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Simulation Interoperability
Standards Organization
(SISO)

Standard for:
Link 11/11B Simulation
Formatted: Font: 28 pt
SISO–STD–005-V13 Draft Formatted: Font: 28 pt

Formatted: Font: 28 pt
03 April 2014 Formatted: Font: 28 pt

Prepared by:
Simulation Interoperability
Standards Organization
Link 11/11B Product Development
Group (PDG)
SISO-STD-005-V13 DRAFT
Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Copyright © 2015 by the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization, Inc.

P.O. Box 781238


Orlando, FL 32878-1238, USA

All rights reserved.

Permission is hereby granted for SISO developing committee participants to reproduce this docum ent for
purposes of SISO product development activities only. Prior to submitting this document to another
standards development organization for standardization activities, permission must first be obtained from
the SISO Standards Activity Committee (SAC). Other entities seeking permission to reproduce this
document, in whole or in part, must obtain permission from the SISO Inc. Board of Directors.

This document is an unapproved SISO draft specification document. As such, this document remains
subject to change. USE AT YOUR OWN RISK! Because this is a draft version, this document must not be
used for any conformance/compliance purposes. Permission is hereby granted for SISO developing
committee participants to reproduce this document for purposes of SISO product development activities
only. Prior to submitting this document to another standards development organization for standardization
activities, permission must first be obtained from the SISO Standards Activity Committee (SAC). Other
entities seeking permission to reproduce this document, in whole or in part, must obtain permission from
the SISO Executive Committee (EXCOM).

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Revision History

Version Section Date Description


(MM/DD/YYYY)

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Participants

At the time this product was submitted to the Standards Activity Committee (SAC) for approval, the SISO-
STD-005 Product Development Group had the following membership and was assigned the following
SAC Technical Area Director:

Product Development Group

Joe Sorroche (Chair)


John Saicawalo (Vice-Chair)
Rob Byers (Secretary)

▬▬▬
Angus (Thom) McLean (SAC Technical Area Director)
▬▬▬

Jocelyn Allard Kenneth Kingston

The Product Development Group would like to especially acknowledge those individuals that significantly
contributed to the preparation of this product as follows:

PDG Drafting Group

Rob Byers (Editor)


Joe Sorroche Graham Shanks
Mary Christopher Bill Hinkle

The following individuals comprised the ballot group for this product.

Ballot Group

Member Name …..<continue with all the other Ballot Group


Member Name member names and place all in alphabetical
Member Name order>

When the Standards Activity Committee approved this product on DD Month YYYY, it had the following
membership:

Standards Activity Committee

Member Name (Chair)


Member Name (Vice Chair)
Member Name (Secretary)

Member Name …..<continue with all the other SAC member


Member Name names and place all in alphabetical order>
Member Name

When the Executive Committee approved this product on DD Month YYYY, it had the following
membership:

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SISO-STD-005-V13 DRAFT
Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Executive Committee

Member Name (Chair)


Member Name (Vice Chair)
Member Name (Secretary)

Member Name
Member Name
Member Name
…..<continue with all the other EXCOM member
names and place all in alphabetical order>

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SISO-STD-005-V9 DRAFT – September 2014
Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Introduction
TADIL-A/Link 11 is a secure half-duplex TADIL radio link used by US and NATO that receives or
transmits--but not both simultaneously--a sequential data exchange digital link. It exchanges digital
information among airborne, land-based, and ship-board tactical data systems. It is the primary means to
exchange data such as radar tracking information beyond line of sight. TADIL-A can be used on either
high frequency (HF) or ultrahigh frequency (UHF). However, the U.S. Army uses only HF. Link 11 relies
on a single platform to report positional information on sensor detections. This positional information can
be amplified with additional data to qualify the identity of the detected track.

TADIL-B/Link 11B is a secure, full-duplex, point-to-point digital data link used by US and NATO that is
conducted between two reporting units. Data is simultaneously received between reporting units.
Operations are normally conducted over multichannel radio, satellite communication, telephone lines or
cables. Information is transmitted at 2,400, 1,200 or 600 bps. TADIL -B is generally limited to providing
connectivity between ground-based units.

Because Link 11 and Link 11B use the same message standard and have virtually identical operational
capabilities, they are often referred to together as Link 11/11B. An interface between them is provided by
a forwarding participating unit (FPU). From an operational standpoint, they may be viewed as a single
link.

6
Copyright © 2010 SISO. All rights reserved.
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SISO-STD-005-V13 DRAFT
Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Overview .............................................................................................................................. 9
1.1. Scope .............................................................................................................................................. 9
1.2. Purpose ........................................................................................................................................... 9
1.3. Objectives ....................................................................................................................................... 9
2. References (Normative) .................................................................................................... 10
2.1. SISO References ............................................................................................................................ 10
2.2. Other References .......................................................................................................................... 10
3. Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations....................................................................... 10
3.1. Definitions .................................................................................................................................... 10
3.2. Acronyms and Abbreviations........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.3. Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.4. Terms and Definitions...................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
3.5. Acronyms and Abbreviations........................................................................................................ 12
4. Requirements .................................................................................................................... 13
4.1. Link 11/11B OPERATING characteristics ....................................................................................... 13
4.1.1. General Requirements ........................................................................................................... 13
4.1.2. Levels of Fidelity .................................................................................................................... 14
4.1.3. Communication between Link 11 and Link 11B Units ........................................................... 18
4.2. Link 11/11B implementation under DIS ....................................................................................... 18
4.2.1. Transmitter PDU Description ................................................................................................. 18
4.2.2. Signal PDU Description ......................................................................................................... 21
4.3. Implementation of Link 11/11B under HLA .................................................................................. 23
4.3.1. The Link 11/11B BOM ........................................................................................................... 23
4.3.2. Levels of Fidelity .................................................................................................................... 23
4.3.3. Time Synchronization ............................................................................................................ 23
4.3.4. Protocol Implementation Details (HLA) ................................................................................. 23
4.3.5. BOM Implementation ............................................................................................................. 24
4.3.6. Adding the Link 11/11B BOM to the RPR FOM..................................................................... 24
ANNEX A: Link 11/11B Base Object Model (BOM) OMT Tables ........................................... 28
A.1 Object Model Identification Table ................................................................................................ 28
A.2 Object Class Table ......................................................................................................................... 28
A.3 Object Interaction Table................................................................................................................ 28
A.4 Attribute Table .............................................................................................................................. 29

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

A.5 Parameter Table ............................................................................................................................ 29


A.6 Enumerated Datatypes Table ........................................................................................................ 30
A.7 Complex Datatypes table .............................................................................................................. 31
A.8 Notes Table ................................................................................................................................... 31
Annex B: Example of M.2 and M.82 Message ...................................................................... 32
Annex C: DIS to HLA translations .......................................................................................... 34
C.1 HLA RPR FOM 1.0 Radio Transmitter Object versus DIS Radio Transmitter PDU ......................... 34
C.2 HLA RPR FOM 1.0 Radio Signal Interaction versus DIS Radio Signal PDU ..................................... 35
C.3 HLA RPR FOM RadioSignal Class .................................................................................................... 35
C.4 HLA RPR FOM RawBinaryRadioSignal Class ................................................................................... 35
C.5 HLA Link 11/11B BOM TDLBinaryRadioSignal Class ...................................................................... 36
C.6 HLA Link11/11B BOM RadioSignal Class ........................................................................................ 36
C.7 HLA Link 11/11B BOM Link11/11BMessageRadioSignal Class ...................................................... 37

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Link 11/11B Levels of Fidelity ....................................................................................................... 14


Table 2: Transmitter PDU for Link 11/11B .................................................................................................. 19
Table 3: SIGNAL PDU for Link 11/11B ....................................................................................................... 22
Table 4: Link 11/11B BOM Interactions in the RPR-FOM .......................................................................... 25
Table 5: Link 11/11B BOM Complex Datatypes in RPR-FOM 1.0.............................................................. 26
Table 6: Link 11/11B BOM Enumerated Values in RPR-FOM 1.0 ............................................................. 26
Table 7: Link 11/11B BOM Notes in RPR-FOM 1.0 .................................................................................... 26
Table 8: Link 11/11B BOM Complex Datatypes in RPR-FOM 2.0.............................................................. 26
Table 9: Link 11/11B BOM Enumerated Values in RPR-FOM 2.0 ............................................................. 26

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

1. Overview
It has been recognized that there are requirements for simulating Link 11/11B in both DIS and HLA. This
document describes DIS and HLA definitions, guidance, and standardization required for this purpose.

For the DIS implementation, Link 11/11B messages are described in terms of the established DIS
Transmitter and Signal Protocol Data Units (PDUs). There is no change to the IEEE 1278.1 – 1995
standard fields for the Transmitter or Signal PDUs. Link 11/11B specific enumerations have been created
to populate the standard fields. The implementation of Link 11/11B will take advantage of the fact that
both these PDUs are variable length. In the case of the Transmitter PDUs, this protocol sets forth how the
variable length “modulation parameter” fields will be populated. In the case of the Signal PDU, Link
11/11B specific information is relegated to the variable length data fields.

