# UNIVERSITETI I PRISHTINËS

FAKULTETI I INXHINIERISË MEKANIKE
PRISHTINË

PUNIMI I SEMINARIK NGA:

MATEMATIKA III

Profesori:

Kandidati:
Inxh. Blerim Krasniqi
Prishtinë 2010

1.5 DETYRA PËR USHTRIME
1. Të tregohet se në intervalin [1,2] ndodhet vetëm një rrënjë reale e ekuacionit
5 x 3 − x 2 − x − 6 = 0 . Me metodën e sekantës të caktohet rrënja e përafërt α* me gabim më të
vogël se 10-4.
Zgjidhje:
f ( x) = 5 x 3 − x 2 − x − 6 = 0
f ′( x) = 15 x 2 − 2 x −1 > 0 ∀x ∈[1,2]
f ′′( x) = 30 x − 2 > 0
∀x ∈[1,2]

Prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut rritës
f (a ); f (b) < 0 , y ′′ > 0 është konkav
α ∗ = x ∗ = xn
n = 0 x0 = a = 1

( b − x n−1 ) ⋅ f ( xn −1 )
f ( b ) − f ( x n −1 )
( b − x0 ) ⋅ f ( x 0 )
( 2 − 1) ⋅ ( − 3) = 1 + 3 = 1.096774194
x1 = x0 −
= 1−
f ( b ) − f ( x0 )
28 + 3
31
( b − x1 ) ⋅ f ( x1 )
x 2 = x1 −
,
f ( b ) − f ( x1 )
x n = x n −1 −

f ( x1 ) = 5(1.096774194 ) − (1.096774194 ) − (1.096774194 ) − 6 = 1.70364677
3

2

x 2 = x1 −

( b − x1 ) ⋅ f ( x1 )
( 2 − 1.096774194)( − 1.70364677) = 1.148561846
= 1.096774194−
f ( b ) − f ( x1 )
28 + 1.703064677

x3 = x 2 −

( b − x2 ) ⋅ f ( x2 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x2 )

f ( x 2 ) = 5(1.148561846 ) − (1.148561846 ) − (1.148561846 ) − 6 = −0.891874877
3

2

x3 = x 2 −

( b − x2 ) ⋅ f ( x2 )
( 2 − 1.148561846)( − 0.891874877) = 1.174845232
= 1.148561846−
f ( b) − f ( x2 )
28 − 0.891874877

x 4 = x3 −

( b − x3 ) ⋅ f ( x3 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x3 )

f ( x3 ) = 5(1.174845232

) 3 − (1.174845232 ) 2 − (1.174845232 ) − 6 = −0.447156057

x 4 = x3 −

( b − x3 ) ⋅ f ( x3 )
( 2 − 1.174845232)( − 0.447156057) = 1.187815589
= 1.174845232−
f ( b ) − f ( x3 )
28 − 0.447156056

x5 = x 4 −

( b − x4 ) ⋅ f ( x4 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x4 )

f ( x 4 ) = 5(1.187815589 ) − (1.187815589 ) − (1.187815589 ) − 6 = −0.219241506
3

x5 = x 4 −

2

( b − x4 ) ⋅ f ( x4 )
( 2 − 1.187815589)( − 0.219241506) = 1.194125629
= 1.187815589−
f ( b) − f ( x4 )
28 − 0.219241506

( b − x 5 ) ⋅ f ( x5 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x5 )

x 6 = x5 −

f ( x5 ) = 5(1.194125629

) 3 − (1.194125629 ) 2 − (1.194125629 ) − 6 = −0.106327925

x 6 = x5 −

( b − x5 ) ⋅ f ( x54 )
( 2 − 1.194125629)( − 0.106327925) = 1.197184716
= 1.194125629−
f ( b ) − f ( x5 )
28 − 0.106327925

x7 = x6 −

( b − x6 ) ⋅ f ( x6 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x6 )

f ( x6 ) = 5(1.197184716

) 3 − (1.197184716 ) 2 − (1.197184716 ) − 6 = −0.051102964

x 7 = x6 −

( b − x6 ) ⋅ f ( x 6 )
( 2 − 1.197184716)( − 0.051102964) = 1.19864727
= 1.197184716−
f ( b ) − f ( x6 )
28 − 0.051102964

x8 = x 7 −

( b − x7 ) ⋅ f ( x7 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x7 )

f ( x 7 ) = 5(1.19864727

) 3 − (1.19864727 ) 2 − (1.19864727 ) − 6 = −0.024588599

x8 = x 7 −

( b − x7 ) ⋅ f ( x7 )
( 2 − 1.19864727)( − 0.024588599) = 1.199350372
= 1.19864727−
f ( b ) − f ( x7 )
28 − 0.024588599

x 9 = x8 −

( b − x8 ) ⋅ f ( x8 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x8 )

f ( x8 ) = 5(1.199350372

) 3 − (1.199350372 ) 2 − (1.199350372 ) − 6 = −0.011816058

x 9 = x8 −

( b − x 8 ) ⋅ f ( x8 )
( 2 − 1.199350372)( − 0.011816058) = 1.199688105
= 1.199350372−
f ( b ) − f ( x8 )
28 − 0.011816058

x10 = x9 −

( b − x 9 ) ⋅ f ( x9 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x9 )

f ( x9 ) = 5(1.199688105

) 3 − (1.199688105 ) 2 − (1.199688105 ) − 6 = −0.005674835

x10 = x9 −

( b − x9 ) ⋅ f ( x9 )
( 2 − 1.199688105)( − 0.005674835) = 1.199850274
= 1.199688105−
f ( b ) − f ( x9 )
28 − 0.005674835

x11 = x10 −

( b − x10 ) ⋅ f ( x10 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x10 )

f ( x10 ) = 5(1.199850274

x11 = x10 −

) 3 − (1.199850274 ) 2 − (1.199850274 ) − 6 = −0.00272462

( b − x10 ) ⋅ f ( x10 )
( 2 − 1.199850274)( − 0.00272462) = 1.199928128
= 1.199850274−
f ( b ) − f ( x10 )
28 − 0.00272462

f ( x11 ) = 5(1.199928128 ) − (1.199928128 ) − (1.199928128 ) − 6 = −0.000130793
α ∗ = x11 = 1.99928128
3

α∗ ≈α

α −α ≤

m < f ′( x )

( )

f α∗
m

2

− 0.000130793

=

11

= 0.0000118907

< 0.0001

1.2. Të tregohet se në intervalin [1,2] ndodhet vetëm një rrënjë reale e ekuacionit
5 x 3 − x 2 − x − 6 = 0 . Me metodën e metodën e tangjentës të caktohet rrënja e përafërt α* me
gabim më të vogël se 10-4.
Zgjidhje:
f ( x) = 5 x 3 − x 2 − x − 6 = 0

f ′( x) = 15 x 2 − 2 x −1 > 0 ∀x ∈ [1,2]

f ′′( x) = 30 x − 2 > 0
∀x ∈ [1,2]
Prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut zvoglues
f (a ); f (b) < 0 , y ′′ > 0 është konkav

