NASA News

National Aeronautics and Space Ad ministration Washington . D C 20546 AC 202 755-8370
For Release
THURSDAY

July 2 7 . 1 9 7 8

Press Kit
RELEASE NO:

Project

Pioneer V e n u s 2

78-101

Contents

..................................... M I S S I O N P R O F I L E ..................................... P i o n e e r V e n u s M u l t i p r o b e Mission ..................
GENERAL RELEASE

1-6
7-24 13-24 25-40 41-42 43-45 46-47

.................................... MAJOR QUESTIONS ABOUT VENUS ......................... H I S T O R I C A L D I S C O V E R I E S ABOUT V E N U S .................. EXPLORATION O F VENUS BY SPACECRAFT .................. THE P I O N E E R VENUS SPACECRAFT ........................ T h e O r b i t e r Spacecraft ............................ T h e M u l t i p r o b e S p a c e c r a f t .........................
THE PLANET VENUS VENUS ATMOSPHERIC PROBES T h e L a r g e Probe

48-62 53-58
58-62

The Small Probe

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63-76
63-70

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70-76

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ii
S C I E N T I F I C INVESTIGATIONS Orbiter O r b i t e r R a d i o Science L a r g e Probe E x p e r i m e n t s L a r g e and S m a l l Probe I n s t r u m e n t s S m a l l Probe E x p e r i m e n t s Multiprobe B u s E x p e r i m e n t M u l t i p r o b e R a d i o Science E x p e r i m e n t s

c

...................... 77-97 ...................................... 77-85 ........................ 85-88 ...................... 88-92 ............ 9 2 - 9 3 ...................... 94 .................... 94-95 ......... 9 5 - 9 6

.................................. 97-100 101-102 LAUNCH VEHICLE ................................. LAUNCH F L I G H T SEQUENCE ......................... 102 LAUNCH VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS ................. 103 ATLAS CENTAUR F L I G H T SEQUENCE ( A C - 5 0 ) .......... 1 0 4 LAUNCH OPERATIONS .............................. 105 MISSION OPERATIONS ............................. 105-107 DATA RETURN. COMMAND AND TRACKING .............. 108-111 P I O N E E R VENUS TEAM ............................. 112-114 CONTRACTORS .................................... 114-117 118 VENUS S T A T I S T I C S ...............................
NOTE TO E D I T O R S : T h i s press k i t covers t h e l a u n c h phase of t h e P i o n e e r V e n u s

P R I N C I P A L INVESTIGATORS AND S C I E N T I F I C INSTRUMENTS

Multiprobe s p a c e c r a f t and c r u i s e phases of b o t h t h e P i o n e e r
V e n u s O r b i t e r and t h e M u l t i p r o b e spacecraft

.

Much of t h e

material i s also p e r t i n e n t t o t h e V e n u s encounter. b u t an updated press k i t w i l l be i s s u e d s h o r t l y before a r r i v a l a t
the planet i n December 1 9 7 8

.

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National Aeronautics and Space Ad ministration Washington, D.C. 20546 AC 202 755-8370

For Release:

Nicholas Panagakos Headquarters, Washington, D.C. 20 2/7 5 5- 36 8 0 ) (Phone: Peter Waller Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif. 41 5 / 9 65- 5 09 1) (Phone:

THURSDAY July 27, 1 9 7 8

RELEASE NO:

78-101

SECOND VENUS SPACECRAFT SET FOR LAUNCH NASA will launch the second of two Pioneer spacecraft to Venus next month as part of a detailed scientific study

of that cloud-shrouded planet.

Riding atop an Atlas Centaur rocket, Pioneer Venus 2 will be launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., about Aug. 7 for the start of a 354-million-kilometer (220-million-mile) journey to Earth's nearest neighbor.

Pioneer Venus 2 is a multiprobe spacecraft designed to measure directly Venus' dense, searing atmosphere from top to bottom. Venus' atmosphere at the surface is 100 times

as dense as Earth's and hotter than the melting points of lead and zinc, 4 8 5 degrees Celsius ( 9 0 0 degrees Fahrenheit).

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Thirteen million k m (8 million m i . )

and 20 days o u t from

Venus, P i o n e e r Venus 2 w i l l s e p a r a t e i n t o f i v e a t m o s p h e r i c entry craft. Four of t h e s e p r o b e s w i l l e n t e r Venus' atmos-

phere a t p o i n t s spread over t h e p l a n e t ' s Earth-facing hemisphere, t w o on t h e day s i d e and t w o on t h e n i g h t s i d e . The f i f t h e n t r y p r o b e , t h e t r a n s p o r t e r b u s , w i l l a l s o e n t e r on t h e day s i d e .

Another c r a f t , P i o n e e r Venus 1--an

o r b i t e r designed t o launched May 2 0

c i r c l e t h e p l a n e t f o r a y e a r o r more--was and w i l l a r r i v e a t Venus December 4 .
1

The e n t r y p r o b e s o f

P i o n e e r Venus 2 a r e p l a n n e d t o a r r i v e f i v e d a y s a f t e r t h e
Orbiter

.

The 30 e x p e r i m e n t s a b o a r d P i o n e e r Venus 1 and 2 a r e planned a s a c o o r d i n a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n a l system. The m i s s i o n devoted

employs t h e l a r g e s t number of s p a c e c r a f t - - s i x - - e v e r

t o one p l a n e t and w i l l make t h e most measurements a t t h e
g r e a t e s t number o f l o c a t i o n s .

The f l i g h t s are t h e f i r s t d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y t o s t u d y i n g t h e atmosphere and w e a t h e r of a n o t h e r p l a n e t on a g l o b a l scale. I n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d a t Venus may h e l p us l e a r n

more a b o u t t h e f o r c e s t h a t d r i v e t h e w e a t h e r on o u r own
planet.

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- 3Scientists believe Venus may be an unusually good place to study the mechanics of atmospheres because the planet rotates very slowly and there are no oceans. The atmosphere

appears to be a relatively simple weather machine, and the important atmospheric circulation motions appear to be global. Hence, continuous measurements from orbit, combined with those of the probes from many points in the atmosphere, could provide at least a rough picture of Venusian weather processes.

The five probe spacecraft which make up Pioneer Venus 2 will make direct measurements and observations from within the planet's atmosphere, providing by f a r the most detailed information yet on atmospheric composition, circulation and energy balance.

The multiprobe spacecraft employs a spin-stabilized, 2.4-meter (8-foot)-diameter, structure cylindrical bus, containing most spacecraft support systems. The four The

probes are launched from the bus toward Venus.

multiProbe weighs 904 kilograms (1,990 pounds) and carries

51 kg (116 Ib.)

of scientific instruments.

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-4W i t h i n t h e bus c y l i n d e r , a t h e r m a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d

equipment compartment houses i n s t r u m e n t s , communications and d a t a - h a n d l i n g s y s t e m s , a s w e l l as n a v i g a t i o n , o r i e n t a t i o n , thruster and power systems.
The e x t e r i o r of t h e bus

c y l i n d e r i s c o v e r e d w i t h power-generating

s o l a r cells.

On i t s four-month j o u r n e y t o Venus, t h e s p a c e c r a f t w i l l f l y a b o u t t w o - f i f t h s of t h e way around t h e Sun between t h e o r b i t s of E a r t h and Venus, some 354 m i l l i o n k ( 2 2 0 m i l l i o n m i . ) . m

P i o n e e r Venus 2 i s made up of a t r a n s p o r t e r b u s , a l a r g e probe c r a f t ( t h e Sounder Probe) and three i d e n t i c a l

smaller p r o b e s p a c e c r a f t ( t h e North, Day and N i g h t P r o b e s ) .

These s p a c e c r a f t , i n c l u d i n g t h e b u s , will e n t e r a t p o i n t s s p r e a d o v e r Venus' e n t i r e E a r t h - f a c i n g hemisphere, a b o u t 1 0 , 0 0 0 km ( 6 , 0 0 0 m i . ) apart.
T h e bus w i l l o b t a i n

d a t a on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e uppermost p a r t of t h e atmosphere b e f o r e b u r n i n g up. The o t h e r f o u r p r o b e s w i l l

make d e t a i l e d measurements of t h e atmosphere a t lower a l t i t u d e s

as t h e y descend t o t h e s u r f a c e .

The p r o b e s a r e n o t d e s i g n e d

t o s u r v i v e a f t e r i m p a c t ; t h e y may r e t u r n s u r f a c e d a t a b r i e f l y ,

however.

T h e l a r g e Sounder Probe i s e x p e c t e d t o make t h e f i r s t

d e t a i l e d i n v e n t o r y of t h e c o m p o s i t i o n of Venus'

atmosphere.

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Because of its high density, temperatures, and corrosive constituents, the Venusian atmosphere presents a difficult problem f o r designers of entry craft. The high entry speeds

of about 41,600 kilometers per hour (26,000 miles per hour)

add to the problem.

A l l four atmospheric probes are geometrically similar.

The main component of each is a sperical pressure vessel which houses instruments, communications, data, command and power systems.
(698

The large Sounder Probe weighs about 3 1 6 kg

lb.)

and its seven instruments weigh 28 kg (62 lb.). The smaller North,
)

It is about 1.5 meters ( 5 feet) wide.

Day and Night Probes weigh 93 kg (206 lb. three experiments weigh 3 . 5 kg (7.7 lb.).

each, and their Each of the

smaller probes is 0.8 m (30 inches) in diameter.

All instruments within the probe pressure vessels
require either observing or direct sampling access to the hostile atmosphere. This is oneof the most difficult

technical problems of the mission.

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NASA's Office of Space Science has assigned project management of the two Pioneer Venus spacecraft to Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., and the spacecraft will be controlled continuously from the Mission Operations Center at Ames. The spacecraft werebuilt by Hughes Aircraft

Co., El Segundo, Calif., and the scientific instruments were
supplied by NASA centers, other government organizations, universities and private industry.

The spacecraft will be tracked by NASA's Deep Space Network, operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., a government-owned facility managed for
NASA by the California Institute of Technology.

NASA's

Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, is responsible for the launch vehicle, which was built by General Dynamics, San Diego, Calif.

Cost of the two Pioneer Venus spacecraft, scientific
instruments,mission operations and data analysis is about
$180 million.

This does not include cost of launch vehicles

and tracking and data acquisition.

Launch period for the multiprobe flight is 27 days
( Auq.

7 throuqh Sex>t. 3 , 1978) , and durina these davs

the launch window opens progressively earlier each day, beginning at 3 : 3 6 a . m .
EDT.

(END OF GENERAL RELEASE.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOLLOWS)

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MISSION PROFILE

The two Pioneer flights to Venus will explore the atmosphere of the planet, study its surface using radar and determine its g l o b a l shape and density distribution. Launched May 20, 1978, the first spacecraft Pioneer Venus 1, an Orbiter, will make eight months or more of remote-sensing and direct measurement. Pioneer Venus 2, a Multiprobe, will separate into five atmospheric entry craft, eight million miles out from the planet, and measure the atmosphere from top to bottom in about two hours at points spread over the entire Earth-facing hemisphere of Venus. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter Mission The seven-month flight of Pioneer Venus 1 follows a trajectory more than half way around the Sun (through about 200 degrees), and will cover about 480 mj-llion kilometers (300 million miles). This trajectory, three months longer than that o f the Multiprobe, allows a slower arrival speed at Venus, requiring less weight for the orbit insertion motor. It also allows an orbital low point (periapsis) at a latitude of about 20 degrees north. Launch dates were timed so that the Orbiter arrives at Venus on Dec. 4, 1978, five days before the arrival of the five probes on Dec. 9. Launch dates were selected for optimum payloads for both Orbiter and Multiprobe missions. Launch vehicle for both Pioneer Venus spacecraft is an Atlas (SLV-3D)/Centaur (D-1AR) two-and-a-half-stage rocket. Air Force Eastern Test Range personnel conduct tracking during the near-Earth part of the mission. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is responsible for the remainder. Two days before arrival at Venus, the spacecraft spin rate will be increased to 30 rpm and the Orbiter will be oriented with its 1 8 , 0 0 0 - N (4,000-lb.)-thrust, solid-fueled rocket engine pointing forward, opposite the direction of travel at the point of closest approach to Venus. On Dec. 4, 1978 (the 198th day after launch), Ames Mission Control engineers will command a 28-second orbit insertion burn. This will reduce spacecraft velocity by 3,816 km/hr (2,366 mph), placing Pioneer in a 24-hour orbit around Venus. The planned orbit will be inclined 7 5 degrees to Venus' equator, with its low point (periapsis) near 20 degrees north latitude. The orbit's high point (apoapsis) is expected to be at an altitude of 66,000 km (41,000 mi.), and periapsis initially will be at 300 km (180 mi.) , later reduced to about 150 km (90 mi.). Planned orbital injection time is 11:OO a.m. EST. -moret

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AUG. 7,1978 VENUS AT LAUNCH

EARTH AT

SUN

+

DAYS AFTEI LAUNCH

\

\

VENUS AT ARRIVAL ON DEC. 9,1978

-9-

Within hours after the orbit insertion rocket burn, members of the Orbiter navigation team will have determined any shortcomings in the orbit. After slowing the spin rate and adjusting orientation, they will command firing of thrusters to trim up the orbit to acceptable dimensions. Attention in the Mission Operations Center will then switch to the probes scheduled to arrive five days later, but fine tuning of the orbit will continue after completion of the probe mission. In-Orbit OPerations For efficient orbital operations during the 243-day primary Orbiter mission (one complete Venus rotation on its axis), the orbit will have a period very close to 24 hours. This means that most activities will occur at the same time on Earth every day. This includes the most intensive periods of data return during periapsis. Data return via the highgain antenna will be at the two highest rates, 1,024 or 2,048 bits per second. The 24-hour orbit h a s been divided into two periods, reflecting the kind of measurements being taken. The periapsis (orbital low point) period is about four hours long. The apoapsis (orbital high point) period is 20 hours long. Since the Orbiter dips into the upper atmosphere itself at periapsis, which may be as low as 150 km (90 mi.) to make direct measurements, the periapsis period is the time of highest data return. Mission operations will use five data formats during the periapsis period. These formats are designed to permit emphasis on certain instruments when desirable; for example, one provides intensive aeronomy coverage at periapsis, another stresses optical coverage. The mapping format gives 44 per cent of the data stream to the radar mapper for Venus surface study, and divides the rest between the ultraviolet spectrometer and the infrared radiometer.

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PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF PIONEER VENUS O R B I T
APPROACH TRAJECTORY

TERMINATOR AT

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-11N o r m a l l y , c o n t r o l l e r s w i l l u s e o n l y two d a t a f o r m a t s T h e f i r s t of these w i l l be i n t h e 20-hour a p o a p s i s segment. f o r t a k i n g p i c t u r e s of t h e whole p l a n e t i n u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t , which w i l l show t h e four-day r o t a t i o n of Venus' c l o u d s i n Known a s t h e imaging format, it a l l o c a t e s 6 7 p e r sequence. c e n t of t h e d a t a stream t o t h e imaging i n s t r u m e n t and t h e c l o u d p h o t o p o l a r i m e t e r , and d i v i d e s t h e rest among t h r e e s o l a r w i n d - p l a n e t i n s t r u m e n t s and t h e a s t r o n o m i c a l e x p e r i T h e o t h e r format, known a s t h e m e n t ' s gamma b u r s t d e t e c t o r . g e n e r a l f o r m a t , a l l o c a t e s d a t a r e t u r n among a l l O r b i t e r experiments except t h e p i c t u r e - t a k i n g cloud photopolarimeter and t h e i n f r a r e d r a d i o m e t e r . As much as t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e t o t a l a p o a p s i s p e r i o d w i l l be d e v o t e d t o imaging, which has very l a r g e d a t a requirements.

S p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l l e r s have d e s i g n e d a number of s e q u e n c e s During t h e eight-month O r b i t e r m i s s i o n , using t h e s e formats. t h e y w i l l work w i t h e x p e r i m e n t e r s , s e l e c t i n g f o r m a t combinations f o r b e s t s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s . During t h e f i r s t 40 d a y s i n o r b i t , t h e O r b i t e r w i l l pass b e h i n d Venus ( o c c u l t a t i o n ) f o r p e r i o d s of up t o 2 3 minutes. T h i s a l l o w s t h e r a d i o s c i e n c e t e a m t o measure e f f e c t s of Venus' atmosphere down t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50 km ( 3 1 m i . ) on t h e s p a c e c r a f t r a d i o s i g n a l a s it p a s s e s t h r o u g h it. S i n c e t h e narrow beam s i g n a l i s b e n t by t h e p l a n e t ' s atmosphere, t h e a n t e n n a ' s d i s h r e f l e c t o r c a n be commanded as much as 1 7 d e g r e e s away f r o m t h e E a r t h - l i n e t o e x t e n d t h e t i m e of r e c o r d i n g t h e s i g n a l a s it i s r e f r a c t e d around t h e solid planet.
A l s o d u r i n g o c c u l a t i o n s , when communications are c u t o f f , t h e Venus O r b i t e r w i l l s t o r e d a t a i n i t s m i l l i o n - b i t memory. C o n t r o l l e r s w i l l t h e n command memory s t o r a g e , and a f t e r emergence of t h e O r b i t e r , t h e d a t a memory r e a d o u t format f o r r e t u r n of s t o r e d d a t a .

During t h e e i g h t months on o r b i t , h e a l t h of t h e s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be m o n i t o r e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n t i n u o u s f l o w of e n g i n e e r i n g d a t a (see O r b i t e r Data Handling S e c t i o n ) , and r e d u n d a n t systems f o r t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s ( s u c h a s command and d a t a r e t u r n ) w i l l b e used i f needed. M i s s i o n s Operations engineers a l s o w i l l t r i m t h e o r b i t about every 1 0 days e i t h e r t o lower p e r i a p s i s a l t i t u d e which i s c o n s t a n t l y raised by s o l a r g r a v i t y o r t o a d j u s t t h e o r b i t a l p e r i o d when it d r i f t s from t h e d e s i r e d v a l u e .

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-13T h e primary m i s s i o n ends a f t e r 2 4 3 d a y s . Shortly a f t e r w a r d s , t h e O r b i t e r and Venus w i l l b e b e h i n d t h e Sun and communications w i l l b e g a r b l e d o r c u t o f f f o r s e v e r a l d a y s . A f t e r emergence from t h e s o l a r . b l a c k o u t , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y w i l l be a v a i l a b l e f o r e x t e n d e d m i s s i o n o p e r a t i o n s which are n o t c u r r e n t l y a p a r t o f t h e approved m i s s i o n .

P i o n e e r Venus M u l t i p r o b e Mission P i o n e e r Venus 2 , t h e m u l t i p r o b e s p a c e c r a f t , w i l l be launched toward Venus on a c i r c u l a r p a r k i n g - o r b i t a s c e n t t r a j e c t o r y from Cape C a n a v e r a l A i r F o r c e S t a t i o n by NASA's Kennedy Space C e n t e r p e r s o n n e l . The l a u n c h v e h i c l e w i l l head i n a d i r e c t i o n 3 t o 18 d e g r e e s s o u t h o f s t r a i g h t e a s t , passing over southern Africa s h o r t l y a f t e r separation of t h e s p a c e c r a f t from t h e l a u n c h v e h i c l e . The four-month t r i p t o Venus f o l l o w s a more d i r e c t t r a j e c t o r y t h a n t h a t of t h e O r b i t e r , g i v i n g t h e p r o b e s approach s p e e d s o f a b o u t 19,500 km/hr ( 1 2 , 0 0 0 mph). T h i s i s 6,500 km/hr ( 4 , 0 0 0 mph) f a s t e r t h a n O r b i t e r a r r i v a l , and i s p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e t h e p r o b e s are slowed a t atmosphere e n t r y t o a few hundred m i l e s p e r hour by t h e b r a k i n g of atmospheric f r i c t i o n . The M u l t i p r o b e f l i g h t w i l l c o v e r a b o u t 354 m i l l i o n k m ( 2 2 0 m i l l i o n m i . ) , going a b o u t t w o - f i f t h s o f t h e way around t h e Sun (135 d e g r e e s ) i n f o u r months as i t crosses t h e 4 2 million k m ( 2 6 m i l l i o n m i . ) between t h e o r b i t s of E a r t h and Venus. Launch p e r i o d f o r P i o n e e r Venus 2 f l i g h t i s 27 d a y s , from Aug. 7 t o S e p t . 3 , 1978. During t h i s p e r i o d , t h e l a u n c h window opens e a r l i e r e a c h day f r o m 3:36 a . m . t o 1 2 : 1 6 a . m . EDT. This launch p e r i o d w i l l allow t h e probes t o a r r i v e a t Venus on D e c . 9 , 1978, f i v e days a f t e r a r r i v a l of t h e O r b i t e r . The e a r l i e r O r b i t e r a r r i v a l w i l l a l l o w t h e O r b i t e r ' s remote and d i r e c t s e n s i n g i n s t r u m e n t s t o e s t a b l i s h c o r r e s p o n d i n g d a t a on t h e Venus s p a c e e n v i r o n m e n t , c l o u d s and upper atmosphere t h a t c a n b e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e probe measurements i n t h e atmosphere. P i o n e e r Venus 2 w i l l be launched by an A t l a s (SLV-3D) After C e n t a u r (D-1AR) two-and o n e - h a l f - s t a g e l a u n c h v e h i c l e . l i f t o f f , b u r n o u t o f t h e 1 , 9 1 7 , 0 0 0 - ~ (431,040-1b.)- t h r u s t , stage-and-one-half A t l a s b o o s t e r w i l l o c c u r i n a b o u t f o u r minutes. S t a g e s e p a r a t i o n and i g n i t i o n of t h e 130,000-N ( 3 0 , 0 0 0 - l b . ) - t h r u s t C e n t a u r second s t a g e w i l l t h e n t a k e p l a c e .

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PIONEER VENUS
TRAJECTORIES

ORBITER LAUNCH MAY/JUNE 1978

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ORBITER LAUNCH VENUS AT PROBE ENCOUNTER DECEMBER 1978 ORBITER ARRIVES

PROBE LAUNCH AUGUST

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PROBE RELEASE SEQUENCE

EARTH AT ORBITER ENCOUNTER

ENCOUNTER

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A t s i x m i n u t e s a f t e r l i f t o f f , t h e Antigua s t a t i o n begins tracking. The hydrogen-fueled C e n t a u r e n g i n e w i l l burn f o r about f i v e minutes w i t h t h e f i r s t engine c u t o f f a t 9 m i n u t e s , 4 2 s e c o n d s a f t e r l i f t o f f . T h i s b e g i n s t h e 18minute c o a s t p e r i o d i n c i r c u l a r p a r k i n g o r b i t a t 1 6 7 k m (104 m i . ) a l t i t u d e . A t about launch p l u s 1 3 minutes, Antigua w i l l end i t s t r a c k i n g coverage: a t a b o u t 2 0 m i n u t e s a f t e r l a u n c h , t h e Ascension s t a t i o n b e g i n s t r a c k i n g and a t l a u n c h p l u s 2 4 m i n u t e s Multiprobe-Centaur combination p a s s beyond Ascension r a n g e .

A t 2 7 m i n u t e s and 3 0 s e c o n d s , C e n t a u r b e g i n s i t s second b u r n and 2 m i n u t e s and 8 s e c o n d s l a t e r ( l a u n c h , p l u s 2 9 . 6 m i n u t e s ) i t s e n g i n e c u t s o f f p u t t i n g t h e M u l t i p r o b e on t r a j e c t o r y t o Venus. About 2 7 . 6 m i n u t e s a f t e r l a u n c h an A i r F o r c e Range I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n A i r c r a f t b e g i n s f i v e m i n u t e s of t r a c k i n g coverage.

A t 29.7 minutes a f t e r launch, Centaur o r i e n t s t h e Multiprobe s p i n a x i s t o w i t h i n 1 2 degrees of p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e e c l i p t i c ( E a r t h ' s o r b i t p l a n e ) w i t h i t s f o r w a r d end pointed near t h e south e c l i p t i c pole. One hundred t h i r t y f i v e s e c o n d s a f t e r t h e second C e n t a u r e n g i n e c u t o f f , a l s o a t l a u n c h p l u s 3 1 . 9 m i n u t e s , P i o n e e r s e p a r a t e s from C e n t a u r , and t h e s p a c e c r a f t command r e g i s t e r i n i t i a t e s t h e s p i n u p sequence. S p a c e c r a f t t h r u s t e r s t h e n s p i n up M u l t i p r o b e t o 1 5 rpm.