For the HLA implementation, Link 11/11B messages are described in terms of HLA instructions formatted
in compliance with the IEEE 1516 standard. These instructions are presented in the fo rm of a Base
Object Model (BOM) that may be incorporated into a system FOM. RPR -FOM based simulations should
be able to easily integrate the Link 11/11B BOM into their FOMs. Furthermore, there is a straightforward
mapping between the DIS PDU implementations and the corresponding BOM components.

1.1. Scope

This standard applies to Link 11/11B and includes Link 11B over SATCOM. In developing a protocol for
simulating Link 11/11B in Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS) and High Level Architecture (HLA), it is
recognized that there are widely varying requirements for achieving fidelity among different users. This
protocol attempts to establish procedures that may be used by the vast majority of users, by establishing
discrete, scalable, interoperable levels of fidelity for different users. This, in turn, allows for low cost initial
implementation with a path toward upgrading to detailed Link 11/11B emulation as requirements evolve.
The DIS simulation protocol for Link 11/11B is described in terms of the establis hed DIS Transmitter and
Signal Protocol Data Units (PDUs). There has been no change to the Transmitter or Signal PDUs
described in Reference 1. Link 11/11B specific enumerations have been created to populate the standard
fields and records. The implementation of Link 11/11B exploits the fact that both these PDUs are variable
length. In the case of the Transmitter PDUs, this protocol sets forth how the variable length “modulation
parameter” fields must be populated. In the case of the Signal PDU, Link 11/11 B specific information is
relegated to the variable length data fields. The HLA instructions are formatted in compliance with
Reference. 2. The instructions are presented in the form of a Base Object Model (BOM) that may be
incorporated into a system Federation Object Model (FOM). Real-time Platform Reference (RPR)-FOM
based simulations should be able to easily integrate the Link 11/11B BOM into their FOMs. Furthermore,
there is a straightforward mapping between the DIS PDU implementations and the corresp onding BOM
components.

1.2. Purpose

There are immediate operational requirements for existing military simulations to exchange Link 11/11B
data using a single interoperable standard. As military distributed simulation evolves further in mission
scale and complexity, tactical datalink implementations need to interoperate, not only within a single
tactical data link, but with multiple data links on one or several networks. This protocol provides the
guidance to simulate Link 11/11B and interoperate with other simulated tactical data links on one network.

1.3. Objectives

It is the objective of this protocol to establish a standard for Link 11/11B message exchange and network
simulation in the DIS and HLA interoperability frameworks. The intent is to prescribe the co ntent of the
standard fields of the Transmitter and Signal PDUs (and the corresponding RPR -FOM Transmitter Object
and Signal Interaction) and establish procedures for their use. Compliance with these procedures will
facilitate interoperability among Link 11/11B simulation systems.

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

2. References (Normative)
2.1. SISO References

# Document Number Title Date


1. IEEE 1278.1A–2012 IEEE Standard for Distributed Interactive Simulation –
Application Protocols
2. IEEE 1516–2000 IEEE Standard for Modeling and Simulation (M&S)
High Level Architecture (HLA)

3. SISO-STD-001--1999 Real-time Platform Reference Federation Object 14 Sep 1999


Model, Version 1.0
4. RPR-FOM 2.0 Draft 17 Real-time Platform Reference Federation Object 10 Sep 2003
Model, Version 2.0, Draft 17
5. SISO-STD-003-2006 Base Object Model (BOM) Template Specification 8 May 2006

2.2. Other References

# Document Number Title Date


6. MIL-STD-6011C Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL) A/B Message 1 Aug 2002
Standard
7. MIL-STD-6011C Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL) A/B Message 1 Aug 2002
Standard
8. NATO STANAG 5602, Standard Interface for Multiple Platform Link Ratified Aug
edition 2 Evaluation (SIMPLE) 05

9. MIL-STD-188-203-1A Interoperability and Performance Standards for 8 Jan 1988


Tactical Digital Information Link TADIL A,

10. Time Synchronization Server www.ntp.org

3. Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations


3.1. Definitions

Term Definition
Acknowledge The act of notifying a unit transmitting a message that the message has been
received as a valid message.
Active Status An interface unit received over Link 11/11B may be considered active if its
M.1 has been received within the last 60 seconds. On Link 11B, a directly
tied unit is considered active upon proper initialization of a point -to-point link
and an M.0 has been received within the last 60 seconds. On Link 11B, a
unit that is not directly tied is considered active when an appropriate M.5 has
been received.
Address A number applied to a Participating Unit (PU) or Reporting Unit (RU) to
associate information and directives with interface units or tracks for both
digital and voice communications
Conventional Link A Doppler frequency shift correction at ±75 Hz and tracking at 3.5 Hz on a
Eleven Waveform 605 Hz pilot tone independent sideband operation per MIL-STD-203-1A.
(CLEW)
Data Link Reference The DLRP is a fixed geographic reference point, specified by appropriate
Point (DLRP) authority, from which the PU on Link 11/11B can calculate the relative
position of ownship and local tracks, and from which all tracks are reported on
Link 11/11B

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Data Net Control Station The participating unit performing the initiation and termination of the data net
(DNCS) and controlling the order in which units are called.
Fidelity Level In terms of this standard, a fidelity level is a measure of the level of
functionality of the implementation of the Link 11/11B Simulation Standard.
This allows for a standard nomenclature to be used within the community to
describe the functionality of implementations of this standard. See section
5.1.2 for additional information and Table 1: Link 11/11B Levels of Fidelity
for definitions of fidelity levels in this standard.
Force Track Coordinator A representative of the Anti Air Warfare Commander (AAWC) who is
(FTC) responsible for management of force tracking.
Forwarding Participating A FPU is a PU that is forwarding Link 11 data between two or more RUs.
Unit (FPU)
Forwarding Reporting A FRU is a RU that is forwarding data between two or more RUs.
Unit (FRU)
Frame: A 30 bit word consisting of 24 data bits and 6 Hamming Error Detection and
Correction (EDAC) bits.
Inactive Status An interface unit received over Link 11 may be considered to be inactive after
60 seconds have gone by without the receipt of an M.1 or if a Drop Track
message has been received for that unit. An interface unit received over Link
11B may be considered inactive if (1) it is a directly tied unit and no M.0 has
been received for 60 seconds; or (2) a Drop Track message is received for
that unit; or (3) the unit is being received over a data link for which the directly
tied unit goes inactive.
Lateral Tell The process of sharing or telling information between the Link 11/11B TADIL
System and the Joint Surveillance System.
Link 11/11B See TADIL.
Live Encrypted Data An external encryption device is used to capture and encrypt Link 11/11B
data, which can be sent in its raw encrypted format. This is to support
interoperability between live encryption devices and Link 11/11B simulations.
Metering A control of data transmission rates to match real world Link 11/11B network
constraints.
Net Control Station A Link 11/11B station which acts as the interrogating station during Roll Call.
(NCS)
Net Cycle Time The length of time between reporting opportunities, as measured by each PU.
Net Sync (NS)
A Link 11/11B net mode of operation for synchronizing all stations that are on
the link. It consists of the continuous broadcast of preambles.

Net Test (NT)


A Link 11/11B net mode of operation where control codes are generated and
transmitted by the data terminal. The sequence of receive codes can be
compared with a locally generated sequence to determine whether
information is being received on all channels.

Participating Unit (PU)


A unit operating in a Link 11 net in any mode of operation.

Picket (PK) A PU on the Link 11/11B network that is not the NCS.
Reporting Unit (RU) A unit operating in a Link 11B network.
Roll Call (RC) A Link 11/11B mode of operation, where the NCS calls each participating unit
in turn to transmit data, while all other units receive the data.
ROLL_CALL_TIMEOUT A period of time defined by the number of frames that the NCS will delay

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

before re-polling a picket. The timeout period depends on the two network
net speeds: 13.33 ms and 22 ms. The default network net speed is 13.33 ms.
The timeout period for the default is 45 frames of 13.33 ms (if network baud
rate is 2250 bps) or 22 ms (if network baud rate is 1364 bps).
Single Tone Link Eleven Disburses data bit errors uniformly utilizing data interleaving and employs Full
Waveform (SLEW) Tail Biting Convolutional Block ("FTBCB") encoding. This greater Electronic
Countermeasures (ECM) resistance provides a data rate of 1800 bps. SLEW
mode always uses the 2250 bps baud rate
Tactical Digital Employs netted communication techniques and a standard message format,
Information Link (TADIL) the M-series messages, for exchanging digital information among airborne,
land-based, and shipboard tactical data systems.
Transmission Control Modeling the rules of transmission in compliance to the Link 11 modes of
operation, i.e. Roll Call, Short Broadcast and Broadcast.