( b − x n−1 ) ⋅ f ( xn −1 ) n =1,2,3,...
x =b =2
f ( b ) − f ( x n −1 )
f ( x0 )
5 ⋅ 23 − 2 2 − 2 − 6
28
x1 = x0 −
= 2−
= 2−
= 1.490909091
2
f ′( x 0 )
55
15 ⋅ 2 − 2 ⋅ 2 − 1

x n = x n −1 −
n=1

0

f ( x1 ) = 5 x 3 − x 2 − x − 6 = 5(1.490909091) − (1.490909091) − 1.490909091 − 6 = 6.856318557
3

2

f ′( x1 ) = 15 x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 15(1.490909091 ) − 2(1.490909091 ) − 1 = 29.36033053
2

n=2 x 2 = x1 −

f ( x1 )
6.856318557
= 1.490909091−
= 1.257385884
f ′( x1 )
29.36033053

f ( x 2 ) = 5 x 3 − x 2 − x − 6 = 5(1.257385884 ) − (1.257385884 ) − 1.257385884 − 6 = 1.11257187
3

2

f ′( x 2 ) = 15 x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 15(1.257385884 ) − 2(1.257385884 ) − 1 = 19.94313127
2

n=3 x3 = x 2 −

f ( x2 )
1.11257187
= 1.257385884−
= 1.201598663
f ′( x 2 )
19.94313127

f ( x3 ) = 5 x 3 − x 2 − x − 6 = 5(1.490909091 ) − (1.490909091 ) − 1.490909091 − 6 = 0.029139136
3

f ′( x3 ) = 15 x 2 − 2 x − 1 = 15 (1.490909091

n=4

x 4 = x3 −

2

) 2 − 2(1.490909091 ) − 1 = 18 .05279421

f ( x31 )
0.029139136
= 1.201598663−
= 1.199984557
f ′( x3 )
18.05279421

α ∗ = x 4 = 1.199984557

( )

f α ∗ = x 4 = 5(1.199984557 ) − (1.99984557 ) − 1.199984557 − 6 = −0.0002626 ≈ 0
3

2

α ∗ −α ≤

( )

f α∗
m

=

− 0.0002626
11

= 0.000023874 < 0.0001

2. Trego se ekuacioni f ( x) = 5 x 5 − 5 x −1 = 0 e ka vetëm një rrënjë reale pozitive.
Të caktohet ajo rrënjë me saktësi

1
⋅10 −3 me metodën e sekantës.
2

Zgjidhje:
Caktojm intervalet
f (1) = 5 ⋅15 − 5 ⋅1 −1 = 0 − 0 −1 = −1
5

10
10
 10 
f ( ) = 5  − 5
−1 = 1.911988349
9
9
9
 
 10 
f ′( x ) = 25 x 4 − 5 > 0 ∀x ∈1,
 9

 10 
∀x ∈ 1, 
 9
prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut rritës
f (a ); f (b) < 0 , y ′′ > 0 është konkav
α ∗ = x ∗ = xn
f ′′( x ) = 100 x 3 > 0

x n = x n −1 −

( b − x n−1 ) ⋅ f ( xn −1 )
f ( b ) − f ( x n −1 )

n = 0 x0 = a = 1
10
b=
9
 10

 − 1 ⋅ f (1)
( 0.111111111 ) ⋅ ( − 1) = 1 + 3 = 1.038156441
9

x1 = x 0 − 
=1−
1.911988349 + 1
31
 10 
f   − f (1)
9

x 2 = x1 −

( b − x1 ) ⋅ f ( x1 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x1 )

f ( x1 ) = 5(1.038156441 ) − 5(1.038156441 ) − 1.038156441 = 0.161244459
 10

 − 1.038156441 ( − 0.161244459 )
( b − x1 ) ⋅ f ( x1 )
9

x 2 = x1 −
= 1.038156441 − 
= 1.043827165
f ( b ) − f ( x1 )
1.911988349 + 0.161244459
5

x3 = x 2 −

( b − x2 ) ⋅ f ( x2 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x2 )

f ( x 2 ) = 5(1.043827165 ) − (1.043827165 ) − 1.043827165 = −0.023113432
 10

 − 1.043827165 ( − 0.023113432 )
( b − x 2 ) ⋅ f ( x 2 ) = 1.043827165 −  9

x3 = x 2 −
= 1.044630824
f ( b) − f ( x2 )
1.911988349 − 0.023113432
5

x 4 = x3 −

( b − x3 ) ⋅ f ( x3 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x3 )

f ( x3 ) = 5(1.044630824

) 5 − (1.04630824 ) − 1.044630824

= −0.003242874

 10

 − 1.044630824 ( − 0.003242874 )
9

= 1.044630824 − 
= 1.044743389
1.911988349 − 0.003242874

x 4 = x3 −

( b − x3 ) ⋅ f ( x3 )
f ( b ) − f ( x3 )

x5 = x 4 −

( b − x4 ) ⋅ f ( x4 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x4 )

f ( x 4 ) = 5(1.044743389 ) − (1.044743389 ) − 1.044743389 = −0.000453847
 10

 − 1.044743389 ( − 0.000453847 )
( b − x4 ) ⋅ f ( x4 )
9

x5 = x 4 −
= 1.044743389 − 
= 1.044759139
f ( b) − f ( x4 )
1.911988349 − 0.000453847
5

α ∗ = x5 = 1.04475139

( )

f α ∗ = x5 = 5(1.04475139 ) − (1.04475139 ) − 1 = −0.000006348 ≈ 0

α −α ≤

5

( )

f α∗
m

=

− 0.000006348

= 0.000003341 < 0.0005 =

19

1
⋅10 −3
2

2.1. Trego se ekuacioni f ( x) = 5 x 5 − 5 x −1 = 0 e ka vetëm një rrënjë reale pozitive.
Të caktohet ajo rrënjë me saktësi

1
⋅10 −3 me metodën e tangjentës.
2

Zgjidhje:
Caktojm intervalet
f (1) = 5 ⋅15 − 5 ⋅1 −1 = 0 − 0 −1 = −1
5

10
10
 10 
f ( ) = 5  − 5
−1 = 1.911988349
9
9
9 
 10 
f ′( x ) = 25 x 4 − 5 > 0 ∀x ∈1,
 9

10

∀x ∈1, 
f ′′( x ) = 100 x 3 > 0
 9

prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut zvogëlues

x n = x n −1 −

f ( x n −1 )
f ′( x n −1 )

n =1,2,3,...