During powered f l i g h t , as w i t h P i o n e e r Venus 1, l a u n c h v e h i c l e and s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be m o n i t o r e d from t h e P i o n e e r S Mission C o n t r o l C e n t e r a t Cape C a n a v e r a l v i a D N and E a s t e r n T e s t Range t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g Antigua and Ascension. T h i r t y - t w o m i n u t e s a f t e r l a u n c h , a f t e r Centaur-Multiprobe s e p a r a t i o n , m i s s i o n c o n t r o l w i l l s h i f t from t h e A e M i s s i o n ms Director a t Cape C a n a v e r a l t o t h e F l i g h t D i r e c t o r a t t h e P i o n e e r M i s s i o n O p e r a t i o n s C e n t e r (PMOC) a t Ames Research C e n t e r i n C a l i f o r n i a . Commands t o and d a t a r e t u r n e d from t h e P i o n e e r Venus w i l l l e a v e and a r r i v e a t E a r t h v i a t h e g l o b a l n e t of t h e D N t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s . S The s t a t i o n s i n t u r n r e c e i v e commands from and r e l a y d a t a t o t h e PMOC a t Ames.
A t 50 m i n u t e s a f t e r l a u n c h , t h e DSN's Canberra s t a t i o n a c q u i r e s t h e s p a c e c r a f t and 1 0 m i n u t e s l a t e r command capab i l i t y is established. D a t a r a t e through t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s a f t omni a n t e n n a i s 256 bps.

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E N T R Y POINTS FOR PIONEER - V E N U S ATMOSPHERE PROBES

-17For t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o weeks,communications between s p a c e c r a f t and E a r t h w i l l b e p r i m a r i l y " h o u s e k e e p i n g , " s i n c e t h e probe and Bus i n s t r u m e n t s make no i n t e r p l a n e t a r y measurements. They a r e d e s i g n e d t o measure t h e Venus atmosphere. Data w i l l be s p a c e c r a f t h e a l t h and e n g i n e e r i n g measurements. Five days a f t e r launch, t h e space n a v i g a t i o n s e c t i o n a t t h e J e t P r o p u l s i o n L a b o r a t o r y w i l l have c a l c u l a t e d t h e M u l t i p r o b e Venus t r a j e c t o r y p r e c i s e l y , and c o n t r o l l e r s a t t h e PMOC a t A e w i l l command t h e t h r u s t e r f i r i n g sequence ms f o r t h e f i r s t t r a j e c t o r y c o r r e c t i o n maneuver. About 1 4 days a f t e r l a u n c h , t h e t w o Bus i n s t r u m e n t s w i l l be checked o u t f o r t h r e e h o u r s a t a d a t a r a t e of 1 , 0 2 4 b p s . Twenty d a y s a f t e r l a u n c h , o p e r a t i o n s e n g i n e e r s w i l l make a second c o u r s e correction. About 6 0 days a f t e r l a u n c h , t h e seven i n s t r u m e n t s and t h e systems on t h e Large Probe w i l l be checked o u t f o r t h r e e h o u r s a t d a t a r a t e s of 2 5 6 and 128 bps. C o n t r o l l e r s a t PMOC check o u t t h e t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s and systems on each of t h e Small P r o b e s f o r an hour of o p e r a t i o n each a t a d a t a r a t e of 6 4 and 1 6 b p s . They perform s i m i l a r checks on t h e t w o i n s t r u ments a b o a r d t h e Bus a t 5 1 2 b p s . The Bus communications and power system w i l l b e used f o r t h r e e checks. About 9 4 d a y s a f t e r l a u n c h ( 3 0 days b e f o r e atmosphere e n t r y ) , controllers w i l l i n i t i a t e the t h i r d trajectory c o r r e c t i o n maneuver. A t a b o u t t h e same t i m e , t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s o r i e n t e d so t h a t t h e a f t - f a c i n g medium-gain h o r n a n t e n n a looks a t E a r t h . T h i s a l l o w s a h i g h e r d a t a r a t e f o r probe s e p a r a t i o n maneuvers. Twenty-seven d a y s b e f o r e e n t r y , t h e Bus and Large Probe i n s t r u m e n t s a r e checked o u t . Twenty-four d a y s b e f o r e a t m o s p h e r i c e n t r y , and 1 3 m i l l i o n k m ( 8 m i l l i o n m i . ) f r o m Venus, c o n t r o l l e r s r e o r i e n t t h e s p a c e c r a f t so t h a t t h e Large Probe w i l l e n t e r t h e atmosphere w i t h i t s heat shield aligned w i t h its entry f l i g h t path. T h i s means a l i g n i n g t h e Bus s p i n a x i s w i t h t h e planned
L a r g e Probe e n t r y t r a j e c t o r y b e c a u s e t h e Large Probe i s

c e n t e r e d on t h e s p i n a x i s . The Large Probe i s t h e n l a u n c h e d by a p y r o t e c h n i c - s p r i n g mechanism toward i t s e q u a t o r i a l e n t r y p o i n t on Venus' day s i d e , becoming a n i n d e p e n d e n t s p a c e c r a f t .

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V I E W FROM EARTH OF MULTIPROBE ENTRY LOCATIONS

-19The n e x t 2 3 days f r o m a t m o s p h e r i c e n t r y , t h e Bus i s maneuvered f o r s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e S m a l l P r o b e s by changing i t s f l i g h t p a t h , p o i n t i n g i t toward t h e c e n t e r of Venus. A t 22 d a y s b e f o r e e n t r y t h e t h r e e S m a l l Probe i n s t r u m e n t s a r e checked o u t . A t 20 d a y s b e f o r e e n t r y t h e Bus i s r e o r i e n t e d so t h a t t h e t h r e e S m a l l P r o b e s c a n be t a r g e t e d f o r t h e i r e n t r y p o i n t s -- one on t h e day s i d e a t mid-southern l a t i t u d e s , t h e second on t h e n i g h t - s i d e , a l s o a t mid-southern l a t i t u d e s , and t h e t h i r d on t h e n i g h t s i d e a t h i g h n o r t h e r n l a t i t u d e s . M i s s i o n o p e r a t i o n s t h e n commands l a u n c h of t h e t h r e e Small Probes. A f t e r t h e t r a n s p o r t e r Bus i s spun up t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 8 rpm, t h e probes a r e launched by r e l e a s i n g t h e clamps t h a t hold t h e m . C e n t r i f u g a l force of t h e Bus s p i n throws t h e p r o b e s t a n g e n t i a l l y from t h e Bus i n t o t h e i r e n t r y t r a j e c t o r i e s . A s a r e s u l t of t h i s l a u n c h p r o c e s s , t h e S m a l l Probes r e t a i n t h e 48-rpm s p i n e s t a b l i s h e d w h i l e a t t a c h e d t o t h e Bus.

With l a u n c h of a l l f o u r p r o b e s , f i v e s p a c e c r a f t -i n c l u d i n g t h e Bus -- each w i t h i t s own i n s t r u m e n t and command and d a t a system -- a r e headed f o r Venus.

E i g h t e e n days before e n t r y , a f t e r S m a l l Probe s e p a r a t i o n , c o n t r o l l e r s w i l l r e t a r g e t t h e Bus f o r e n t r y . Bus e n t r y i s d e l a y e d a b o u t 85 m i n u t e s a f t e r e n t r y of t h e l a s t S m a l l Probe t o provide a radio s i g n a l r e f e r e n c e f o r p r e c i s e computations of t h e p r o b e d e s c e n t t r a j e c t o r i e s . (Trajectory d a t a w i l l be used t o measure winds i n Venus' atmosphere.)
From t h i s p o i n t o n , t h e f o u r probes w i l l be commanded by onboard timers and o t h e r s e n s o r s and e l e c t r o n i c s , and t h e y w i l l n o t be h e a r d from by c o n t r o l l e r s on E a r t h u n t i l 22 minutes b e f o r e atmospheric e n t r y .
A t e n t r y minus e i g h t d a y s , f i n a l a d j u s t m e n t s w i l l be made t o t h e Bus' e n t r y a n g l e by ground command, and a t e n t r y minus two d a y s , t h e Bus s y s t e m s and s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s w i l l be checked.

Approximately two h o u r s b e f o r e Bus e n t r y , t h e s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s w i l l be w a r m e d up and commanded i n t o t h e o p e r a t i o n mode f o r e n t r y . On Dec. 9 , 1978, a t a b o u t 2 p.m. EST, t h e f o u r p r o b e s w i l l a r r i v e a t Venus and e n t e r t h e atmosphere. The Large Probe w i l l descend t o Venus' s u r f a c e i n 55 m i n u t e s and t h e t h r e e S m a l l P r o b e s i n a b o u t 57 m i n u t e s , depending on e n t r y angle. - more

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LARGE PROBE DESCENT SEQUENCE

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L a r q e Probe E n t r y

Events

A t 2 . 5 h o u r s b e f o r e e n t r y , t h e Large Probe command u n i t w i l l o r d e r warmup of t h e b a t t e r y and r a d i o r e c e i v e r . Twentytwo m i n u t e s b e f o r e e n t r y , t h e p r o b e w i l l b e g i n t r a n s m i s s i o n of r a d i o s i g n a l s t o E a r t h . A t e n t r y minus 1 7 m i n u t e s , t h e Large Probe b e g i n s t r a n s m i t t i n g d a t a a t 256 bps. The command u n i t i n i t i a t e s warmup of t h e s e v e n s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s aboard, p l u s instrument c a l i b r a t i o n . Five minutes before t h e peak e n t r y d e c e l e r a t i o n p u l s e of 320 G , t h e p r o b e w i l l be t r a v e l i n g 4 1 , 6 0 0 km/hr ( 2 6 , 0 0 0 mph). E n t r y o c c u r s a t 200 k m ( 1 2 0 m i . ) a l t i t u d e , where t h e p r o b e e n c o u n t e r s t h e t e n u o u s t o p of t h e atmosphere.

The t i m e r w i l l command d a t a s t o r a g e f o r t h e a t m o s p h e r i c s t r u c t u r e e x p e r i m e n t d u r i n g e n t r y communications b l a c k o u t . T h i r t y - e i g h t seconds a f t e r e n t r y , t h e Large Probe b e g i n s t h e d e s c e n t p h a s e , d e p l o y s i t s p a r a c h u t e and j e t t i s o n s i t s forward a e r o s h e l l - h e a t s h i e l d . F o r t y - t h r e e seconds a f t e r e n t r y , a t an a l t i t u d e of 6 6 k m ( 4 0 m i . ) , a l l instruments should be o p e r a t i n g . Seventeen m i n u t e s l a t e r , a t 47 k m (28 m i . ) a l t i t u d e , t h e p a r a c h u t e i s j e t t i s o n e d , and t h e aerodynamically s t a b l e p r e s s u r e v e s s e l descends t o t h e s u r f a c e i n 39 m i n u t e s , i m p a c t i n g 55 m i n u t e s a f t e r e n t r y . A s t h e p r o b e d e s c e n d s , t h e atmosphere g e t s s t e a d i l y h o t t e r and d e n s e r , u n t i l a t t h e s u r f a c e i t s t e m p e r a t u r e i s 4 7 0 d e g r e e s C ( 9 0 0 d e g r e e s F . ) , and i t s p r e s s u r e i s n e a r l y 1 0 0 t i m e s t h a t a t the Earth's surface. The Large Probe j e t t i s o n s i t s p a r a c h u t e t o speed i t s d e s c e n t t h r o u g h t h i s v e r y d e n s e atmosp h e r e , s o t h a t i t r e a c h e s t h e s u r f a c e b e f o r e h e a t d e s t r o y s it. During d e s c e n t , t h e Large P r o b e ' s s e v e n i n s t r u m e n t s w i l l have o b t a i n e d d a t a t o d e t e r m i n e a l t i t u d e and c o m p o s i t i o n of c l o u d l a y e r s , atmosphere c o n s t i t u e n t s , t e m p e r a t u r e , p r e s s u r e , d e n s i t y , wind f l o w and v a r i a t i o n s of h e a t f l o w i n t h e atmosphere. The Large Probe w i l l impact t h e s u r f a c e a t a b o u t 36 km/hr ( 2 2 mph). None of t h e p r o b e s i s d e s i g n e d t o s u r v i v e impact

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Small Probe Events The t h z e S m a l l Prc.-,br:, t w w i l l . enter t h e planet's atmosphere a t a b o u t 4 1 , 6 0 0 km/hr ( 2 6 , 0 0 0 mph). However, b e c a u s e t h e i r e n t r y p o i n t s a r e s p r e a d over a n e n t i r e hemis p h e r e of Venus, and t h e y a r e launched s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from t h e Bus, t h e a n g l e s of t h e i r f l i g h t p a t h s i n t o t h e atmosphere vary g r e a t l y . T h i s means t h a t e n t r y h e a t i n g and d u r a t i o n s of maximum d e c e l e r a t i o n p u l s e s v a r y w i d e l y .

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Peak deceleration forces vary from 2 0 0 G to 565 G. Entry times also differ by up to 10 minutes, and descent times by one minute. As with the Large Probe, entry is defined as occurring at an altitude of 200 km (120 mi.). Three hours before atmospheric entry, the stable oscillator in the radio transmitter for one-way Doppler tracking and the battery on each Small Probe are warmed up by commands from the onboard command unit. Twenty-two minutes before entry, each Small Probe begins transmission of radio signals to Earth. Seventeen minutes before entry, the Small Probes begin transmitting data at 64 bps. The command unit initiates warmup and calibration for the three instruments on each Small Probe. Five minutes before entry, the two cables and weights of the yo-yo despin system are deployed to reduce the spin rates of the Small Probes from 48 to 15 rpm. The high spin rates imparted by the Bus are needed to disperse the probes to entry points widely spaced over the planet. However, this wide dispersion a l s o means that the Small Probes enter Venus' high upper atmosphere somewhat tilted to their flight paths. The "spindown" of the probes is needed to make it easier for aerodynamics forces to line up the axes of the probes with their entry flight paths. This must occur quickly before heating at the edges of the probes' conical heat shields becomes serious. Cables and weights are jettisoned immediately after spindown. Five minutes before the peak deceleration pulse of atmospheric entry, the command unit orders the "blackout" format for storage of spacecraft data, plus heat shield temperature and accelerometer measurements for the atmospheric structure experiment. This is to assure no l o s s of data during the 10-to-15-second communications blackout at entry. Within the first minute (18 to 46 seconds) after entry, the nephelometer window is opened, and the atmospheric structure and net flux radiometer housing doors are opened and instrument booms deployed. At this time, the upper descent phase begins, with the probes in the altitude range of 72 to 65 km (43 to 39 mi.) and all instruments operating. The instrument compartment doors on each side of the Small Probe afterbodies serve to despin the probes. A small vane on the pressure sensor inlet serves to prevent the spin rate from falling to zero rpm enabling instruments to make observations over a full circle of probe rotation.

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A t e n t r y plus 1 6 . 4 m i n u t e s , a s the t h i c k e n i n g a t m o s p h e r e i n t e r f e r e s w i t h radio t r a n s m i s s i o n , t h e d a t a r a t e i s reduced t o 1 6 b p s . T h i s o c c u r s a t a n a l t i t u d e of 3 0 k m ( 1 8 m i . ) .

From this p o i n t , t h e t h r e e S m a l l P r o b e s d e s c e n d i n t o Venus' i n c r e a s i n g l y d e n s e lower a t m o s p h e r e , i m p a c t i n g on t h e s u r f a c e a t 36 h / h r ( 2 2 mph) from 56 t o 57 m i n u t e s a f t e r t h e e n t r y t i m e o f each probe. U n l i k e t h e L a r g e Probe, t h e S m a l l P r o b e s r e t a i n t h e i r h e a t s h i e l d s t o the s u r f a c e . The d e n s i t y o f t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s s o g r e a t t h a t t h e d r a g o f t h e s e aerodynamic s u r f a c e s slows them t o t h e d e s i r e d d e s c e n t s p e e d . L i k e t h e L a r g e Probe, t h e S m a l l Probes a r e n o t d e s i g n e d t o s u r v i v e on t h e s u r f a c e .
Bus E v e n t s E i g h t y m i n u t e s a f t e r a l l p r o b e s h a v e e n t e r e d t h e Venus a t m o s p h e r e , t h e Bus w i l l e n t e r on t h e day s i d e o f t h e p l a n e t a t high l a t i t u d e s i n t h e s o u t h e r n hemisphere. Unlike t h e p r o b e s , t h e Bus h a s no h e a t s h i e l d f o r h i g h - s p e e d e n t r y , and i s e x p e c t e d t o b u r n up o n e t o two m i n u t e s a f t e r e n t r y . The Bus c a r r i e s two e x p e r i m e n t s on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e atmosp h e r e , and i o n and a n e u t r a l mass s p e c t r o m e t e r . T h e s e i n s t r u ments measure c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e i o n o s p h e r e and u p p e r atmosp h e r e from 2 0 0 km ( 1 2 0 m i . ) down t o 1 1 5 k m ( 6 9 m i . ) , making t h e m i s s i o n s ' o n l y a t m o s p h e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n measurements between 1 5 0 and 1 1 5 km The Bus, w i t h i t s more p o w e r f u l t r a n s m i t t e r , r e t u r n s t h i s data t o Earth a t 1 , 0 2 4 bps.

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A l l d a t a from t h e p r o b e m i s s i o n s w i l l be recorded s i m u l t a n e o u s l y by t h e D S N s t a t i o n s a t G o l d s t o n e , C a l i f . , and Canb e r r a , A u s t r a l i a , and more t h a n 5 0 m u l t i p r o b e e x p e r i m e n t e r s w i l l spend a y e a r o r more a n a l y z i n g t h e s e d a t a . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s w i l l be e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n comparing r e s u l t s from t h e w i d e l y - s p a c e d p r o b e f l i g h t p a t h s on t h e day and n i g h t s i d e s and i n b o t h h e m i s p h e r e s of Venus.

Atmospheric wind v e l o c i t i e s a n d d i r e c t i o n s w i l l be c a l c u l a t e d from measurements of t h e p r o b e v e l o c i t i e s , t h r o u g h t r i a n g u l a t i o n measurements from f o u r s t a t i o n s a t o n c e . Two STDN s t a t i o n s a t Guam a n d S a n t i a g o , C h i l e , w i l l record Bus and p r o b e d a t a a l o n g w i t h t h e D S N s t a t i o n s . -more-

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THE PLANET VENUS

Venus i s t h e p l a n e t most s i m i l a r t o E a r t h i n s i z e , mass and d i s t a n c e from t h e Sun. B u t i t s s u r f a c e i s much h o t t e r , i t s atmosphere much d e n s e r , and i t s r o t a t i o n much s l o w e r t h a n t h a t of E a r t h . The d i a m e t e r of Venus i s 1 2 , 1 0 0 k m (7519 m i . ) , compared The mass of Venus is w i t h E a r t h ' s 12,745 km (7920 m i . ) . 0.81 t i m e s t h a t of t h e Earth. The mean d e n s i t y o f Venus i s 5.26 grams p e r c u b i c c m compared w i t h E a r t h ' s 5.5 grams p e r cubic cm. Because Venus i s c l o s e r t o t h e Sun, i t receives a b o u t t w i c e as much e n e r g y a s E a r t h . However, it i s more r e f l e c t i v e t h a n E a r t h b e c a u s e of i t s c l o u d y atmosphere. A s a r e s u l t of t h e s e two competing f a c t o r s , Venus a b s o r b s a b o u t t h e same amount o f s o l a r e n e r g y as E a r t h . Thus Venus would be e x p e c t e d In fact, the t o have a t e m p e r a t u r e v e r y s i m i l a r t o E a r t h ' s . s u r f a c e of Venus i s v e r y h o t , a b o u t 4 8 0 d e g r e e s Z ( 9 0 0 d e g r e e s F ) . T h i s t h e o r y f o r t h e h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e of Venus assumes t h a t t h e atmosphere a l l o w s t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e incoming s o l a r r a d i a t i o n t o t h e lower atmosphere and t h e s u r f a c e . However, t h e atmosphere r e s t r i c t s t h e p a s s a g e of h e a t r a d i a t i o n from t h e s u r f a c e and t h e lower atmosphere back i n t o s p a c e . The h e a t i s t r a p p e d . E a r t h h a s a modest greenhouse e f f e c t t h a t r a i s e s i t s s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e by a b o u t 35 d e g r e e s C ( 9 5 d e g r e e s F . ) , b u t i n some p a r t s o f t h e i n f r a r e d spectrum h e a t c a n e s c a p e by d i r e c t r a d i a t i o n from t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f a c e t o s p a c e . Because of i t s d e n s i t y , c o m p o s i t i o n and c l o u d s , t h e Venus atmosphere i s v e r y t h i c k , and b e c a u s e it i s m o s t l y c a r b o n d i o x i d e , it i s e s s e n t i a l l y opaque t o o u t g o i n g h e a t r a d i a t i o n a t a l l important wavelengths. One o f t h e m o s t p u z z l i n g a s p e c t s of Venus i s i t s l a c k of water. I f Venus i s as d r y a s i t seems, where d i d t h e o c e a n s of Venus go, i f any e v e r e x i s t e d ? One s p e c u l a t i o n i s t h a t t h e w a t e r rose i n t o t h e upper atmosphere and w a s d i s s o c i a t e d by s o l a r u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n i n t o hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen e s c a p e d i n t o s p a c e from t h e t o p of t h e Venus atmosphere, and t h e h e a v i e r oxygen d i f f u s e d down t o t h e o x i d i z e d c r u s t . D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s shows t h a t it might n o t be p r a c t i c a l f o r Venus t o have l o s t a n ocean o f water by such a r o u t e . P e r h a p s Venus formed c l o s e enough t o t h e Sur, so t h a t t h e t e m p e r a t u r e p r e v e n t e d w a t e r from b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e s o l i d material t h a t formed the planet. I f s o , Venus would n e v e r have had enough water w i t h i n i t s r o c k s t o form e a r l y deep oceans l i k e t h o s e o f E a r t h . D i r e c t measurements o f g a s e s w i t h i n t h e Venus atmosphere may p o i n t toward one o f t w o a l t e r n a t i v e s : E i t h e r t h a t water w a s n o t i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Venus as much a s on E a r t h , o r t h a t water o u t g a s s e d and was s u b s e q u e n t l y l o s t .

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O r b i t and R o t a t i o n of Venus

The r o t a t i o n of Venus i s v e r y slow and i n a r e t r o g r a d e d i r e c t i o n , t h a t i s , o p p o s i t e t o t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e p l a n e t ' s r e v o l u t i o n a b o u t t h e Sun and t o t h e r o t a t i o n of most o t h e r p l a n e t s . Venus t u r n s on i t s a x i s once i n 2 4 3 . 1 E a r t h d a y s . S i n c e Venus' r o t a t i o n on i t s a x i s and r e v o l u t i o n i n o r b i t around t h e Sun a r e i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s , t h e l e n g t h of a s o l a r day on Venus i s 1 1 7 E a r t h d a y s (58.5 E a r t h d a y s of " d a y l i g h t " 58.5 E a r t h d a y s o f n i g h t ) .
The o r b i t s of E a r t h and Venus a r e t i l t e d t o e a c h o t h e r a b o u t 3.5 d e g r e e s . Venus' a x i s i s t i l t e d a b o u t 6 degrees f r o m p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e p l a n e of t h e p l a n e t ' s o r b i t . T h i s compares w i t h E a r t h ' s a x i a l tilt of 23.5 d e g r e e s w h i c h p r o d u c e s o u r s e a s o n s . Thus, s e a s o n a l e f f e c t s on Venus a r e s m a l l .

Some s c i e n t i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t Venus'

period of r o t a t i o n

i s t i e d t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n of t h e E a r t h and Venus around t h e Sun. Venus p r e s e n t s t h e same hemisphere toward E a r t h a t e a c h closest a p p r o a c h ; t h a t i s , e a c h t i m e t h e p l a n e t p a s s e s between Sun and E a r t h . If t h e r o t a t i o n of Venus i s l o c k e d t o t h e c l o s e a p p r o a c h e s of E a r t h and Venus, t.hen t h e i n t e r n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of m a s s w i t h i n Venus s h o u l d b e s l i g h t l y asymmetric.
Why d o e s Venus r o t a t e so s l o w l y when m o s t o t h e r p l a n e t s r o t a t e i n p e r i o d s of h o u r s r a t h e r t h a n months? One s p e c u l a t i o n i s t h a t a l a r g e body h i t Venus and s t o p p e d i t s r o t a t i o n . T h i s l a r g e body m i g h t have been c a p t u r e d a s a s a t e l l i t e i n t o a r e t r o g r a d e o r b i t and l a t e r impacted w i t h Venus t o s t o p i t s normal r o t a t i o n and r o t a t e it slowly i n an o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n .
I t c o u l d b e t h a t Venus w a s formed from l a r g e f r a g m e n t s , and a s a r e s u l t of t h e combined i m p a c t s o f t h e s e f r a g m e n t s n e v e r had much r o t a t i o n . According t o a n o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n , s o l a r t i d a l e f f e c t s i n Venus' d e n s e atmosphere may have slowed r o t a t i o n and t h e n " t u r n e d t h e p l a n e t o v e r " , a c c o u n t i n g f o r i t s backward rotation.
Radar a s t r o n o m e r s have mapped a n a r e a on t h e E a r t h - f a c i n g s i d e of t h e p l a n e t a s l a r g e a s A s i a and have found w h a t a p p e a r s t o be a rugged s u r f a c e . According t o t h e r a d a r r e s u l t s , there

are huge s h a l l o w c r a t e r s a s w e l l as a n enormous v o l c a n o which may be as l a r g e i n a r e a , though n o t a s h i g h , a s Olympus Mons on Mars ( t h e s o l a r s y s t e m ' s l a r g e s t d i s c o v e r e d so f a r ) . Radar a s t r o n o m e r s a l s o d e t e c t e d what a p p e a r s t o be a n enormous canyon. T h i s chasm i s 1 4 0 0 k m (870 m i . ) l o n g , 1 5 0 k m ( 9 5 m i . ) w i d e , and several k i l o m e t e r s deep.