3.2. Acronyms and Abbreviations

Acronym or
Abbreviation Meaning
AAWC Anti Air Warfare Commander
BOM Base Object Model
C2 Command and Control
Command, Control, Communications, and
C4ISR Computers Intelligence Surveillance
Reconnaissance
CLEW Conventional Link Eleven Waveform
DIS Distributed Interactive Simulation
DLRP Data Link Reference Point
DNCS Data Net Control Station
ECM Electronic Countermeasures
EDAC Error Detection and Correction
FOM Federation Object Model
FPU Forwarding Participating Unit
FRU Forwarding Reporting Unit
FTC Force Track Coordinator
HF High Frequency
HLA High Level Architecture
IAW In Accordance With
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
MIL STD Military Standard
NCS Net Control Station
NS Net Sync
NSA National Security Agency
NT Net Test
OMT Object Model Template
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PK Picket
PU Participating Unit
RC Roll Call
RPR Real Time Platform
RTI Run Time Infrastructure
RU Reporting Unit
SLEW Single Tone Link Eleven Waveform

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Simulation Interoperability Standards


SISO
Organization
TADIL Tactical Digital Information Link
TDL Tactical Data Link
USA United States Army
USAF United States Air Force
UHF Ultra-High-Frequency
USMC United States Marine Corps
XML Extensible Markup Language
4. Requirements
4.1. Link 11/11B OPERATING characteristics
Link 11/11B encompasses two types of Tactical Digital Information Link (TADIL): Link 11 and Link 11B,
otherwise known as TADIL A and TADIL B.

Link 11 employs netted communication techniques and standard message formats for the exchange of
digital information among airborne, land-based, submarine, and shipboard tactical data systems. It
provides for the mutual exchange of information among net participants via High Frequency (HF) or Ultra -
High-Frequency (UHF) radio. Link 11 is a half-duplex, netted, secure link that operates in a Roll Call
mode among all Participating Units (PUs), under the control of a Net Control Station (NCS) . In Roll Call,
pickets are polled sequentially and respond with their Link-11 messages.

Link 11B is a full-duplex, two-way, point-to-point link that provides for the serial transfer of data between
units of the U.S. Army (USA), U.S. Air Force (USAF), U.S. Marine Corps (USMC), and the United States
National Security Agency (NSA). Its participants are referred to as Reporting Units (RUs). Because it is
point-to-point, each pair of RUs operates on a separate Link 11B channel, often referred to as a “B -Link.”
Data is forwarded among the RU pairs by Forwarding RUs (FRUs). Link 11B employs the same message
standard as Link 11. However, the equipment, some message protocols, and the data rate are different
from those of Link 11, thus requiring special forwarding units to interface with Link 11 and Link 11B.
TADIL B is not employed directly by Naval or Allied units.

Because Link 11 and Link 11B employ the same message standard and have virtually identical
operational capabilities, they are often referred to together as Link 11/11B . An interface between them is
provided by a Forwarding Participating Unit (FPU) and, from an operational standpoint, they may be
viewed as a single Link.

Operations involving only Link 11 and Link 11B are referred to as Link 11/11B operations. These are fully
described in MIL- STD-6011C [Ref (1)].

4.1.1. General Requirements


This section describes general requirements for simulation of Link 11/11B independent of the simulation
protocol used. The specific implementation under DIS is described in section 5.2. The specific
requirements for implementation under HLA are described in section 5.3. The level of fidelity of
simulation is indicated by the Fidelity mode. Table 1 describes each of the Fidelity modes.

1. Simulators in compliance with this standard shall at a minimum have the capability to identify the PU
number of transmitted data for all fidelity levels.

2. All Link 11/11B messages shall be bit encoded in accordance with the MIL-STD-6011C [Ref (1)]
Tactical Data Link 11/11B specification. In the specification, the Link 11 message consists of two 30-
bit frames. Each frame contains 24 bits of data along with 6 Hamming Error Detection and Correction
(EDAC) bits. The Link 11B message consists of 72 bits, containing eight groups of 9 bits each. The
start group uses 9 bits, but is not included in real world Link 11B messages. The check group uses 9
bits while each of the six data groups uses 1 bit each to precede the 8 information bits . The first 4
bits of the Link 11/11B tactical message contain the message label. The rest of the bits are defined
by size and description fields specific to the message, for a total of 48 bits of tactical information.

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

3. The NCS shall at a minimum, have the capability to transmit Roll Call messages.

4. The default ROLL_CALL_TIMEOUT time is 45 frames of 13.3333 ms duration. Simulations shall


have the capability to change this parameter as required.

5. Systems shall transmit data upon receipt of a Roll Call message from the NCS. During the
remainder of the time, the PU shall receive reports from other members.

6. The types of transmissions that shall occur during Roll Call are NCS Call Up (Interrogation), Picket
Reply, and the NCS report.

7. The Short Broadcast shall be a single data transmission to all members of the net by a station that
may be acting as a Picket Unit or NCS.

8. The Broadcast net mode shall consist of a continuous series of Short Broadcast messages contained
in one Signal message.

9. For Broadcast Mode, to simulate the two frames of dead time required, each Signal PDU shall
contain the series of Short Broadcast messages; wait for a period of two updates as defined in IEEE
1278.1-1995 [Ref (2)], then shall transmit another Signal PDU containing a series of Short Broadcast
messages, then shall send a Transmitter PDU indicating Broadcast message end. For HLA, the
message transmission shall pause for a time that is defined as dead time.

10. All systems shall have some representation of periodic clock time.

11. Roll Call timeout from MIL-STD-188-203-1A [Ref (6)], paragraph 5.1.6.1.1 shall be established and
entered into the NCS for PU response times and dead time.

4.1.2. Levels of Fidelity


This protocol allows simulations to achieve different levels of fidelity by assigning three fidelity levels. If
the simulator allows for a settable level of fidelity, the level of fidelity shall be set at runtime. The Fidelity
level shall be set in Link 11/11B Transmitter PDU Modulation Parameter #2 and HLA enumeration
parameter table with an enumeration of 0, 1, or 2 as described below.
Table 1: Link 11/11B Levels of Fidelity
Fidelity Fidelity Network Fidelity Issues Recommended Usage
Level
0 Low Low Does not emulate Link Message exchange only.
11/11B network
characteristics. Data rates
are not constrained.
Intended for legacy use.
1 Low Low Emulates some Link Message exchange plus Link
11/11B network 11/11B data rate modeling
characteristics
2 Medium Medium Emulates most Link Allows for Roll call, Polling, and
11/11B network NCS control. All Link 11/11B
characteristics. Sensitive network protocol rules are in
to network and application effect. Message timeouts are set
latencies. to reasonable times.

4.1.2.1. Fidelity Level Description

4.1.2.1.1 Fidelity Level 0, Low Fidelity


Fidelity Level 0 is the lowest level of fidelity, and allows for Link 11/11B message exchange only. Multiple
messages may be provided in a single Signal PDU message. All data within the signal message shall be
from the same PU or RU. There is no message metering or transmission control modeling, and the

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

maximum number of messages (as specified in the DIS standard) can be packed into the data area of a
single signal message. The following information is provided at this fidelity level:

 All Transmitter PDU Modulation parameters

 Picket Number

 Sequence Number

 Link 11 message

4.1.2.1.2 Fidelity Level 1, Low Fidelity


Fidelity Level 1 is the next level of fidelity and incorporates modeling of Link 11/11B transmission control.
Fidelity Level 0 defined information is provided plus:

 Mode of Operation

 Word Count

 Message Type Identifier

4.1.2.1.3 Fidelity Level 2, Medium Fidelity


Fidelity Level 2 incorporates most Link 11/11B network modeling. When the Fidelity level is set to two, all
Signal PDU fields shall be filled in with meaningful data. All Link 11/11B network transmission rules shall
be followed in accordance with MIL-STD-6011C [Ref (1)]. Multiple messages are permitted in a single
Signal PDU message, but must be from the same PU or RU. Fidelity Level 1 defined information is
provided plus:

 Message Sub Type

 Net Cycle Time

 Baud Rate

 Integration Interval

 Waveform

4.1.2.2. Communication between Link 11/11B Units with Different Fidelity Levels
In the event that participants in a simulated Link 11/11B network cannot set their respective simulations to
operate at a common level of fidelity (i.e. Fidelity Level) the following procedures apply:

1. No NCS is required in a Fidelity Level 0 network. For all Fidelity Level 0 participants, no roll call or
roll call response is necessary. All messages can be sent at any time from Fidelity Level 0
participants. Fidelity Level 0, 1, and 2 participants shall have the ability to accept Fidelity Level 0
messages at any time, and shall buffer these messages as necessary.

2. If a Fidelity Level 1 PU is in a simulated Link 11/11B network with a Fidelity Level 2 NCS, the level 1
network participant shall respond to a Roll Call or Polling message from the Fidelity Level 2 NCS.
The NCS shall have the ability to accept short broadcast or broadcast messages at any time from the
Fidelity Level 0 or 1 PU, and buffer these messages as required.

3. If a Fidelity Level 2 PU is in a simulated Link 11/11B network with a Fidelity Level 1 NCS, it shall
respond to a Roll Call from the Fidelity Level 1 NCS. The Fidelity Level 1 NCS shall have the ability
to respond to all level Fidelity Level 2 PUs. The Fidelity Level 1 NCS is not required to process all
Signal PDU fields from Fidelity Level 2 PUs, and the Fidelity Level 2 PUs shall accept all Fidelity
Level 1 NCS messages.

