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CH 1- CLIMATE OF INDIA

FACTORS :-

 HIMALAYAS
 SEAS
 WINDS
 LATITUDNAL POSITION
 ALTITUDE
 JET STREAMS
 RELIEF FEATURES – W. GHATS

FEATURES OF INDIAN CLIMATE : -

 TROPICAL MONSOON CLIMATE


 DIVERSITY IN CCIMATIC CONDITIONS
 MONSOON MECHANISM
 FOUR DISTINCT SEASONS
 BAY CYCLONES OR TROPICAL DEPRESSIONS IN LATE MONSOON
 WINTER RAINFALL DUE TO W. DISTURBANCES

FEATURES OF MONSOON : -

 UNEVENLY DISTRIBUTED
 ERRATIC
 UNCERTAIN
 UNRELIABLE

LOW RAINFALL : JAMMU, RAJASTHAN

PLACES OF MODERATE RAINFALL : CHATTISGARH, TAMIL NADU

HIGH RAINFALL : KERALA, MEGHALAYA, N. EAST, W.


GHATS

MARCH TO MAY – HOT AND DRY SUMMER

 Low pressure
 High temp. in northern parts away from sea
 Rivers, wells dry up
 Dust storms – Punjab, Haryana, U.P. – loo
 Torrential rainfall due to high speed wind in w. Bengal & Assam –
kalbaisakhi
 High speed hot winds

JUNE TO SEPTEMBER – RAINY MONSOON

 Low pressure attracting monsoon laden wind from surrounding sea


 Uneven rainfall
 Bay of Bengal branch : Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, U.P., W. Bengal
 Arabian sea branch : Maharashtra, Kerala, Karnataka, Orissa

OCTOBER TO NOVEMBER – RETREATING MONSOON

 High pressure
 Dry retreating winds
 Clear skies and dry atmosphere
 October heat
 Low humidity
 Oppressive weather
 Tamil Nadu Andhra Pradesh – highest rainfall due to cyclones originating in
Bay of Bengal

DECEMBER TO FEBRUARY – COLD AND DRY WINTER

 Low temp in north then south


 Clear skies
 Cool weather , light breeze
 High pressure
 No rains in S.
 W. disturbances cause rainfall in Punjab and Haryana, good for wheat and
barley
 Snowfall in Himalayas

CH – 2 soils in india
Soil – thin surface layer of earth, comprising mineral particles formed by
weathering of rocks

Ex situ soil – transported – alluvial soil

In situ soil – found where formed – laterite, red, black/regur soil

ALLUVIAL SOIL

 Transported by rivers as silt


 Rich in potash, humus and lime & deficient in lime
 On banks of Indus & tributaries, Ganga & tributaries
 Godavari & Krishna – mixed with regur – dark yellow and grayish in colour
 Punjab, Haryana, U.P. & Bihar – yellow in colour
 Bhangar – old – light grey
 Khadar – new – non porous, clayey & loamy - yellowish
 Crops – jute & rice

BLACK SOIL

 Volcanic origin
 Deccan trap
 Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
 Disintegration of basalt rich in potash, humus and lime
 Deep, fine grained and black to chestnut brown in colour
 Moisture retentive – sticky when wet & forms cracks when dry
 Crops – cotton & wheat

RED SOIL

 Weathering of crystalline and metamorphic rocks


 Tamil nadu, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh
 Red in colour , high iron oxide
 Deficient in nitrogen, lime, phosphorous & humus – rich in potash
 Crops – wheat rice millets

LATERITE SOIL

 Leaching of lateritic rocks


 Building material due to poor quality
 Unsuitable for cultivation
 Goa and kerala & malwa plateau
 Poor in nitrogen & lime
 High acidity can’t retain moisture
 Crops – cashew nut and tapioca

SOIL EROSION – removal of upper fertile layer by agents of denudation

CAUSES

 Water – sheet erosion – gully erosion


 Human – deforestation
 Over grazing by cattle
 Wind
 Improper farming techniques

EFFECTS

 Loosening of soil
 Landslides & flash floods
 Leads to unproductive soil – poor crop yield