x0 = b =

10
9

5

n = 1 x1 = x 0 −

f ( x0 ) 10
=

f ′( x0 )
9

5⋅

10
10
− 5 ⋅ −1
10 1.91198349
9
9
=

= 1.053358636
4
9 33 .10394757
10
25 ⋅
−5
9

f ( x1 ) = 5(1.053358636 ) − 5 ⋅ 1.053358636 − 1 = 0.21733073
5

f ′( x1 ) = 25(1.053358636 ) − 5 = 25.77832983
4

n = 2 x 2 = x1 −

f ( x1 )
0.21733073
= 1.053358636−
= 1.04492765
f ′( x1 )
25.77832983

f ( x 2 ) = 5(1.04492765 ) − 5 ⋅ 1.04492765 − 1 = 0.00411477
5

f ′( x 2 ) = 25(1.04492765 ) − 5 = 24.80470954
4

n = 3 x3 = x 2 −

f ( x2 )
0.00411477
= 1.04492765−
= 1.044761763
f ′( x 2 )
24.80470954

α ∗ = x3 = 1.044761763

( )

f α ∗ = x5 = 5(1.044761763 ) − 5(1.044761763 ) − 1 = 0.000001559 ≈ 0

α −α ≤

5

( )

f α∗
m

=

0.000001559
24

= 0.00000006 < 0.0005

3.a Me e metodën e tangjentës të caktohen rrënjët reale me saktësi deri në 10 −4 për
ekuacionin f ( x) = x − cos x = 0
Zgjidhje:
Caktojm intervalet
f (0) = 0 − cos 0 = 0 −1 = −1

f (1) = 1 − cos (57 .32  ) = 0.46005345
f ′( x) = 1 + sin x > 0 ∀x ∈[0,1]
f ′′( x) = cos x > 0 ∀x ∈[0,1]

prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut zvogëlues

x n = x n −1 −

f ( x n −1 )
f ′( x n −1 )

x0 = b = 1

n =1,2,3,...

f ( x0 )
1 − cos( 57.32  )
0.460053455
= 1−
= 1−
= 0.750201646
n = 1 x1 = x0 −

f ′( x0 )
1.84169931
1 + sin ( 57.32 )

f ( x1 ) = x1 − cos( 57.32 ⋅ x1 ) = 0.018866493
f ′( x1 ) = x1 + sin( x1 ⋅ 57.32 ) = 1.682018251
f ( x1 )
0.01886649
= 0.750201646−
= 0.738985065
n = 2 x 2 = x1 −
f ′( x1 )
1.68201825

α ∗ = x 2 = 0.738985060
f α ∗ = x5 = 0.738985060 − cos 75.32  ⋅ x 2 = 0.738985060 − 0.738942098 = 0.00042961 ≈ 0

( )

α ∗ −α ≤

( )

f α∗
m

(

=

)

0.000042961
= 0.000043004
0.999

3.1.h Me e metodën e sekantës të caktohen rrënjët reale me saktësi deri në 10 −4 për
ekuacionin f ( x) = 2 x − ln x − 7 = 0

Zgjidhje:
Caktojm intervalet

f (4) = 2 ⋅ 2 − ln 4 − 7 = −0.38629436  0
f (5) = 2 ⋅ 5 − ln 5 − 7 = 1.39056208  0

Prandaj ekuacioni ka rrwnjw reale ne intervalin [4,5]
f ′( x ) = 2 −

1
> 0 ∀x ∈[ 4,5]
x

1
> 0 ∀x ∈[ 4,5]
x2
prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut rritës
f (a ); f (b) < 0 , y ′′ > 0 është konkav
α ∗ = x ∗ = xn
f ′′( x) =

x n = x n −1 −

( b − x n−1 ) ⋅ f ( xn −1 )
f ( b ) − f ( x n −1 )

n = 0 x0 = a = 4 , b = 5

( 5 − 4) ⋅ f ( x0 )
( 5 − 4) ⋅ ( − 0.38629436) = 4.217403
= 4−
f ( 5) − f ( x 0 )
1.39056208− ( − 0.38629436)
( b − x1 ) ⋅ f ( x1 )
x 2 = x1 −
,
f ( b ) − f ( x1 )
x1 = x 0 −

f ( x1 ) = 2 ⋅ 4.2198 − ln 4.219879 − 7 = −6.43921954

( b − x1 ) ⋅ f ( x1 )
( 5 − 4.217403) ⋅ ( − 6.43921954) = 0.11041951
= 4.217403−
f ( b ) − f ( x1 )
1.39056208− ( − 6.43921954)
( b − x2 ) ⋅ f ( x2 )
x3 = x 2 −
,
f ( b ) − f ( x2 )
x 2 = x1 −

f ( x 2 ) = 2 ⋅ 0.11041951 − ln 0.11041951 − 7 = −4.5762257

x3 = x 2 −

( b − x2 ) ⋅ f ( x2 )
( 5 − 0.11041951) ⋅ ( − 4.5762257) = 3.294687006
= 4.217403−
f ( b) − f ( x2 )
1.39056208− ( − 4.5762257)

3.2.h Me e metodën e tangjentës të caktohen rrënjët reale me saktësi deri në 10 −4 për
ekuacionin f ( x) = 2 x − ln x − 7 = 0
Zgjidhje:
Caktojm intervalet
f (4) = 2 ⋅ 2 − ln 4 − 7 = −0.38629436  0
f (5) = 2 ⋅ 5 − ln 5 − 7 = 1.39056208  0

f ′( x ) = 2 −

f ′′( x) =

1
> 0 ∀x ∈[ 4,5]
x

1
>0
x2

∀x ∈[ 4,5]

prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut zvogëlues

x n = x n −1 −
n =1

f ( x n −1 )
f ′( x n −1 )

n =1,2,3,...

x0 = b = 5

f ( x0 )
2 ⋅ 5 − ln 5 − 7
1.39056208
= 5−
= 1−
= 4.22465506
1
f ′( x0 )
1 .8
2−
5

x1 = x0 −

f ( x1 ) = 2 ⋅ 4.22465506 − ln 4.22465506 − 7 = 0.00837251
1
f ′( x1 ) = 2 −
= 1.76329428
4.22465506

f ( x1 )
0.00837251
= 4.22465506−
= 4.21990684
f ′( x1 )
1.76329428

n = 2 x 2 = x1 −

f ( x 2 ) = 2 ⋅ 4.21906842 − ln 4.21906842 − 7 = 0.00000063
1
f ′( x1 ) = 2 −
= 1.76302794
4.21990684

f ( x2 )
0.00000063
= 4.21990684−
= 4.21990648
f ′( x 2 )
1.76302794

n = 3 x3 = x 2 −

α ∗ = x3 = 4.21990648

f (α ∗ ) = x3 = 2 ⋅ 4.21990648 − ln 4.21990648 − 7 = 0.00000063 ≈ 0

α −α ≤

( )

f α∗
m

=

0.00000063
= 0.00000039  0.0001
1.6

3.1.d. Me e metodën e sekantës të caktohen rrënjët reale me saktësi deri në 10 −4 për
ekuacionin f ( x) = x ln x −