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

4. A Fidelity Level 1 PU entering the Link 11/11B net shall transmit a Roll Call message and set the
Transmitter PDU Mode of Operation field to the appropriate enumeration. It will then issue short
broadcast or broadcast messages at the assigned rate.

5. In Fidelity Level 1 or Level 2 simulation networks, non-reception of a polling message from any PU for
60 seconds shall indicate that the unit has fallen out of the datalink.

4.1.2.3. Link 11/11B Fidelity Level 0 Operation


Fidelity Level 0 operations are applicable to simulation systems interested primarily in providing Link
11/11B message exchange only. The Fidelity Level 0 operational procedures allow these participants to
exchange Link 11/11B messages without being encumbered by actual Link 11/11B message exchange
requirements.

1. No NCS or other link 11/11B network modeling is required. All Fidelity Level 0 participants shall have
the ability to accept Link 11/11B messages at any time from any fidelity level, and shall buffer these
messages as necessary.

2. Any Fidelity Level 0 participants may transmit Link 11/11B messages at any time.

4.1.2.4. Link 11/11B Fidelity Level 1 Operation


Fidelity Level 1 operations are applicable to simulation systems interested primarily in providing some
Link 11/11B network parameters as part of an operational scenario.

1. It is assumed that the NCS knows all of the Pickets in the network.

2. There is no requirement for the NCS to transmit Roll Call messages, nor is there any requirement for
the Pickets in the network to send a Picket reply indicating there is no data to be sent.

3. The NCS shall model the net cycle time based on the number of Pickets and estimated number of
messages. It shall set the net cycle time field with this value.

4. The NCS and all Pickets shall use the net cycle time to determine the interval between transmission s
of Link 11/11B messages in Roll Call mode. The NCS and other Pickets shall have the capability to
receive Link 11/11B messages at any time from Fidelity Level 0 participants, and shall buffer these
messages as necessary.

4.1.2.5. Link 11/11B Fidelity Level 2 Operation


Fidelity Level 2 operations are applicable to simulation systems interested in providing Link 11/11B
network parameters in the Signal PDU as part of an operational scenario. The Fidelity Level 2
operational procedures allow such systems to exchange Link 11/11B and simulate the Link 11/11B
network as well.

1. The NCS shall begin by issuing Roll call messages at a rate in accordance with the Link 11/11B
terminal specification, and as described below:

SISO field Data


Msg type ROLLCALL
Sub type Interrogate
Picket nb PU that is polled
Msg Data No data

2. All Fidelity Level 2 Link 11/11B Picket shall automatically, with minimal delay, answer to the poll by
broadcasting all appropriate Link 11/11B data shown below:

SISO field Data


Msg type Picket Reply

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Sub type Start code


Picket nb PU nb
Msg Data Data (if ready)

3. If a Picket receives a Roll Call message from the NCS, the first Signal message sent shall contain
the message subtype set to “start code”. The last Signal message sent shall contain the message
type “stop code”. Any Signal messages sent between them shall have the message subtype set to
“intermediate”. The minimum response to a Roll Call message is a start code message and a stop
code message in the Signal message.

4. If a Picket does not answer its call within the ROLL_CALL_TIMEOUT period, it shall be considered
that the Picket did not receive the poll, and the NCS shall poll the Picket a second time. If the Picket
already answered the first poll, the second poll shall be ignored. If the Picket still does not respond,
the NCS shall poll the next Picket in the sequence.

5. Once all Fidelity Level 2 Pickets have responded to the Roll Call message, the net cycle is
considered complete. The NCS shall keep record of the net cycle time, and fill in the Net Cycle Time
parameter. The following formula shall be used to compute the Net Cycle Time:

Net Cycle_time = [current NCS transmission time – previous NCS transmission time]; in units of
frames.

If the NCS requires the time to wait before polling the next PU, the following formula shall be
used:

Tx_time = [Callup + 5 frames of wait time + PU reply] / Net Speed

Where

Callup = 8 Frames. For fast mode, Callup = 106.6664 msec. For slow mode, Callup = 176 msec
For fast mode, 5 frames Wait time = 66.6665 msec. For slow mode, 5 frames Wait time =110
msec

PU Reply = (10 frames + data frames).

Net Speed = 75 frames/sec for fast speed and 45.4545454 frames/sec for slow speed .

Therefore, for PU reply and all other messages;

tx_time = [23 frames + 2 * nb_msg] / net speed;

Where nb_msg = number of messages of PU reply, or number of data messages.

Typical transmission (Tx) times are shown below:

Phase Number of frames FAST mode Tx time SLOW mode Tx time


Roll Call 8 107 ms 176 ms
Picket reply 16 (minimum) 214 ms 352 ms
NCS report 18 (minimum) 240 ms 396 ms
NCS wait time before 16 (maximum) 214 ms 352 ms
recalling a Picket 10 133 ms 220 ms
5 67 ms 110 ms

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

6. The NCS shall then report its own information. Once the NCS has broadcast its own information,
each Picket shall broadcast link data in accordance with MIL-STD-6011C [Ref (1)].

7. For NCS and other Pickets at different fidelity levels, a gateway may be required to adequately
receive and buffer Link 11/11B messages at any time from Fidelity Level 0 or 1 participants.

4.1.3. Communication between Link 11 and Link 11B Units


Communication between Link 11 and Link 11B units shall follow the procedures listed in MIL-STD-6011C
[Ref (1)].
4.2. Link 11/11B implementation under DIS
This section contains the requirements for simulation of Link 11/11B using the DIS Signal and Transmitter
PDUs. For the DIS Protocol Profiles, transmission and receipt of PDUs, and general service
requirements, refer to the IEEE Standard 1278.1-1995 [Ref (2)].

In implementing the Signal and Transmitter PDUs, link data should be able to be sent on a configurable
port separate from all other DIS data. This allows data links to be selectively routed without additional
hardware. This also allows for gateways to forward data between legacy DIS data link formats and the
new standardized format.

Transmitter/Signal/Transmitter PDU wraps shall be sent for Roll Call and Short Broadcast messages.
Transmitter PDUs shall be required for the first Broadcast Signal PDU. Subsequent Transmitter PDUs
from the same PU are not required, until the end, where another Transmitter PDU shall be sent to be in
compliance with IEEE 1278.1-1995 [Ref (2)].

4.2.1. Transmitter PDU Description

Table 2 shows the format for the Transmitter PDU for Link 11/11B simulation. The Transmitter PDU
includes all standard fields as described in IEEE Standard 1278.1-1995 [Ref (2)]. When used for Link
11/11B simulation the following specific information is required.

1. Entity ID. In Accordance With (IAW) clause 4.5.7.1 d) of IEEE Standard 1278.1-1995 [Ref (2)], this
field shall correspond to an entity active in the exercise. An entity is considered active if the time
since last receipt of the entity’s Entity State PDU has not exceeded HRT_BEAT_TIMER multiplied by
HRT_BEAT_MPLIER.
2. Radio ID. This field shall contain the ID of the radio transmitting the signal. Radio ID numbering
starts at one.
3. Radio Entity Type Category. This field shall be set to 22 for Link 11, 23 for Link 11B.
4. The Input Source field shall be set to 8 for Digital Data Device.
5. Frequency. This field shall specify the center frequency of 4000000 Hz for Link 11. For Link 11B,
this field shall be set to zero.
6. Transmit Frequency Bandwidth. This field shall be set to 28000 Hz for Link 11 HF, 175000 Hz for
Link 11 UHF, 4000 Hz for Link 11B, and 25000 Hz for Link 11 SATCOM.
7. Modulation Type. The Modulation Type fields contain enumerations for the spread spectrum, major,
detail, and system modulation fields:
a. The Spread Spectrum field is a 16-bit Boolean array, and shall be set to zero for no frequency
hopping.
b. The Major modulation field is a 16-bit enumeration, and shall be set to 1 for Link 11 Amplitude
Modulation, and zero for Link 11B - other.
c. The detail modulation field is a 16-bit enumeration, and shall be set to:
a. 0 – Link 11B
b. 5 – Independent Side Band
c. 6 – Lower Side Band
d. 9 – Upper Side Band
e. 11 - SATCOM
d. The System field is a 16-bit enumeration, and shall be set to 9 for Link 11, and 10 for Link 11B