METHODS TO PREVENT

 Strip cropping and terrace farming


 Add organic matter, grow leguminous plants & crop rotation
 Af
 afforestation
 planting of shelter belts of trees
 Contour ploughing and contour binding
 Watershed management

CH 3 – NATURAL VEGETATION OF INDIA


Natural vegetation is that which grows without human interference and adopts
itself to environment.
FACTORS

 Rainfall
 Temperature
 Soil
 Topography – altitude and latitude

TROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST

 200 cm of rainfall
 24° C to 27°C
 Diff. trees germinate & wither @ different times
 Dense trees, climbers & epiphytes
 Dark floor as no sunlight penetrates
 Trees not in pure stand
 Rosewood, ebony, shisham – making furniture – Andaman & nicobar
islands, assam, Meghalaya & Tripura

TROPICAL DECIDOUS/ MONSOON FORESTS

 100 – 200 cm of rainfall


 Shed leaves in hot weather
 Pure strands of trees
 Economically most imp. & most exploited
 Sal – furniture
 Teak – ship building
 Sandalwood – handicrafts – Karnataka, m.p. chattisgarh
 Semal – toys, matchboxes
 Myrobalan – for dyeing clothes and tanning leather

TROPICAL DRY

 Less than 25 cm of rainfall


 25°c to 27° c
 Trees – long roots, small leaves & thorns
 Babul – gum & its barks – tanning skin
 Kikar, acacias,thorny bushes
 Rajasthan, kutch & saurashtra in Gujarat
TIDAL/DELTA FORESTS

 Dense & impenetrable


 Roots out in air during low tide
 Tangled root system
 Deltas of ganga. Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari
 Glossy leaves
 W. Bengal, Andhra Pradesh
 Sundari – hard, making boats
 Gorjan & hintal – source of fuel wood

MOUNTAIN FORESTS

 Mountain area – Kashmir to assam


 Vegetation deciduous & coniferous
 Depending on elevation & rainfall
 Himachal – coniferous, taiga – Christmas tree – wood pulp – paper
 Himadri – tundra – moses & lichens
 Shivalik – deciduous
 Chir pine – extraction of resins and turpentine
 Silver fir – matches, paper
 Deodar – railway sleepers & house construction
 Kashmir, himachal Pradesh

FOREST CONSERVATION

 Check deforestation
 Prevent overgrazing
 Reforestation
 Shifting cultivation needs to be controlled

CH 4 WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA


Irrigation is key to india’s agricultural success :

 Uneven distribution of rainfall


 Seasonal rainfall
 India’s agricultural season extends over winter
 Indian monsoon – uncertain
 Diff. water requirements

METHODS

WELLS - n. plains – UP, Punjab & Rajasthan

 By digging hole in ground till water table (manually)


 Requirements – high water table – permeable rocks – soft soil
 Cheapest & simplest source of irrigation
 Disadvantages – dry up during summer – can water limited land – time
consuming – brackish water
 Modern – perennial lined wells – covered – dug till permanent source (using
machines)

TANK IRRIGATION = peninsular plateau – Andhra Pradesh & tamil nadu –


natural depressions – hard rocks

 Constructing walls across a depression


 Requirements - ground should be rocky
 Disadvantages – silting of tanks, dry during summer, occupy large area

TUBE WELLS – U.P. Bihar

 Deep bore dug & water is lifted with electricity


 Requirements –groundwater close to surface and plenty, regular supply of
cheap electricity, region must be fertile

MULTI PURPOSE PROJECTS

BHAKRA NANGAL dam – satluj – highest dam in asia – Punjab, Haryana &
rajasthan – govind sagar lake

DAMODAR VALLEY CORPORATION – damodar – first multi pu…project after


independence

HIRAKUND dam – Mahanadi – largest dam in india – Orissa


Rihand dam – rihand river – tributary of son – largest lake reservoir – govind
ballab pant sagar lake – bihar

Tungabhadra - largest no. of canals – Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka – two irrigation
canal on both sides – across Tungabhadra – a tributary of Krishna

IMPORTANCE

 To store water
 To generate electricity
 To control floods
 To provide drinking water
 To develop pisciculture & recreational centres

WATERSHED development – an imp. Method to conserve water, increase


agriculture & stop env. Degradation.