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Venus'

I n t e r i o r and Absence o f Magnetic: F i e l d

U n l i k e t h e E a r t h , Venus has no s i g n i f i c a n t magnetic f i e l d . dynamo i n t h e f l u i d core of t h e p l a n e t . Convection c u r r e n t s i n t h e core g i v e r i s e t o e l e c t r i c c u r r e n t s t h a t produce t h e e x t e r n a l magnetic f i e l d . T h i s t h e o r y , which a l s o seems t o a p p l y t o J u p i t e r , p r e d i c t s t h a t s l o w - s p i n n i n g p l a n e t s l i k e Venus s h o u l d n o t have magnetic f i e l d s . Venus i s a p l a n e t whose shape c o u l d be v e r y close t o a They s h o w i t s e q u a t o r s p h e r e a c c o r d i n g t o r a d a r measurements.
The g e n e r a t i o n of E a r t h ' s f i e l d i s a t t r i b u t e d t o a s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g

t o b e almost a p e r f e c t c i r c l e . Because t h e p o l e s do n o t r o t a t e i n t o view a s do p o i n t s on t h e e q u a t o r , c i r c u l a r i t y around t h e p o l e s c a n n o t be measured. The l a c k o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n s h a p e , and of a s a t e l l i t e makes it d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i n t e r n a l d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e p l a n e t . M o s t models of t h e i n t e r i o r are based on i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o E a r t h , c o n s i s t i n g of a l i q u i d c o r e , a s o l i d m a n t l e and a s o l i d c r u s t . But t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e p l a n e t i s v e r y much i n d o u b t b e c a u s e s c i e n t i s t s do n o t know Venus' t h e r m a l s t r u c t u r e o r t h e n a t u r e of t h e materials which make up i t s mass.
The Atmosphere of Venus

Carbon d i o x i d e i s t h e dominant gas i n t h e Venusian atmosphere. There are a l s o t r a c e s of w a t e r , c a r b o n monoxide, h y d r o c h l o r i c a c i d and hydrogen f l u o r i d e . Free oxygen h a s n e v e r been found. The c l o u d s which o b s c u r e t h e s u r f a c e o f Venus c o n s i s t of
t h i c k h a z e s of d r o p l e t s b e l i e v e d t o be made of s u l f u r i c a c i d .

Venus' c l o u d s a r e p a l e y e l l o w and v e r y r e f l e c t i v e , r e t u r n i n g i n t o s p a c e some 7 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e s u n l i g h t f a l l i n g on them. Space probe measurements have shown t h a t there a r e d i s t i n c t c l o u d l a y e r s much h i g h e r t h a n t e r r e s t r i a l c l o u d s . Photographs t a k e n i n u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t reveal a four-day r o t a t i o n of t h e markings i n t h e s e c l o u d s . T h i s r o t a t i o n i s l i k e t h a t o f t h e p l a n e t , i n a r e t r o g r a d e d i r e c t i o n . Unusual dynamics o f t h e atmosphere a r e r e q u i r e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s high-speed c l o u d motion. The g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d f i g u r e f o r a t m o s p h e r i c c a r b o n d i o x i d e on Venus i s 9 7 p e r c e n t . However, measurements made by e a r l y Venera s p a c e c r a f t (USSR) d i f f e r from r a d i o o c c u l a t i o n measurements s u g g e s t i n g t h e p r e s e n c e o f a b o u t 70 p e r c e n t carbon d i o x i d e i n t h e Venusian atmosphere. And, i f t h e r e i s much a r g o n i n t h e atmosphere, t h e amount of c a r b o n d i o x i d e c o u l d be as l o w a s 2 5 p e r c e n t .

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Adding to the uncertainty is the fact that the percentages determined by the Veneras were obtained by sampling the atmosphere in regions where there are sulfuric acid droplets. The presence of the acid may have contaminated these measurements. It is therefore possible to argue that the carbon dioxide is considerably less than 97 per cent, with the remainder being made up by some combination of nitrogen and argon. The amount of carbon dioxide is important because it plays a major role in the interpretation of the microwave spectrum of the planet. If the atmosphere is 9 7 per cent carbon dioxide, the microwave observations permit the presence of as much as 0.1 per cent water below the clouds. Some instruments on the most recent Veneras 9 and 10 indicated that water vapor constituted about 0.1 per cent of the atmosphere below the main clouds. At the cloud tops it is only 0.0001 per cent, however. But, if there is another gas in the atmosphere of Venus that is not a good microwave absorber, the planet's atmosphere might contain more water than is now believed. Carbon dioxide is also important to theories about the evolution of the atmosphere of Venus, and to the radiative properties of the present atmosphere and its dynamic characteristics. The atmospheres of both Venus and Earth are assumed to have originated from gases that were released from the interiors of the planets which were hot when the planets first formed. In the case of Earth, most of the outgassing may have occurred soon after formation, from the heat of formation. Venus may never have had much water to outgas in the first place if it was formed from parts of the solar nebula that were poor in water, Or it may be that Venus formed with as much water as the Earth, but this water has now been lost. The Earth holds its water in its oceans because it is much cooler than Venus and there is a ''lid" on its atmosphere. This lid is the very cold tropopause where the temperature rises with altitude. This prevents heated water vapor from rising by convection to cooler heights where it could be dissociated by solar ultraviolet radiation. But if Earth were moved to the same distance from the Sun as Venus, conditions could change drastically. The additional solar energy would be sufficient to evaporate all of Earth's oceans.

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If Venus had been formed from the same mix of materials as Earth and then outgassed its volatiles, we would expect it to have an atmosphere about 350 times as massive as Earth's. Carbon dioxide would account for a surface pressure of about 100 atmospheres, and water vapor would account for about 150 atmospheres. On Earth most of the 100 atmospheres of carbon dioxide is tied up in carbonate rocks which are chemically stable at terrestrial temperatures, but unstable at Venus temperatures. Earth's oceans, if vaporized, would result in an atmospheric pressure of about 250 atmospheres. Venus does indeed have nearly 100 atmospheres of carbon dioxide, but the water is apparently absent. There are no oceans, and the atmospheric water vapor is a minor constituent. One of the major questions to be answered by Pioneer Venus is just how much water vapor is present. Water vapor would be broken down by solar ultraviolet radiation into oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen would escape into space leaving the oxygen behind. Effectively the oceans would be leaking into space. This could have happened to Venus. If the primitive atmosphere of Venus consisted mostly of steam (because the planet is closer to the Sun than Earth), the resulting convective atmosphere could not have had a barrier to convection. The water vapor would have dissociated into hydrogen and oxygen. Calculations suggest that within about 30 million years perhaps 90 per cent of the water could have been lost to the planet, but all could not be lost in this way. Furthermore, there is no easy way to explain what happened to the leftover oxygen other than that it reacted with the surface rocks. Yet without running water to continually expose fresh rocks for oxidation, the process might be insufficient to remove all the oxygen. Continental drift might be a possible mechanism to expose fresh rocks. There is a question, too, of what happens to the oxygen now released in the upper atmosphere by photodissociation of carbon dioxide to produce the carbon monoxide observed spectroscopically. The incorporation of oxygen with sulfur to form the sulfuric acid droplets does not seem to account for all the missing oxygen.

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V E N U S - E A R T H TERMPERATURE PROFILES
120

100

BO
v)

w
I

50

E

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w
0 I

I

FO =
w

I C J

!O

TEMPERATURE "C

-31-

On Venus, because of the high surface temperatures, reactions between rocks, minerals and the atmosphere are expected to be much faster than on Earth. However, on Earth the action of running water constantly exposes new rocks to the action of the atmosphere and aids oxidation and other reactions between the rocks and the atmosphere. This is not happening on Venus. If fresh rocks are not being exposed by some other mechanism, the atmosphere of Venus may not have achieved equilibrium with surface materials. The Venus atmosphere can be divided into three distinct regions: a region above the visible cloud tops which includes the ionosphere and the exosphere: a region of clouds: and a region from the base of the clouds to the surface. Upper Atmosphere The upper atmosphere of Venus has an ionosphere which is different from that of Earth. Because Venus does not have a significant magnetic field, the solar wind interacts direc.tly with the upper atmosphere and the ionosphere of the planet. Among the atmospheric regions of Venus, the upper atmosphere above the cloud tops is best understood. It has been investigated from Earth and from flyby and orbiting spacecraft. Above 150 km (90 mi.) it is more rarefied than the atmosphere of Earth at the same height. Like Earth's atmosphere, it is ionized by incoming solar radiation to produce positively-charged ions and free electrons of an ionosphere, which is thinner and closer to the surface of the planet than Earth's ionosphere. Like Earth's ionosphere, the ionosphere of Venus has layers at which the number of electrons per cubic centimeter (electron density) peaks. In Earth's ionospheric layers, the peak electron density is about 100,000 to 1,000,000 electrons per cubic centimeter, and occurs at an altitude of about 2 5 0 to 300 km (150 to 180 mi.). The major ion is singly-charged carbon dioxide. Mariner 10 found two clearly defined layers in the nighttime ionosphere: a main layer at 1 4 2 km (87 mi.) altitude and a lesser layer at 124 km (76 mi.). The peak intensity of the latter was about 78 per cent of the higher layer. On the dayside there was one main layer at 1 4 2 km (87 mi.) and several minor layers, including one at 128 km (78 mi.) and another at about 180 km (110 mi.). The Venera 9 and 10 orbiters obtained similar results, but single layers seem to be the most common.

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SOLAR WIND - VENUS INTERACTIONS

BOW SHOCK TRANSITION

- R~REFACTIOI\ OPAUSE WAVE
~

-/

SOLAR

1
"-1

-- -.

--

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From a practical standpoint, Venus has no intrinsic magnetic field. The field of Venus is less than 1/10,000 o f Earth's field. There is a region of rarefaction (lessened density) of the solar wind flow at Venus, and the characteristics of the plasma there indicate that Venus absorbs part of the flux of the solar wind. On the dayside of Venus, there is a sharp boundary to the ionosphere at 350 to 500 km (210.to 305 mi.). This is believed to be caused by the interaction of the solar wind with Venus' atmosphere. On the night side of the planet, the ionosphere extends high into space and probably into a plasma tail stretching away from the Sun. Temperatures have been measured in regions above the visible cloud layers by radio occultation. The temperature of the exosphere (region where particles escape the planet) was derived from density variation with altitude found by the ultraviolet experiments of spacecraft. From observations of the ultraviolet radiation from hydrogen and helium atoms, it is calculated that the temperature of the exosphere of Venus when Mariner 10 flew past the planet was about 127 degrees C (260 degrees F). At such a temperature, the thermal escape of helium gas would be negligible Accordingly it is thought that if helium outgassed from the rocks of Venus as it did on Earth the gas might have accumulated in the upper atmosphere of Venus. A corona of hydrogen begins at about 8 0 0 km (480 mi.) and contains up to 10,000 atoms per cubic centimeter. Haze Lavers At least two tenuous layers of haze can be seen in high resolution pictures of the limb (edge of the disc) of Venus. They extend from equatorial regions to higher latitudes. They may be associated with temperature inversions in the high atmosphere, and may result from processes similar to those in Earth's atmosphere which produce layers of aerosols in the stratosphere. Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere. The stratified layers of haze are in the region 8 0 to 9 0 km (50 to 5 6 mi.) above the surface of Venus where the atmospheric pressure is between 50 and 0.5 millibars. (Pressure at Earth's surface is 1000 millibars). These haze layers are extremely tenuous. At the topmost haze layer, if the atmosphere is mainly carbon dioxide, the temperature should be - 7 5 degrees C . However, temperatures determined from occultations differ appreciably above 60 km (37 mi.), suggesting temperature inversions that separate the haze layers from the topmost convective cloud deck as well as the upper from the lower haze layers. In the region above 50 km (30 mi.), the daytime atmosphere is about 15 degrees C ( 5 9 degrees F) warmer than the temperature at night.

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The Cloud Lavers
B e l o w t h e upper atmosphere i s t h e 18-km ( 1 1 - m i . ) - t h i c k r e g i o n c o n t a i n i n g t h e c l o u d s of Venus v i s i b l e from E a r t h . While t h e c l o u d s o f Venus l o o k e x t r e m e l y opaque, t h e y are i n f a c t v e r y tenuous. Veneras 9 and 1 0 d e t e r m i n e d t h a t v i s i b i l i t y w i t h i n t h e m (0.6 t o 1.8 m i . ) . They are more c l o u d s i s between 1 and 3 k l i k e t h i n hazes than t e r r e s t r i a l clouds. The p a r t i c l e s making up t h e c l o u d s of Venus are s p h e r i c a l and a b o u t one t o t w o microns i n d i a m e t e r . These d r o p l e t s a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i s t o f s u l f u r i c a c i d , w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n s v a r y i n g from 5 0 t o 5 0 0 per cubic centimeter.

The p r e s e n c e o f s u l f u r i c a c i d c l o u d s e x p l a i n t h e e x t r e m e d r y n e s s o f t h e Venus upper atmosphere. N e a r l y a l l t h e water h a s c h e m i c a l l y bound up i n t h e sulfuric acid d r o p l e t s . The d e n s i t y of Venus' atmosphere a t t h i s l e v e l i s a b o u t o n e - t e n t h t h e d e n s i t y of E a r t h ' s atmosphere a t sea l e v e l . Sulfuric acid c l o u d s remain as c l o u d s o v e r a w i d e r r a n g e of t e m p e r a t u r e t h a n water c l o u d s , a l t h o u g h h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s c a u s e some of t h e w a t e r t o evaporate f r o m t h e droplets. There i s e v i d e n c e of t h e p r e s e n c e of f l u o r i n e i n t h e Venus atmosphere. This element p r o b a b l y combines w i t h w a t e r i n t o t h e e x t r e m e l y s t a b l e and corrosive fluorosulfonic acid. But none of t h e s e a c i d s c a n a c c o u n t f o r t h e a b s o r p t i o n of u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n by t h e c l o u d s . There m u s t b e a n unknown u l t r a v i o l e t a b s o r b e r i n t h e c l o u d s which g i v e s r i s e t o t h e d a r k markings s e e n i n u l t r a v i o l e t p i c t u r e s of Venus. One s p e c u l a t i o n i s t h a t t h e d a r k r e g i o n s s e e n i n u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t a r e oxygen-depleted r e g i o n s where a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of u l t r a v i o l e t - a b s o r b i n g s u l f u r i s b e i n g produced. There a p p e a r s t o b e a whole s e r i e s of compounds of s u l f u r , oxygen and h a l o q e n s t h a t e n t e r i n t o t h e c h e m i s t r y of t h e atmosphere of Venus. The P i o n e e r Venus measurements o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h e atmosphere of Venus w i t h a mass s p e c t r o m e t e r and g a s chromatograph s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s e c h e m i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h a t are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e Venusian c l o u d s and t h e i r markings. The d a r k markings of t h e c l o u d s , s e e n i n u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t , have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c forms t h a t have been s t u d i e d from E a r t h . There are h o r i z o n t a l Y-shaped f e a t u r e s which s o m e t i m e s have a tail. There a r e f e a t u r e s t h a t look l i k e a r e v e r s e d l e t t e r C . The f e a t u r e s i n t h e form of a reverse l e t t e r C a p p e a r more o f t e n on t h e e v e n i n g t e r m i n a t o r t h a n on t h e morning t e r m i n a t o r . Other f e a t u r e s a r e l i k e a r e v e r s e d C w i t h a b i s e c t i n g bar. Sometimes t h e r e a r e t w o p a r a l l e l e q u a t o r i a l bands. The p a t t e r n s a r e a l s o almost always symmetrical a b o u t t h e e q u a t o r of Venus. The arms of t h e s e f e a t u r e s are a l w a y s open i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r r e t r o g r a d e motion which varies between 1 8 0 and 4 7 0 kph ( 1 1 2 t o 265 m p h ) . - more

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VENUS ATMOSPHERE

WEAKLY IONIZED

'""I

MAIN I O N I2A T ION WEAKLY IONIZED LAYERS

UPPER ATMOSPHERE

UPPER HAZES LOWER HAZES TROPOPAUSE CLOUDS

WIND SHEAR LOW H A Z E S AEROSOLS DUST

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CLOUDS

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LOWER ATMOSPHERE

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CLEAR ATMOSPHERE SURFACE

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WIND SPEED m/s

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I n t h e upper atmosphere t h e e f f e c t s o f s o l a r h e a t i n g are s i. g n i f i c a n t , and t h e C-bar, C- and Y-shaped f e a t u r e s a r e a l l ass o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s u b - s o l a r p o i n t , which i s t h e p o i n t where t h e Sun s h i n e s down on t h e Venus atmosphere from d i r e c t l y o v e r h e a d . However, t h e f e a t u r e s move around t h e p l a n e t and are n o t f i x e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s u b - s o l a r p o i n t .
A b i g q u e s t i o n a b o u t Venus' atmosphere i s whether t h e a p p a r e n t motions o f t h e u l t r a v i o l e t markings a r e a r e s u l t o f a c t u a l movement o r merely a wave motion. The e v i d e n c e t o d a y p o i n t s t o a n a c t u a l movement of mass; i . e . , winds. But t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e o f wave m o t i o n s , d i u r n a l t i d e s and p a r a l l e l equatorial belts.

The d i v i s i o n between t h e h i g h wind v e l o c i t i e s o f t h e s t r a t o s p h e r e , and t h e n e a r c a l m o f t h e d e n s e s u r f a c e atmosphere seems t o come a t a b o u t t h e 5 6 k m ( 3 6 m i . ) l e v e l . The b i g change i n wind v e l o c i t y t h u s a p p e a r s t o t a k e p l a c e a t t h e bottom of t h e c l o u d s where t h e r e must b e a s h e a r zone. Thus, t h e c l o u d bottoms are expected t o be extremely ragged. The S o v i e t p r o b e s measured t h e amount of s o l a r r a d i a t i o n down t o t h e s u r f a c e . Above 5 0 k m (31 m i . ) , s c a t t e r i n g appears t o be by t h e c l o u d p a r t i c l e s . B e l o w a b o u t 25 k m (15 m i . ) , t h e s c a t t e r i n g i s R a y l e i g h s c a t t e r i n g ; i . e . , by much smaller a i r m o l e c u l e s . A t t h e s u r f a c e , w i t h t h e S u n ' s p o s i t i o n a b o u t 30 d e g r e e s from o v e r h e a d , t h e i n t e g r a t e d f l u x w a s measured as b e i n g a b o u t e q u a l t o t h a t o n a n o v e r c a s t day on t h e E a r t h a t sea l e v e l i n m i d - l a t i t u d e s . The h i g h v e l o c i t y winds i n t h e Venus atmosphere might a r i s e b e c a u s e t h e p l a n e t h a s such a m a s s i v e and d e e p atmosphere. Larges c a l e e d d i e s c o n t a i n i n g a l o t o f e n e r g y c o u l d t r a n s p o r t momentum The i o n from low t o h i g h a l t i t u d e s w i t h a h i g h a m p l i f i c a t i o n . wind s p e e d s i n t h e d e n s e l o w e r atmosphere produced by t h e h e a t from t h e Sun and t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e p l a n e t a r e a m p l i f i e d i n t o t h e t h i n upper atmosphere.
L o w e r Atmosphere

The p e n e t r a t i o n of Veneras 9 and 1 0 i n t o t h e lower atmosphere produced new i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h i s r e g i o n . A t a b o u t 50 k m (30 m i . ) a l t i t u d e , t h e wind v e l o c i t y a p p e a r s t o b e a b o u t 1 3 0 kph ( 8 0 mph). A t t h e l a n d i n g s i t e of Venera 9 , t h e l o c a l wind v e l o c i t y v a r i e d from 1 . 2 t o 2.5 kph ( . 9 t o 1 . 4 mph); a t t h e Venera 1 0 s i t e , i t v a r i e d from 2 . 9 t o 4 . 7 kph ( 1 . 8 t o 9 . 2 mph). The two l a n d e r s t h u s confirmed a l o w wind v e l o c i t y close t o t h e s u r f a c e , as w e l l as l i t t l e d u s t c o n t e n t i n t h e l o w atmosphere.

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There are s t i l l many u n r e s o l v e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e atmosphere o f Venus t h a t need t o b e answered, such as:
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How d o e s t h e Venus w e a t h e r machine r e a l l y work?
I t i s r e a l l y a greenhouse e f f e c t t h a t makes Venus so h o t compared w i t h t h e E a r t h ? O r i s t h e r e a

dynamic cause? Did Venus once have a more moderate s u r f a c e temperature? What c a u s e s t h e d a r k markings i n t h e Venus c l o u d s ?
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What a r e t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f t h e Venus atmosphere?

Thermal e m i s s i o n from t h e upper atmosphere d i f f e r s v e r y l i t t l e between n i g h t and day and between l o w and h i g h l a t i t u d e . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a dynamic a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e atmosphere, and s u g g e s t s t h a t h e a t i n s u b s t a n t i a l amounts i s b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d There are dynamic a c t i v i t i e s around t h e p l a n e t h o r i z o n t a l l y . a t a l l l e v e l s b e c a u s e s p a c e c r a f t have d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n p e n e t r a t e s through t h e clouds and, t h e r e f o r e , a f f e c t s t h e atmosphere down t o t h e s u r f a c e . D i r e c t s o l a r h e a t i n g i s most i m p o r t a n t above 56 k ( 3 4 m i . ) ; dynamic e f f e c t s below t h a t . m Over t h e whole of t h e p l a n e t t h e r e i s a l s o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e atmosphere a t t h e e q u a t o r r i s i n g a s i t i s w a r m e d by s u n l i g h t , and s i n k i n g n e a r t h e P o l e s , a s it c o o l s . The S u r f a c e of Venus Radar h a s r e v e a l e d l a r g e - s c a l e f e a t u r e s t h a t s u g g e s t Details t e c t o n i c s and impact molding of Venus' topography. of t h e s u r f a c e have been p r o v i d e d by t h e two S o v i e t l a n d e r spacecraft. The r a d a r o b s e r v a t i o n s r e v e a l a l a r g e - s c a l e g r a n u l a r s t r u c t u r e , s u g g e s t i v e of a r o c k - s t r e w n d e s e r t . Large b u t s h a l l o w c i r c u l a r f e a t u r e s , most l i k e l y c r a t e r s , a r e found i n equatorial regions. Some areas of h i g h r a d a r r e f l e c t i v i t y a r e i n t e r p r e t e d a s e x t e n s i v e l a v a f l o w s and mountainous areas. A major chasm s t r e t c h e s 1 4 0 0 k m ( 8 7 0 m i . ) n o r t h and s o u t h a c r o s s t h e equator.
A t f i v e d e g r e e s s o u t h l a t i t u d e and 3 2 0 d e g r e e s l o n g i t u d e i s t h e h i g h mountain B e t a w i t h a c r a t e r e d t o p l i k e t h e l a r g e There are a l s o a r c u a t e r i d g e s . One i s a t Martian volcanoes.

least 800 k m ( 4 8 0 m i . ) l o n g . There a r e mountainous a r e a s which may b e v o l c a n i c o r a r e s u l t of c r u s t a l p l a t e movements.

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P h o t o g r a p h s f rom one S o v i e t l a n d e r s p a c e c r a f t c o n f i r m a d r y rocky s u r f a c e t h a t h a s been f r a c t u r e d and moved a b o u t by unknown p r o c e s s e s . T h e second l a n d e r produced a p i c t u r e of r o c k s w i t h rounded e d g e s and p i t t e d s u r f a c e s . The forms of t h e s e r o c k s may b e e x p l a i n e d by v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t i e s h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e on the s u r f a c e .
T h e e x i s t e n c e of c r a t e r s on Venus s u g g e s t s t h a t i t s s u r f a c e h a s n o t been s u b j e c t e d t o t h e major t e c t o n i c changes e x p e r i e n c e d on E a r t h , b u t t h a t i t h a s p r o b a b l y e v o l v e d somewhat a l o n g t h e same l i n e s as Mars. Some o l d cratered t e r r a i n i s p r e s e r v e d w h i l e o t h e r p a r t s have been m o d i f i e d by t e c t o n i c s and v o l c a n i s m . Venus m i g h t , i n d e e d , have e v o l v e d t o a s t a g e between t h a t o f Mars and t h a t of t h e E a r t h .