1
=0
2

Zgjidhje:
Caktojm intervalet
1
= −0.5  0
2
1
f ( 2) = 2 ln 2 − = 0.886294  0
2
1
f ′( x ) = ln x + x = ln + 1 > 0 ∀x ∈[1,2]
x
1
f ′′( x) = > 0 ∀x ∈[1,2]
x
f (1) = 1 ln 1 −

prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut rritës
f (a ); f (b) < 0 , y ′′ > 0 është konkav
α ∗ = x ∗ = xn

x n = x n −1 −

( b − x n−1 ) ⋅ f ( xn −1 )
f ( b ) − f ( x n −1 )

x0 = a = 1 , b = 2

n = 1 , x1 = x 0 −

, n =1,2,3,... ,

( b − x0 ) ⋅ f ( x 0 )
( 2 − 1) ⋅ ( − 0.5) = 1.36067
= 1−
f ( b ) − f ( x0 )
0.886294 − ( − 0.5)

n = 2 , x 2 = x1 −

( b − x1 ) ⋅ f ( x1 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x1 )

f ( x1 ) = 1.36067 ln 1.36067 −

1
= −0.0809
2

( b − x1 ) ⋅ f ( x1 )
( 2 − 1.36067) ⋅ ( − 0.0809) = 1.414146
= 1.36067 −
f ( b ) − f ( x1 )
0.886294 + 0.0809
( b − x2 ) ⋅ f ( x2 )
x3 = x 2 −
,
f ( b ) − f ( x2 )

x 2 = x1 −
n =2,

f ( x 2 ) = 1.414146 ln 1.414146 −

x3 = x 2 −

1
= −0.00996
2

( b − x2 ) ⋅ f ( x2 )
( 2 − 1.414146) ⋅ ( − 0.00996) = 1.420656
= 1.414146 −
f ( b) − f ( x2 )
0.886294 + 0.00996

n = 3 , x 4 = x3 −

( b − x3 ) ⋅ f ( x3 )
,
f ( b ) − f ( x3 )

f ( x3 ) = 1.420656 ln 1.420656 −

1
= −0.001181
2

( b − x3 ) ⋅ f ( x 3 )
( 2 − 1.420656) ⋅ ( − 0.001181) = 1.42142
= 1.420656 −
f ( b ) − f ( x3 )
0.886294 + 0.001181
( b − x4 ) ⋅ f ( x4 )
x5 = x 4 −
,
f ( b ) − f ( x4 )

x 4 = x3 −
n =4,

x5 = x 4 −

( b − x4 ) ⋅ f ( x4 )
( 2 − 1.42142) ⋅ ( − 0.000148) = 1.421516
= 1.42142 −
f ( b) − f ( x4 )
0.886294 + 0.000148

f ( x5 ) = 1.421516 ln 1.421516 −

1
= −0.000018883
2

α ∗ = x5 = 1.421516
α −α ≤

( )

f α∗
m

=

− 0.000018883
1

= 0.000018883

3.2.d. Me e metodën e tangjentës të caktohen rrënjët reale me saktësi deri në 10 −4 për
ekuacionin f ( x) = x ln x −
Zgjidhje:

1
=0
2

Caktojm intervalet
1
= −0.5  0
2
1
f ( 2) = 2 ln 2 − = 0.886294  0
2
1
f ′( x ) = ln x + x = ln + 1 > 0 ∀x ∈[1,2]
x
1
f ′′( x) = > 0 ∀x ∈[1,2]
x
f (1) = 1 ln 1 −

prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut rritës
f (a ); f (b) < 0 , y ′′ > 0 është konkav
α ∗ = x ∗ = xn

x n = x n −1 −

f ( x n −1 )
,
f ′( x n −1 )

n =1,2,3,.....

x0 = b = 2 ,

1
2 ln 2 −
f
(
x
)
n =1 x = x −
0
2 = 2 − 0.886294 = 1.476538
= 2−
1
0
f ′( x0 )
ln 2 + 1
1.69314
f ( x1 ) = 1.476538 ln 1.476538 − 0.5 = 0.07540

f ′( x1 ) = ln 1.476538 + 1 = 1.389700
f ( x1 )
0.075401
= 1.476538 −
= 1.422281
n = 2 x 2 = x1 −
f ′( x1 )
1.389700
f ( x1 ) = 1.422281 ln 1.422281 − 0.5 = 0.0010154

f ′( x1 ) = ln 1.422281 + 1 = 1.352261
f ( x2 )
0.0010154
= 1.422281−
= 1.421530
n = 3 x3 = x 2 −
f ′( x 2 )
1.352261
α ∗ = x3 = 1.421530

f (α ∗ ) = x3 = 1.421530 ln 1.421530 − 0.5 = 0.000000218 ≈ 0

α ∗ −α ≤

( )

f α∗
m

=

0.000000218
1

= 0.000000218

4.c. Njehsoni me afërsi deri në 0.0001 rrënjët të ekuacinit:
f ( x) = x 3 − 3 x 2 + 4 x +1 = 0

Zgjidhje:
Caktojm intervalet
f ( 4) = 4 3 − 3 ⋅ 4 2 − 4 ⋅ 4 + 1 = 1

3

2

27
27
 27 
 27 
) =   − 3  − 4 ⋅
+ 1 = −1.67638484
7
7
 7 
 7 
27 
,4
f ′( x) = 3 x 2 − 6 x − 4 > 0 ∀x ∈
7 

27 
∀x ∈ ,4
f ′′( x) = 6 x − 6 > 0
7

f(

prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut rritës
f (a ); f (b) < 0 , y ′′ > 0 është konkav
α ∗ = x ∗ = xn

x n = x n −1 −

f ( x n −1 )
,
f ′( x n −1 )

x0 = b = 4 ,

n = 1 x1 = x 0 −

n =1,2,3,.....

f ( x0 )
1
= 4−
= 3.95
f ′( x 0 )
20

f ( x1 ) = 0.022375

f ′( x1 ) = 19.1075
f ( x1 )
0.022375
= 3.95 −
= 3.948828994
n = 2 x 2 = x1 −
f ′( x1 )
19.1075
α ∗ = x3 = 3.948828994