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8. Crypto System. For Link 11, this field shall be set to 10 for KG-40A-P (NTDS) and 11 for KG-40A-S;
for Link 11B, this field shall be set to 11 for KG-40A-S.
9. Crypto Key ID. For Link 11/11B simulation under this standard , this 16 bit encrypted field shall
identify the Link 11/11B crypto mode and crypto key used. The first four Least Significant Bits (LSB)
shall indicate the crypto mode, and are defined as 0 = Clear/Plain; 1 = A1; 2 = A2; 3 = B, and 4 =
POFA, 5 = Live Encryption Device Used. The last twelve bits shall indicate the crypto key and shall
be used as required. For Live Encryption Device Used, it is anticipated that the last twelve bits will be
used as real encryption key management, which is outside the scope of this standard.
10. Length of Modulation Parameters. This field shall specify the length in octets of the modulation
parameters that follow this field. This length shall be set to 8, representing 8 octets for the DIS
Transmitter PDU.
11. Modulation Parameters. These fields shall specify the modulation type specific characteristics of the
Link 11/11B portion of the Transmitter PDU, and are highlighted in yellow.
a. Participant Unit shall contain the PU number of the transmitted information in the DTS.
b. Fidelity Level shall contain the Fidelity Level of the Link 11/11B simulation, and shall be set
to zero for Fidelity Level zero, 1 for Fidelity 1, and 2 for Fidelity Level 2.
c. Terminal Mode indicator shall identify the specific Terminal, and shall be set to 0 for no
statement, 1 for Link 11 and 2 for Link 11B.
d. Data Terminal Set Indicator shall contain the state the Link 11/11B terminal is in, and shall
be set to the following enumerations: 0 = No Statement, 1 = Transmit, 2 = Receive, 3 = Net
Busy, 4 = Transmit Data Error, 5 = Receive Data Error, 6 = Code Error, 7 = Synchronization
Complete.
e. Mode of Operation shall contain the Link 11/11B terminal operation mode with the following
enumerations: 0 = No Statement, 1 = Net Sync, 2 = Net Test, 3 = Roll Call, 4 = Short
Broadcast, 5 = Broadcast.
f. Net Cycle Time: This 16 bit unsigned integer field shall contain the time in seconds required
for the NCS to complete a polling sequence of all PUs. This field shall be filled in by only the
NCS. For fidelity level 0 and non NCS units, this field shall be set to 0.

Table 2: Transmitter PDU for Link 11/11B


Field Size
Transmitter PDU Fields
(bits)
Protocol Version 8 bit enumeration
Exercise ID 8 bit unsigned integer
PDU Type 8 bit enumeration
Protocol Family 8 bit enumeration
96 PDU Header Timestamp 32 bit unsigned integer
Length 16 bit unsigned integer
Status 8 bit enumeration
Padding 8 bit unused

Site 16 bit unsigned integer


48 Entity ID Application 16 bit unsigned integer
Entity 16 bit unsigned integer
16 Radio ID 16 bit unsigned integer
Entity Kind 8 bit enumeration
Domain 8 bit enumeration
Country 16 bit enumeration
64 Radio Entity Type
Category 8 bit enumeration
Nomenclature Version 8 bit enumeration
Nomenclature 16 bit enumeration
8 Transmit State 8 bit enumeration

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

8 Input Source 8 bit enumeration


16 Padding 16 bits unused
X component 64 bit floating point
192 Antenna Location Y component 64 bit floating point
Z component 64 bit floating point
x component 32 bit floating point
96 Relative Antenna Location y component 32 bit floating point
z component 32 bit floating point
16 Antenna Pattern Type 16 bit enumeration
16 Antenna Pattern Length 16 bit unsigned integer
64 Frequency 64 bit unsigned integer
32 Transmit Frequency Bandwidth 32 bit floating point
32 Power 32 bit floating point
Spread Spectrum 16 bit Boolean array
Major 16 bit enumeration
64 Modulation Type
Detail 16 bit enumeration

System 16 bit enumeration


16 Crypto System 16 bit enumeration
16 Crypto Key ID L11 crypto key 16 bit unsigned integer
8 Length of Modulation Parameters 8 bit unsigned integer
24 Padding 24 bits unused
8 Modulation Parameter 1 Participant Unit 8 bit unsigned integer
8 Modulation Parameter 2 Fidelity Level 8 bit enumeration
8 Modulation Parameter 3 Link 11/11B Terminal Mode 8 bit enumeration
8 Modulation Parameter 4 Data Terminal Set Indicator 8 bit enumeration
16 Modulation Parameter 5 Modes of Operation 16 bit enumeration
16 Modulation Parameter 6 Net Cycle Time 16 bit unsigned integer

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

4.2.2. Signal PDU Description


Table 3 below shows the format for the Signal PDU. The Signal PDU includes all standard fields as
described in IEEE Standard 1278.1-1995 [Ref (2)]. When used for Link 11/11B simulation the following
specific information is required.

1. Entity ID. IAW clause 4.5.7.1 d) of IEEE Standard 1278.1-1995 [Ref (2)], this field shall correspond
to an entity active in the exercise. An entity is considered active if the time since last receipt of the
entity’s Entity State PDU has not exceeded HRT_BEAT_TIMER multiplied by HRT_BEAT_MPLIER.
2. Radio ID. This field shall contain the ID of the radio transmitting the signal. Radio ID numbering
starts at one.
3. Encoding scheme. Bits 0-13 shall contain the number of Link 11/11B messages. For live encrypted
data, bits 0 – 13 shall be set to zero. Bits 14-15 shall contain the value 1 to indicate an encoding
class of raw binary data.
4. TDL Type. This field shall specify the TDL type as a 16-bit enumeration field, and shall be set to 4
for Link 11B, and 8 for Link 11.
5. Sample Rate. This field shall be set to zero for Link 11. For Link 11B, this field shall be set to 600,
1200, or 2400.
6. Data Length. This field shall contain the length of data in bits beginning after the samples field.
7. Link 11/11B Signal PDU Fields. The Link 11/11B Network header portion of the Signal PDU Data
Fields are highlighted in yellow, and shall be set as follows
a. Message Sub Type: This 8 bit enumeration field specifies the Link 11/11B message type,
and shall identify the following sub message types: 0=no statement, 1=Preamble, 2=Phase
Reference, 3=Interrogate Message, 4=Start Code, 5=Picket Stop Code, 6=Control Stop
Code, 7=intermediate (data). For Fidelity Levels 0 and 1, set to 0 for “no statement”.
b. Participating Unit: This 8 bit unsigned integer field shall contain the Participating Unit Source
Number of any Link 11/11B unit in the DTS in any mode of operation. For Interrogate
Messages, the PU is the identification of the unit being polled. For all other Sub -Types, the
PU Number reflects the originating Participating Unit.
c. Sequence Number: This 8 bit unsigned integer field is a PDU counter that each NCS/PKT
DTS increments for every Link 11/11B Signal PDU generated. This field shall start at zero
for each transmission cycle. This shall be used at the NTDS application to determine
transmit/receive of Link-11/11B messages and monitoring of any missing data. In the event
of missing data the operator would be notified, but the current data shall be delivered as
usual. Upon reaching a value of 255 the counter shall roll over back to zero on the next
message transmitted.
d. Message Type Identifier: This 8 bit enumeration field shall identify the Link 11/11B Message:
0=no statement, 1=Net Test, 2=Roll Call, 3=Picket Reply, 4=Short Broadcast, 5= Broadcast,
6 = Net Sync message type. For Fidelity Level 0, set to 0, for “no statement”.
e. Baud Rate. This 8 bit enumeration field shall identify the baud rate of the Link 11B
transmission. 0=no statement, 1 = 1364bps, 2 = 2250bps, 3 = 1200 bps, and 4 = 2400 bps.
For Link 11 and Fidelity Levels 0 and 1, set to 0 indicating “no statement”.
f. Signal Integration interval. This 8 bit enumeration field shall identify the integration interval
for the Link 11/11B network. 0=no statement, 1 = 9 ms, 2 = 18 ms. For Fidelity Levels 0 and
1, set to 0 indicating “no statement”.
g. Signal Waveform. This 8 bit enumeration field shall identify the Link 11 waveform, 0=no
statement, 1 = Conventional Link Eleven waveform (CLEW), and 2 = Single tone Link Eleve n
waveform (SLEW). For Link 11B and Fidelity Levels 0 and 1, set to 0 indicating “no
statement”.
h. Encryption Flag. This 8 bit enumeration field shall identify if the Link 11/11B data is
encrypted, 0 = no encryption used, and 1 = encryption used.
i. Message Data. The Link 11/11B message data shall follow the Signal PDU fields, and shall
be read in as 32 bit arrays.
j. Padding: Padding shall be added (if needed) to increase total PDU size to a multiple of 32
bits.