Its p i c t u r e Venera 9 l a n d e d a t 3 3 d e g r e e s n o r t h l a t i t u d e . shows h e a p s of rocks, m o s t l y a b o u t 30 c m ( 1 2 i n . ) o r more i n s i z e , and w i t h r a t h e r s h a r p e d g e s . T h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e rocks i s b e l i e v e d t o be associated w i t h t e c t o n i c p r o c e s s e s . The l a n d e r i s b e l i e v e d t o be on t h e s i d e of a h i l l i n which t h e r e i s some downward movement o f t h e r o c k s . T h e s h a r p e d g e s and lack o f r o u n d i n g of t h e r o c k s a t t h i s s i t e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y were formed from b r e a k a g e of h a r d , l a y e r e d r o c k s , p o s s i b l y a lava flow
Venera 1 0 l a n d e d a t 1 5 d e g r e e s n o r t h l a t i t u d e , i n a n area w i t h a much smoother s u r f a c e . This i s b e l i e v e d t o be a p l a t e a u o r p l a i n o f g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e a g e t h a n t h e s i t e of Venera 9 . There are s o m e rocky e l e v a t i o n s which a r e c o v e r e d w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y dark, fine-grained s o i l . This i m p l i e s t h a t t h e rocks have been w e a t h e r e d , p o s s i b l y by c h e m i c a l a c t i o n w i t h t h e atmosphere. I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e g e n t l e winds a t t h e s u r f a c e c o u l d have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e w e a t h e r i n g . G e n e r a l l y a t t h i s s i t e t h e m a t e r i a l of t h e Venusian s o i l i s d a r k , b u t t h e r e are o u t c r o p s of l i g h t e r - c o l o r e d r o c k p e n e t r a t i n g t h e s o i l . Some o f t h e d a r k s o i l f i l l s d e p r e s s i o n s of t h e o u t c r o p s . T h i s s u r f a c e i s i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g much o l d e r and more w e a t h e r e d t h a n t h e s u r f a c e s e e n a t t h e Venera 9 s i t e . The w e a t h e r i n g p r o c e s s may b e a chemical i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e h o t r o c k s and t h e atmosphere, p o s s i b l y by m i n e r a l a c i d s and w a t e r vapor. Measurements made by t h e s p a c e c r a f t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e sarface r o c k s have a d e n s i t y between 2 . 7 and 2 . 9 grams p e r c u b i c c e n t i m e t e r , which i s t y p i c a l of t e r r e s t r i a l b a s a l t i c rocks.

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Surface temperatures appear to be high enough to make portions of the surface glow a dull red. They are high enough to melt zinc, but not most common rocks. The Venus rocks at the two landing sites are about as radioactive as terrestrial lavas and granites. This suggests that Venus, like Earth, has differentiated by heating to form a dense core and a lighter crust. Though it has dramatic major features, the surface is smoother than that of Earth and Mars. Radar-measured minimum to maximum height differences are 10 km (6 mi.)-- the height of Mt. Everest. This compares with 20 km (12.4 mi.) on the Earth, from the bottom of the Mariannas Trench to the top of Everest. It compares with 30 km (18.6 mi.) on Mars, from the floor of the Hellas basin to the peak of Olympus Mons. Craters on Venus seem to be shallower than on the other worlds of the inner solar system. On the Moon and Mercury, and to a somewhat lesser extent on Mars, the ratio of craters diameter to depth is about 10 to 1. On Venus, according to the radar surveys, the ratio is more like 100 to 1. The craters on Venus seem to be extremely shallow; the reason is not known. It could result from plastic deformation of the hot surface or from some weathering process.

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MAJOR QUESTIONS ABOUT VENUS

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A p a r t from c a r b o n d i o x i d e , of what does t h e lower atmosp h e r e c o n s i s t , and how a r e i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s d i s t r i b u t e d ? Venus p r o b a b l y h a s l e s s t h a n s e v e n p e r c e n t of g a s e s o t h e r t h a n c a r b o n d i o x i d e i n i t s lower atmosphere. M o s t l i k e l y c a n d i d a t e s f o r o t h e r m a j o r g a s e s a r e a r g o n and n i t r o g e n . T h e r e a r e no measurements o f l o w e r atmosphere g a s e s o t h e r t h a n t h e S o v i e t measurements of c a r b o n d i o x i d e and w a t e r v a p o r .

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Of what m a t e r i a l s a r e Venus' c l o u d s made? The v i s i b l e c l o u d s p r o b a b l y c o n s i s t of s u l p h u r i c a c i d d r o p l e t s , p e r h a p s formed by s u l f u r compounds from t h e surface.

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What o t h e r c l o u d l a y e r s a r e t h e r e ? Some k i n d s of c l o u d p a r t i c l e s a b s o r b s o l a r u l t r a v i o l e t radiation. T h i s i s needed t o e x p l a i n t h e u l t r a v i o l e t p h o t o g r a p h s which show d a r k r e g i o n s . These d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of c l o u d p a r t i c l e s c o u l d be m e t a l h a l i d e s o r s u l f u r .

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What can t h e lowermost atmosphere t e l l u s a b o u t t h e

p l a n e t ' s s u r f a c e and i n t e r i o r ? S u r f a c e c o n s t i t u e n t s ( p o s s i b l y hydrogen f l u o r i d e and mercury and s u l f u r compounds) may b e d e t e c t a b l e i n t h e bottom 2 0 km ( 1 2 m i . ) of t h e h o t , d e n s e atmosphere.
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How d o e s t e m p e r a t u r e , p r e s s u r e and d e n s i t y v a r y g l o b a l l y about t h e planet? Why i s Venus' lower atmosphere s o h o t ? T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o a runaway g r e e n h o u s e e f f e c t i n which h e a t from t h e Sun i s m o r e e a s i l y a b s o r b e d t h a n reradiated.

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What r o l e do v a p o r i z a t i o n - c o n d e n s a t i o n c y c l e s p l a y i n t h e atmosphere, and how do t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a f f e c t Venus' weather? What a r e t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e s of t h e upper atmosphere? How does t e m p e r a t u r e v a r y i n s p a c e and t i m e i n t h e upper atmosphere? -morel

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What a r e t h e roles o f g l o b a l c i r c u l a t i o n and l o c a l t u r b u l e n c e i n s t a b i l i z i n g t h e u p p e r atmosphere? What a r e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e n e u t r a l p a r t i c l e s on ionos p h e r e composition? How h i g h d o e s s u p e r r o t a t i o n ( f o u r - d a y r o t a t i o n ) of t h e cloud tops extend? S i n c e Venus h a s no m a g n e t i c f i e l d , t h e s o l a r wind i n t e r a c t s d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e u p p e r a t m o s p h e r e . What mechanisms d o e s t h i s c r e a t e , and do t h e y a f f e c t t h e l o w e r atmosphere? Where d i d Venus' a t m o s p h e r e come from and where i s i t going? The main s o u r c e s of Venus' a t m o s p h e r e p r o b a b l y a r e o u t g a s s i n g from t h e i n t e r i o r , g a s e s from t h e o r i g i n a l s o l a r n e b u l a and some s o l a r wind p a r t i c l e s .

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Where i s t h e water t h a t may h a v e o n c e been on Venus? The o b v i o u s a n s w e r s a r e t h a t i t e i t h e r " l e a k e d " t o s p a c e b e c a u s e o f h i g h Venus h e a t i n g , o r i t w a s n e v e r t h e r e . B u t numerous q u e s t i o n s r e m a i n .

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Why does Venus' a t m o s p h e r e d i f f e r so much from t h a t of i t s "twin" p l a n e t , Earth?
I s a l l Venus t e r r a i n r e l a t i v e l y low compared t o E a r t h and Mars o r d o e s Venus' " i n v i s i b l e hemisphere" c o n t a i n h i g h m o u n t a i n s a n d deep canyons c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e on E a r t h and Mars?
Is Venus a s c l o s e t o a p e r f e c t s p h e r e as t h e e q u a t o r i a l measurements s u g g e s t ?

0

0

0

Does Venus' i n t e r i o r c o n t a i n l a r g e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of h i g h density material.

The l o c k i n g o f Venus' r o t a t i o n t o E a r t h ' s o r b i t s u g g e s t s such m a s s c o n c e n t r a t i o n s .
0

What i s t h e s u r f a c e topography? What i s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s u r f a c e ? -more-

0

-43-

H I S T O R I C A L D I S C O V E R I E S ABOUT VENUS

684 BC
1610

Ninevah t a b l e t s record o b s e r v a t i o n s of Venus. Using t h e newly-invented t e l e s c o p e , G a l i l e o f i n d s t h a t Venus e x h i b i t s p h a s e s l i k e those of t h e Moon.
M i k h a i l V . Lomonosov ( U . S .S .R)

1761

i n t e r p r e t s optical e f f e c t s o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t r a n s i t of Venus as due t o a n atmosphere on t h e p l a n e t .

1792

Johann H S c h r o t e r (Germany) c o n c l u d e s Venus h a s a n atmosphere b e c a u s e t h e c u s p s a t t h e c r e s c e n t p h a s e e x t e n d beyond t h e g e o m e t r i c a l c r e s c e n t . Johann Wurm (Germany) d e t e r m i n e s t h e d i a m e t e r of t h e v i s i b l e d i s c of Venus a s 1 2 , 2 9 3 km (7,639 m i . ) . S c h i a p a r e l l i concludes from h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t Venus r o t a t e s i n 225 d a y s . and S e t h B . N i c h o l s o n Edward S t . J o h n ( U . S . ) (U.S.) s u g g e s t t h a t Venus i s a d r y , d u s t y w o r l d b e c a u s e t h e y c a n n o t d e t e c t any water vapor i n i t s atmosphere. L y o t measures t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n of s u n l i g h t ref l e c t e d from t h e c l o u d s of Venus and i n t r o d u c e s a new method of i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e s i z e and n a t u r e of p a r t i c l e s i n i t s c l o u d s .
Walter S . A d a m s (U.S.) and Theodore Dunham (U.S.) d e t e c t c a r b o n d i o x i d e i n t h e atmosphere of Venus.

.

1807

1890
1 9 20

1922

1932
1942

Rupert W i l d t (U.S.) shows t h a t t h e h i g h s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e of Venus c o u l d a r i s e from a g r e e n house e f f e c t i n a n atmosphere w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of c a r b o n d i o x i d e .
F r e d Hoyle ( U n i t e d Kingdom) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e Venus c l o u d s a r e a photochemical hydrocarbon smog.

1955
1 9 56

Radio waves a t 3-cm wavelength a r e d e t e c t e d from Venus and show t h a t t h e s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e is v e r y h i g h ; a b o u t 330 d e g r e e s C (625 d e g r e e s F . )

.

1957

C h a r l e s Boyer ( F r a n c e ) d i s c o v e r s a four-day r o t a t i o n p e r i o d of t h e u l t r a v i o l e t markings i n t h e c l o u d s of Venus. -more-

l

-44Adouin D o l l f u s [France) d e t e r m i n e s p r e s s u r e a t c l o u d t o p s as 9 0 m i l l i b a r s , u s i n g p o l a r i m e t r y .

1960
1960

. I c a l c u l a t e s h e a t i n g i n atmosp h e r e w i t h l a r g e amounts of c a r b o n d i o x i d e and w a t e r v a p o r , c o n c l u d e s s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e can be r a i s e d by g r e e n h o u s e e f f e c t t o above t h e b o i l i n g p o i n t of w a t e r , 1 0 0 d e g r e e s C ( 2 1 2 d e g r e e s F . ) .
C a r l Sagan ( U . S

1962

Low r a d a r r e f l e c t i v i t y of Venus r u l e s o u t any p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e r e b e i n g l a r g e b o d i e s of w a t e r on t h e p l a n e t ' s s u r f a c e . Radar o b s e r v a t i o n of Venus e s t a b l i s h e s r o t a t i o n a s r e t r o g r a d e i n a p e r i o d of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 4 0 days. Mariner 2 f l y b y confirms high s u r f a c e p r e s s u r e ( a t l e a s t 75 a t m o s p h e r e s ) a n d t e m p e r a t u r e ( a b o u t 650 d e g r e e s K) and shows no s u b s t a n t i a l m a g n e t i c field. M a r i n e r 5 f l y b y u s e s r a d i o o c c u l t a t i o n t o measure s t r u c t u r e of upper atmosphere and l o c a t e h e i g h t of c l o u d s above s u r f a c e ; d i s c o v e r s i o n o s p h e r e and f i n d s t h a t c a r b o n d i o x i d e i s major compound of atmosphere. James P o l l a c k ( U . S . ) and Sagan c a l c u l a t e g r e e n house e f f e c t f o r m a s s i v e Venus atmosphere, showi n g t h a t s o l a r energy a l o n e can h e a t s u r f a c e t o above 450 d e g r e e s C (845 d e g r e e s F . ) . Radius of Venus s u r f a c e d e t e r m i n e d from r a d a r t o b e 6,050 km ( 3 , 7 5 0 m i . ) w i t h u n c e r t a i n t y of l e s s t h a n 5 km ( 3 m i . ) . S u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s and p r e s s u r e s a r e e s t i m a t e d from r a d i o and r a d a r d a t a a s 4 7 7 d e g r e e s C ( 8 9 0 d e g r e e s F . ) and 9 0 a t m o s p h e r e s .
U.S.S.R.

1962

1962

1967

1967

1968

1968

1 9 69

probes,Venera 5 and 6 , s u c c e s s f u l l y l a n d on s u r f a c e , d e t e r m i n e a c c u r a t e t e m p e r a t u r e (750 d e g r e e s K) and p r e s s u r e ( 9 0 a t m o s p h e r e s ) , a l s o s t r u c t u r e of lower atmosphere.

1 97 1

A n a l y s i s of p o l a r i z a t i o n d a t a by James Hansen and A l b e r t Arking ( U . S . ) shows t h a t t h e c l o u d p a r t i c l e s are s p h e r i c a l with a r e f r a c t i v e index of 1 . 4 4 , r a d i u s of 1 . 0 5 pm and a l o c a t i o n a t a p r e s s u r e l e v e l of 50 m i l l i b a r s .

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1972

A.T.

Young and G . S i l l ( U . S . ) independently c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e p o l a r i z a t i o n d a t a imply t h a t Venus c l o u d s a r e composed of s u l p h u r i c a c i d droplets.
U.S.S.R.

1972

Venera 8 l a n d e r measures r a d i o a c t i v e c o n t e n t of s u r f a c e r o c k s , c o n c l u d e s Venus i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Also d e t e r m i n e s t h a t s u n l i g h t ( a few p e r c e n t ) p e n e t r a t e s t o s u r f a c e .

1973

O b s e r v a t i o n s of c a r b o n d i o x i d e a b s o r p t i o n s i n Venus atmosphere show a 20 p e r c e n t f l u c t u a t i o n o v e r a four-day p e r i o d , i n t e r p r e t e d a s upward and downward motions of c l o u d deck p l a n e t w i d e .
R a d a r s c a n s of Venus r e v e a l huge s h a l l o w c r a t e r s

1973 1973

on t h e p l a n e t ' s s u r f a c e . P o l l a c k makes o b s e r v a t i o n s of Venus from h i g h f l y i n g a i r c r a f t and c o n c l u d e s t h a t c l o u d s a r e deep h a z e s of s u l f u r i c a c i d d r o p s . R i c h a r d G o l d s t e i n ( U .S .) p r o d u c e s h i g h r e s o l u t i o n r a d a r images of s m a l l areas of t h e p l a n e t ' s s u r f a c e showing many t o p o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s . Mariner 1 0 ( f l y b y ) o b t a i n s d e t a i l e d u l t r a v i o l e t photographs of c l o u d s , determined c i r c u l a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n upper atmosphere.
U.S.S.R.

1974

1974

1976

Venera 9 and 1 0 l a n d e r s photograph s u r f a c e a t t w o l o c a t i o n s , showing exposed r o c k s and e v i d e n c e of e r o s i o n p r o c e s s e s .

1976

Arvydas K l i o r e ( U . S . ) and c o l l e a g u e s c o n c l u d e from r a d i o o c c u l t a t i o n d a t a t h a t a d d i t i o n a l d i s c r e t e c l o u d l a y e r s e x i s t below t h e main s u l f u r i c acid clouds. Radar images w i t h t h e upgraded A r e c i b o r a d a r i n d i c a t e l a r g e v o l c a n o e s and c r a t e r s on p l a n e t .

1977

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EXPLORATION OF VENUS BY SPACECRAFT

Venus h a s b e e n e x p l o r e d by 1 3 s p a c e c r a f t of which t h r e e w e r e American and 1 0 w e r e R u s s i a n . F i v e o f t h e s e s p a c e c r a f t were f l y b y s and e i g h t were l a n d e r s . S e v e r a l of t h e R u s s i a n s p a c e c r a f t c o n s i s t e d of b o t h o r b i t e r s and l a n d e r s which separ a t e d on a r r i v a l a t Venus. The r e c o r d i s a s f o l l o w s : Venera 1 (U.S.S.R.)
A f l y b y s p a c e c r a f t ; p a s s e d Venus May 1 9 6 1 . N o s c i e n c e d a t a w e r e

returned, according t o r e p o r t s .

Mariner 2 ( U . S . )

A f l y b y s p a c e c r a f t ; p a s s e d Venus

December 1 9 6 2 . D i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e temperature averages 426 degrees C ( 7 9 9 d e g r e e s F . ) on b o t h n i g h t and day h e m i s p h e r e s , and t h a t t h e p l a n e t h a s v i r t u a l l y no magnetic f i e l d and no r a d i a t i o n b e l t s . Venera 2 (U.S.S.R.)
A f l y b y s p a c e c r a f t : p a s s e d Venus F e b r u a r y 1 9 6 6 . An a t t e m p t t o photo-

g r a p h Venus a p p a r e n t l y was n o t successful. Venera 3 (U.S.S.R.)
A lander spacecraft: entered t h e atmosphere March 1 9 6 6 . N o r e p o r t s

o f any s c i e n t i f i c d a t a b e i n g r e t u r n e d . Venera 4 (U.S.S.R.)
A l a n d e r s p a c e c r a f t ; e n t e r e d atmos-

p h e r e of Venus O c t o b e r 1967, and returned data during descent t o a f e w a t m o s p h e r e s . Determined t h e atmosphere i s mainly c a r b o n d i o x i d e . M a r i n e r 5 (U.S.)
A f l y b y s p a c e c r a f t ; passed October

1 9 6 7 . P r o v i d e d t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e p r o f i l e s t o 527 d e g r e e s C ( 9 8 1 d e g r e e s F . ) and 1 0 0 atmospheres a t t h e s u r f a c e . Determined t h e det a i l e d s t r u c t u r e of t h e i o n o s p h e r e , and d i s c o v e r e d t h e atomic hydrogen corona.

Venera 5 (U.S.S.R.)

A lander spacecraft; descent capsule

e n t e r e d t h e atmosphere i n May 1 9 6 9 . Measured t e m p e r a t u r e , p r e s s u r e and atmospheric composition. -more-

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Venera 6 (U.S.S.R.)

A lander spacecraft; capsule entered

t h e a t m o s p h e r e May 1 9 6 9 . Determined low w a t e r v a p o r c o n t e n t ; s u g g e s t e d p r e s e n c e o f n i t r o g e n . Measured carbon d i o x i d e a s 9 3 t o 9 7 p e r c e n t of a t m o s p h e r e , and oxygen l e s s t h a n 0 . 4 p e r c e n t ; s u r f a c e p r e s s u r e of n e a r l y 100 atmospheres. Venera 7 ( U . S . S . R . )
A

lander spacecraft; entry capsule p e n e t r a t e d t h e a t m o s p h e r e December 1971; data w e r e transmitted for 23 m i n u t e s from t h e s u r f a c e . Measured a s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e o f 543 d e g r e e s C ( 1 , 0 0 9 d e g r e e s F . ) and a p r e s s u r e of 9 0 atmospheres. lander s p a c e c r a f t ; capsule landed J u l y 1 9 7 2 , and t r a n s m i t t e d s u r f a c e d a t a f o r 1 0 7 m i n u t e s . Determined amounts o f uranium, t h o r i u m and p o t a s sium i n s u r f a c e m a t e r i a l s and showed t h e y w e r e s i m i l a r t o amounts i n t e r r e s t r i a l r o c k s . Measured a s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e o f 530 d e g r e e s C (986 degrees F.)

Venera 8 (U.S.S.R.)

A

.

Mariner 1 0 ( U . S . )

Mercury-bound s p a c e c r a f t ; passed Venus February 1974. Obtained f i r s t pict u r e s from s p a c e c r a f t . Revealed t h e s t r u c t u r a l d e t a i l s of t h e c l o u d s i n u l t r a v i o l e t l i g h t . Confirmed t h e c-, yand p s i - s h a p e d c l o u d m a r k i n g s , and f o u r - d a y r o t a t i o n o f t h e s e marki n g s . Found s i g n i f i c a n t amounts o f h e l i u m and c o n f i r m e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f hydrogen i n t h e u p p e r a t m o s p h e r e . Photographed h i g h - a l t i t u d e haze l a y e r s .
A lander s p a c e c r a f t . Capsule reached s u r f a c e O c t o b e r 1 9 7 5 a t 33 d e g r e e s N . l a t i t u d e , 293 d e g r e e s l o n g i t u d e . R e -

Venera 9 (U.S.S.R.)

t u r n e d f i r s t p i c t u r e from t h e s u r f a c e o f Venus. Measured wind s p e e d s , p r e s s u r e , t e m p e r a t u r e and s o l a r r a d i a t i o n f l u x throughout t h e atmosphere t o t h e s u r f a c e . O r b i t e r surveyed p l a n e t . Venera 1 0 ( U . S .S . R . )
A lander s p a c e c r a f t ; capsule reached s u r f a c e October 1975 a t 1 5 degrees N . l a t i t u d e , 295 d e g r e e s l o n g i t u d e . R e -

t u r n e d second s u r f a c e p i c t u r e . O r b i t e r s u r v e y e d p l a n e t and l o o k e d a t s u r f a c e w i t h b i s t a t i c radar. Determined s u r f a c e e l e v a t i o n s d i f f e r e d b o n l y a few k i l o meters a l o n g o r b i t e r Track.

-48-

THE PIONEER VENUS SPACECRAFT

The P i o n e e r Venus m i s s i o n w i l l b e accomplished by two s e p a r a t e s p a c e c r a f t , t h e 3 r b i t e r and t h e M u l t i p r o b e . The Orbiter, carrying 1 2 s c i e n t i f i c instruments, w i l l globally s u r v e y Venus' atmosphere and s u r r o u n d i n g environment. It w i l l s t u d y t h e Venusian s u r f a c e and p e r f o r m one a s t r o n o m i c a l experiment

.

The M u l t i p r o b e w i l l d i v i d e i n t o f i v e atmosphere e n t r y c r a f t as it a p p r o a c h e s Venus from E a r t h . These a r e t h e t r a n s p o r t e r Bus, t h e Large and t h r e e Small P r o b e s . The f o u r p r o b e s w i l l measure Venus' atmosphere from i t s t e n u o u s b e g i n n i n g s down t o t h e d e n s e s u p e r h e a t e d r e g i o n s a t t h e s u r face. A f t e r l a u n c h i n g t h e p r o b e s , t h e B U S , t o o , w i l l e n t e r and measure c o m p o s i t i o n o f Venus' u p p e r atmosphere. Together t h e f i v e atmospheric entry c r a f t w i l l carry 1 8 s c i e n t i f i c instruments. The Large Probe c a r r i e s s e v e n i n s t r u m e n t s ; t h e Small P r o b e s , t h r e e e a c h , and t h e BUS, two. To meet t h e P i o n e e r Venus r e q u i r e m e n t f o r two r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e and l o w c o s t s p a c e c r a f t , d e s i g n e r s chose s p i n n i n g vehicles. Spinning c y l i n d r i c a l s p a c e c r a f t provide s t a b i l i t y w i t h minimum w e i g h t , good s o l a r c e l l deployment, v i e w i n g f o r e x p e r i m e n t s i n a f u l l c i r c l e and s p i n s c a n f o r t h e imaging system. The B a s i c Bus
T h e Venus O r b i t e r and Venus M u l t i p r o b e s p a c e c r a f t s h a r e a ''basic bus" design. T h r e e q u a r t e r s of t h e s y s t e m on t h e b a s i c b u s e s a r e common t o b o t h s p a c e c r a f t . I n t h e Multip r o b e d e s i g n , t h e f o u r atmosphere e n t r y p r o b e s a r e mounted on t h e f l a t s u r f a c e which i s t h e t o p o r f o r w a r d end o f t h e bus c y l i n d e r .