( )

f α ∗ = x 2 = 0.000012136 ≈ 0
α −α ≤

( )

f α∗
m

=

0.000012136
18

= 0.000000674  0.0001

4.h. Njehsoni me afërsi deri në 0.0001 rrënjët të ekuacinit:
f ( x ) = x 4 −10 x 2 +16 x − 5 = 0 në intervalin [0,1].
Zgjidhje:
Caktojm intervalet
f (0) = 0 4 −10 ⋅ 0 2 + 16 ⋅10 − 5 = −5
f (1) = 14 −10 ⋅12 +16 ⋅1 − 5 = 2
f ′( x) = 4 x 3 − 20 x +16  0 ∀x ∈[0,2]
∀x ∈[0,2]
f ′′( x) = 12 x 2 − 20  0

prandaj vlerat e përafërta i njehsojmë sipas vargut rritës
α ∗ = x ∗ = xn

f ( x n −1 )
x0 = a = 0 ,
, n =1,2,3,.....
f ′( x n −1 )
f ( x0 )
−5
= 0−
= 0.3125
n = 1 x1 = x0 −
f ′( x 0 )
16
x n = x n −1 −

f ( x1 ) = −0.967025756

f ′( x1 ) = 9.872070313

n = 2 x 2 = x1 −

f ( x1 )
0.96702575
= 0.3125 +
= 0.410455719
f ′( x1 )
9.872070313

f ( x 2 ) = −0.089064014

f ′( x 2 ) = 8.067489919
f ( x2 )
− 0.089064014
= 0.410455719−
= 0.421495585
n = 3 x3 = x1 −
f ′( x 2 )
8.067489919
f ( x3 ) = −0.001093369

f ′( x 2 ) = 8.090414761
f ( x3 )
− 0.001093369
= 0.421495585−
= 0.421630728
n = 4 x4 = x3 −
f ′( x 3 )
8.090414761
α ∗ = x 4 = 0.421630728
f (α ∗ ) = 0.000030008 ≈ 0
α ∗ −α ≤

( )

f α∗
m

=

− 0.000030008
9

= 0.000003334

 0.0001

Të zgjidhet ekuacioni i shkallës së tretë;
1)

x 3 − 9 x 2 + 21 x − 5 = 0

Plotëpjestuesit e gjymtyrës së lirë janë : ±1,±2,±3,±4,±5.
Nga ata plotëpjestues pjestohet se x1 = 5 është rrënjë e rezolventës
5 3 − 9 ⋅ 5 2 + 21 ⋅ 5 − 5 = 125 − 225 + 105 − 5 = 230 − 230 = 0

Prandaj, dy zgjidhjet tjera të rezolventës i caktojmë:

(x

3

− 9 x 2 + 21 x − 5) ÷ ( x − 5) = x 2 − 4 x + 1

x 3 − 5x 2

−4 x 2 +21 x −5
−4 x 2 +21 x −5
x −5
x −5

0
4 ± 4 2 − 4 ⋅1 ⋅ 1 4 ± 16 − 4 4 ± 12 4 ± 2 3
=
=
=
=2± 3
2 ⋅1
2
2
2
x2 = 2 + 3

Nga x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 , rrjedh x 23 =

x3 = 2 − 3

Zgjidhjet janë: x1 = 5; x2 = 2 + 3; x3 = 2 − 3.
2) x 3 +1.25 x − 3.72 = 0 ekuacioni i dhënë e ka formën e ek . (3)
ku ; p = 1.25 dhe q = −3.72 Nga e kuacioni (8) kemi ;
2

3

2

3

u =3 −

q
3.72
q  p
 3.72   1.25 
+   +  = 3 −
+ −
 +
 = 3 1.86 +1.88 = 1.55214
2
2
2   3 
2  3 

Pr a.;

u = u 0 = 1.55214

nd ërsa nga;

p
3
1.25
1.55 v0 = −

3
v0 = −0.27
u 0 ⋅ v0 = −

x1 = u 0 + v0 = 1.55 + (−0.27 ) = 1.28
tjera janë;

Nd ërsa dy zgjidhjet

 1
 1
3
3
1.55 1.55 3 0.27 0.27 i 3

x 2 = u 0 ⋅ε1 + v0 ⋅ε2 =1.55 ⋅ 
+
+
=
− 2 +i 2  + ( −0.27 ) ⋅ − 2 −i 2  = − 2 +
2
2
2

1.55 3 0.27 3 
1.55 0.27
 = −0.64 +1.57 i
=−
+
+i 
+

2
2
2
2

 1
 1
3
3
1.55 1.55 3 0.27 0.27 i 3

x 3 = u 0 ⋅ε2 + v0 ⋅ε1 =1.55 ⋅ 
+

=
− 2 −i 2  + ( −0.27 ) ⋅ − 2 +i 2  = − 2 −
2
2
2

1.55 3 0.27 3 
1.55 0.27
 = −0.64 −1.57 i
=−
+
−i 

2
2
2
2

x1 = 1.28

x 2 = −0.64 + 1.57i
x3 = −064 − 1.57i

x 3 − x − 6 = 0 ekuacioni i dhënë e ka formën

3)

a = 0, b = −1, c = −6
a
=y
3
y3 − y − 6 = 0

x= y−

ku ;

p = −1 dhe

q = −6
2

u =3 −

Nga e formula kemi ;

3

q
q  p
+   +  = 3 3+
2
2  3 

= 3 3+

1
3

3

3

= 3 3+ 9 −

1
242 3
1
= 3 3+
= 3+
27
27
3

242 3 3
1
11

= 3+
242 ⋅ 3 = 3 3 +
6
9
9
3
3

Pr a.; u = u0 = 3 3 +
u 0 ⋅ v0 = −
v0 = −

( 3) 2 +  1 

11
6
9

ndërsa nga;

p
3

p
=
3 ⋅ u0

3

1
11
3+
6
9

x1 = u0 + v0 = 3 3 +

11
6+
9

3

1
11
3+
6
9

Ndërsa dy zgjidhjet tjera janë;
x 2 = u 0 ⋅ ε 1 + v0 ⋅ ε 2 = 3 3 +

x 3 = u 0 ⋅ ε 2 + v0 ⋅ ε 1 = 3 3 +

 1
11
3
1
+
6 ⋅  − + i

9
2 
11
 2
3 3+
6
9

 1
11
3
1
+
6 ⋅  − − i

9
2 
11
 2
3 3+
6
9

 1
3

⋅  − − i
2 
 2

 1
3

⋅  − + i
2 
 2

242
=
3

5) x 3 − 9 x 2 + 18 x + 9 = 0 ekuacioni i dhënë e ka formën
a = −9,
b = 18,
c =9
a
−9
= y−
= y +3
3
3
a2
92
p =b−
= 18 −
= 18 − 27 = −9
3
3
3
2a 3 ab
2 ⋅ ( − 9)
( − 9) ⋅18 + 9 = 9
q=

+c =

27
3
27
3
y3 + p ⋅ y + q = 0
x= y−

y3 − 9y + 9 = 0
Nga e formula kemi ;
2

u =3 −

3

2

3

q
9
9
81 729 3 9
81
q  p
9   −9 
+   +  = 3 − +   +

= − +
− 27 =
 =3 − +
2
2
3
2
2
3
2
4
27
2
4
   
  

=3 −

9
27 3 9 31
+ −
= − +
3
2
4
2 2

9 31
81 27
108 1
2
+
3 =
+
=
=
108 =
27 = 3 3
2 2
4
4
4
2
2
3
3
3
π 5π
θ = π − arctg 2
= π − arctg
=π − =
3
6
6
 9
− 
 2
θ + 2kπ
θ + 2kπ 

u k = 3 3 3 ⋅  cos
+ i sin
k = 1,2,....

