Vowacton de hetuane Vth da La we cke Wa ce Lng diskule a vphice IR CB) Ck) Wate: B batt Gave = dowtuada Pr YONA oT k Ligtel cssve” = lows heads Por Vaunaca, a © Rawleigh- Jeans dal Woke Cone lic > gediite ante Casi ya ke Produce wetable an el flats de pada cic > weve vel, radiah CPV) - % Se pusde obtene La velocidad de pobsacten a Le Supe ficie ek; Gu. £e Beupe) inde fiande QVC) on teepeche a 4 5 Gorigiend. eOue Ni COnmente [ Gube dite alk aihelle + RV = Yous Rimes Wee J «Aude obtuse LA Wren dd medic Cy eran Nha hella , a pulse da KW va KV geeeneeesenetseseee2202202202000000830880838023322 = 2S alga ( Grande Shella qa few uncles de fe) ~ ~ ex lok => fotucs Hen euagia Tefiderk ova pode clestrieic ly nudes procter via” desi tegraci sy -fo-tonicn” Jaguin : eR +¢ 7 13 He, + 4n \ DO “he, tao pl t 2m t =f © 2 > en muy pea Heumpe , esle proceso yeviat be que la fea bite durante toda cu vida | que ea Produce clemente mal peace que H 4» He ! ' ‘ € prowess de ARs ia bequaci on —fotouicn es altauen Le erdotermice C= resis ae sumyia po (vans a Gabe) Cusgia deica se quite el ga, Proceso “renews, > > preston de 3° Ais uinuge > cl colapse dal “Core te acalora ) cqnbiciones del uncles alimm 2 Ti ~ Exlo'k , pos ‘ al s.* lo" 9 fe? a Me cu whey Gudicioner, Le elechones Qi kves Gee Por su presion de dag ena 1% elachouica habia. agidade a seporias el peso da a etella , Cure ren masi yauecte der afar w la veaceien * : ” < § pleehion Cagtre” Bhielle ep te Prot+yu, Rew windesr pt Oe su ueclos Par Ca autules disintesracia to ca D aledla sufee una Cuene pardide ty a 9 nuos © fella de 20H da amagie Pov eh Scape de lo nentius © para en 8 L (qobuio) = tx ian ls, y LOY = Bl x IO eg ls un ack ~ lo? manos | SE EEE LESS SSA SSIS IVS VIIIISIISSSISVIVVSSTF TSS STC CC eee eee Se - ae uegia Come gue se Uva, lp watinn +t le pedida de La pierion de degemacion elachsuita Gervan ts Colapso dal Wuclee exfreuoda mente rolpide ; . + . Gubince bole 3. x §&x lo 3/a2 = 3x ae de ; ten eecles ate Uni ce ate nrnne sd = cl mederiol extere Cmos lem Meicialuente del Cente de la ehella ) rebofe en esle uucles ech eurodoamenrds daute > Viaja hacia fee » alCanra velocidad Sepa scuica > te fore una onde de cheque yve vieje hacia fame Y Gulleva una Chome euaia Gl & cl Giada de una Oxeplosi on de Sups nova C& st MCUHHD ea ~ <2SHg_ : nucleo ( alsca Crugltonente Conmpueste pos mewdioues ) $ Capar de AgawWo os Sef its presion de Aug ete anci newtre wi co pass. Vc Leewints el Colapse ras fac cual aufene ca Ca She D> vemanente — dapad cle be explo sigs de Sn, es um Shela & meecaawns si oh CAND 2 25M: Colapse fiat tacional, se Coup late y se produ. Un heye hago - Mats teut, Le ode de cheque roduc Le Rogpassiou SupeSouie da las Cope, extenmes de la Rtella | st om Een, = 10 ey = cuergia CueRee total dol maternal Bue expanse \ Cae I% kh jw enegia que se, Ried en fone, de hentium ) i ed cee ee eS oe SSS ST Se Se eS eS Se Be ee ee eee eee eee ST ee Asul na bed by 7, vanahea mag Right cane demivated L radius vow Phase flight viata ve pss of ina all wit ferent wavelength. Upper Hl cugth ftrasolet, ba, and ya se Tor lang seavetegts (ee an neae-tatraed ont to K= 2-2 eros 1) Relacid