The common s y s t e m s on t h e - b a s i c b u s f o r b o t h s p a c e c r a f t i n c l u d e a t h e r m a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d equipment and e x p e r i m e n t s c o m p a r t m e n t : s o l a r - e l e c t r i c p a n e l s , b a t t e r i e s and power d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m ; f o r w a r d and a f t "omni" a n t e n n a s ; communic a t i o n s s y s t e m ; d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g s y s t e m ; Sun and s t a r s e n s o r s f o r o r i e n t a t i o n r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g c r u i s e and maneuvers; hyd r a z i n e p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s ; and t h r u s t e r s f o r o r i e n t a t i o n , c o u r s e changes and s p i n - r a t e c o n t r o l .

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Structure
T h e b a s i c bus p o r t i o n s of b o t h s p a c e c r a f t a r e t h e i r main b o d i e s , f l a t c y l i n d e r s , 2 . 5 m ( 8 . 3 f t ) i n d i a m e t e r and 1 . 2 m (4 f t . ) high.

The b u s e s p r o v i d e a s p i n - s t a b i l i z e d p l a t f o r m f o r s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s , s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s and i n t h e c a s e of t h e M u l t i p r o b e , t h e f o u r probe c r a f t . A c i r c u l a r e q u i p ment s h e l f w i t h an a r e a of 4 . 3 7 sq. m ( 5 0 s q . f t . ) i s l o c a t e d i n t h e upper o r foward end of t h e bus c y l i n d e r . The s h e l f i s mounted on t h e f o r w a r d end of t h e t h r u s t t u b e , t h e r i g i d s t r u c t u r e which c o n n e c t s t h e s p a c e c r a f t t o t h e l a u n c h vehicle. Twelve e q u a l l y spaced s t r u t s s u p p o r t t h e equipment s h e l f p e r i m e t e r from t h e b a s e of t h e t h r u s t t u b e . The c y l i n d r i c a l s o l a r a r r a y i s , i n t u r n , a t t a c h e d t o t h e equipment s h e l f w i t h 2 4 b r a c k e t s . Thermal l o u v e r s ( f i f t e e n on t h e O r b i t e r and e l e v e n on t h e M u l t i p r o b e ) a t t a c h e d t o t h e lower s u r f a c e of t h e e q u i p ment s h e l f , open and c l o s e ( w i t h heat-sensitive-bimetallic s p r i n g s ) t o c o n t r o l h e a t r a d i a t i o n from t h e equipment compartment. Large h e a t p r o d u c e r s , such a s r a d i o amplif i e r s , a r e l o c a t e d o v e r s e v e r a l of t h e s e l o u v e r s . Maneuver System The maneuvering system o f t h e b a s i c bus c o n t r o l s s p i n r a t e s , makes c o u r s e and o r b i t c o r r e c t i o n s , and m a i n t a i n s spin axis position--usually perpendicular t o the e c l i p t i c f o r both spacecraft. Beneath t h e equipment compartment, a l s o a t t a c h e d t o t h e t h r u s t tube, a r e t w o conical-hemispheric p r o p e l l a n t tanks, 3 3 cm. ( 1 2 . 8 i n . ) i n d i a m e t e r . The t a n k s s t o r e h y d r a z i n e p r o p e l l a n t f o r two a x i a l and f o u r r a d i a l t h r u s t e r s . These can change s p a c e c r a f t o r i e n t i a t i o n , s p i n r a t e o r v e l o c i t y . The maneuver s y s t e m h a s one mid-range Sun s e n s o r , two extended-range Sun s e n s o r s , and a s t a r s e n s o r t o s e n s e s p a c e c r a f t o r i e n t a t i o n and p r o v i d e a r e f e r e n c e f o r f i n d i n g spin-axis angle. The s t a r s e n s o r i s mounted on t h e e q u i g ment s h e l f and h a s a l o o k a n g l e of a b o u t 5 7 d e g r e e s t o t h e s p i n a x i s . Sun s e n s o r s are a l l a t one p o i n t on t h e e q u i p ment s h e l f p e r i m e t e r . They look r a d i a l l y t h r o u g h an openi n g i n t h e s o l a r a r r a y and see t h e Sun on e a c h r o t a t i o n .

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Redundant d a t a p r o c e s s o r u n i t s f o r m a t t h e Sun and star sensor outputs f o r telemetry transmission t o the Earth, t o calculate spacecraft orientation. These d a t a p r o c e s s o r s a l s o p r o v i d e sequenced f i r i n g commands t o t h e t h r u s t e r s t o make o r i e n t a t i o n , v e l o c i t y and s p i n r a t e changes. The s y s t e m ' s two a x i a l t h r u s t e r n o z z l e s a r e a l i g n e d w i t h t h e s p i n a x i s , and a r e l o c a t e d a t t o p and bottom o f t h e b u s c y l i n d e r , d i a g o n a l l y o p p o s i t e e a c h o t h e r . They p o i n t i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s , and t o t u r n t h e b u s s p i n a x i s , both fire i n pulses i n opposite directions. To s p e e d up o r s l o w down t h e b u s a l o n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i t s s p i n a x i s , o n l y one t h r u s t e r i s p u l s e f i r e d a t two p o i n t s 1 8 0 d e g r e e s a p a r t around t h e c i r c l e o f b u s r o t a t i o n . Either the top o r b o t t o m t h r u s t e r can be p u l s e d d e p e n d i n g on d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n of v e l o c i t y change. This i s locaThe O r b i t e r h a s a t h i r d a x i a l t h r u s t e r . t e d on t h e bottom o f t h e b u s c y l i n d e r and a l l o w s c o n t i n u o u s f i r i n g o f two b o t t o m t h r u s t e r s t o make t h e moves i n an a x i a l d i r e c t i o n needed f o r o r b i t changes. The f o u r r a d i a l t h r u s t e r s a r e a r r a n g e d i n two p a i r s , with the pairs pointing i n opposite directions. They a r e mounted a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n a p l a n e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s p i n a x i s , and t h i s p l a n e p a s s e s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t e r o f g r a v i t y . The r a d i a l t h r u s t e r s change t h e v e l o c i t y i n a d i r e c t i o n perpendicular t o t h e spin axis. These r a d i a l t h r u s t e r s a l s o have been p l a c e d a t f o u r e q u i d i s t a n t p o i n t s a r o u n d t h e p e r i m e t e r o f t h e bus c y l i n d e r . T h i s h a s t h e e f f e c t o f p o i n t i n g them a t o p p o s i t e a c u t e ang l e s t o t h e c i r c l e of r o t a t i o n . The r e s u l t i s t h a t f i r i n g two o f them 180 d e g r e e s a p a r t , t o g e t h e r , w i l l s l o w down t h e s p i n r a t e . The o t h e r two w i l l s p e e d i t up. Power Svstem The b u s s o l a r power s y s t e m p r o v i d e s 2 8 - v o l t DC elect r i c power t o O r b i t e r and M u l t i p r o b e s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s and s p a c e c r a f t s u b s y s t e m s . Seven r e s i s t i v e s h u n t l i m i t e r s h o l d t h e maximum v o l t a g e a t 30.8 v o l t s . When t h e v o l t a g e d r o p s below 2 7 . 8 v o l t s , t h e b a t t e r i e s s t a r t t o s h a r e t h e load through discharge c o n t r o l l e r s . Small s o l a r a r r a y s recharge t h e batteries.

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-51A s w i t c h p r o t e c t s t h e main power bus f r o m c u r r e n t o v e r l o a d s o r u n d e r v o l t a c e by a u t o m a t i c a l l y t u r n i n g o f f i n s t r u m e n t s , switched l o a d s , and t r a n s m i t t e r buses. T h e s y s t e m ’ s a r r a y of s o l a r c e l l s i s s l i g h t l y s m a l l e r f o r t h e M u l t i p r o b e bus t h a n f o r t h e O r b i t e r bus b e c a u s e of t h e h i.g h e r power demands of O r b i t e r ’ s 1 2 e x p e r i m e n t s . - T h e O r b i t e r s o l a r a r r a y h a s 7 . 2 sq. m ( 7 7 . 8 sq. f t . ) of 2 x 2 c m ( .8 x .8 i n . ) c e l l s . When a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o t h e Sun l i n e , these p r o v i d e 226 w a t t s n e a r E a r t h and 3 1 2 w a t t s a t Venus. The M u l t i p r o b e s o l a r a r r a y h a s 6 . 9 sq. m ( 6 5 . 7 sq. f t . ) of c e l l s and p r o v i d e s 2 1 4 w a t t s n e a r E a r t h and 2 4 1 w a t t s a t Venus.

The power s y s t e m ’ s two 7 . 5 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium b a t t e r i e s p r o v i d e a t o t a l o f 252 w a t t h o u r s of e l e c t r i c a l energy. P o w e r i s provided t o i n s t r u m e n t s from t h e s c i e n c e power bus t h r o u g h r e d u n d a n t b u s e s i n t h e power i n t e r f a c e unit. On-off power s w i t c h i n g i s performed i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u m e n t s f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n s t e a d of c e n t r a l i z e d s w i t c h i n g i n t h e power i n t e r f a c e u n i t . T h e power i n t e r f a c e u n i t p r o v i d e s on-off s w i t c h i n g f o r p r o p u l s i o n heaters.

Communications System The communications system f o r t h e two b u s e s can r e c e i v e commands from E a r t h i n any s p a c e c r a f t o r i e n t a t i o n t h r o u g h two r e d u n d a n t S-hand t r a n s p o n d e r s , connected t o two omni d i r e c t i o n a l antennas. (A t r a n s p o n d e r i s a r a d i o system w h i c h r e c e i v e s incoming s i g n a l s and t u n e s t h e o u t g o i n g t r a n s m i t t e r t o a f r e q u e n c y which i s a t a c o n s t a n t r a t i o t o t h e incoming s i g n a l . ) T h i s means t h a t Doppler s h i f t i n r a d i o f r e q u e n c y due t o s p a c e c r a f t motion can be measured p r e c i s e l y o n r a d i o t r a n s m i s s i o n s from b o t h E a r t h t o spacec r a f t and s p a c e c r a f t t o Earth--because f r e q u e n c i e s , b o t h l e a v i n g t h e E a r t h and a r r i v i n g a t t h e E a r t h a r e known p r e cisely. T h i s a l l o w s s p a c e c r a f t v e l o c i t y neasurements acc u r a t e t o .003 kph.
The r e c e i v e r p o r t i o n of e a c h t r a n s p o n d e r i s frequencya d d r e s s a b l e ( r e s p o n d s o n l y t o c e r t a i n f r e q u e n c i e s , and t h e r e c e i v e r s a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e v e r s e d by t h e command processor l o g i c i f no command i s r e c e i v e d f o r 36 h o u r s . Hence, i f one f a i l s t h e o t h e r t a k e s o v e r . The two r e c e i v e r o u t p u t s a r e c r o s s - c o n n e c t e d t o r e d u n d a n t e x c i t e r s , e i t h e r of which can be s e l e c t e d by ground command. The t r a n s p o n d e r p r o v i d e s e i t h e r a f i x e d - r a t i o incoming t o o u t g o i n g c a r r i e r f r e q u e n c y , o r a f i x e d - f r e q u e n c y c a r r i e r s i g n a l i n c a s e of f a i l u r e of t h e two-way system.

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The s p a c e c r a f t - t o - E a r t h r a d i o l i n k i s p r o v i d e d by an S-band t r a n s m i t t e r , which can r a d i a t e a t 10 o r 20 w a t t s , w i t h r e d u n c a n t power a m p l i f i e r s o p e r a t i n g t h r o u g h e i t h e r t h e f o r e o r a f t "omni" a n t e n n a s . The omnis c o v e r a hemisphere looking forward o r a f t . Both O r b i t e r and M u l t i p r o b e spacec r a f t h a v e , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e two Bus omnis, s p e c i a l i z e d a n t e n n a s which w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n s e c t i o n s on t h i e r communications. E i t h e r omni a n t e n n a can be s e l e c t e d by ground command. One omni a n t e n n a i s c o n n e c t e d t o one o f t h e two r e d u n d a n t receivers, and t h e o t h e r omni ( o r o t h e r s p a c e c r a f t a n t e n n a d e s i g n a t e d by command) i s connected t o t h e o t h e r receiver. T h i s arrangement can b e r e v e r s e d by command. Command Svstem The b a s i c bus command s y s t e m a c c e p t s incoming commands from t h e bus r a d i o r e c e i v e r s . Command demodulators t u r n on t h e system, convert t h e s i g n a l t o a usable b i n a r y b i t s t r e a m , and p a s s i t on t o c r o s s - c o n n e c t e d command p r o c e s s o r s . Commands a r e e i t h e r s t o r e d f o r l a t e r e x e c u t i o n , o r e x e c u t e d immediately. S p a c e c r a f t u n i t s r e c e i v e commands from redundant command o u t p u t modules. The command system a c c e p t s a pulse-code-modulated/frequency-shift-keyed/phase-modulated (PCM/FSK/PM) d a t a s t r e a m a t f o u r b i t s p e r second. Each command word c o n s i s t s of 4 8 b i t s i n c l u d i n g 1 3 b i t s f o r s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n , which g i v e s a o n e - i n - a - m i l l i o n p r o b a b i l i t y of a f a l s e command. T h e system h a s a t o t a l of 1 9 2 p u l s e commands and 1 2 magnitude commands. The command memory c a n s t o r e up t o 1 2 8 commands ( r e d u n d a n t l y ) f o r l a t e r execution. Data Handlina Svstem
The t e l e m e t r y p r o c e s s o r f o r t h e bus d a t a h a n d l i n g system samples s c i e n t i f i c and e n g i n e e r i n g measurement s o u r c e s i n sequence. I t t r a n s m i t s an i n s t r u c t i o n word t o t h e P i o n e e r Command Module (CM) e n c o d e r which a d d r e s s e s a d a t a module t o read o u t t h e s e l e c t e d c h a n n e l .

The i n t e r r o g a t e d c h a n n e l can be e i t h e r a n a l o g , s e r i a l d i g i t a l o r b i n a r y o n e - b i t (yes-no) i n f o r m a t i o n . The PCM e n c o d e r s h i p s t h e encoded measurement t o t h e t e l e m e t r y proc e s s o r , where i t i s f r a m e - f o r m a t t e d , c o n v o l u t i o n a l l y coded and used t o b i p h a s e modulate a s u b c a r r i e r . The s u b c a r r i e r t h e n phase m o d u l a t e s t h e o u t g o i n g c a r r i e r s i g n a l . The t e l e m e t r y p r o c e s s o r s and PCM e n c o d e r s a r e c r o s s connected and f u l l y r e d u n d a n t .

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C r i t i c a l t e l e m e t r y measurements a r e a s s i g n e d d a t a chann e l s on two d i f f e r e n t d a t a modules. The d a t a h a n d l i n g s y s t e m s can a c c e p t up t o 256 c h a n n e l s o f d a t a .
A l l P i o n e e r Venus t e l e m e t r y d a t a a r e b i n a r y ( a s e r i e s o f o n e s and z e r o e s ) , and a l l d a t a "words" c o n s i s t of e i g h t o n e s and z e r o e s a r r a n g e d i n t h e o r d e r d e t e r m i n e d by t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y c a r r y . Analog d a t a a r e c o n v e r t e d t o e i g h t b i t words. D a t a i n p u t s a r e m u l t i p l e x e d and f o r m a t t e d i n t o Of t h e 6 4 w o r d s , t h r e e a r e reframes o f 6 4 e i g h t - b i t s words. q u i r e d f o r s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and t h r e e a r e subcommutated f o r s p a c e c r a f t h o u s e k e e p i n g d a t a .

The o u t p u t of t h e d a t a s y s t e m i s an 8 t o 2048 b i t p e r second PCM/PSK c o n v o l u t i o n a l l y coded d a t a s t r e a m , b i p h a s e modulated on a 16384 H z s u b c a r r i e r . The O r b i t e r S p a c e c r a f t The Venus O r b i t e r s p a c e c r a f t i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e b a s i c P i o n e e r Bus. I t a l s o c o n s i s t s o f a despun, h i g h - g a i n d i s h a n t e n n a on a 3-m ( 1 0 - f t . ) m a s t t o r e t u r n t h e l a r g e volume of O r b i t e r e x p e r i m e n t s and imaging d a t a t o E a r t h . The ' 3 r h i t e r carries 1 2 s c i e n t i f i c instruments, a million-bit d a t a memory t o s t o r e o b s e r v a t i o n s (when t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s b e h i n d Venus, o r t h e y c a n n o t b e t r a n s m i t t e d t o E a r t h f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s ) , and a s o l i d - f u e l r o c k e t motor f o r i n s e r t i o n i n t o orbit a t the planet. The % b i t e r , i n c l u d i n g a n t e n n a m a s t , i s n e a r l y 4.5 m (15 f t . ) high. The b a s i c b u s c y l i n d e r making up i t s main body i s a b o u t 2.5 m ( 8 . 3 f t . ) i n d i a m e t e r , and 1 . 2 m (4 f t . ) h i g h . Launch w e i g h t o f t h e O r b i t e r i s a b o u t 582 kg (1280 l b s . ) w i t h 45 kg ( 1 0 0 I b s . ) of s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s . Weight a f t e r o r S i t a l i n s e r t i o n i s 368 kg (810 l b s . ) . T h r e e i n s t r u m s n t s ( t h e magnetometer e l e c t r o n t e m p e r a t u r e p r o b e and e l e c t r i c f i e l d d e t e c t o r ) have s e n s o r e l e m e n t s mounted on booms. The magnetometer s e n s o r s are mounted on A t h e t h r e e - s e c t i o r L , d e p l o y a b l e 4 . 7 m ( 1 5 . 5 f t . ) boom. s i n g l e s e n s o r i s mounted a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s of t h e way o u t from t h e bus c y l i n d e r . snc? 3 B e r - z n d i c u l a r p a i r are mounted a t t h e boom's e n d . The boom 1 s d e p l o y e d a f t e r l a u n c h by f i r i n g p y r o t e c h n i c d e v i c e s , and e x t e n d s r a d i a l l y from t h e u p p e r r i m of t h e c y l i n d e r . The boom p o s i t i o n s t h e s e n s o r s a t a p o i n t of minimum m a g n e t i c i n t e r f e r e n c e from t h e s p a c e craft.

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ORBITER SPACECRAFT
MAGNETOMETER BOOM BACKUP HIGH GAIN ANTENNA

MECHANICALLY DESPUN ANTENNA ASSEMBLY

HIGH GAIN ANTENNA FORWARD AXIAL THRUSTER

SUN SENSOR STAR SENSOR SOLAR ARRAY RADIAL THRUSTER ORBIT INSERTION MOTOR DESPIN BEARING EQUIPMENT SHELF AFT OMNl ANTENNA

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The b a l l - l i k e s e n s o r s ( a n t e n n a s ) f o r t h e e l e c t r i c f i e l d a f t e r j e t t i s o n of t h e detector spring out 0.6 m (26 i n . ) launch f a i r i n g . The e l e c t r o n t e m p e r a t u r e p r o b e u s e s two s e n s o r e l e m e n t s mounted a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o one a n o t h e r . The a x i a l s e n s o r i s mounted p a r a l l e l t o t h e s p i n a x i s and extends through t h e thermal t o p cover. The r a d i a l s e n s o r i s on a 1 . 0 m ( 4 0 i n . ) boom, d e p l o y e d a f t e r o r b i t i n s e r t i o n . The gamma r a y b u r s t d e t e c t o r u s e s two d e t e c t o r s mounted on t h e equipment s h e l f a b o u t 1 8 0 d e g r e e s a p a r t . T h i s a l lows complete c o v e r a g e o f t h e c e l e s t i a l s p h e r e f o r a l l pos i t i o n s of spacecraft r o t a t i o n . Orbiter S c i e n t i f i c Instruments
A l l 1 2 s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s a r e mounted d i r e c t l y on t h e t o p s i d e o f t h e equipment s h e l f . E i g h t o f t h e i n s t r u ments view t h e p l a n e t t h r o u g h e i t h e r t h e s i d e o r t o p o f t h e bus c y l i n d e r . Of t h e e i g h t , two ( t h e c l o u d Photop o l a r i m e t e r and t h e r a d a r mapper) employ s c a n n i n g s e n s o r s which move t h r o u g h a r a n g e o f 1 4 0 d e g r e e s i n a p l a n e p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e bus e x p e r i m e n t s h e l f .

O r b i t e r Antenna Systems
A b a s i c p a r t of t h e O r b i t e r system, n o t p a r t of t h e b a s i c b u s , i s t h e despun, high-gain p a r a b o l i c - r e f l e c t o r a n t e n n a , which f o c u s e s a 7 . 6 degree-wide r a d i o beam on t h e E a r t h throughout t h e mission. The a n t e n n a d i s h i s 1 0 9 c m ( 4 3 i n . ) i n d i a m e t e r , and a m p l i f i e s t h e O r b i t e r r a d i o s i g n a l 316 t i m e s . Venus and t h e O r b i t e r w i l l be 2 0 3 m i l l i o n k m ( 1 2 6 m i l l i o n m i . ) f a r t h e r from E a r t h a t t h e end o f t h e 243-day O r b i t e r p r i m a r y m i s s i o n t h a n a t D l a n e t - a r r i v a l . The a n t e n n a i s needed t o r e t u r n d a t a a t h i a h r a t e s o v e r t h e s e d i s t a n c e s . The h i g h - g a i n a n t e n n a d i s h , a s l e e v e d i p o l e a n t e n n a , and t h e f o r w a r d 'Iomni" a n t e n n a a r e a l l mounted on t h e despun 2 . 9 - m ( 9 . 8 - f t . ) m a s t G r o j e c t i n g up a l o n g t h e s p i n - a x i s from t h e t o p of t h e O r b i t e r c y l i n d e r . The s l e e v e d i p o l e a n t e n n a b r o a d c a s t s a r a d i o beam which forms a p a n c a k e - l i k e p a t t e r n around t h e s p a c e c r a f t , p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o i t s s p i n a x i s . T h i s p r o v i d e s a backup f o r t h e narrow-beam d i s h a n t e n n a i n case of f a i l u r e o f t h e d e s p i n system. The bus a f t omni a n t e n n a p r o v i d e s t h e f o u r t h O r b i t e r a n t e n n a . The omnis b r o a d c a s t i n a h e m i s p h e r i c p a t t e r n , forward o r a f t .

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-56S i n c e t h e O r b i t e r d i s h a n t e n n a does n o t s p i n , as does t h e s p a c e c r a f t below i t , it c o n s t a n t l y f a c e s E a r t h , b o t h on c r u i s e and o r b i t . The despun c o n d i t i o n of t h e a n t e n n a and i t s m a s t i s m a i n t a i n e d by b e a r i n g , e l e c t r i c motor, and s l i p - r i n g arrangement.
A q u a d r i p o d s t r u c t u r e , mounted on t h e upper end of t h e bus t h r u s t t u b e , s u p p o r t s t h e B e a r i n g and Power T r a n s f e r Assembly (BAPTA) which m e c h a n i c a l l y d e s p i n s t h e a n t e n n a s . The m a s t i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e despun f l a n g e of t h e b e a r i n g assembly. T h e t h r e e a n t e n n a s on t h e m a s t a r e c o n n e c t e d t o t r a n s m i t t e r s and r e c e i v e r s by a s e r i e s of t r a n s f e r s w i t c h e s through t h e d u a l frequency r o t a r y j o i n t . P u l s e commands from E a r t h t o t h e s e s w i t c h e s a r e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h t h e BAPTA s l i p r i n g s and b r u s h e s .

The c o n t r o l s y s t e m p r o v i d e s r e d u n d a n t d e s p i n c o n t r o l e l e c t r o n i c s t o d r i v e one of two r e d u n d a n t BAPTA motors t o d e s p i n and p o i n t t h e h i g h - g a i n a n t e n n a toward t h e E a r t h . The d e s p i n c o n t r o l s y s t e m f u n c t i o n s as a c l o s e d l o o p , autonomously o p e r a t i n g t h e system t o m a i n t a i n a n t e n n a pointing. Motor t o r q u e commands a r e g e n e r a t e d by t h e d e s p i n cont r o l e l e c t r o n i c s based upon Sun o r s t a r sensor and BAPTA master index pulses. An e l e v a t i o n d r i v e m a i n t a i n s a n t e n n a pointing during occultations. F o r t h e o c c u l t a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s , t h e O r b i t e r c a r r i e s an e x t r a 750 m i l l i w a t t X-band t r a n s m i t t e r , whose s i g n a l f r e quency i s always m a i n t a i n e d a t a r a t i o of 1 1 . 3 t o t h a t of t h e main S-band t r a n s m i t t e r . Both S and X-Band s i g n a l s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d by t h e d i s h a n t e n n a , which can be moved 15 deg r e e s from t h e E a r t h l i n e as t h e O r b i t e r p a s s e s behind. Venus. T h i s p e r m i t s k e e p i n g t h e r a d i o beam t o b e aimed a t Venus' R e f r a c t i o n by t h e a t ]upper atmosphere f o r a l o n g e r t i m e . mosphere bends t h e narrow-beam s i q n a l around t h e p l a n e t so it r e a c h e s E a r t h d e s p i t e t h e s e p o i n t i n g a n g l e s . The X-band s i g n a l c a n n o t be modulated, and i s o n l y f o r s t u d y of atmosphere e f f e c t s on r a d i o s i g n a l s a t t w o wavel e n g t h s . The X-band beam w i d t h i s 2 . 2 d e g r e e s compared w i t h t h e S-band 7 . 6 d e g r e e s . Ground commands c o n t r o l t h e a n t e n n a p o i n t i n g a n g l e . The e l e v a t i o n d r i v e f o r t h e a n t e n n a d i s h c o n s i s t s o f a motor-driven j a c k s c r e w . E l e c t r o n i c s con7iert commands i n t o d i s c r e t e p u l s e s t o c o n t r o l t h e motor.