3
3

ρ= −

5π 

5π 

u 0 = 3 3 3 ⋅  cos 6 + i sin 6  = 3 3 3 ⋅  cos
+ i sin

3
3 
18
18 

+ 2π
+ 2π 

3
6
6
 = 3 3 3 ⋅  cos 17π + i sin 17π 
u1 = 3 3 ⋅  cos
+ i sin
3
3
18
18 

+ 4π
+ 4π 

6
6
 = 3 3 3 ⋅  cos 29π + i sin 29π 
u 2 = 3 3 3 ⋅  cos
+ i sin

3
3

18
18 

p
u0 ⋅ v0 = −
3
p
−9
3
v0 = −
=−
=
=

5π  3

5π 
3 ⋅ u0

3 ⋅ 3 3 3 ⋅  cos
+ i sin
3 3 ⋅  cos
+ i sin

18
18 
18
18 

=

  5π 
 5π 
⋅ cos  −
 + i sin  −

18

 18 
3 3  
3

3

v1 = −

p
=
3 ⋅ u1 3

3
3
=
29π
29π  3 3 3

3 3 ⋅  cos
+ i sin

18
18 

5π 
3

y 0 = u 0 + v 0 = 3 3 3 ⋅  cos
+ i sin
+
18
18  3 3 3

x0 = y 0 + 3
x1 = y1 + 3

y1 = u1 + v1

x2 = y2 + 3

y 2 = u 2 + v2

  29π 
 29π 
⋅ cos  −
 + i sin  −

 18 
  18 

  5π 
 5π 
⋅ cos  −
 + i sin  −

 18 
  18 

x 3 − 6 x 2 − 7 = 0 ekuacioni i dhënë e ka formën

6)

a = −6,

b = 0,

c = −7

a
−6
= y−
= y +2
3
3
a2
62
36
p =b−
=0−
=−
= −12
3
3
3
3
2a 3 ab
2 ⋅ ( − 6)
( − 6) ⋅ 0 − 7 = −23
q=

+c =

27
3
27
3
y3 + p ⋅ y + q = 0
x= y−

y 3 −12 y − 23 = 0
Nga e formula kemi ;
2

3

2

3

q
23
23
529
23
273
q  p
 23   −12 
u = − +   +  = 3
+ −  + 
+
− 64 = 3
+
=
 =3
2
2
2
4
2
4
2  3 
 2   3 
3

=3

(

23 1
1
+
273 = 3
23 + 273
2 2
2

)

u 0 ⋅ v0 = −
v0 = −

p

3

p
=−
3 ⋅ u0

y0 = u 0 + v0 = 3

− 12

(

1
23 + 273
2

3⋅3

(

)

)

1
23 + 273 +
2

4

=

(

1
23 + 273
2

3

)

4
3

(

1
23 + 273
2

)

x0 = y0 + 2

(

=−

(

)

 1 i 3
 1 i 3
1
4
+
=
23 + 273 ⋅  − +
⋅  − −

2
2
2
2
2
1

 3 23 + 273 

2

y1 = u 0 ⋅ ε 1 + v0 ⋅ ε 2 = 3

)

(

)

13 1
i 33 1
23 + 273 +
23 + 273 −
2 2
2
2

(

)

2

1

− 3  23 + 273  − 4
3 ⋅3
2

=
+
1
2 ⋅ 3 23 + 273
2

(

=

(

)

⋅ − 3

1
2 ⋅ 3 23 + 273 
2

(

3

(

(

1
23 + 273
2

)

)

3

(

1
23 + 273
2

)

=

2

(

)

)


2

1

23
+
273

4
3
i 
 2


 

(

− 3 1 23 + 273 − 4 +  3 ⋅ 3

2
1

2 ⋅ 3 23 + 273 
2

(

1

(

2 2i

1

 2 23 + 273  − 4 3
i=
1
2 ⋅ 3 23 + 273
2

(

)

x1 = y1 + 2 =

2

2

1

3
23
+
273

4
+
 3⋅
 2


1

)

)

)

)

2

1

i  + 2
23
+
273

4
3
 2




(

)

x2 = y2 + 2
y 2 = u 0 ⋅ ε 2 + v0 ⋅ ε 1 = 3

(

)

 1 i 3
 1 i 3
1
4
+
=
23 + 273 ⋅  − +
⋅  − +

2
2 
2
2 
1
 2

3
23 + 273
2

(

)

2


1
1

3

3
=

23 + 273 − 4 + − 3 ⋅  23 + 273  − 4 3 i 


2

1
2


2 ⋅ 3 23 + 273 
2

1

(

)

(

)

Të zgjidhet ekuacioni i shkallës së katërt;

(

)

7)

x 4 − 4 x 3 −3 x 2 +8 x −1 = 0
a = −4, b = −3, c = 8, d = −1

a
−4
=y−
= y +1
4
4
y 4 + py 2 + qy + r = 0

x =y−

8b −3a 2
8( −3) −3( −4) 2
=
= −9
8
8
3a 3 −16 ab +32 c 3( −4) 3 −16 ( −4)( −3) +32 ⋅8 −192 −192 + 256
q=
=
=
=4
32
32
32
−3a 4 +16 a 2b −64 ac + 256 d
−3( −4) 4 +16 ( −4) 2 ( −3) −64 ( −4)8 + 256 ( −1)
r=
=
=
256
256
−768 −768 + 2048 − 256
=
=1
256
p = −9; q = −4; r =1;
p=

Me zëvëndësim y = u + v + w; fitohet rezolventa kubike ;
z 3 + 2 pz 2 + ( p 2 − 4r ) z − q 2 = 0
z 3 + 2(−9) z 2 + (( −9) 2 − 4 ⋅1) z − (4) 2 = 0
z 3 −18 z 2 + 77 z −16 = 0
a = −18; b = 77 ; c = −16;
z 3 −18 z 2 + 77 z −16 = 0
−18
z =t −
= t +6
3
y 3 + py + q = 0
a2
(−18 ) 2
= 77 −
= −30
3
3
3
2a 3 ab
2 ⋅ ( −18 )
( −18 ) ⋅ 77 + ( −16 ) = −432 + 462 −16 = 14
q=