Rain water harvesting – it is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water


by capturing & storing rainwater.

Objectives –

 Meet demands of water


 Improve groundwater quality
 Reduce soil erosion
 Avoid flooding of roads
 Reduce surface run-off

EG: roof water harvesting, hand pumps, recharge through stop-dams on small
streams.

CH 5 MINERALS IN INDIA
COAL
 Basic source of energy
 Production of chemicals, dyes, fertilizers and paints
 Steel industries
 By products – benzol, ammonia, naptha and sulphur

4 TYPES:

 Anthracite – 90 – 95 % - jet black


 Bituminous – 60 – 75 % - dark brown – domestic uses
 Lignite – 40 – 50 % - brown
 Peat – below 30 % - light brown

PROBLEMS

 Medium quality – more ash & smoke – water logging – fire accidents

GONDWANA – old– W. Bengal – ranigunj – oldest – Jharkhand – Jharia – largest


– bokaro

TERTIARY – Kashmir – riasi – assam – lakhimpur

PETROLEUM

 Source of power and fuel


 Generation of power
 By products – kerosene, tar and lubricants
 Assam – digboi – oldest
 Gujarat – ankleshwar
 Mumbai high – largest

IRON ORE

 Production of iron & steel


 Used in transport, building dams & bridges
 Most - hematite and magnetite limonite – poorest, hematite – 68% iron
 Orissa – keonjarh, mayurbhanj
 Jharkhand – singbhum
 Goa – netarlim, burgadongar
 Maharashtra – chandrapur
 Main importer – japan, iran & china
MANGANESE

 Used in making iron & steel


 Raw material for paint & glass
 Japan – main importer – usa, uk
 Orissa – sundergarh, koraput
 Karnataka – bellary, chitradurg
 Madhya Pradesh(most) – balaghat

BAUXITE

 Raw material for aluminium


 Making of machines & tools
 Making utensils
 Aircraft industry
 Orissa, Jharkhand

LIMESTONE

 Used in chemicals, iron and steel, cement, glass & fertilizers


 Chattisgarh & Madhya Pradesh

CH 6 agriculture in india
SUBSISTENCE FARMING

Farming for farmer to consume – small sized land – more manual labour – no
machines – mostly food crops – double cropping, crop rotation & multiple
cropping

JHUMMING, SHIFTING AGRICULTURE

Slash and burn, low quality seed, less production, improper cultivation, ecological
balance disturbed, crops left to grow on their own & no irrigation or fertilization is
provided
INTENSIVE COMMERCIAL FARMING

Small sized fields, more labour & scientific method to make soil more productive,
use of hybrid seeds, mostly food crops.

EXTENSIVE COMMERCIAL FARMING

Big fields, machines, cash crops, sparsely populated areas with ample of land.
product only for sale

MIXED FARMING

Animal rearing along with crops/livestock raising – largest no. of cattle in world –
india – modern machinery & good seeds are used

PLANTATION FARMING

Predominance of single crop with some other crops – only once plantation – yield
many years – scientifically managed crops only for sale

PROBLEMS

 More than 60% farming dependent on monsoon


 Farmers – conservative, illiterate & poor
 Soil erosion – increased soil infertility
 Farmers indebted – can’t afford new machines

SOLUTION

 Improving farmer’s health & lifestyle


 Preventing fragmentation
 Irrigation
 Educating farmers

FOOD CROPS

Cereals – collective term for all kinds of grass like plants having starchy, edible
seeds.

CROPS °C RAINFAL SOIL STATES EXTRA INFO


L
RICE 22- 150- ALLUVIA TAMIL NADU, HARVESTING THRESHING
ANDHRA HAND POUNDING
32 300CM L PRADESH & W. POLISHING
BENGAL
WHEAT 10- 50-100CM ALLUVIA PUNJAB, RUST & SMUT
HARYANA
15 L
MILLET 27- 50-120CM ALL JOWAR – U.P.
HARYANA
S 32 BAJRA – GUJ,
MAHARASHTR
A
RAGI –
KARNATAKA,
ANDHRA
PULSES AL ALL ALL PUNJAB, PEAS, BEANS, LENTILS,
HARYANA MOONG,MASOOR,TOOR,UR
L AD