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O r b i t e r Data S t o r a g e

F o r p e r i o d s when t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s b e h i n d Venus and rad i o communication i s c u t o f f , t h e d a t a memory c a n s t o r e up t o a m i l l i o n d a t a b i t s . O c c u l t a t i o n s l a s t up t o 2 6 m i n u t e s , and a m i l l i o n - b i t memory a l l o w s d a t a t o b e t a k e n a t a minThe imum r a t e o f a b o u t 7 0 0 b i t s p e r second i n t h i s t i m e . d a t a s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y c a n a l s o h e l p when Deep Space Network (DSN) s t a t i o n s a r e n o t l i s t e n i n g t o the O r b i t e r f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . S t o r e d d a t a are p l a y e d back a t a minimum r a t e of 1 7 0 b p s , and t h e O r b i t e r c a n p l a y back d a t a w h i l e t a k i n g and t r a n s m i t t i n g new d a t a .
O r b i t e r Data-Handlinu

Svstem

The O r b i t e r s p a c e c r a f t d a t a - h a n d l i n g s y s t e m u s e s t h e b u s d a t a s y s t e m components, p l u s i t s m i l l i o n - b i t memory. It a c c e p t s i n f o r m a t i o n from s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s and t h e 1 2 s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s i n s e r i a l d i g i t a l , a n a l o g and oneb i t b i n a r y ( y e s - n o ) form. I t c o n v e r t s a n a l o g and yes-no i n f o r m a t i o n t o s e r i a l d i g i t a l form, and a r r a n g e s a l l i n f o r mation i n formats f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n . T h i s c o n s i s t s of a c o n t i n u o u s s e q u e n c e o f major t e l e m e t r y f r a m e s , e a c h composed o f 6 4 minor f r a m e s . Each minor frame c o n t a i n s 6 4 e i g h t b i t words (512 b i t s p e r minor f r a m e ) . The words i n a minor frame a r e a r r a n g e d i n t o one o f 1 3 preprogrammed f o r m a t s , s e l e c t a b l e by command. Each minor frame c o n t a i n s w i t h i n

it:
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H i g h - r a t e s c i e n c e o r e n g i n e e r i n g d a t a ( i n one of t h e 13 formats); Sub-commutated d a t a f o r m a t s : S p a c e c r a f t d a t a ; and Frame s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n d a t a .

The t h r e e sub-commutated d a t a f o r m a t s i n each minor frame c a r r y d a t a which can b e r e p o r t e d a t low r a t e s . One i s f o r l o w - r a t e s c i e n c e and s c i e n c e h o u s e k e e p i n g d a t a , and t h e two o t h e r s a r e f o r l o w - r a t e s p a c e c r a f t e n g i n e e r i n g d a t a .
T h e O r b i t e r ' s 1 3 high-rate data formats include seven s c i e n c e f o r m a t s f o r u s e on o r b i t . The o t h e r h i g h - r a t e f o r m a t s a r e Data memory p l a y b a c k ( c o n t a i n i n g some r e a l - t i m e s c i e n c e ) , Data memory r e a d o u t ( s t o r e d d a t a o n l y ) , Launchc r u i s e , Engineering-only f o r m a t , A t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system f o r m a t ( f o r m a n e u v e r s ) , and Command memory r e a d o u t f o r m a t .

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The d a t a s y s t e m o p e r a t e s i n r e a l - t i m e f o r t e l e m e t r y s t o r a g e mode. I t s memory s t o r e s b o t h s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g data. Twelve t e l e m e t r y s t o r a g e p l a y b a c k and r e a l - t i m e d a t a r a t e s between 8 and 2 0 4 8 bps a r e a v a i l a b l e . A r a t e o f 1 0 2 4 bps i s used d u r i n g i n t e r p l a n e t a r y c r u i s e . Of t h e s e v e n s c i e n c e f o r m a t s used on o r b i t , f i v e a r e f o r t h e c l o s e - i n p e r i a p s i s s e c t i o n of t h e o r b i t . Two a r e f o r t h e f a r - o u t a p o a p s i s p o r t i o n of t h e o r b i t . Of t h e f i v e c l o s e - i n f o r m a t s , t w o emphasize a c q u i s i t i o n of aeronomy d a t a . A t h i r d g e n e r a l f o r m a t a l l o w s d a t a t a k i n g by v i r t u a l l y a l l e x p e r i m e n t s . The f o u r t h c l o s e - i n f o r m a t , t h e O p t i c a l , i s f o r j u s t I t a l l o c a t e s 73 p e r c e n t of t h e d a t a two i n s t r u m e n t s . stream t o t h e i n f r a r e d r a d i o m e t e r , t h e r e s t of t h e photopolarimeter. The l a s t f o r m a t , t h e Mapping f o r m a t , g i v e s 4 4 p e r c e n t of t h e d a t a stream t o t h e r a d a r mapper, and t h e r e s t i s d i v i d e d among f o u r o t h e r "mapping" t y p e i n s t r u m e n t s . Of t h e two s c i e n c e f o r m a t s f o r t h e f a r - o u t a p o a p s i s o r b i t a l segment, t h e Imaging f o r m a t p r o v i d e s 6 7 p e r c e n t of t h e d a t a s t r e a m f o r c l o u d p h o t o p o l a r i m e t e r p i c t u r e s of Venus' c l o u d s , and t h e r e s t f o r f o u r s p a c e environment i n struments. The General f o r m a t f o r a p o a p s i s c a r r i e s d a t a f o r a l l i n s t r u m e n t s e x c e p t t h e i n f r a f e d and imaging i n s t r u m e n t s , b u t makes b i g a l l o c a t i o n s t o t h e s p a c e environment measurements of t h e magnetometer, s o l a r wind i n s t r u m e n t and t h e gamma r a y b u r s t d e t e c t o r . O r b i t a l I n s e r t i o n Rocket The o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n motor r e d u c e s O r b i t e r v e l o c i t y by 3,816 kph (2,366 mph) f o r o r b i t a l c a p t u r e by Venus. I t i s a s o l i d p r o p e l l a n t e n g i n e , a t t a c h e d t o t h e bus t h r u s t t u b e below t h e equipment compartment. The e n g i n e h a s 1 8 , 0 0 0 Newtons ( 4 0 0 0 l b s . ) o f t h r u s t , and t h e i n s e r t i o n roc k e t b u r n r e d u c e s O r b i t e r w e i g h t by 1 8 1 kg (398 l b . ) .
The Multiprobe S p a c e c r a f t

The f i r s t s i m u l t a n e o u s m u l t i p l e - e n t r y c r a f t measurements of t h e atmosphere of a n o t h e r p l a n e t w i l l be accomplished by t h e Venus M u l t i p r o b e .

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The f o u r p r o b e s w i l l b e l a u n c h e d from t h e M u l t i p r o b e Bus 1 3 m i l l i o n km ( 7 . 8 m i l l i o n m i . ) from t h e p l a n e t and w i l l t h e n f l y t o t h e i r e n t r y p o i n t s , two on t h e day s i d e and two on t h e n i g h t s i d e o f Venus. The M u l t i p r o b e s p a c e c r a f t weighs 9 0 4 kg ( 1 , 9 9 0 l b . ) and c a r r i e s 5 1 kg ( 1 1 2 l b s . ) o f s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s . The s p a c e c r a f t c o n s i s t s o f t h e P i o n e e r Venus b a s i c bus m o d i f i e d t o c a r r y t h e f o u r atmosphere Drohes. Its diameter i s t h a t o f t h e Bus, 2.5 m ( 8 . 3 f t . ) . From t h e b o t t o m o f t h e Bus t o t h e t i p o f t h e main p r o b e , i t i s 2 . 9 m ( 9 . 5 f t . ) h i g h . During t h e f l i g h t t o Venus, t h e f o u r p r o b e s a r e c a r r i e d on t h e Bus by a l a r g e i n v e r t e d cone s t r u c t u r e and t h r e e These e q u a l l y - s p a c e d c i r c u l a r clamps s u r r o u n d i n g the cone. a t t a c h m e n t s t r u c t u r e s are b o l t e d t o t h e Bus t h r u s t t u b e , t h e s t r u c t u r a l l i n k t o t h e launch v e h i c l e . The Large Probe i s c e n t e r e d on t h e Bus s p i n a x i s , and i s l a u n c h e d toward Venus by a p y r o t e c h n i c - s p r i n g s e p a r a t i o n s y s t e m . The r i n g s u p p o r t clamps a t t a c h i n g t h e S m a l l P r o b e s a r e h i n g e d . For l a u n c h o f t h e S a m 1 1 P r o b e s , t h e clamps open by t h e f i r i n g of e x p l o s i v e n u t s . When open, t h e y a l l o w t h e p r o b e s t o s p i n o f f t h e Bus i n a t a n g e n t i a l d i r e c t i o n due t o Bus r o tation. C o n t r o l l e r s i n c r e a s e Bus s p i n from 1 5 t o 48 rpm f o r Small Probe launch. The M u l t i p r o b e ' s f o r w a r d omni a n t e n n a e x t e n d s above t h e t o p o f t h e Bus c y l i n d e r , and an a f t omni e x t e n d s down below i t . Both omni a n t e n n a s have h e m i s p h e r i c r a d i a t i o i - p a t t e r n s . A t t a c h e d t o t h e equipment s h e l f i s an a f t - p o i n t i n g , mediumg a i n h o r n a n t e n n a , f o r use d u r i n g c r i t i c a l maneuvers when t h e a f t end o f t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s p o i n t e d toward t h e E a r t h , a s i t i s when t h e ? r o b e s are l a u n c h e d toward Venus. The r e m a i n i n g s y s t e m s on t h e M u l t i p r o b e s p a c e c r a f t a r e t h o s e c a r r i e d on b o t h O r b i t e r and M u l t i p r o b e b u s e s . These common b u s s y s t e m s a r e : T h e i n s t r u m e n t - e q u i p m e n t compartment and b a s i c b u s s t r u c t u r e ; t h e s o l a r a r r a y , b a t t e r i e s and power d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e m ; t h e Sun and s t a r s e n s o r s , p r o p e l l a n t s t o r a g e t a n k s and t h r u s t e r s of t h e b u s maneuvering and s t a b i l i z i n g s y s tem. O t h e r Bus s y s t e m s a r e t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s , r e c e i v e r s and p r o c e s s o r s o f t h e b u s communications, command and d a t a h a n d l i n g s y s t e m . These s y s t e m s a l l o w t h e Bus t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e M u l t i p r o b e s p a c e c r a f t , as i t d o e s f o r t h e O r b i t e r , a s t a b l e , r o t a t i n g p l a t f o r m and a p r o t e c t i v e , t e m p e r a t u r e - c o n t r o l l e d e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s and s p a c e c r a f t systems.

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They a l s o p r o v i d e e l e c t r i c power, make maneuvers, receive commands, p r o c e s s e x p e r i m e n t d a t a , and t r a n s m i t d a t a t o Barth. M u l t i p r o b e D a t a System The d a t a s y s t e m f o r t h e M u l t i p r o b e s p a c e c r a f t u s e s t h e s t a n d a r d b u s components. However, d a t a f o r m a t s a r e o r g a n i z e d t o m e e t r e q u i r e m e n t s of t h e M u l t i p r o b e m i s s i o n . The M u l t i p r o b e d a t a s y s t e m h a n d l e s d a t a from b o t h Bus and probes b e f o r e probe launch. A f t e r probe launch, it handles Bus d a t a o n l y . The p r o b e s h a v e t h e i r own d a t a s y s t e m s . (See s e c t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e . ) The M u l t i p r o b e d a t a s y s t e m a c c e p t s e n g i n e e r i n g and m i s s i o n o p e r a t i o n s i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e f o u r p r o b e s a b o a r d t h e s p a c e c r a f t , u n t i l p r o b e l a u n c h , as w e l l as from t h e Multiprobe bus i t s e l f . I t a l s o h a n d l e s d a t a from t h e two e x p e r i m e n t s c a r r i e d on t h e M u l t i p r o b e b u s . A s on t h e O r b i t e r , t h e s y s t e m a c c e p t s d a t a i n s e r i a l d i g i t a l , analog and o n e - b i t b i n a r y s t a t u s (yes-no) form. It converts t h e a n a l o g d a t a t o s e r i a l d i g i t a l b i n a r y from and a r r a n g e s a l l information f o r transmission t o Earth i n t h e standard P i o n e e r Venus s e r i e s o f m a j o r t e l e m e t r y f r a m e s , e a c h composed o f 6 4 minor f r a m e s . Each minor frame i s composed o f a s e r i e s o f 6 4 e i g h t b i t words. The words i n a minor f r a m e a r e a r r a n g e d i n s e v e r a l formats. Each minor frame c o n t a i n s h i g h - r a t e s c i e n c e o r e n g i n e e r i n g d a t a , p l u s sub-commutated f o r m a t s , s p a c e c r a f t d a t a , and frame s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n d a t a . One subcommutated f o r m a t c a r r i e s l o w - r a t e s c i e n c e and s c i e n c e h o u s e k e e p i n g d a t a ; two are f o r l o w - r a t e s p a c e c r a f t i n f o r mation. Twelve r e a l - t i m e (no d a t a s t o r a g e o n t h e M u l t i p r o b e ) d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n r a t e s b e t w e e n 8 and 2 0 4 8 bps can b e used. Like t h e O r b i t e r , t h e Multiprobe a l s o has highd a t a - r a t e f o r m a t s f o r A t t i t u d e c o n t r o l ( u s e d d u r i n g maneuv e r s ) , f o r E n g i n e e r i n g d a t a o n l y , and f o r command- memory A s i n g l e format f o r atmosphere e n t r y t r a n s m i t s readout. h i g h - r a t e s c i e n c e d a t a . Assuming t h e e x p e c t e d d a t a r a t e of 1 0 2 4 b p s a t e n t r y , d a t a r a t e f o r t h e t w o M u l t i p r o b e Bus experiments w i l l be 256 bps f o r t h e n e u t r a l m a s s s p e c t r o meter, and 1 1 2 b p s f o r t h e i o n mass s p e c t r o m e t e r .

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M u l t i p r o b e Bus Experiments
A f t e r l a u n c h of i t s f o u r p r o b e s 2 0 days o u t from Venus, t h e M u l t i p r o b e Bus becomes a probe i t s e l f , p r o v i d i n g t h e m i s s i o n ' s o n l y h i g h upper atmosphere composition measurements. These o p e r a t e a s t h e Bus e n t e r s b u t b e f o r e i t s t a r t s t o b u r n up a t 115 k m (71 mi.) altitude.

These two m a s s s p e c t o m e t e r i n s t r u m e n t s are a t t a c h e d t o t h e equipment s h e l f w i t h t h e i r i n l e t s p r o j e c t i n g above t h e f l a t t o p of t h e Bus c y l i n d e r .

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VENUS ATMOSPHERIC PROBES

Because of its high pressures (nearly 100 times Earth's), high temperatures and corrosive constituents, Venus' atmosphere presents a difficult problem for flight designers. The high entry speeds of about 4 1 , 6 0 0 kph ( 2 6 , 0 0 0 mph) add to the problem. The Large and Small Probes are geometrically similar. The main component of each is a spherical pressure vessel, which houses the scientific instruments and the following spacecraft systems: communications, data, command and power. The Large Probe weighs about 3 1 6 kg ( 6 9 8 lbs.); the Small Probes, 93 kg ( 2 0 6 lbs.) each. Conical aeroshells provide stable flight paths and heat protection for all four probes during atmospheric entry. The heat shield-carrying aeroshells are 45-degree cones with spherically blunted tips, whose radii are equal to half the base radii of the cones.
All instruments within the pressure vessels of all four probes require either observing or direct sampling access to the hostile Venusian atmosphere. This access is one of the hardest problems of the mission. The Large Probe has 14 sealed penetrations of several types. Each Small Probe has seven. Pressure vessel penetrations for all probes include 15 sapphire and one diamond window.

The Large Probe The Large Probe weighs about 3 1 6 kg (695 lbs.) and is about 1.5 meters (5 feet) in diameter. It returns data at 2 5 6 bps. Its seven scientific instruments weigh 2 8 kg ( 6 2 lbs.). These include two instruments to identify atmosphere components. The other five instruments will measure the clouds, atmospheric structure, energy distribution and circulation. The probe enters at the equator on the day side of the planet.

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Large Probe Structure The Large Probe consists of the forward aeroshell-heat shield, the pressure vessel and the aft cover. Both aeroshell and aft cover are jettisoned at main chute deployment. The spherical pressure vessel is 73.2 cm ( 2 8 . 8 in.) in diameter, and is made of titanium for light weight and high strength at high temperatures. Because it is jettisoned at relatively cool, high altitudes, the aeroshell can be made of less heat-resistant aluminum. The weight limits on interplanetary spacecraft and the 14 hull penetrations required that the pressure vessel be designed with great care and machined with precision for both lightness and strength. The flight vessel has been tested successfully under Venus-like conditions of 100 Earth atmospheres of pressure and 470 degrees C (900 degrees F) temperatures. Test vessels have withstood higher pressures. The vessel is made in three pieces, joined by flanges, seals and bolts. Sections are the aft hemisphere, a forward cap and a flat ring section between the two. The vessel has 14 sealed penetrations (one for the antenna, four for electrical cabling, two for access hatches and seven for scientific instruments). Four instruments use nine observation windows through four of the hull penetrations. Eight windows are of sapphire, and one of diamond. These materials admit light or heat at the wavelengths being measured, while withstanding Venusian heat and pressure. The solar flux radiometer has five windows through one hull penetration; the nephelometer, two windows and the infrared and cloud particle instruments, one window each. Three vessel penetrations are inlets for direct atmosphere sampling by three instruments--mass spectrometer, gas chromatograph and atmosphere structure experiment. At its aft pole the spherical vessel has a hemisphere pattern antenna for communication with Earth. Two four-inch arms on one side hold the reflecting prism for the cloud particle instrument. A single arm on the other side has a temperature sensor at its tip. Three parachute-shroud towers are mounted above aerodynamic drag plates, spaced equally around the equator of the sphere. The vessel has an electronics access port for system checkout, and a cooling port used in ground tests.

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LARGE PROBE
RADIO TRANSPARENT WINDOW PR ESSUR E VESSEL/DECEL MOD UMBILICAL CABLE CUTTER PARACHUTE TOWER SOLAR FLUX RADIOMETER WINDOW

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AFT

CLOUD PARTICLE SPECTROMETER WINDOW

DESCENT MODULE
I

MASS SPEC. INLET
AERO FAIRING’

PYROTECHNIC CONNECTOR PRESSURE VESSEL SEPARATION ASSEMBLY

c n
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I

CUT OUT FOR TEMPERATURE SENSOR ATMOSPHERE STRUCTURE PILOT CHUTE AND MORTAR

DECELERATION MODULE

PRO@E/BUS IN FLIGHT DISCONNECT

LARGE PROBE PRESSURE VESSEL
ANTENNA

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PRESSURE VESSEL'

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F l i g h t Sequence About 2 0 m i n u t e s b e f o r e a t m o s p h e r i c e n t r y , w i t h t h e p r o b e t r a v e l i n g a t s p e e d s of a b o u t 4 1 , 6 0 0 kph ( 2 6 , 0 0 0 mph), t i m e r commands t u r n on and w a r m up t h e Large Probe i n s t r u m e n t s and systems. The c r a f t e s t a b l i s h e s i t s r a d i o l i n k w i t h E a r t h . A t an a l t i t u d e of a b o u t 1 2 0 k m (75 m i . ) , s i g n i f i c a n t a t m o s p h e r i c b r a k i n g h a s begun, and t h r e e - a x i s a c c e l e r a t i o n s and h e a t s h i e l d t e m p e r a t u r e d a t a a r e b e i n g s t o r e d f o r l a t e r playback (providing s p a c e c r a f t f l i g h t d a t a f o r u s e by t h e a t m o s p h e r i c s t r u c t u r e e x p e r i m e n t ) . E n t r y o c c u r s w i t h peak d e c e l e r a t i o n o f 320 G a t a b o u t 7 8 k m ( 4 9 mi.). A s deceleration forces slack o f f , a G-switch s t a r t s a t i m e r , e n d i n g d a t a s t o r a g e and s t a r t i n g a t i m i n g sequence f o r a e r o s h e l l and h e a t s h i e l d j e t t i s o n . J u s t below 6 8 kn?, ( 4 2 m i . ) , when t h e Large Probe h a s slowed t o a b o u t 6 8 0 kph ( 4 2 0 mph), t h e p i l o t c h u t e i s m o r t a r - f i r e d from a s m a l l compartment i n t h e s i d e of t h e a e r o s h e l l . T h i s s m a l l p a r a c h u t e i s a t t a c h e d by l i n e s t o t h e a f t c o v e r which i s s e p a r a t e d by an e x p l o s i v e n u t and p u l l e d f r e e . The c o v e r , i n t u r n , i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e main p a r a c h u t e . The p i l o t c h u t e t h e n e x t r a c t s t h e main c h u t e from i t s compartment w i t h i n t h e c o n i c a l a e r o s h e l l . The m a i n c h u t e t h e n o p e n s . A f t e r v e h i c l e s t a b i l i z a t i o n , m e c h a n i c a l and e l e c t r i c a l t i e s t o t h e a e r o s h e l l a r e s e v e r e d by e x p l o s i v e n u t s , o r by c a b l e c u t t e r s , and t h e main c h u t e p u l l s t h e s p h e r i c a l p r e s s u r e v e s s e l o u t of i t s s u r r o u n d i n g a e r o s h e l l . The a e r o s h e l l f a l l s away.
O n c e t h e p r e s s u r e v e s s e l i s f r e e d of t h e a e r o s h e l l and a f t c o v e r , t h e s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s have f u l l access t o Venus' atmosphere, and t h e p a r a c h u t e h a s slowed i t s d e s c e n t r a t e t o 2 7 0 kph ( 1 6 5 mph). Seventeen m i n u t e s l a t e r , a t 4 7 km ( 2 8 m i . ) a l t i t u d e , t h e main c h u t e i s j e t t i s o n e d , and t h e a e r o d y n a m i c a l l y s t a b l e p r e s s u r e v e s s e l descends t o t h e s u r f a c e i n 39 minutes.

Thermal p r o t e c t i o n d u r i n g atmosphere e n t r y i s p r o v i d e d by t h e carbon p h e n o l i c h e a t s h i e l d c o v e r i n g t h e forward f a c i n g c o n i c a l a e r o s h e l l , and by c o a t i n g a l l o t h e r s u r f a c e s of t h e a e r o s h e l l and a f t c o v e r w i t h a l o w d e n s i t y e l a s t o m e r i c m a t e r i a l . The c o n i c a l a e r o s h e l l i s a o n e - p i e c e aluminum s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t e g r a l l y - m a c h i n e d s t i f f e n i n g r i n g s . The a b l a t i v e carbon p h e n o l i c h e a t s h i e l d i s bonded t o t h i s s t r u c t u r e . The a e r o s h e l l cone h a s a b a s e d i a m e t e r of 1 4 2 c m ( 4 . 7 f t . ) .

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The 4.9 meter (16.2 ft.)-diameter dacron main parachute is of the conical ribbon type. Located in a curved compartment on one side of the aeroshell, the mortar-deployed dacron pilot chute is 76 cm (2.5 feet) in diameter. After separation of the aeroshell, aft cover and main chute have occurred, the pressure vessel descends to the surface. The motion is stabilized by locating the center of gravity of the pressure vessel well forward and by an airflow separation ring around the sphere's equator. Drag plates on the flow separation ring slow the descent rate, and vanes attached to the airflow ring maintain spin f o r continuous viewing in a full circle by the experiments during descent. A fairing covers the forward hemisphere of the pressure vessel, providing a smooth aerodynamic surface during descent. Heat Protection The Large Probe pressure vessel is made of titanium-for heat resistance. Within the spherical vessel, instruments and systems are mounted on two parallel shelves made of beryllium to serve as heat sinks. Equipment inside the vessel is further protected from heat by a 2.5 cm (1 in.)-thick kapton blanket, which completely lines the interior. Scientific Instruments The seven scientific instruments on the Large Probe include the gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer, which measure the composition of Venus' atmosphere directly. The other five instruments either "look out" windows or sense vehicle motions and/ or temperature with accelerometers and a wire-connected heat sensor, respectively. The infrared radiometer requires a diamond window because diamond is the only material transparent to the appropriate wavelengths and able to withstand the high temperatures and pressures of the atmosphere. This window is about threequarters of an inch in diameter and an eighth of an inch thick (about the size of a quarter). It weighs 13.5 carats and was shaped by diamond cutters in The Netherlands from a 205-carat industrial grade rough diamond. The nephelometer (cloud-sensor) uses two sapphire windows. The cloud particle instrument directs a laser beam through a sapphire window to an outside reflecting prism and back to its sensor. The solar flux radiometer has five sapphire windows.