+c =

27
3
27
3
p = −30 , q = 14 ,

ku : p = b −

y 3 + py + q = 0
y 3 − 30 y +14 = 0

2

u =3 −

3

2

3

q
14
q  p
 14   − 30 
3
+   +  = 3 − +   +
 = − 7 + 49 −1000 =
2
2
2  3 
2  3 

= 3 − 7 + − 951 = 3 − 7 + i30 .83
u R = 3 − 7 + i30 .83 = 3 − 7 + i30 .83

θ + 2kπ
θ + 2kπ 

+ i sin
 cos
, k = 0,1,2..
3
3

− 7 + i30 .83 =

θ = arctg

( − 7 ) 2 + ( 30 .83 ) 2

= 49 + 950 ,48 = 7 950 ,48

30 .83 2π
=
−7
3

+ 2 ⋅ 0 ⋅π
+ 2 ⋅ 0 ⋅π 

 =  cos 2π + i sin 2π 
k = o ⇒ u 0 = 3 7 950.48  cos 3
+ i sin 3
3
3
9
9 

 

+ 2 ⋅1⋅ π
+ 2 ⋅1⋅ π 

 =  cos 8π + i sin 8π 
k = 1 ⇒ u1 = 3 7 950.48  cos 3
+ i sin 3
3
3
9
9 

 

+ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅π
+ 2 ⋅ 2⋅π 

 =  cos14π + i sin 14π 
k = 2 ⇒ u 2 = 3 7 950.48  cos 3
+ i sin 3
3
3
9
9 

 

P
Nga : u ⋅ v = − ⇒
3
− 30
u⋅v = −
3
30
10
v=
=3
3⋅u
− 7 + i30.83
z1 = u + v = 3 − 7 + i30.83 + 3

3
10
− 7 + i30.83 + 10
= 3
− 7 + i30.83
− 7 + i30.83

1
ε1 = − + i
z 2 = uε 1 + vε 2 
2
⇒
z 3 = uε 2 + vε 1 
1
ε2 = − −i
2

3

2 

3
2 

 1
3
10
+
z 2 = uε1 + vε 2 = 3 − 7 + i30 .83 ⋅  − + i

3
2 
− 7 + i30 .83
 2
 1
3
10
+
z3 = uε 2 + vε1 = 3 − 7 + i30 .83 ⋅  − − i
 3 − 7 + i30 .83
2
2

Nga zëvëndësim i y = u + v + w dhe
1
1
1
u =±
z1 ,
v =±
z2 ,
w=±
z 3 , dhe nga
2
2
2
fakti se
z1 ⋅ z 2 ⋅ z3 = −q, respektivi sh
z1 ⋅ z 2 ⋅ z 3 = −4
N
g
a

:

 1
3

⋅  − − i

2
2

 1

3

⋅  − + i

2
2

ε
ε
ε
ε
ε

P

v
=

3

3
0

v
=

3
3
0
=
=
3
3 ⋅
u

u

u
v

3
=
u
+
v
=

7
+

z1
z2
z3

z2
z3

=
u
+
v

1
2

=
u
+
v
2
1

3
=
u
+
v
=

1
2

3
=
u
+
v
=

2
1

N
g
a

z
ë
v
ë
n
d
ë
s
i
m

i

y

1
u
=
±
z1 ,
v
2
f
a
k
t
i
s
e
z1

z2
z1

P
a
r
a
u

s
h
e
n
j
a

e

z2

±
z

1
3

=

7
+
i3
0

2

z1

1
3

=

7
+

2

Zgjedhjet e ekuacionit të dhënë janë ;

y1 =

1
2

[

z1 + z 2 + z3 =

]

1 
− 
2  

y2 =

1
2

[

z1 − z 2 − z3 =

]

1 
− 
2  

y3 =

1
1
− z1 + z 2 − z3 = 
2
2

[

]

3

− 7 + i30.83 + 3

10
+ z 2 − z3 
− 7 + i30 .83

y4 =

1
1
− z1 − z 2 + z3 = 
2
2

[

]

3

− 7 + i30 .83 + 3

10
− z 2 + z3 
− 7 + i30.83

3

− 7 + i30 .83 + 3

10
− 7 + i30.83

 + z 2 + z3 



3

− 7 + i30 .83 + 3

10
− 7 + i30 .83

 − z 2 − z3 



x1 = y1 +1,
x 2 = y 2 +1
x3 = y 3 +1
x 4 = y 4 +1

Të zgjidhet ekuacioni i shkallës së katërt;
10 )

x 4 − 5 x 3 + 3x 2 + 19 − 30 = 0

Plotëpjestuesit e gjymtyrës së lirë janë : ±1,±2,±3,±4,±5 ± 6 ± 7 ±8 ± 9 ±10 .
Nga ata plotëpjestues pjestohet se x1 = −2 është rrënjë e rezolventës

( − 2) 4 − 5 ⋅ ( − 2) 3 + 3 ⋅ ( − 2) 2 + 19 ⋅ ( − 2) = 16 + 40 + 12 − 38 − 30 = 68 − 68 = 0

Prandaj, dy zgjidhjet tjera të rezolventës i caktojmë:

(x

4

− 5 x 3 + 3 x 2 + 19 x − 30 ) ÷ ( x + 2 ) = x 3 − 7 x 2 + 17 x − 15

x 4 − 2x 3
− 7 x 3 +3 x 2
−7 x 3 −14 x 2
17 x 2 +19 x
17 x 3 +34 x
−15 x −30
−15 x −30

0
x − 7 x + 17 x − 15 = 0
3

2

Plotëpjestuesit e gjymtyrës së lirë janë : ±1,±2,±3,±4,±5.
Nga ata plotëpjestues pjestohet se x 2 = 3 është rrënjë e rezolventës
3 3 − 7 ⋅ 3 2 + 17 ⋅ 3 − 15 = 27 − 63 + 51 − 15 = 78 − 78 = 0

Prandaj, dy zgjidhjet tjera të rezolventës i caktojmë

(x

3

− 7 x 2 + 17 x − 15 ) ÷ ( x − 3) = x 2 − 4 x + 5

x 3 − 3x 2
− 4 x 2 +17 x −15
− 4 x 2 +12 x
5 x −15
5 x −15

0
x 2 − 4 x + 5 = 0 rrjedh x34 =

Zgjidhjet janë: x1 = −2;

4 ± 4 2 − 4 ⋅1 ⋅ 5 4 ± 16 − 20 4 ± − 4 4 ± 2i
=
=
=
=
2 ⋅1
2
2
2
4 + 2i
x3 =
= 2 +i
2
4 − 2i
x4 =
= 2 −i
2

x 2 = 3;

x 3 = 2 + i;

x 4 = 2 − i.