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Table 3: SIGNAL PDU for Link 11/11B


Field
Size Signal PDU Fields
(bits)
Protocol Version 8 bit enumeration
Exercise ID 8 bit unsigned integer
PDU Type 8 bit enumeration
96 PDU Header Protocol Family 8 bit enumeration
Timestamp 32 bit unsigned integer
Length 16 bit unsigned integer
Padding 16 bits unused
Site 16 bit unsigned integer
48 Entity ID Application 16 bit unsigned integer
Entity 16 bit unsigned integer
16 Radio ID 16 bit unsigned integer
16 Encoding Scheme 16 bit enumeration
16 TDL Type 16 bit enumeration
32 Sample Rate 32 bit integer
16 Data Length 16 bit integer
16 Samples 16 bit integer
Message Sub Type 8 bit enumeration
Participating Unit Number 8 bit unsigned integer
Sequence Number 8 bit unsigned integer
Message Type Identifier 8 bit enumeration
Padding 32 bits unused
Link 11/11B
160 Baud Rate 8 bit enumeration
Signal PDU Fields
Signal Integration interval 8 bit enumeration
Signal Waveform 8 bit enumeration
Encryption Flag 8 bit enumeration
Padding 64 bits unused
Message Data Array of 32 bit integers
Link 11 Message Format
31 30 29 24 23 0
EDAC Frame A: 24 Bit Tactical Data
31 30 29 24 23 0
EDAC Frame B: 24 Bit Tactical Data
Link 11B Message Format

31 24 23 16 15 8 7 0
Data Group 4 Data Group 3 Data Group 2 Data Group 1
31 24 23 16 15 8 7 0
Padding Check Group Data Group 6 Data Group 5

Signal PDU
Padding to
Padding (if needed) to increase total PDU size to a
Padding doubleword
multiple of 32 bits.
boundary
IAW Ref. 2

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

4.3. Implementation of Link 11/11B under HLA

Link 11/11B TDL simulations are almost always part of a wider simulation - such simulations are used for
many purposes including system development, test & evaluation and training . It is therefore almost
certain that the HLA implementation of the Link 11/11B protocol will form part of a larger Federation
Object Model (FOM). The HLA implementation of Link 11/11B is therefore defined as a Base Object
Model (BOM), as described in the SISO BOM Standard (SISO-STD-003-2006) (Ref [9]). A BOM is
defined as "a single aspect of simulation interplay that can be used as a building block" within a FOM.

The Link 11/11B BOM is described in the Object Model Template (OMT) in the XML based IEEE 1516
OMT format. At the time of writing this standard many federations still use the older HLA 1.3 standards,
so the Link 11/11B BOM is also described in OMT 1.3 format. To facilitate implementation, two versions
of the BOM have been created. The file Link11/11B-BOM.omd contains the HLA 1.3 OMT tables. These
tables are reproduced in Annex A of this standard. A second file, link11/11B_bom.xml, complies with the
OMT XML format found in IEEE 1516–2000 IEEE Standard [Ref (3)]. Both files, as well as the complete
OMT tables may be found at the SISO web site (http://www.sisostds.org).

4.3.1. The Link 11/11B BOM


The Link 11/11B BOM is intended to describe how to implement a simulation of the Link 11/11B Tactical
Data Link (TDL) and its associated M series message set within a High Level Architecture (HLA)
simulation. The Link 11/11B BOM is designed for integration within the Federation Object Model (FOM)
of the HLA federation.

4.3.1.1. Assumptions
The Link 11/11B BOM assumes that:

1. The parent FOM contains all current DIS Transmitter PDU records (not those associated with the
PDU header) in accordance with IEEE 1278.1–1995 IEEE Standard [Ref (2)] as part of its object class
hierarchy.
2. The parent FOM contains all current DIS Signal PDU records (not those associated with the PDU
header) in accordance with IEEE 1278.1–1995 IEEE Standard [Ref (2)] as part of its interaction class
hierarchy.

4.3.1.2. Naming Convention


Conventions within the Link 11/11B BOM in OMT 1.3 format follow those adopted by RPR FOM versions
1.0 and 2.0. These conventions are intended to address some of the OMT 1.3 format shortcomings,
which have been addressed in the IEEE 1516.2 specification. These include:

1. All names have the initial letter of each word capitalized.


2. All enumeration names end in the text "Enum" followed by a number. The number indicates the
number of bits in the enumerated value.
3. All complex data type names end in the text "Struct".

4.3.2. Levels of Fidelity


The HLA levels of fidelity are directly equivalent to the corresponding DIS levels of fidelity as defined in
section 5.1.2.

4.3.3. Time Synchronization


For time-managed HLA federations, simulation time shall be used as a time source for all time
references. For non-time managed HLA federations, the HLA time synchronization mechanism is directly
equivalent to the corresponding mechanism for DIS as defined in section 5.1.3.

4.3.4. Protocol Implementation Details (HLA)

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

This section defines how Link 11/11B BOM compliant federates shall implement the Link 11/11B
protocol. The HLA protocol implementation details are directly equivalent to the corresponding details for
DIS as defined in section 5.2.

4.3.4.1. Object Class Data


The Link 11/11B BOM first draft, shown in Appendix A, defines no new object classes. Instead the BOM
defines a single complex data type (Link11TransmitterStruct) that corresponds to the modulation
parameters in the DIS Transmitter PDU defined in section 5.2.1. An attribute of this complex data type
should be added to the object class in the parent FOM corresponding to the DIS Transmitter PDU,
corresponding to assumption 1 in section 5.3.1.1. Modulation parameters of the Transmitter PDU,
described in section 5.2.1 map to the fields of the Link11TransmitterStruct complex data type
attribute, shown in Annex A.5. Parent object class fields should also be modified such that they refer to
the corresponding Transmitter PDU fields (see Assumption 1 in section 5.3.1.1).

NOTE: For a RPR FOM implementation, it is suggested that an attribute of the


Link11TransmitterStruct complex data type should be added to the RadioTransmitter object
class.

4.3.4.2. Interaction Class Data


The Link 11/11B BOM is added to the family of interactions that support TDL implementation of other
datalinks. The Link 11/11B interactions are added to the family of interactions in the BOM’s base class.
The interaction is a generic class - the TDLBinaryRadioSignal interaction. This class is an empty
class, contains no parameters, and is neither publishable nor subscribable . The specific parameters are
properties of the various subclasses of this generic base class, and it is these subclasses that are
published and subscribed to.

The Link11RadioSignal interaction, shown in Appendix A.3, which is a subclass of the


TDLBinaryRadioSignal interaction, contains the Link 11/11B Network Header Parameters as defined
in section 5.2.1. The Link11MessageRadioSignal interaction should be designed to contain the Link
11/11B message data. Additional interactions shown in Appendix B define the other types of Link 11/11B
messages.

The Link 11/11B BOM design is such that the TDLBinaryRadioSignal interaction becomes a subclass
of the parent FOM's equivalent of the DIS Signal PDU (see Assumption 2 in section 5.2.2).

4.3.5. BOM Implementation


The BOM implementation, in OTM 1.3 format, is described in annex A.

4.3.6. Adding the Link 11/11B BOM to the RPR FOM


Adding the Link 11/11B BOM to the RPR FOM consists of three steps: adding the Link 11/11B Radio
Signal interaction, adding the Link11/11BTransmitterData structure, and adding the contents of
table A.5, A.6, A.7, and A.8 in Annex A. Adding the interaction is th e same for both SISO-STD-001—
1999 RPR FOM version 1.0 [Ref (7)] and RPR-FOM 2.0 Draft 17 [Ref (8)]. The manner of adding the
Link11/11BTransmitterData structure differs between the two RPR FOM versions and is described
in sections 4.3.6.1 and 0.

The TDLBinaryRadioSignal class shall be added as a subclass of the RawBinaryRadioSignal


interaction class; this is done in order to allow access to the HostRadioIndex parameter in the
RawBinaryRadioSignal interaction class. The HostRadioIndex parameter ties the Link 11/11B
message to a specific Host and Radio Transmitter.

The Link11/11BRadioSignal interaction class is added as a subclass of a new interaction class, the
TDLBinaryRadioSignal interaction, which itself is a subclass of the RPR FOM's
RawBinaryRadioSignal interaction class as shown in Table 4 below.

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Table 4: Link 11/11B BOM Interactions in the RPR-FOM


Interaction1 Interaction2 Interaction3 Interaction4 Interaction5
RadioSignal ApplicationSpecificRadioSignal
DatabaseIndexRadioSignal
EncodedAudioRadioSignal
RawBinaryRadioSignal TDLBinaryRadioSignal Link11_11BRadioSignal Net Test
Roll Call
Picket Reply
Short Broadcast
Broadcast
Net Sync Msg

NOTES:
a. The addition of the TDLBinaryRadioSignal interaction class and its associated subclasses
was necessary because of the RPR FOM implementation limitations of the DIS Signal PDU.
Section 5.2.2 defines the DIS Signal PDU used for all Link 11/11B messages in a Raw Binary
Signal PDU. The RPR FOM equivalent of this PDU type (the RawBinaryRadioSignal
interaction class) contains a parameter, called SignalData, containing one or more octets in
the signal data. If the SignalData octet based storage scheme to store Link 11/11B messages
was used, then the Link 11/11B message would be lost during byte swapping. The
implementation is defined such that the Link 11/11B interaction becomes a subclass of the
RawBinaryRadioSignal interaction to ensure the SignalData storage is not used. Data
integrity is achieved by moving the Link 11/11B message storage into the lowest level classes
(i.e. Net Test).
b. DIS to HLA gateways will require modification, but the modifications are described in detail in
Annex C. DIS Raw Binary Signal PDUs need to be split into a RawBinaryRadioSignal
interaction or the appropriate Link 11/11B interaction class, depending on the TDL type.
Conversely, a HLA to DIS gateway must merge both interaction types into a single DIS Signal
PDU. DIS to HLA translations are described in detail in Annex C.

4.3.6.1. Adding the Link 11/11B BOM to the RPR FOM version 1
For SISO-STD-001—1999 RPR FOM Version 1 [Ref (6)], the Link11TransmitterData and
Link11BTransmitterData shall be added to the ModulationStruct complex data type as shown
in Table 5.