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Communications System S c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t and s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s d a t a a r e r e t u r n e d by t h e communications system. Spacecraft data inc l u d e i n t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e measurements, e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t f l o w and v o l t a g e and on-or-off s t a t u s of s y s t e m s and i n s t r u m e n t s . The p r o b e ’ s s o l i d s t a t e t r a n s m i t t e r and h e m i s p h e r i c a l c o v e r a g e a n t e n n a r e t u r n a 256-bps d a t a stream t o E a r t h . The system u s e s f o u r 1 0 - w a t t s o l i d s t a t e a m p l i f i e r s p r o v i d i n g a t r a n s m i t t e r power o f 4 0 w a t t s .
A t r a n s p o n d e r r e c e i v e s a n S-band c a r r i e r wave a t 2 . 1 G H z , and s e t s t h e p r o b e t r a n s m i t t e r t o s e n d a t 2 . 3 G H z . The t r a n s ponder r e c e i v e r i s u s e d o n l y f o r two-way Doppler t r a c k i n g . The incoming s i g n a l c a r r i e s no i n f o r m a t i o n , and t h e p r o b e d o e s n o t r e c e i v e commands.

Command System Once t h e L a r g e P r o b e h a s s e p a r a t e d from t h e Bus, onboard e l e c t r o n i c s p r o v i d e a l l p r o b e commands. The command s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f a command u n i t , a p y r o t e c h n i c c o n t r o l u n i t and t h e s e n s o r s t o s e r v i c e t h e command u n i t .
The s y s t e m can p r o v i d e 6 4 s e p a r a t e commands f o r s p a c e c r a f t s y s t e m s and s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s . I t c o n t a i n s t h e c r u i s e t i m e r ( t h e o n l y o p e r a t i n g u n i t d u r i n g t h e 24-day p e r i o d between Bus s e p a r a t i o n and e n t r y ) , a n e n t r y s e q u e n c e programmer and a command d e c o d e r . Commands are i n i t i a t e d by a c l o c k g e n e r a t o r o r a G-switch t o s e n s e d e c e l e r a t i o n f o r c e s . A t e m p e r a t u r e s w i t c h p r o v i d e s backup f o r t h e t i m e r a t p a r a c h u t e jettison.

The p y r o t e c h n i c c o n t r o l u n i t i s made up o f 1 2 s q u i b d r i v e r s which p r o v i d e c u r r e n t t o f i r e e x p l o s i v e n u t s f o r s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e a e r o s h e l l , t h e a f t c o v e r and main c h u t e ; and a c t u a t o r s f o r t h e c a b l e c u t t e r , p i l o t c h u t e m o r t a r and m a s s s p e c t r o m e t e r i n l e t cover.
D a t a Handling System

The L a r g e P r o b e d a t a h a n d l i n g u n i t can a c c e p t 3 6 a n a l o g , 1 2 s e r i a l d i g i t a l , and 2 4 o n e - b i t (yes-no) s t a t u s c h a n n e l s ’ f r o m s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t s and p r o b e s y s t e m s . The u n i t c o n v e r t s t h e a n a l o g and yes-no d a t a t o s e r i a l d i g i t a l form and a r r a n g e s a l l d a t a i n m a j o r t e l e m e t r y f r a m e s composed of 1 6 minor frames f o r t i m e - m u l t i p l e x e d t r a n s m i s s i o n t o E a r t h . Each minor frame i s composed o f a s e r i e s o f 6 4 e i g h t - b i t words ( 5 1 2 d a t a b i t s p e r minor frame).

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The data handling system provides for two data formats: blackout and descent. A storage capacity of 3 0 7 2 bits is provided by a data memory, for use during entry blackout. Following the blackout period, the stored data will be read out of the memory and telemetered in the descent format. Data are stored at 1 2 8 bps. In the descent format, transmission will be at 2 5 6 bps. Allocation of this bit rate among the seven Large Probe experiments will range from 1 6 to 44 bps per experiment. Only the atmospheric structure and nephelometer experiments will use the entry blackout storage format at 72 bps and 4 bps, respectively. Two subcommutated formats for lowrate phenomena also provide housekeeping data, and additional data for the atmospheric structure, nephelometer, cloud particle spectrometer and solar flux radiometer experiments. Power System The power system uses a silver-zinc battery, providing 40 ampere hours of energy at 2 8 volts. The system consists of a battery, a power interface unit and a current sensor. The power interface unit controls power and contains fuses and power switching relays for vehicle systems. Power for probe checkout and heating is provided by the Bus prior to probe to probe separation. During this time, the batteries are open-circuited by switches in the power interface unit. The Small Probes Atmosphere entry points for the Small Probes are spread over the face of Venus--two on the night side at high northern and mid-southern latitudes, and the third at mid-southern latitudes on the day side. Like the Large Probe, each of the Small Probes consists of a forward heat shield, a pressure vessel and an afterbody. The three small probes are identical. Each is 0 . 8 m ( 3 0 in.) in diameter and weighs 90 kg ( 2 0 0 lb.). Each carries three scientific instruments, weighing 3.5 kg ( 7 . 7 lb.). The three Small Probe instruments return less detailed information than the seven on the Large Probe. But except for the atmospheric composition measurements, made only by two Large Probe instruments, Small Probe atmosphere measurements are in many respects comparable to Large Probe data. The Small Probes transmit data at 64 bps during flight down to 3 0 km ( 1 8 mi.) altitude and 1 6 bps from there to the surface.

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Neither forward aeroshell nor afterbody of the Small Probes ever separates from the pressure vessel, nor is a parachute used for deceleration as with the Large Probe. The Small Probes are slowed entirely by aerodynamic braking, and instruments gain access to the atmosphere through doors in the integral afterbody. Both aeroshell and pressure vessel are made of titanium for light weight and strength at high temperatures. The afterbody is made of aluminum. Small Probe Structures The pressure vessel nests into the aeroshell and is permanently attached to it. The afterbody also is permanently attached to the pressure vessel, and its shape closely follows the contours of the vessel's aft hemisphere, protecting it from atmosphere heat. As in the case of the Large Probe, the pressure vessels for the three small probes had to be very carefully designed and machined because of weight limitations, the seven hull penetrations required and the strength requirements at high Venusian pressures and temperatures. The pressure vessels are fabricated in two hemispheres and joined with flanges, bolts and seals. The flight vessels were tested at Venus surface temperatures and pressures, and the test vessels tested even under more severe conditions. Three doors in the afterbody open after entry heating at about 70 km altitude (44 mi.), providing access by the three instruments to the atmosphere. Two of these doors open out from each of two protective housings--one for the atmospheric structure and the other for the net flux radiometer instrument. These housings project like ears from each side of the pressure vessel sphere. The temperature sensor and atmospheric pressure inlet for the atmospheric structure instrument extend 10 cm (4 in.) from the door of one housing, and the nex flux radiometer sensor extends similarly on the opposite side. When the doors to these two housings open after atmospheric entry at 70 km (44 mi.) altitude, they are retained, rather than jettisoned, and serve to slow spacecraft spin rate. A vane, less than one square inch, is attached to the pressure sensor inlet to assure that the vehicle will spin throughout the descent, S O that instruments can see in a full circle as the probe rotates. The cloud sensor (nephelometer) cover opens and folds down. As with the Large Probe, a hemispherical-pattern antenna is mounted at the aft pole of the pressure vessel sphere.

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SMALL PROBE
NET FLUX ATMOSPHERE STRUCTURE DOOR

ATMOSPHERE

INLET AND SPIN CONTROL VANE NEPHELOMETER (SHOWN CLOSE YO-YO

CABLE CARBON PHENOLIC HEAT SHIELD

CLAMP

DECELERATION MODULE

-73Each S m a l l Probe p r e s s u r e v e s s e l h a s a t o t a l of seven sealed penetrations: one f o r t h e a n t e n n a , one for t h e t w o s a p p h i r e nephelometer windows, one f o r t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s c - i r e i n l e t and a h a t c h f o r ground t e s t c o o l i n g and s y s t e m s checkout. The o t h e r t h r e e vessel p e n e t r a t i o n s a r e f e e d t h r o u g h s f o r e l e c t r i c a l c a b l e s . Each e x t e r n a l r a d i o m e t e r s e n s o r on e a c h s m a l l probe h a s t w o diamond windows.

F l i g h t Sequence

For t h e t h r e e S m a l l P r o b e s , a t m o s p h e r i c e n t r y s p e e d s a r e a b o u t 4 2 , 0 0 0 kph ( 2 6 , 0 0 0 mph), and peak d e c e l e r a t i o n s v a r y i n entry f l i g h t path angles.
Twenty m i n u t e s b e f o r e e n t r y , a l l s y s t e m s and i n s t r u m e n t s a r e a c t i v a t e d and communications w i t h E a r t h a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . J u s t b e f o r e e n t r y , s p i n r a t e s a r e c u t a b o u t t h r e e t i m e s from 48 t o 1 4 rpm The 48-rpm s p i n r a t e i m p a r t e d by s p i n - o f f l a u n c h from t h e Bus d i s p e r s e s t h e p r o b e s o v e r t h e p l a n e t t o desired entry points. But i t a l s o means t h a t t h e p r o b e s e n t e r t h e upper atmosphere somewhat t i l t e C t o t h e i r e n t r y f l i g h t paths. W i t h t h e s l o w e r 15-rpm r o t a t i o n , aerodynamic f o r c e s q u i c k l y l i n e up t h e a x e s of t h e p r o b e s w i t h t h e i r e n t r y h e a t i n g damage c o u l d o c c u r on t h e e d g e s of t h e p r o b e s c o n i c a l heat s h i e l d s .
A yo-yo system s p i n s down t h e p r o b e s . Two w e i g h t s a r e c u t l o o s e by a p y r o t e c h n i c c a b l e c u t t e r , and probe s p i n swings t h e w e i g h t s o u t on 2 . 4 m ( 8 - f t . ) c a b l e s . With t h i s w e i g h t moved r a d i a l l y outward, r o t a t i o n r a t e must slow t o m a i n t a i n t h e s a m e r o t a t i o n a l momentum. Weights and cables are t h e n j e t t i s o n e d .

I n o r d e r t o s a v e w e i g h t and a l s o b e c a u s e a l o n g e r s t a y t i m e a t upper a l t i t u d e s i s n o t needed, t h e s m a l l p r o b e s do not use parachutes. On t h e l a r g e p r o b e , more t i m e i s needed f o r measurements of atmosphere a n d c l o u d c o m p o s i t i o n . The s m a l l p r o b e s do n o t c a r r y a t m o s p h e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s .
A s w i t h t h e Large P r o b e , h e a t s h i e l d t e m p e r a t u r e and probe a c c e l e r a t i o n d a t a are s t o r e d f o r t h e a t m o s p h e r i c s t r u c t u r e e x p e r i m e n t d u r i n g t h e e n t r y communications b l a c k o u t . A G-switch e n d s d a t a s t o r a g e a f t e r b l a c k o u t .

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Flight Systems Thermal protection during entry is provided by ablative carbon phenolic heat shields, which are 45-degree cones with the same geometry as the Large Probe heat shield. For further heat protection, the entire afterbody is coated with a low-density elastomeric material. The heat shield material is bonded to the Small Probe titanium aeroshell. Base diameter of the aeroshell heat shield cone is 7 6 cm (30 in.). The conical aeroshell provides aerodynamic braking and flight stability, as does location of the probe center of gravity well forward in the vehicle. Designers chose the aeroshell cone structure primarily for flight through the searing heat and extreme deceleration of atmosphere entry. However, the cone also provides stable flight and substantially slows descent rate in Venus' thick lower atmosphere. Heat Protection

As with the Large Probe, heat protection for the small probes is provided by a kapton blanket completely lining the interior of an 45 cm (18-in.) diameter spherical titanium pressure vessel. It, too, has two shelves which carry all equipment and scientific instruments, and are made of beryllium to serve as heat sinks. Since the aeroshell descends to the surface with the pressure vessel, it, too, is made of light-weight, heat-resistant titanium.
Scientific Instruments The three scientific instruments on the small probes measure atmospheric structure (pressure, temperature and acceleration from which altitude and density are determined), cloud particles and layers and heat distribution in the atmosphere. These measurements, and claculations based on them, will allow characterization of Venus' atmosphere. For the atmospheric structure experiment, the outside inlet for the pressure sensor, and the arm carrying the harplike temperature sensor both extend from the experiment housing. The pressure sensor itself and temperature-sensor electronics internal, as are the accelerometers used for density calculations.

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-75The c l o u d s e n s o r i n s t r u m e n t (nephelometer) i s e n t i r e l y i n s i d e t h e pressure vessel, and l o o k s o u t t h r o u g h t w o s a p p h i r e windows. For t h e n e t f l u x radiometer (heat d e p o s i t i o n i n s t r u ment) s e n s o r s a r e c o m p l e t e l y e x t e r n a l , mounted on a s m a l l boom e x t e n d i n g from t h e experiment housing. The r a d i o m e t e r s e n s o r w i t h i t s two diamond windows t u r n s c o n s t a n t l y i n a h a l f c i r c l e , f i r s t l o o k i n g up and t h e n down. I n s t r u m e n t e l e c t r o n i c s are internal.

Communications Communications systems f o r t h e S m a l l probes c o n s i s t of s o l i d s t a t e t r a n s m i t t e r s and h e m i s p h e r i c a l coverage a n t e n n a s , i d e n t i c a l w i t h t h o s e f o r t h e Large Probe. Each t r a n s m i t t e r has one 1 0 - W a t t , s o l i d s t a t e a m p l i f i e r . T h i s compares w i t h 4 0 w a t t s f o r t h e Large Probe. T h i s system can t r a n s m i t d a t a t o t h e D S N ' s 64-m (210-foot) a n t e n n a s a t a r a t e of 6 4 bps above The 30 k m ( 1 9 m i . ) a l t i t u d e and 1 6 bps below t h a t t o impact. S m a l l Probes do n o t c a r r y a r e c e i v e r f o r two-way Doppler t r a c k i n g as does t h e Large Probe, and Doppler t r a c k i n g i s done u s i n g an o s c i l l a t o r ( s t a b l e t o approximately one p a r t i n a b i l l i o n ) on t h e probes a s a r e f e r e n c e frequency f o r ground t r a c k i n g commltations.
D a t a r e t u r n e d i n c l u d e s c i e n t i f i c and e n g i n e e r i n g i n f o r T h i s i n c l u d e s i n t e r n a l t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e measuremation. ments, e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t flow and v o l t a g e s , and on-off s t a t u s of i n s t r u m e n t s and probe systems.

Command System The command system on t h e Small P r o b e s i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t on t h e Large Probe. I t p r o v i d e s 6 4 commands, a l l o r i g i n a t e d on board t h e p r o b e s by t i m e r s , programmers, G - s w i t c h e s and o t h e r l o g i c s and d e v i c e s .
Data Handling System

Components o f t h e d a t a h a n d l i n g system on t h e S m a l l Probes are i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e f o r t h e Large Probe. The d a t a h a n d l i n g u n i t can a c c e p t 36 a n a l o g , 1 2 d i g i t a l and 2 4 oneb i t c h a n n e l s from i n s t r u m e n t s and systems. Logic of d a t a formats a l s o i s i d e n t i c a l .

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The system f o r e a c h S m a l l Probe p r o v i d e s f o r t h r e e h i g h - r a t e d a t a formats: upper d e s c e n t , l o w e r d e s c e n t and e n t r y blackout. A s w i t h t h e Large Probe, a s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y of 3072 b i t s i s p r o v i d e d by t h e d a t a memory. Following t h e e n t r y communications b l a c k o u t , s t o r e d d a t a w i l l be p l a y e d back and t e l e m e t e r e d i n t h e u p p e r d e s c e n t f o r m a t a t 6 4 b p s . R e a l t i m e t r a n s m i s s i o n w i l l occur i n i t i a l l y a t 64 bps i n t h e upper d e s c e n t format, changing t o 1 6 bps a t 30 k m (19 mi.) a l t i t u d e ( l o w e r d e s c e n t f o r m a t ) . D a t a r a t e a l l o c a t l o n among t h e t h r e e S m a l l Probe i n s t r u m e n t s r a n g e s from 6 t o 2 0 b p s i n t h e upper f o r m a t and 1 . 5 t o 7 . 2 5 bps i n t h e lower f o r m a t . Power Sys t e m s Small Probe power s y s t e m s are s i l v e r - z i n c b a t t e r i e s 1 which p r o v i d e 1 ampere-hours of e n e r g y a t a normal 2 8 volts. The system j n c l u d e s a b a t t e r y , power i n t e r f a c e u n i t and c u r r e n t s e n s o r . O t h e r components a r e i d e n t i c a l t o t h o s e f o r t h e Large P r o b e .

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SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

Orbiter Cloud P h o t o p o l a r i m e t e r -- T h i s i n s t r u m e n t measures t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l o u d and h a z e p a r t i c l e s and obs e r v e s u l t r a v i o l - e t a t m o s p h e r i c markings and c l o u d c i r c u l a tions. U l t r a v i o l e t images p r o v i d e t h e v i s u a l r e f e r e n c e f o r d a t a from o t h e r O r b i t e r e x p e r i m e n t s and f o r t h i s i n s t r u m e n t ' s polarization readings.
A 3.7-cm (1.5-in.) telescope with a r o t a t i n g f i l t e r wheel o b s e r v e s t h e p l a n e t a t f i x e d a n g l e s , u s i n g t h e O r b i t e r r o t a t i o n f o r scans a c r o s s t h e p l a n e t and motion a l o n g t h e s p a c e c r a f t t r a j e c t o r y around Venus f o r complete p l a n e t a r y mapping. The a n g l e of t h e t e l e s c o p e may be v a r i e d by ground command f o r s e l e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s from any p o i n t i n o r b i t .

The i n s t r u m e n t u s e s a n u l t r a v i o l e t (UV) f i l t e r ( f o r maximum c o n t r a s t ) t o t r a c k t h e p u z z l i n g fast-moving UV a b s o r b i n g m a r k i n g s . F i v e p l a n e t a r y images c a n be made i n each s p a c e c r a f t o r b i t . The f i e l d of view i s a b o u t one-half m i l l i r a d i a n , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o a r e s o l u t i o n of a b o u t 3 0 k m (19 m i . ) d i r e c t l y below t h e O r b i t e r . The i n s t r u m e n t measures s c a t t e r e d s u n l i g h t p o l a r i z a t i o n
based on c l o u d and h a z e p a r t i c l e s i z e , s h a p e and d e n s i t y .

V e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of c l o u d and h a z e p a r t i c l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i s e x t r a c t e d from t h i s d a t a .
While t h e O r b i t e r i s a t p e r i a p s i s t h e i n s t r u m e n t o b s e r v e s i n v i s i b l e l i g h t t h e high-haze l a y e r s of t h e atmosphere. These " l i m b s c a n s " have a r e s o l u t i o n as s m a l l a s . 5 k m ( . 3 m i . ) . The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 5 kg (11 l b . ) and u s e s 5 . 4 w a t t s .

S u r f a c e Radar Mapper -- The r a d a r mapping e x p e r i m e n t makes f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e s t u d i e s of l a r g e p o r t i o n s o f t h e p l a n e t ' s hemisphere n o t v i s i b l e from E a r t h . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t w i l l p r o v i d e t h e o n l y d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e s u r f a c e t o be o b t a i n e d from t h e O r b i t e r . From o b s e r v i n g t h e echo of s e v e r a l radio frequencies, experimenters d e r i v e s u r f a c e h e i g h t s along t h e o r b i t a l t r a j e c t o r y t o an accuracy of 1 0 0 m ( 3 0 0 f t . ) o r b e t t e r , g i v i n g a good e s t i m a t e of g l o b a l topography and s h a p e . S u r f a c e e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y can a l s o b e d e r i v e d from t h e r a d a r d a t a .
A low power ( 2 0 w a t t s peak p u l s e power) S-band (1.757 GHzlradar system o b s e r v e s t h e s u r f a c e f o r o n e o u t of e v e r y 1 2 seconds of s p a c e c r a f t r o t a t i o n .

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ORBITER EXPERIMENTS

MAGNETOMETER SENSOR

MAGNETOMETER BOOM

R ETARDl NG POT ENTlAL ELECTRIC FIELD SPECTROMETER ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER
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ELECTRON TEMPERATURE NEUTRAL MASS SPECTROMETER

GAMMA BURST DETECTOR ON SHELF NOT VISIBLE RADAR MAPPER ANTENNA

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Measurements a r e made whenever t h e O r b i t e r i s below 3 , 0 0 0 km ( 1 , 8 6 0 m i . ) , s u b j e c t t o c o n s t r a i n t s s e t by t h e r e v o l v i n g r a d a r a n t e n n a and by c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h o t h e r exp e r i m e n t s f o r t h e l i m i t e d t e l e m e t r y c a p a c i t y . The i n s t r u ment a u t o m a t i c a l l y compensates f o r Doppler s h i f t caused by t h e r a d i a l motion of t h e O r b i t e r .
T e a m s c i e n t i s t s s u b t r a c t t h e o b s e r v e d d i s t a n c e between t h e O r b i t e r and t h e s u r f a c e from t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s o r b i t a l r a d i u s ( o b t a i n e d from D S N t r a c k i n g ) t o f i n d a b s o l u t e topog r a p h i c a l measurements. S u r f a c e r e s o l u t i o n i s b e s t a t a p e r i a p s i s a l t i t u d e of 2 0 0 k ( 1 7 4 m i . ) : m 2 0 km ( 1 2 m i . ) l o n g and 1 6 k (9.6 m i . ) across the suborbital track. D a t a gathered m by t h e i n s t r u m e n t and t e l e m e t e r e d t o E a r t h w i l l b e computerassembled i n t o r a d a r maps of t h e p l a n e t .

R e s o l u t i o n i s comparable t o t h e E a r t h - b a s e d r a d a r s t u d i e s ; enough t o d i s c e r n major s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s . The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 9 . 7 kg ( 2 1 . 3 l b . ) and u s e s 1 8 watts. I n f r a r e d Radiometer -- T h i s i n s t r u m e n t measures t h e "heat." ( i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n ) e m i t t e d by t h e atmosphere a t v a r i o u s a l t i t u d e s from 6 0 k m (36 m i . ) a t t h e t o p of t h e m I n addition, dense cloud l a y e r s o u t t o 150 k ( 9 0 m i . ) . t h e i n s t r u m e n t s e a r c h e s f o r water vapor above t h e c l o u d l a y e r s , m e a s u r e s t h e s i z e of h e a t t r a p p i n g c l o u d l a y e r s and m e a s u r e s t h e p l a n e t a r y s o l a r r e f l e c t a n c e ( a l b e d o ) . The r a d i o m e t e r ' s d a t a y i e l d s a v e r t i c a l t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e of t h e upper atmosphere a s w e l l as a h o r i z o n t a l t e m p e r a t u r e p r o f i l e a l o n g t h e s u b o r b i t a l t r a c k . Such i n f o r m a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n u n c o v e r i n g t h e e x t e n t and d r i v i n g f o r c e s of t h e seeming four-day c i r c u l a t i o n of t h e upper atmosphere. The i n s t r u m e n t f e a t u r e s e i g h t d e t e c t o r s , each s e n s i t i v e t o a d i f f e r e n t f r a c t i o n of t h e i n f r a r e d spectrum. Five d e t e c t o r s measure t h e i n f r a r e d e m i s s i o n s a t f i v e s e l e c t e d w a v e l e n g t h s of t h e ( m i c r o m e t e r s ) , a b s o r p t i o n band of c a r b o n d i o x i d e . Each wavelength samples a s p e c i f i c d e p t h i n t h e atmosphere, depending on h e a t a b s o r b i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C 0 2 m o l e c u l e and t h e v a r i a t i o n of t e m p e r a t u r e w i t h a l t i t u d e . One d e t e c t o r e x c l u s i v e l y d e t e c t s and maps t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of w a t e r v a p o r ( i f i t e x i s t s ) i n t h e upper atmosphere. Another d e t e c t o r measures t h e s i z e and s h a p e of c l o u d l a y e r s , and t h e l a s t d e t e c t o r measures t h e t o t a l solar reflectance. -more-

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A 48-mm-aperture t e l e s c o p e m i r r o r f e e d s a l l e i g h t c h a n n e l s . The t e l e s c o p e i s set a t 45 d e g r e e s t o t h e O r b i t e r s p i n a x i s s o t h a t s c a n s are made by s p a c e c r a f t r o t a t i o n . When l o o k i n g a t one p l a n e t ' s limb t h e narrow f i e l d o f view g i v e s v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n of 5 km ( 3 m i . ) a t p e r i a p s i s . When t h e O r b i t e r i s i n b e s t p o s i t i o n f o r limb s c a n n i n g o f t h e p l a n e t ' s a t m o s p h e r i c " e d g e , " t h e i n s t r u m e n t o b t a i n s a d d i t i o n a l d a t a on c l o u d l a y e r s and t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of w a t e r v a p o r .