Të zgjidhet ekuacioni i shkallës së katërt;
11)
x 4 − 4x 3 + 5x 2 − 2x − 6 = 0
x 4 − 4 x3 +3x 2 + 5x − 2 x − 6 = 0
a = −4 b = 5
c = −2
d = −6
a
−4
x=y− =y−
= y +1
4
4
y 4 + py 2 + qy + r = 0

8b − 3a 2 8 ⋅ 5 − 3( −4) 2
40 − 48
=
=
= −1
8
8
8
a 3 − 4ab + 8c (−4) 3 −8( −4) ⋅ 5 + 8 ⋅ ( − 2 ) − 64 + 80 −16
q=
=
=
=0
8
8
8
− 3a 4 +16 a 2b − 64 ac + 256 d
− 3(−4) 4 +16 ( −4) 2 ⋅ 5 − 64 ( −4) ⋅ ( − 2 ) + 256 (−6)
r=
=
=
256
256
− 768 +1280 − 512 −1536
=
= −6
256
p = −1; q = 0; r = −6
p=

x 4 − 4 x3 + 3x 2 + 5 x − 2 x − 6 = 0
a = −4

b =5

c = −2

d = −6

a
−4
=y−
= y +1
4
4
y 4 + py 2 + qy + r = 0

x=y−

8b − 3a 2 8 ⋅ 5 − 3( −4) 2
40 − 48
=
=
= −1
8
8
8
a 3 − 4ab + 8c ( −4) 3 − 8( −4) ⋅ 5 + 8 ⋅ ( − 2 ) − 64 + 80 −16
q=
=
=
=0
8
8
8
− 3a 4 +16 a 2b − 64 ac + 256 d
− 3( −4) 4 +16 ( −4) 2 ⋅ 5 − 64 ( −4) ⋅ ( − 2 ) + 256 ( −6)
r=
=
=
256
256
− 768 +1280 − 512 −1536
=
= −6
256
p = −1; q = 0; r = −6
p=

y = u + v + w; fitohet rezolventa

Me zëvëndësim

kubike ;

z + 2 pz + ( p − 4r ) z − q = 0
3

2

2

2

[

]

z 3 + 2( −1) z 2 + ( −1) 2 − 4 ⋅ ( − 6 ) z = 0
z − 2 z + 24 z = 0
3

(

2

)

z z 2 − 2 z + 24 = 0
z1 = 0
z 2 − 2 z + 24 = 0
2 ± 4 − 576
2 ± 572
2 ± 2 −143
=
=
=1 ± −143
2
2
2
z 2 =1 + −143
z 23 =

z3 =1 − −143

(

1
z1 + z 2 + z3
2
1
u=
z1 ⇒u = 0 = 0
2
1
v=
z2
2
1
w=
z3
2
y1 =

)

v =±

2
1 − 12 − ( −143 )
1
1  1 + 1 − ( −143 )
1 + −143 = ± 
+
2
2
2
2

 1
 1 + 144 + 1 − 144  =
=

2
2
 2

1 
2
 1 + 144 + 1 − 144 
=
 1 + 144 + 1 − 144 

4 
2 2

2
1 − 12 − ( −143 ) 
1
1  1 + 1 − ( −143 )
1 + 144
1 − 144 
 1
=
w=
1 + −143 = 

= 

2
2
2
2
2
2
 2

=

=

1 
2
 1 + 144 − 1 − 144 
=
 1 + 144 − 1 − 144 

4
2 2

y1 = u + v + w =
=

2
2
2
 1 + 144 + 1 − 144 
+
 1 + 144 − 1 − 144 
=
 2 1 + 144 
=
 4 

4 
4 

2
 1 + 144 

2 

y2 = u − v − w = −

2
2
2
 1 + 144 + 1 − 144 
−
 1 + 144 − 1 − 144 
=−
 2 1 + 144 
=
 4 

4 
4 

2
 1 + 144 

2 
2
2
2
y3 = −u + v − w =
 1 + 144 + 1 − 144 
−
 1 + 144 − 1 − 144 
=
 2 1 − 144 
=

4
4
4 
2
=
 1 − 144 

2 
=−

y 4 = −u − v + w = −

2
2
2
 1 + 144 + 1 − 144 
+
 1 + 144 − 1 − 144 
=−
 2 1 − 144 
=
 4 

4 
4 

2
 1 − 144 

2 
2
x1 = y1 + 4 =
1 + 144 + 4
2
2
x2 = y 2 + 4 = −
1 + 144 + 4
2
2
x3 = y 3 + 4 =
1 − 144 + 4
2
2
x4 = y 4 + 4 =
1 − 144 + 4
2

=−

Të zgjidhet

ekuacioni

i shkallës së katërt;

11)
x4 − x2 −2 = 0
Zgjidhje
a = o,

b = −1,
c = 0,
a
0
x=y− =y− =y
4
4
p = −1,
q = 0,
r = −2
y4 − y2 −2 = 0

[

d = −2

]

z 3 − 2( −1) z 2 + ( −1) − 4( − 2) z − 0 2 = 0
2

z − 2z + 9z − 0 = 0
3

2

2

(

)

z z 2 − 2 z + 9 = 0 ⇒ z1 = 0
z + −2 z + 9 = 0
2

2 ± 4 − 36
2 ± − 32
2 ± 2 −8
=
=
=1 ± −8
2
2
2
z 2 ==1 + − 8
z 23 =

z 3 ==1 − − 8
y =u +v +w
1
ku : u = u =
2
u =0
v =±

1
2

w =±

z1

v=

1
2

z2

w=

1
2

z3

2
1 − 12 − ( − 8) 
1
1 1 − 1 − ( − 8)
 =±1
1 − − 8 = ±
+
2

2
2
2
2

2
1 − 12 − ( − 8) 
1
1 1 − 1 − ( − 8)
 =±1
z2 = ±
1 − − 8 = ±

2
2
2
2
2

z2 = ±

1
2

x=y
x1 = u1 + v1 + w1

x2
x3
x4
x1

(
(

)
)

(
[ (

)

1
1
2 2
z1 + z 2 + z 3 =
2 +i + 2 −i =
= 2
2
2
2
1
1
1
=
z1 − z 2 − z 3 = − 2 + i − 2 − i = − 2 2 = − 2
2
2
2
1
1
1
= − z1 + z 2 − z 3 =
2 + i − 2 − i = − 2i = i
2
2
2
1
1
1
= − z1 − z 2 + z 3 = − 2 + i + 2 − i = − 2i = −i
2
2
2
= 2

x1 =

(
(

x2 = − 2
x3 = i
x 4 = −i

)
)

) (

)]

(
) (
)
[ (
) (
)]

(

2 +i

)

(

2 −i

)