mare- Wominosidad valida porn Cefeider: eS velacd, PRM F velador PRL - densidad promedic ! Cons Cpeqietia depenbencie de Cra) > a = £CM,®) TK = pelacian RMR = £09 > R= f(Lt) en Peete epee Bee ben = velacion Pet ede ~ Lue’ es eiihelm . begat Sorlmcticle | Te dehetai nade. qe us tad! og dhe (ole apropiode C V-K, pov ejeuple) => elation PLT. = teade PLC (7m cles) Aoue de pes bob U chad Poa pulcaci ones de Cofeide, Cu 4AIS HO) ef Casi vektal; Peta vanaciar ey fo les, waaaeclne Vahacea e L 3 recs PLC _telacies PL Co we dspesion coh usta. debide a que de Cf. des dal Wife Vales rT Ag Po Heusen Luteuesidels dintute, si el Glos CTe) 6 duhute . elects peguatic Si Gly —> fa farreje Se TO OO Ee Se eee ell eerlmL a " i 14.1 Observations of Pulsating Stars Ss iasy : if 8 Scuti stars i a0 cc ee L) 6 Te) aire incomplete. and those of the To ‘long-period variable) region. (The evolu {nnu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 5. S71. 19 sion from the Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 21967 by Annual Reviews Inc.) ary tracks are from Then Reproduced wich pe Volume 5. 547 Figure 14.2 Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921). (Courtesy of Harvard Callege Observatory.) 4o na Bs ~ 3.35 150 : Tees 16.0 “38 iro = rd seriod in Press, Cambridge, MA, L961) gg tt te te eR ESSESESSETSSSSSSSSSSSESasseaszsseszeaaeaeseegeeeeees weVvvVvTeVTTTFTET Sey eee eee ee ee ee ee ee EET elacias Ptiele- Gupcinert donk pore Uafeide, class Co, C OGLE Reject dete} 4 <> log P Fig. 2. Upper panel: Fbaudd PL relation of the LMC Cepheids. Darker and lighter dots indicate FU and FO made Cepheids, respectively. Lower panel: P~L relation for the FU Cepheids, Solid line indicates adopted approximation (Table 2), Dark and light dots correspond to stars used and rejected in the final fit, respectively. On the other hand, it is believed that metallicity variations among ob- jects may have stronger effect. on the zero point of P—L—C' or P—L relations. Results of previous empirical attempts to determine effects of metallicity on zero points, generally suggested fainter Cepheids in metal poorer objects, however, with high degree of uncertainty (Sasseloy et al. 1997, Kochanek 1997, Kennicutt et al, 1998). ‘We may test the dependence of the zero points of P~L-C or P-L relations on metallicity in very straightforward manner ~ by determination of the difference of distance moduli between the Magellanic Clouds resulting from these relations and comparison with similar determinations based on other reliable distance indicators observed in both Clouds. With the P—L relation we may determine the difference of distance moduli of the LMC and SMC for the V and Fbands and the extinction insensitive W; index. Results ~ the difference of zero! points of correspond ing P—L relations in the LMC: and SMC (Table 2) ate listed in Table 5. We assign lower weight to VE-band determinations because of extinction tthe LMC iu fioren Copheva (Pl lela hous 1 C Persson ef at. 200%, AF 128, 22 34) oe sy LMC Cepheids Period—Luminosity-Color (tilt-corrected) e Ds pal 1 i 1 0.5 1 1.5 2 Log Period (days) Persson rev.figd.ps RARRERRRSRRRRRRRERRBREReeesenznnaeenunnnnnn. ...... i eee Se SS es Wesel ae rel eh ereTererlUh elmer lUmh er CU Mr CU wer CU Swe CUM Ve Vr ee Oe Chapter 14 Stellar Puisatro ul Sac on ‘np radio de P= Smin de Soh CAPITULO 11 Soe Ho 44 OOOO H4OADADDDDOOO449FS4494444444444444444445454455 | BSSSSSSSSSS SSS eSsses 4; esbhellas wm 4 esledan Luale, anocides tm Nada -» toda La matena se dispesa ol tupacic Cy ae explosicn Ulolerta C supernova.) 