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Table 5: Link 11/11B BOM Complex Datatypes in RPR-FOM 1.0


Complex Field Name Datatype Cardinality
Datatype
ModulationStruct Link11TransmitterData [53] Link11TransmitterStruct 0-1
ModulationStruct Link11BTransmitterData [54] Link11BTransmitterStruct 0-1

The RFModulationSystemTypeEnum11 enumerated value shall be extended to add Link11, as shown


in Table 6.

Table 6: Link 11/11B BOM Enumerated Values in RPR-FOM 1.0


Identifier Enumerator Representation
RFModulationSystemTypeEnum11 LowerSideBand 11
UpperSideBand 12
IndependentSideBandSuppressedCarrier 13
Link11BLandLine 14
Link11SATCOM 15

Note 57 and 58 shall be added to the Notes Table as shown in Table 7.


Table 7: Link 11/11B BOM Notes in RPR-FOM 1.0
ID Text
57 This optional field shall be included (cardinality 1) when the
RFModulationSystemType is equal to Link11. It shall be excluded (cardinality
0) when the RFModulationSystemType is equal to any other value.
58 This optional field shall be included (cardinality 1) when the
RFModulationSystemType is equal to Link11B. It shall be excluded
(cardinality 0) when the RFModulationSystemType is equal to any other value.

4.3.6.2. Adding the Link 11/11B BOM to the RPR FOM version 2
For RPR-FOM 2.0 Draft 17 [Ref (8)], the Link11TransmitterData and Link11BTransmitterData
shall be added to the SpreadSpectrumStruct complex data type as shown in Table 8.

Table 8: Link 11/11B BOM Complex Datatypes in RPR-FOM 2.0


Complex Datatype Field Name Datatype Cardinality
SpreadSpectrumStruct SpreadSpectrumType SpreadSpectrumEnum16 1
Padding Octet 2
Link11TransmitterData[57] Link11TransmitterStruct 0-1 (SpreadSpectrumType =
Link11_SpectrumType)
Link11BTransmitterData [58] Link11BTransmitterStruct 0-1 (SpreadSpectrumType =
Link11B_SpectrumType)

The RFModulationSystemTypeEnum11 enumerated value shall be extended to add Link 11 with a


representation of 9, and add Link 11B with a representation of 10. The SpreadSpectrumEnum11
enumerated value shall be extended to add Link11_SpectrumType with a representation of 3 and add
Link11B_SpectrumType with a representation of 4 as shown in Table 9.
Table 9: Link 11/11B BOM Enumerated Values in RPR-FOM 2.0
Identifier Enumerator Representation
RFModulationSystemTypeEnum11 Other 0

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Generic 1
HQ 2
HQII 3
HQIIA 4
SINCGARS 5
CCTT_SINCGARS 6
JTIDS_MIDS 8
Link11 9
Link 11B 10
SpreadSpectrumEnum11 None 0
SINCGARSFrequencyHop 1
JTIDS_MIDS_SpectrumType 2
Link11_SpectrumType 3
Link11B_SpectrumType 4

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

ANNEX A: Link 11/11B Base Object Model (BOM) OMT Tables

A.1 Object Model Identification Table

Category Information
Name Link 11/11B BOM
Version v1.0 Draft 2
Date 4/11/2008
Purpose Link 11/11B Base Object Model (BOM)
Application Domain C4ISR & C2 platform simulations
Sponsor DMOC/Sandia National Laboratories
POC (Title, First, Last) Mr Joe Sorroche
POC Organization Sandia National Laboratories
POC Telephone +1 505 284 6769
POC Email jjsorro@sandia.gov

A.2 Object Class Table

There are no Link 11/11B unique object classes in the Link 11/11B BOM

A.3 Object Interaction Table

Interaction1 Interaction2 Interaction3 Interaction4


Parent (N) TDLBinaryRadioSignal (N) Link11/11BRadioSignal (R) Net Test (IR)
Roll Call (IR)
Picket Unit Response (IR)
Short Broadcast (IR)
Broadcast (IR)

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard
A.4 Attribute Table
Accuracy
Object Attribute Datatype Cardinality Units Resolution Accuracy
Condition
Parent Link11TransmitterData Link11TransmitterStruct 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A

A.5 Parameter Table


Accuracy Routing
Interaction Parameter Datatype Cardinality Units Resolution Accuracy Condition Space
Link11NetTestradiosignal NetTestHeader NetTestHeaderStruct 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Data octet 1+ N/A N/A N/A N/A
Link11NetSyncradiosignal NetSyncHeader NetSyncHeaderStruct 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Data octet 1+ N/A N/A N/A N/A
Link11RollCallradiosignal RollCallHeader RollCallHeaderStruct 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Data octet 1 N/A N/A perfect always
Link11_11BRadioSignal MessageSubType octet 1 N/A N/A perfect always N/A
PicketNumber octet 1 N/A N/A perfect always
WordCount octet 1 N/A N/A perfect always
SequenceNumber octet 1 N/A N/A perfect always
MessageTypeIdentifier octet 1 N/A N/A perfect always
BaudRate octet 1
IntegrationInterval octet 1
Waveform octet 1
NetCycleTime unsigned long 1 N/A N/A perfect always

29
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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard
A.6 Enumerated Datatypes Table
Identifier Enumerator Representation
FidelityLevel LowFidelityLevel0 0
LowFidelityLevel1 1
MediumFidelityLevel2 2
Link11_11BTerminal ModeEnum8 [1] NCS 1
ParticipantUnit 2
DataTerminalSetIndicatorEnum16 [1] Transmit 1
Receive 2
Net Busy 3
Transmit Data Error 4
Receive Data Error 5
Code Error 6
Synchronization Complete 7
ModesofOperationEnum 16 [1] Net Sync 1
Net Test 2
Roll Call 3
Short Broadcast 4
Broadcast 5
L11 crypto key 8 [1] NotDefined_Valid 0
KG40 Plain 1
KG40 A1 2
KG40 A2 3
KG40 B 4
KG40 POFA 5
Baud rate NotDefined_Valid 0
1364bps 1
2250bps 2
Integration interval NotDefined_Valid 0
9ms 1
18ms 2
Waveform NotDefined_Valid 0
CLEW 1
SLEW 2

30
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SISO-STD-005-V9 DRAFT – September 2014
Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard
A.7 Complex Datatypes table

Accuracy
Complex Datatype Field Name Datatype Cardinality Units Resolution Accuracy Condition
Link11_11BtransmitterStruct Participant Unit octet 6 N/A N/A perfect always
Fidelity Level Fidelity LevelEnum8 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A
Link11_11BTerminal Mode Link11_11BTerminal ModeEnum8 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A
DataTerminalSetIndicator DataTerminalSetIndicatorEnum16 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A
ModesofOperationEnum ModesofOperationEnum Enum16 1 N/A N/A N/A N/A
NetSyncStruct octet 6 N/A N/A perfect always
NetTestStruct octet 6 N/A N/A perfect always
RollCallStruct octet 6 N/A N/A perfect always
Link11wordStruct Data octet 10 N/A N/A perfect always
Link11BwordStruct Data octet 10 N/A N/A perfect always
A.8 Notes Table
ID Text
1 This is an 8-bit enumeration
2 NTP timestamp format-- NTP timestamps are represented as a 64-bit unsigned fixed-point number, in seconds relative to 0h on 1
January 1900. The integer part is in the first 32 bits and the fraction part in the last 32 bits. The precision of this representation is about
200 picoseconds, which should be adequate for even the most exotic requirements. See RFC1305 for detailed format. All F's in this
field shall indicate a no statement/wildcard

31
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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard
Annex B: Example of M.2 and M.82 Message
Field
Example Value
Size Signal PDU Fields Example Value
(Big endian hexadecimal)
(bits)
Protocol 8 bit 5 (IEEE 1278.1- 05
Version enumeration 1995)
Exercise ID 8 bit unsigned 1 01
integer
PDU Type 8 bit 26 (Signal) 1A
enumeration
PDU
96 Protocol Family 8 bit 4 (Radio 04
Header
enumeration Communication)
Timestamp 32 bit unsigned 12345678 00 BC 61 4E
integer
Length 16 bit unsigned 544 bits = 68 octets 00 44
integer
Padding 16 bits unused 0 00 00
Site 16 bit unsigned 1 00 01
integer
Application 16 bit unsigned 2 00 02
48
integer
Entity 16 bit unsigned 3 00 03
integer
16 Radio ID 16 bit unsigned 4 00 04
integer
16 Encoding 16 bit Num L11 40 02
Scheme enumeration messages = 2
Encoding-class = 1
16 TDL Type 16 bit 8 (Link 11) 00 08
enumeration
32 Sample 32 bit integer 0 00 00 00 00
Rate
16 Data 16 bit integer 160 + 4*32 = 288 01 20
Length bits
16 Samples 16 bit integer 0 00 00
Message Sub 8 bit 0 00
Type enumeration
Picket Number 8 bit unsigned 75 octal 3D
integer
Sequence 8 bit unsigned 0 00
Number integer
Message Type 8 bit 0 00
Link Identifier enumeration
11/11B Padding 32 bit unsigned 0 00 00 00 00
160 Signal integer
PDU Baud Rate 8 bit 0 00
Fields enumeration
Signal 8 bit 0 00
Integration enumeration
interval
Signal 8 bit 0 00
Waveform enumeration
Padding 8 bit unsigned 0 00
integer