CASH CROPS

OIL SEEDS

 15°C - 25°C 150 – 200 CM RAINFALL

BLACK SOIL ALLUVIAL SOIL ANY


COTTONSEED SESAME SAFFLOWER
GROUNDNUT LINT(non edible) CASTOR(non edible)
SOYABEAN RAPE & MUSTARD

 Oilcake – by product of oil seeds.oil is extracted from oil seeds and residue
is termed ‘oilcake’.
 Advantages of oilseeds : - generate employment, - earns foreign exchange
 Uses – seasoning of food, preservatives in pickles etc, oilcake as fodder &
manure, lubricants for machinery, in paints, inks, dyes.

CROP °C RAINFALL SOIL STATE


COTTON 20 – 30 50 – 120 BLACK GUJARAT
MAHARASHTR
A
JUTE 25 -35 150 – 200 ALLUVIAL W. BENGAL,
GANGA
BRAMAPUTRA
DELTA
RUBBER 25 - 35 175 – 300 RED / KERALA,
LATERITE KARNATAKA
SUGAR 20 – 30 100 – 200 ALLUVIAL PUNJAB
CANE HARYANA
TEA 10 -20 150 – 250 RED / ASSAM,
LATERITE KERALA
COFFEE 20 – 30 125 – 200 RED / KERALA,
LATERITE KARNATAKA
BEVERAGE CROPS

TEA

 Plantation crop – largest producer india


 Types
 Black
 Green – steaming leaves in vats – crushed & dried – no fermentation
 Oolong –partial fermentation of leaves
 Sowing seeds in nursery , 9 -12 months, transplanted to tea estates, cutting
taken from mother plant for better quality and grown into tiny shrubs –
plucking early morning. For finest quality, two leaves and a bud are plucked.
This is fine plucking. Flush – new bud on the shoot of a tea plant.
 Withering – to reduce moisture, air is blown
 Rolling – twist leaves to expose their juice for fermentation
 Fermentation
 Firing or drying
 Tasting & blending
 Export – Kolkata
 CTC machine – crushing, tearing & curling

COFFEE
 Arabica
 Robusta
 Liberica
 Shrub with glossy, evergreen leaves & white flowers/
 Shelter belts are provided
 Wet or Parchment method – removal of skin, pulping, fermenting, washing
& drying
 Dry or native method – covering is removed by drying in sun – pounded to
remove outer covering – colour, flavour & taste are result of roasting

FIBRE CROPS

COTTON

 Short staple – less than 2.2cm


 Medium staple – 2.2. to 2.8 cm
 Long staple – above 2.8 cm
 Ginning – separation of seeds and short fibres fromraw lint.
 Abundant sunshine during ripening & plucking
 Manual labour
 Sowing – broadcasting
 Boll worm & boll weevils
 Problems – frost destroys the crop, rain only during early growing period,
cloudy weather, pests

JUTE

 Manual labour
 Clear soft water
 Jute mites
 stalks are cut near roots and then tied in bundles and steeped until outer bark
begins to rot. This is termed as ‘retting’.
 Retting – soaking of stalks to remove fibre from bark
 Rinsing
 Washing
 Cleaning
 Drying
 Problems – stiff competition in intl. market.
COMMERCIAL CROPS

RUBBER

 Coagulated sticky milk or latex of rubber tree


 Hold air, keeps moisture out, conducts electricity
 Cheap skilled labour required for tapping
 Insertion of strip of bark containing bud from high yielding clons under bark
till they unite in 3 – 4 weeks. The old seedling stem is then cut off below
grafted bud, which grows into new rubber plant.
 Cover crops
 Tapping – collecting latex from rubber plant
 Coagulation – remove impurity by adding chemicals
 Rolling – to remove water
 Drying
 Crepe – dried in shade – white
 Smoke – smoke is supplied – ting of pink
 Vulcanized – instant, cut into pieces, pink

SUGARCANE

 Tall, perennial
 Sugar cane is divided into internodes connected by joints called nodes. Each
node has a bud. Monoculture crop
 Dry season for harvesting
 More labour