2, broun bleu » erhdla Gr M ~ 0.7K R~ 0.01 &e 2, eshelle de heuboues ly He LS He yadiusy lo em 4, Agusero ne fro - “ a . 4 m4 HD UM, radius = Colao #85 emornem blantn + masa ~ IMo % > deusided promedit a 10 glen? yadic ~ 0.01 Re > aute- Froude on 45 duicene.t » ce vesuiene una faate de preside enemme gue os Copar de eqn bras la Gos faction. tha festente he presion asla * ele char - da gen Baty pes we u a eo a fex wl OUeL ¢ Spin Ye. > Obade "ye eXelwaion de Poul! : em une Gelale del " espacio de fore” ee TRB) de WP puusde haber sole b> « Gibres + Ax Ap, ph 2 dachewes spiks ophest> > cuando La densidad cde € eee , Ax ated Aisuinunye > Py CHete Por pres yakenes Cuan Noo, ~ nee CWS per tempsiactem | ) = meV > Vv CH execke a, Px r 1 ¢ . : aie Oe pra T HO 1 KR mga de este 4 we -didvmice . Valecidadey pein es Cu da LH CHK VEPide Con La clemided Foran Mm” ~ re dh there de eueuas Llautw, Vale? Presion ( dapumacion) elechSuita, S> pretion deénuica es Aa spreciable ( ne kT / fens Co. > & esien e ( prasion be = o> tetas ) ce abla de Reshon de dagwa cis elachowica. S; La dcusided es dal cpa VEO. én wre = rahi i s/s 7 & sete Yz\B inthe > P= 0.0¥8s A (<=) S_ ( depe < m + * noe de. 3 e 6 (#f£cT)) An Gases onc, puane blanca Hipica | te >? Ke kT Ce ES ere wdavia vec. Cu cute, Klauntor : O.tacion banter yadie uy mata pes . zs a expression Paes Taplica La ex shencia, da wan yelocion MCRD | + 2 "; ) © = 0Fo aM ) valide pora us vs BL ate tk cacti (= presion que & hla dabe Soporte! ) ( decenence, pe (> 8 = Ge = 143 5 nm- veladiviste ceudicies pow Un radio stable ; e. =(®) presi wectenda pore legen cr) Ubig Lo asasdd Kee CPS debe trols o le presion hi pole C ee SESS SDP PSOPOSOSVSSSsessessessessesessesssEsSsESCSCSESCESSS SVE SST SS » 15.3 The Physics of Degenerate Matter 587 Logie 7-1) Present Sun x ob? Login pe (gm) Figure 15,6 Degeneracy in the Sun's center es it evolves. (Data from Mazzitelli and T’Antonia, Ap. J, 371, 762, 1986.) — ‘ 4 a 4 { (84. The Chandrasekhar Limit sal 34” ’ Velecias Vediom wt Qnaie Clo bod} - \ elec & a euaus, blanca, vo} pve e na 3 . Sitios B Low, M< MJ 3 4 2 Qo aa 0a 08 0 ‘Mass (MM) Figure 15.7 Radii of white dwaris of Mea S Mon at T =0 K. ‘ c q 4 ( ‘ ‘ ( f ( f ‘ { c ( ( ( ( ‘ { 4 a : ( f i c ( ( ( r : cathe iites ia tiiadianl OF GM = 0.0485 — _ gt hy R Pa 4 12> (3)" 428 Mos DIY ——Re LF ho pt A ne mp AL Re Siz Ss MH E.R = 6 > ae pt - " | 4 > & 5/2 «1 > |e. ott ~—s,(<) 4 | GS me Mp | po ee _ | R wes ay Mx Volumen ~ Com > curause blaute, de Maye mare fleie, Ate! C= epuarh ol Cruportaudtule ce vedio C= makena, Atul ) a= dob —5 Volume = Depureracion telaHvisla: Doote Oumenla -9 rade dimeinuye > dewided aumneuta > Seproacics media AX Cube ln ee Aismin wi Pe = ev Ait wed > VY outta , 4 Pusluerle V a > team Uy gto de eleekouer