32
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SISO-STD-005-V13 DRAFT
Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Padding 64 bit unsigned 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00


integer
32 M.2 Label 4 bits 0010 binary 00 FB 03 D2
Message Track Number 12 bits 75 octal
Binary version of the frame
(First Identity (Id) 2 bits 3 (Friend) is shown below. Alternating
Frame) Primary 2 bits 2 (Int/Fighter) colors are used to
MIL-STD- Identification distinguish bitfields.
6011C, Amplification MSB
page 5-32 (Pri Amp) LSB
Scale Indicator 1 bit 1 (Fine) (0000000011111011000000111101
(SI) 0010)
Track Quality 3 bits 7
EDAC 6 bits 0
Padding 2 bits 0
32 M.2 X Coordinate 12 bits N43.0739° = 00 75 84 EC
Message 19.693329DM /
MSB
(Second (1/64) =1260 dec LSB
Frame) Y Coordinate 12 bits W115.9096° = (0000000001110101100001001110
29.374492 DM / 1100)
(1/64) = 1880 dec
EDAC 6 bits 0
Padding 2 bits 0
32 M.82 Label 4 bits 1000 binary 00 08 03 D8
Message Track Number 12 bits 75 octal
MSB
(First Height 8 bits 4000 Ft / ( 31 + LSB
Frame) 1/4) = 128 dec (0000000000001000000000111101
MIL-STD- 1000)
6011C,
page 5-43
EDAC 6 bits 0
Padding 2 bits 0
32 M.82 X Dot 8 bits -310 MPH / (3 + 00 42 7C B1
Message 33/34) = -78 dec
MSB
(Second Y Dot 8 bits 496 MPH / (3 + LSB
Frame) 33/34) = 124 dec (0000000001000010011111001011
Switch 1 bit 0 (X Dot, Y Dot) 0001)
Size 2 bits 1
Identity 3 bits 0 (No statement)
Amplification
(Id Amp)
Height Source 2 bits 1 (Sensor)
EDAC 6 bits 0
Padding 2 bits 0

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

Annex C: DIS to HLA translations


C.1 HLA RPR FOM 1.0 Radio Transmitter Object versus DIS Radio Transmitter PDU
The translation between the HLA RPR FOM 1.0 Radio Transmitter Object and the equivalent DIS Radio
Transmitter PDU are well established and therefore not addressed in this section. What is addressed is the
following:

SISO-STD-005 Section 5.3.4.1 Object Class Data:

“The Link 11/11B BOM defines no new object classes. Instead the BOM defines a single complex data
type (Link11TransmitterStruct) that corresponds to the modulation parameters in the DIS Transmitter
PDU defined in Section 5.2.1. An attribute of this complex data type should be added to the object class
in the parent FOM corresponding to the DIS Transmitter PDU (see assumption 1 in section 5.3.1 .1)”

This paragraph describes the changes to the HLA RPR FOM 1.0 Radio Transmitter Object contained in the Link
11/11B BOM. At issue is the statement: “An attribute of this complex data type should be added to the object
class in the parent FOM corresponding to the DIS Transmitter PDU”. This statement seems to require
clarification from an HLA perspective:

1. SISO-STD-005 Section 5.3.6.1 describes the implementation of the Link11TransmitterData and


Link11BTransmitterData as a variant record of the ModulationParameters field. The
ModulationParameters field is a complex data type ModulationStruct, which contains either the
Link11TransmitterData field or the Link11BTransmitterData, but not both.

2. Table 8 indicates this variant record implementation by specifying cardinality of 0 -1 for the
Link11TransmitterData and the Link11BTransmitterData fields.

3. The ModulationParameters field should be encoded and decoded, based on the


RFModulationSystemType enumerated field of the HLA RPR FOM Radio Transmitter Object class to
determine which record variant is to be encoded or decoded.

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

C.2 HLA RPR FOM 1.0 Radio Signal Interaction versus DIS Radio Signal PDU
The following sections describe the translations of the fields contained in these classes with their DIS Radio
Signal PDU counterparts and translation criteria.

C.3 HLA RPR FOM RadioSignal Class


The HLA RPR FOM 1.0 RadioSignal class is an empty class and contains no attributes.

C.4 HLA RPR FOM RawBinaryRadioSignal Class


The HLA RPR FOM 1.0 RawBinaryRadioSignal class contains several attributes, which come into play for the
Link 11/11B messages and require translations from DIS to HLA and vice versa.

Table C.1: HLA Raw Binary Radio Signal Translation


HLA Radio Signal Class DIS Radio Signal PDU Attribute Description
Attribute
HostRadioIndex Entity ID The HLA Host Radio Index is
Radio ID the unique HLA object name of
the associated Radio
Transmitter object. There is no
implied direct relationship
between the DIS Entity
ID/Radio ID and the HLA
HostRadioIndex.
DateRate Sample Rate These fields are defaulted to a
value of 0.
SignalDataLength Data Length These fields are defaulted to a
value of 0.
SignalData NOTE: For the HLA
implementation, because the
Signal Data Length is set to a
value of 0, the Signal Data
attribute is simply not
published.
TacticalDataLinkType TDL Type These fields are set to 4 for
Link 11B and 8 for Link 11.
TDLMessageCount Encoding Scheme Bits 0-13 These fields contain the
number of Link 11/11B Words.

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Standard [for] Link 11/11B Simulation Standard

C.5 HLA Link 11/11B BOM TDLBinaryRadioSignal Class


The Link 11/11B BOM TDLBinaryRadioSignal class is an empty class and contains no attributes.

C.6 HLA Link11/11B BOM RadioSignal Class


The Link 11/11B BOM Link11/11B RadioSignal class contains several attributes, which come into play for the Link
11/11B messages and require translations from DIS to HLA and vice versa.

Table C.2. HCLA Link 11/11B Radio Signal Translation


HLA Link11/11B Radio Signal DIS Radio Signal PDU Attribute Description
Class Attribute
MessageSubType Message Sub Type Specifies the Link 11/11B
message type.
PicketNumber Picket Number Specifies the Participating Unit
Source Number of any Link
11/11B unit in any mode of
operation.
SequenceNumber Sequence Number PDU counter that each
NCS/PKT DTS increments for
every Link 11 Signal PDU
generated. Upon reaching a
value of 255 the counter shall
roll over back to zero on the
next message transmitted
MessageTypeIdentifier Message Type Identifier Identifies the Link 11/11B
Message: 1=Net Test, 2=Roll
Call, 3=Picket Reply, 4=Short
Broadcast, 5= Broadcast
Padding (32 bits)
BaudRate Baud Rate Identifies the baud rate of the
Link 11B transmission. 1 =
1364bps, and 2 = 2250bps.
SignalIntegrationInterval Signal Integration interval Identifies the integration
interval for the Link 11/11B
network. 1 = 9 ms, 2 = 18 ms
SignalWaveform Signal Waveform Identifies the Link 11
waveform, 1 = Conventional
Link Eleven waveform (CLEW),
and 2 = Single tone Link
Eleven waveform (SLEW)
Padding (8 bits + 64 bits)
Message Data NOTE: In HLA the Message
Data is contained in
subclasses of the Link 11/11B
Radio Signal class. The
descriptions for mappings for
DIS and HLA follow.

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C.7 HLA Link 11/11B BOM Link11/11BMessageRadioSignal Class


The SISO-STD-005 standard specifies that the Link 11/11B Message Data be contained in one HLA attribute, due
to the size of the Link 11/11B message. The table below describes the message structures M.2 and M.82 defined
in Annex B.

Table C.3: Link 11/11B M.2 Message Data


Message Octet 0 Message Octet 1 Message Octet 2 Message Octet 3

31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Track Scale Pri


Padding EDAC Identity Track Number Label
Quality Ind Amp

First 32 bit word (Frame A)

Message Octet 4 Message Octet 5 Message Octet 6 Message Octet 7

31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Padding EDAC Y Coordinate X Coordinate

Second 32 bit word (Frame B)

Table C.4: 11/11B M.82 Message Data

Message Octet 8 Message Octet 9 Message Octet 10 Message Octet 11

31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Padding EDAC Height Track Number Label

First 32 bit word (Frame A)

Message Octet 12 Message Octet 13 Message Octet 14 Message Octet 15

31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Padding EDAC Height ID Amp Size Switch Y Dot X Dot


Source

Second 32 bit word (Frame B)

The first 4 bits of the Link 11/11B tactical message contain the message label. The rest of the bits are defined by size
and description fields specific to the message, for a total of 48 bits of tactical information. The rest of the message will
then be padded to 64 bits. Because of this, no message translation between DIS and HLA is required.

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Appendix A Bibliography (Informative)

<Insert Bibliography here>

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