telahvirtawente da ger.eade » Glebe ex erle Coto da: ~ Sy. h Ys We Pre? Q = 0123 (2) tT 2s e mpl? LA ) Cautes 3/3 Cutude WEF € \ > deperdtncia de PL da @ 26 Meus Que ex el Cote powrelelivithe Pb Cecarcencion tape taude, 15.2. White Dwarfs 581 Logie (Ute) ‘soc 30000 20,000 1090 Tek) . Figure 15.3 DA white dwarfs on an H-R diagram. A line marks the location of the 0.50 Ma white dwarls, and’ portion of the main sequence is at the upper right. (Date from Bergeron, Saffer, and Liebert, Ap. J. 394, 228, 1992.) i‘ Se eeaeaseseeseesteeeeeteeneeeaeaeseaeeeeeeeaaeaeeeanaeanaseeeaanmaeanaaeseeesbiée 32 Emsle una nase Limite mw raasa de Lrandea- Schl May pan la tut RO ——— — [moe neces > Ma eh gas oe cechones | ya he Puede Sopeter la aude- fravedod | de la ohella —» Glapso ! | Lalente del vale de Mas, z ooo @ 6 4 ye ental presse y densidad P. = Ire ot ) pam une esfen baja R Sou propio gravedod , Categion Leruica Cuber padiacten CL) FE ya Maine Com al Hemp LIT dirminugen Lihelly terudue CBrro Cusipe fre , otture/, ieino: bats pe solide ( idues Ferrans cnet Cuaude derparetarm £5 Supe; echemerte bala) Cutan blanca | bajo ta * Coding seaente Ehella de newhones : anel HRD S Bus pase aio OM >Mea, z mlm « Rbves csheu oli gad © Comino a be prob wes > neckdues cu diay Coukdad prte Pady - > $2 Qifire BH ed da neutedues Rehves 6 le \ Bre heakcher Loy enw iues geek ca br electduer > une wgekeion deal Cllale lade po Le elachoues da a h Q = oly en M pt ta dk Cofo none veleahviche (vece 4 ti~ 3? > le ehdl, a Geka uy ado dk eau bio ayo vale es deteiai wade pox ML mason faa Ma tM. : R = 15 by " > Une wheally dae ei beuer 2 2 1000 vece fey Soren Csi auha, SMe BIACRRSERESESSETEERELCTESTSESSSEeseeeeseeaaezetitctitvinbnnbhahncnwunn > Ceustidad cueme : wv é.? 2 f > uy Cm Adc modern petana ~ lo mi Seo Cus toda La humanidod | cata Aeufded ef © + C deusided. puclecu' Co) > neuliouer Prack mente Siu espacio exte ss Linden sided Aal (atarpe Beavitaciond ef encores - a ) cu eshe, Gridtcioues | 9 Gs ) 4 $2 Pld Wineline po La ve Edad de escape de na moa mt 2aclo” m/e > (Ol veces GC Tiens) I r Crnda Cie, joe 2S Cope 2 \ 2m Ueje. al } = =e lufiulde Cm VEO Een, + Eet = © { f = vel. da efe z 6. GMm ) a ensofe mv, +t (= SS) =O Ys mare ashes a da wenkouer Za vedic * ni- Me, > Vee = (22M /e) He ltle , R= iS Rw to > y= LG X10 Cus de Seconds" = 9.55 c. | ojeh on, Res: "Weck. ne weed bale” Crerqucl nada, bi > che relckvidod Genet ee oie a Seid, teates 6 cages) | mm cow inow C Caazvorts eth ede de una eS Se: sud wtaclee Im (TE), electdues) 2 supe Reie , S6LS= C nucle pesodm 1s tleetorer) pe debajo: un Liquide cle nenbdne: (visesidad = 0) hella che nenkoues : 1 ‘ a a t Lg. emlidue)s | juperfbrasclin at feo thie meee TEE EE ee eS ee ee ee ee ee ee ee eS ee eS ee SE ee 15.6 Neutron Stars bl Figure 15.11 A 14 Mo neutron star model. Se Bae — Cee a a Me flacion a gevacoal de la, esbella An nechoues | m pulsares je ta dviia veloc oe Casper Bo inteuse 1, pulser: Bett y Uearah , 146% : 1 fulsars = Psat reg yadio Solsce Le no estan Prltande | filo totenude fk ow Feo qulsares Csuotider Zole: > (O00 Ps sake &G ms 4 Us { Crvcde auuente, wu, Lentamente: + 10 s [aie 4 a bas) >> del qulsas cr > edad = PCdP/dt): Hpicamerte ure wiles ca ate: Modalo Ci ghthouse ( fa re) : . ttn eee Pulsim = eshella de hewtroues Coy a) muy vyapide Yebacian b) Lange Vittud h Go g GE binal \. traurfonnacton da La ene pa ciueheo de rohacle, Cet de la Shella au Ctr Be fn theebring a pul Keo C fotenes) [ vadiacien . Sincopenica” , Preducida pos lp elech ues qe esprrala, alse dades “he L, Beens del Cate B) “Fotmes Sale. ey ke Coro ali uead. a el Comge z bipolou 4 elects # Peas? ae dd i i i i i i i i i i i i i iii iii fe Cone de Wa Selo en a = "ose! Guaisier {HIE END STATES OF STARS 122 sjsimum and maximum Tight. (Lick Observatory photograph) | Eshella eu volacion Nn Diovicu, da La Cn er fio Ae La @lelle de wen = 4 2 Eat ¢tw = Tor wiwate de MheCia y © CL abe A C eh " BAA, cen el Ke er Pare. todas les poliacer, Lex atrtuont de P| ey pitch’ Cou eute Se ferro NE ES I fe Lips fests as G > cl genede de vofacian Dos Or fumou ter Arecter Para apoyar a la WpStetic — Filumr = eylrelia Co pul sacied.) Ceumaple : ae, ode e¢ deter rade t ie = ast eee ee pete e = (38-0) g% PC seg) SC hg/m?) Pulsares PCHple) & 4 ms a > ex lo' 342 ms Le qua se SIPera pore uua ahella da ue ipétecic > le Oar Soo. vadiahua CHouerd Buns Kha pou Le clechdues gue Se aceloran ale locge & ley Rivea, cle, flune tandes oF Co £ wud hea cle vo iiduec. Con = zne = Gustaute ate sa ese. observaude ae le Lip’ teu en Gece Pu bau dal Crab : . da bop plement Jana temrpen diveccoue: desde el pulsar 2 Ghecigude , a) la velocidod de erpausion ( obsevada) b) La dirtauda del Crab Ce Grocida) > io 4 iL calaslar el iungterke en el © pasion Cpmenty ety ltade : « Goo aie atbas see Sublet de L054 ahcumess Chines 2. al ae obviaumirle otello, de uentiouer C pul soues!) / Prado, Difllars en uno 2xples ton Aa. a 4 eruccnnccceeneee ee ganuunenggncneceeceeceeeeceen Coo de ut ‘THE END STATES OF STARS Figure 7.11, Jour tothe eter ade bol Asan adven- sends out light Figure 7.10, When at a circumference equal to 1.5 times the curesome pe teh See eer are ye nega om bin nll eons flight c| ‘the benefit of any mictors, tons in _the outward The mena a eae a into a ile ok ‘with the explorer, Radic & Schuouschita : SRPRare ; Yeseope = S — . =| 7 me ke = (= Sku, pam Ke! Mol fotey prerde en re ak et da Bn = eee www VV VuUuUuUwU tala Ga BH Bn, Viskw sign qraviteciousl del espacio HOMf 137 Ulakiidad especial, | aahatiesinn ak eee = eee se a i ‘ SSarvature’ of our embedding diagram becomes negligibly smal ° . sd the fight circles of case (b) have nearly the same gvometty ee — D> ey Si skcuse moet yl ~(% da referencia, ete i i naeiucrtocte 1? rele ands tro, lautts < «i » . ’ Midacion del Heape gros teciancl Gita de ua BH: es (=a 3 yam To Rea, 4 zo Vi- E85 \ : ctr obsevady Lajaue Slt. la ut ee = =e Aprommac® de ura kare Lacia Yi ~ = Rey ocawe ifintarecte Levte Figure 16.8 Hending of starlight measaced during a solar eclipse gare £ = > $ del effade- Ke Cauata de Sol (b) This causes the orbe 62 of the precession by nating the ait P20 31" | TT nour ofthese BIBLIOTECA DEPARTAMENTO DE ASTRONOMIA UNIVERSIDAD OE CONCEPCION ESTE LIBRO DEBE SER TA URE ER DEVUELTO EX HREREREREUECEEECECCEEETULUTURTTET091990999709 Oe