The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 5.9 kg ( 1 3 l b . ) and u s e s 5 . 2 watts. Airglow U l t r a v i o l e t S p e c t r o m e t e r -- The u l t r a v i o l e t s p e c t r o m e t e r o b s e r v e s t h e numerous a t m o s p h e r i c markings which c a n b e s e e n o n l y t h r o u g h u l t r a v i o l e t (UV) f i l t e r s . The i n s t r u m e n t t r a c k s t h e UV a b s o r b i n g masses which r o t a t e i n f o u r d a y s , measures the e s c a p e r a t e of atomic hydrogen from t h e o u t e r atmosphere and measures t h e u l t r a v i o l e t s c a t t e r i n g p r o p e r t i e s of t h e c l o u d t o p s and h a z e s a t a b o u t 80 km ( 5 0 m i . ) a l t i t u d e . A b s o r p t i o n of UV r a d i a t i o n i n t h e upper atmosphere produces o p t i c a l UV e m i s s i o n s known as t h e " a i r g l o w " . V a r i o u s a i r g l o w e m i s s i o n s are c a u s e d by d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s ( e . g . , s p l i t - u p of m o l e c u l e s i n t o e l e c t r o n i c a l l y e x c i t e d a t o m s ) . By viewing day and n i g h t a i r g l o w a t wavel e n g t h s between 1 , 1 0 0 Angstroms and 3,400 Angstroms, t h e s p e c t r o m e t e r c a n t h u s i d e n t i f y t h e mechanism which e x c i t e s t h e g a s e s of t h e upper atmosphere. The t e m p e r a t u r e s of t h e upper atmosphere a t v a r i o u s a l t i t u d e s c a n a l s o be i n f e r r e d from d a t a from limb s c a n s a t t h e a t m o s p h e r e ' s edge, a t s e l e c t e d w a v e l e n g t h s . The i n s t r u m e n t measures t h e Lyman Alpha corona t o f i n d hydrogen e s c a p i n g from t h e f a r t h e s t r e a c h e s of Venus' atmosphere. These d a t a a r e i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e e s c a p i n g atomic hydrogen i s t h e l a s t s t e p when a p l a n e t i s l o s i n g water. The s p e c t r o m e t e r f e a t u r e s a 125-mm t e l e s c o p e and monochromator t o r e s t r i c t (upon ground command) t h e viewing P h o t o m u l t i p l i e r t u b e s conspectrum t o any UV wavelength. v e r t t h e impinging W r a d i a t i o n t o e l e c t r i c a l i m p u l s e s , which a r e t h e n t e l e m e t e r e d t o E a r t h f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t o u l t r a v i o l e t p l a n e t a r y maps. The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 3 . 1 kg ( 6 . 9 lb.) and u s e s 1 . 7 watts.

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N e u t r a l M a s s S p e c t r o m e t e r -- T h i s i n s t r u m e n t m e a s u r e s t h e d e n s i t i e s o f n e u t r a l i o n i z e d atoms and m o l e c u l e s i n V e n u s ' u p p e r a t m o s p h e r e b e t w e e n 1 5 0 km ( 9 0 m i . ) a t p e r i a p s i s and 2 0 0 k m ( 1 2 0 m i . ) . F i n d i n g t h e v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e n e u t r a l gas molecules w i l l h e l p d e f i n e t h e chemical state of t h e upper atmosphere. V a r i a t i o n s of h y d r o g e n a n d h e l i u m c o n c e n t r a t i o n s w i l l t e l l t h e e x t e n t of g a s escape f r o m t h e atmosphere. Researchers w i l l f i n d t h e h e i g h t o f t h e homopause ( a b o v e w h i c h a t m o s p h e r e m i x i n g s t o p s ) by c c m p a r i n g t h e d e n s i t i e s o f i n e r t g a s e s a t t h e O r b i t e r a l t i t u d e s w i t h m e a s u r e m e n t s made by t h e L a r g e P r o b e a n d Bus n e u t r a l mass s p e c t r o m e t e r s below 1 5 0 km ( 9 3 m i . ) .
Noble g a s e s , o t h e r n o n - r e a c t i v e g a s e s a n d c h e m i c a l l y a c t i v e gases up t o 4 6 a t o m i c mass u n i t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a n d measured. G a s molecules are f i r s t i o n i z e d and t h e n d e f l e c t e d by a m a g n e t i c f i e l d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r m a s s . The a v e r a g e v e r t i c a l s p a c i n g o f sample p o i n t s i s approximately 400 m ( 2 4 0 f t . ) a t 500 km (300 m i . ) a l t i t u d e w h i l e t h e h o r i z o n t a l m spacing for sampling along t h e O r b i t e r path i s about 2 k (1.2 m i . ) .
The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 4 . 5

kg ( 9 . 8 lb.) a n d u s e s 1 5 w a t t s .

I o n Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r -- The i o n m a s s s p e c t r o m e t e r measures t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f p o s i t i v e l y c h a r g e d i o n s i n t h e V e n u s i a n u p p e r a t m o s p h e r e from 1 5 0 km ( 9 0 m i . ) t o t h e i o n o s p h e r e . The i n s t r u m e n t d i r e c t l y m e a s u r e s i o n s i n a m a s s r a n g e from h y d r o g e n i o n ( p r o t o n ) t o i o n s o f i r o n , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o from 1 t o 5 6 a t o m i c m a s s units. Such d a t a a r e i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e b a s i c n a t u r e of t h e i o n o s p h e r e a n d i t s r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e s o l a r w i n d . The i n s t r u m e n t makes f i r s t a n e x p l o r a t o r y sweep o f 1 . 5 s e c o n d s , d u r i n g which a s e a r c h i s made f o r up t o 1 6 d i f f e r e n t i o n s . I t t h e n makes a series of s w e e p s , r e p e a t i n g t h e sampling of t h e e i g h t most prominent i o n s i d e n t i f i e d d u r i n g t h e e x p l o r a t o r y sweep. (The Bus i n s t r u m e n t i s i d e n tical t o t h e Orbiter version except t h a t these operating s e q u e n c e s c a n n o t b e m o d i f i e d by g r o u n d command a s t h e y c a n on t h e O r b i t e r . ) I n f l i g h t , a s e n s o r i s e x p o s e d t o a stream o f , a t m o s p h e r i c i o n s , which f l o w i n t o a n aluminum c y l i n d e r e n c l o s i n g a s e r i e s o f p a r a l l e l w i r e g r i d s . Each i o n s p e c i e s i s accele r a t e d b y a s p e c i f i c v o l t a g e a p p l i e d t o t h e g r i d s so t h a t t h e i o n s impinge on a c o l l e c t o r a t t h e rear o f t h e s e n s o r c y l i n d e r . The i o n s t r e a m ' s a c c e l e r a t i n g v o l t a g e w i l l y i e l d i t s i d e n t i t y and i t s amplitude w i l l r e v e a l i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n . The i n s t r u m e n t w e i g h s 3 kg ( 6 . 6 l b . ) -moreand u s e s 1 . 5 w a t t s .

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S o l a r Wind Plasma Analyzer -- T h i s i n s t r u m e n t measures p r o p e r t i e s of t h e s o l a r wind and i t s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h Venus' i o n o s p h e r e and upper atmosphere. The i n s t r u m e n t measures v e l o c i t y , flow d i r e c t i o n and t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e s o l a r wind. Such f i n d i n g s s h o u l d h e l p e x p l a i n how t h e i o n o s p h e r e r e a c t s w i t h t h e s o l a r wind a n d p o s s i b l y t h e r o l e t h e s o l a r wind p l a y s i n Venus' w e a t h e r p a t t e r n s . The r e g i o n around Venus, t h e c a v i t y "shadowed" by t h e s o l a r wind, i s d e t e r m i n e d t o t h e e x t e n t a l l o w e d by t h e s p a c e c r a f t o r b i t . T h e i n s t r u m e n t s e a r c h e s f o r streams o f s o l a r p a r t i c l e s i n t h i s region. The plasma a n a l y z e r i s a n electrostatic/energy-peru n i t c h a r g e s p e c t r o m e t e r . The s o l a r wind f l u x ( r a t e of f l o w of t h e s o l a r wind) i s measured by t h e d e f l e c t i o n of i n - r u s h i n g p a r t i c l e s by a n e l e c t r o s t a t i c f i e l d b e t w e e n t w o metal p l a t e s . I f t h e p a r t i c l e s a r e w i t h i n t h e e n e r g y r a n g e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p l a t e s ' v o l t a g e d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e y e x i t between t h e p l a t e s , h i t t i n g one of f i v e d e t e c t o r s . Which t a r g e t t h e p a r t i c l e s h i t d e t e r m i n e s t h e s o l a r wind d i r e c t i o n . By v a r y i n g t h e v o l t a g e between t h e p l a t e s , t h e i n s t r u m e n t y i e l d s a complete p a r t i c l e spectrum of t h e s o l a r wind. The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 3 . 9 kg ( 8 . 6 l b . ) a n d u s e s 5.2 watts. Magnetometer -- The magnetometer s t u d i e s Venus' magn e t i c f i e l d and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of t h e s o l a r wind w i t h t h e planet. I t " s e a r c h e s " f o r s u r f a c e - c o r r e l a t e d magnetic f e a t u r e s , such a s r e g i o n s of c r u s t magnetized i n t h e p a s t p e r h a p s when Venus had much s t r o n g e r m a g n e t i c p r o p e r t i e s . The measurements of t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d of E a r t h ' s s i s t e r p l a n e t may s h e d l i g h t on what i n t e r n a l f l u i d m o t i o n s produce p l a n e t a r y magnetic f i e l d s . ( I t i s s t i l l n o t known what motions are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r E a r t h ' s magnetic f i e l d s . )
I t a p p e a r s Venus h a s a v e r y weak m a g n e t i c f i e l d ; y e t , i t may p l a y a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e i o n o s p h e r e - s o l a r wind i n t e r a c t i o n . The magnetometer s h o u l d f i n d whether i t i s t h e weak i n t r i n s i c m a g n e t i c f i e l d , a n induced m a g n e t i c f i e l d o r t h e i o n o s p h e r e i t s e l f which d e f l e c t s t h e s o l a r wind.

The i n s t r u m e n t c o n s i s t s of t h r e e s e n s o r s on 4.7-m ( 1 5 . 5 - f t . ) booms, long enough t o i s o l a t e them from much of t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s own m a g n e t i c f i e l d . The i n b o a r d s e n s o r , t i l t e d 45 d e g r e e s t o t h e s p i n a x i s e x c l u s i v e l y measures t h e O r b i t e r ' s m a g n e t i c f i e l d , which w i l l b e s u b t r a c t e d from t h e outboard s e n s o r s ' readings.

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Each s e n s o r c o n s i s t s of a r i n g around which i s wrapped Any e x t e r n a l magnetic f i e l d c a u s e s t h e core t o produce a n e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l . A f e e d back s i g n a l t h e n c a n c e l s t h e e x t e r n a l f i e l d so t h a t t h e magnetometer always o p e r a t e s i n a zero f i e l d c o n d i t i o n . T h e s t r e n g t h of t h e feedback s i g n a l i s a measure of t h e e x t e r n a l magnetic f i e l d .
a r i b b o n of permeable m e t a l .

The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 2 kg (4.4 l b . ) and u s e s 2 . 2 w a t t s power.
E l e c t r i c F i e l d Detector=-- T h i s i n s t r u m e n t w i l l h e l p answer q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between Venus and t h e s o l a r wind, t h e m i l l i o n - m i l e an-hour i o n i z e d g a s t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y streams outward f r o m t h e Sun t o t h e s o l a r system.
T h e d e t e c t o r w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e k i n d s of i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e plasma ( t h e mass of i o n s and e l e c t r o n s ) of Venus' i o n o s p h e r e and the s o l a r wind, t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s o l a r wind i s deflected around Venus, t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s o l a r wind h e a t s t h e i o n o s p h e r e , t h e e x t e n t of i o n i z a t i o n caused by e x o s p h e r e - s o l a r wind i n t e r a c t i o n and s o l a r wind t u r b u l e n c e . The i n s t r u m e n t a l s o s e a r c h e s f o r n w h i s t l e r s ' ' -- e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c d i s t u r b a n c e s which t r a v e l a l o n g a p l a n e t ' s magnetic f i e l d l i n e s .
T h e i n s t r u m e n t measures e l e c t r i c components of plasma waves and r a d i o e m i s s i o n s i n t h e frequency r e g i o n from 1 0 0 t o 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 H e r t z which i n d u c e a c u r r e n t i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s V-type e l e c t r i c d i p o l e a n t e n n a . The c u r r e n t i s a m p l i f i e d and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e d and r e l a y e d back to Earth. Four 30 p e r c e n t bandwidth c h a n n e l s are employed; each i s u s e f u l a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s a l o n g t h e O r b i t e r t r a j e c t o r y , as i t p a s s e s through v a r y i n g d e n s i t i e s of t h e s o l a r wind. T h e 0 . 6 - m ( 2 6 - i n . ) - l o n g antenna i s d e s i g n e d t o l e a n on t h e O r b i t e r shroud and deploy a u t o m a t i c a l l y when the shroud i s e j e c t e d . T h e i n s t r u m e n t weighs 0 . 8 kg ( 1 . 7 4 l b . ) and u s e s 0 . 7 w a t t s of power.

E l e c t r o n Temperature Probes T h e p r o b e s measure t h e t h e r m a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Venus' i o n o s p h e r e : e l e c t r o n t e m p e r a t u r e and c o n c e n t r a t i o n and i o n plasma m a s s and conc e n t r a t i o n , a s w e l l a s t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s own e l e c t r i c a l p o t e n t i a l . Such measurements w i l l h e l p s c i e n t i s t s unders t a n d the h e a t i n g mechanisms of Venus' i o n o s p h e r e , c u r r e n t l y b e l i e v e d t o i n c l u d e h e a t i n g a t h i g h e r a l t i t u d e s by t h e s o l a r wind and a t lower a l t i t u d e s by s o l a r u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n .
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Two c y l i n d r i c a l p r o b e s 7 c m ( 3 i n . ) by 0.25 c m ( 0 . 5 One p r o b e i s mounted p a r a l l e l t o t h e spacei n . ) a r e used. c r a f t s p i n a x i s on a 0 . 4 - m ( 1 6 - i n . ) boom, and t h e o t h e r p r o b e i s mounted p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e s p i n a x i s on a 1-m ( 4 0 - i n . ) boom. (The booms a r e long enough t o p l a c e t h e s e n s o r s beyond much of t h e p h o t o e l e c t r o n c l o u d and i o n s h e a t h s u r r o u n d i n g t h e s p a c e c r a f t which m i g h t d i s t o r t r e a d ings.) The l o n g e r boom a l l o w s measurement of e l e c t r o n cont e n t and t e m p e r a t u r e f o r c o n d i t i o n s of v e r y low e l e c t r o n concentrations.

Each p r o b e h a s i t s own power g e n e r a t o r w h i l e s h a r i n g i n f l i g h t d a t a a n a l y s i s c i r c u i t r y . A s a w t o o t h v o l t a g e sweeps each p r o b e t w i c e p e r second and i s e l e c t r o n i c a l l y a d a p t e d t o match t h e e x i s t i n g e l e c t r o n d e n s i t y and t e m p e r a t u r e b e i n g measured. The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 2 . 2 kg ( 4 . 7 6 lb.) and u s e s 4 . 8 w a t t s of power. Charged P a r t i c l e R e t a r d i n g P o t e n t i a l Analyzer -- T h i s i n s t r u m e n t measures t h e t e m p e r a t u r e , c o n c e n t r a t i o n and v e l o c i t y of t h e m o s t abundant i o n s i n t h e i o n o s p h e r e (presumably c a r b o n d i o x i d e and oxygen i o n s . ) I t a l s o measures t h e conc e n t r a t i o n , t e m p e r a t u r e and e n e r g y of s u r r o u n d i n g photoe l e c t r o n s i n t h e ionosphere. The i n s t r u m e n t i s d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r d e t e c t i n g t h e l o w energy plasma p a r t i c l e s i n Venus' i o n o s p h e r e , a s opposed t o t h e much more h i g h l y e n e r g i z e d s o l a r wind p a r t i c l e s . However, t h e a n a l y z e r s h o u l d p r o v i d e d a t a concerni n g t h e s o l a r wind-ionosphere i n t e r a c t i o n a t a n a l t i t u d e of 4 0 0 t o 5 0 0 km ( 2 4 0 t o 3 0 0 m i . ) a t t h e p o i n t where t h e s o l a r wind streams i n t o t h e i o n o s p h e r e . By v a r y i n g e l e c t r i c a l p o t e n t i a l s , c o l l e c t o r g r i d s of 6 cm (2.5 i n . ) diameter s e l e c t i v e l y allow various ionospheric particles t o s t r i k e a detector. C u r r e n t induced i n t h e det e c t o r i s a m p l i f i e d by a n e l e c t r o m e t e r . Measurements a r e t a k e n a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g a 120-km ( 7 2 m i . ) o r b i t segment t h r o u g h t h e i o n o s p h e r i c plasma r e g i o n . Onboard a n a l y s i s s e l e c t s t h e optimum p o i n t i n t h e s p a c e c r a f t r o t a t i o n a t which t o sample t h e i o n o s p h e r i c plasma, s o t h a t e a c h s c a n i s completed i n a s m a l l f r a c t i o n of a s p i n p e r i o d . The i n s t r u m e n t a c h i e v e s a 20-km ( 1 2 - m i . ) r e s o l u t i o n f o r t o t a l ion concentration. The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 2 . 8 kg ( 6 . 3 l b . ) and u s e s 2 . 4 w a t t s of power. -more-

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G a m m a R a y B u r s t D e t e c t o r -- The gamma r a y b u r s t d e t e c t o r o b s e r v e s t h e i n t e n s e s h o r t d u r a t i o n ( o n e - t e n t h second t o a f e w t e n t h s of s e c o n d s ) " b u r s t s " o f h i q h e n e r q y p r o t o n s from o u t e r s p a c e . T h i s phenomenon w a s n ' t d i s c o v e r e d u n t i l 1 9 7 3 , a n d t h e n a t u r e a n d o r i g i n of t h e s o u r c e s a r e s t i l l unknown. T h e gamma r a y b u r s t s o c c u r randomly i n t i m e ( r o u g h l y 1 0 p e r y e a r ) a n d a p p e a r t o o r i g i n a t e from random p o i n t s i n t h e u n i v e r s e . T h e gamma r a y b u r s t d e t e c t o r i s t h e o n l y e x p e r i m e n t on P i o n e e r Venus which i s n o t i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i r e c t s t u d y o f Venus a n d i t s e n v i r o n s .

The Venus O r b i t e r , s e p a r a t e d from E a r t h by r o u g h l y o n e m a s t r o n o m i c a l u n i t ( 1 4 9 m i l l i o n k o r 93 m i l l i o n m i . ) p r o v i d e s a means t o o b t a i n a " f i x " o n t h e s t r a n g e b u r s t s , by c o r r e l a t i n g i t s o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e made by o r b i t i n g E a r t h satellites. Measurements of t h e gamma r a y s o u r c e s w i l l be made w i t h a n a c c u r a c y o f less t h a n o n e a r c m i n u t e , p r e c i s e enough f o r a n a t t e m p t a t o p t i c a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e s . Two sodium i o d i d e p h o t o m u l t i p l i e r d e t e c t o r u n i t s s e n s i t i v e t o photons i n t h e 0 . 2 t o 2.0 m i l l i o n e l e c t r o n volts (MeV) e n e r g y r a n g e p r o v i d e a c o n t i n u o u s t i m e h i s t o r y f o r t h o s e b u r s t s i n t e n s e enough t o b e detected a n d g i v e a c o a r s e p r o f i l e o f t h e gamma b u r s t e n e r g y r a n g e . A memory u n i t o f 20,000 "bits" f o r s t o r i n g d a t a f o r later readout i s required t o accommodate t h e v e r y h i g h d a t a r a t e s t h a t o c c u r d u r i n g a brief burst. The i n s t r u m e n t w e i g h s 2 . 8 kg ( 6 . 3 5 l b . ) a n d u s e s 1 . 3 w a t t s of power. O r b i t e r Radio S c i e n c e I n t e r n a l D e n s i t y D i s t r i b u t i o n E x p e r i m e n t -- T h i s e x p e r i ment d e t e r m i n e s V e n u s ' s i n t e r n a l m a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e processes which h a v e p r o d u c e d t h a t d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e p l a n e t ' s g l o b a l s h a p e and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Venus' surface f e a t u r e s and t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n t e r n a l d e n s i t i e s . Res e a r c h e r s h o p e t o c o n s t r u c t a model o f t h e p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s e s w h i c h g o v e r n e d V e n u s ' p l a n e t a r y e v o l u t i o n w i t h t h e h e l p of t h i s experiment's data. S c i e n t i s t s u s e t h e two-way D o p p l e r t r a c k i n g o f t h e O r b i t e r , which i s a l s o u s e a f o r n d v i y a t i o n , t o f i n d v e r y s m a l l c h a n g e s i n i t s o r b i t . They u s e t h e s e o r b i t c h a n g e s t o c h a r t Venus' g r a v i t y f i e l d . T h i s g r a v i t y i n f o r m a t i o n can t h e n b e used t o c a l c u l a t e v a r i a t i o n s i n p l a n e t d e n s i t y .

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An S-band s i g n a l of 2 . 2 G H z i s t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m a D S N a n t e n n a , r e c e i v e d by t h e O r b i t e r s p a c e c r a f t and r e t r a n s m i t t e d back t o t h e D S N a n t e n n a . Doppler s h i f t s i n frequency of these s i g n a l s mean changes i n spacecraft v e l o c i t y . M o s t of t h e v e l o c i t y changes a r e due t o t h e r e l a t i v e o r b i t a l motions of E a r t h , Venus and t h e P i o n e e r Venus O r b i t e r . Howe v e r , l o c a l anomalies i n t h e i n t e r n a l m a s s d i s t r i b u t i o n of Venus i n d u c e a d d i t i o n a l v e l o c i t y changes. A n a l y s i s of t h e v e l o c i t y changes therefore p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i n t e r n a l mass d i s t r i b u t i o n of Venus. Comparison of t h i s d a t a w i t h t h e r a d a r mapping d a t a may s u p p o r t t h e e x i s t e n c e of basic on-going p h y s i c a l processes, such a s E a r t h - l i k e p l a t e t e c t o n i c s ( t h e movement of massive c r u s t a l p l a t e s s l o w l y p a s t one a n o t h e r ) . T h e d a t a a l s o w i l l i n f e r t h e l i k e l y composition and t e m p e r a t u r e of Venus' i n t e r i o r .
C e l e s t i a l Mechanics Experiment -- The c e l e s t i a l mechanics experiment s t u d i e s Venus' g r a v i t y f i e l d , l e a d i n g t o c a l c u l a t i o n s of i t s g l o b a l shape and i n f e r e n c e s a b o u t t h e dynamics of t h e p l a n e t ' s upper atmosphere and i o n o s p h e r e . The experiment a l s o measures t h e d i r e c t i o n of Venus' s p i n a x i s , r o t a t i o n of t h e p l a n e t ' s p o l e s , d e n s i t y of t h e upper atmosphere, r e l a t i v i s t i c e f f e c t s of s o l a r g r a v i t y on t h e O r b i t e r t r a c k i n g s i g n a l and improves o u r knowledge of t h e e x a c t p l a n e t a r y t r a jectories of Venus and E a r t h .

S c i e n t i s t s u s e Doppler t r a c k i n g t o c h a r t t h e p l a n e t ' s g r a v i t y f i e l d . A DSN a n t e n n a on E a r t h t r a n s m i t s a r a d i o s i g n a l of 2 . 2 G H z t o t h e O r b i t e r , which r e t r a n s m i t s t h a t s i g n a l , m u l t i p l i e d by 240/221 ( t o d i s c r i m i n a t e o u t g o i n g from incoming s i g n a l s ) . Unexpected frequency s h i f t s i n t h e s e s i g n a l s mean changes i n s p a c e c r a f t p o s i t i o n . These changes a r e caused by t h e m a s s and g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d of Venus, g r a v i t y f i e l d of the Sun and Venus' own atmosphere, which e x e r t s a d r a g on t h e O r b i t e r . More d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of t h e atmosphere are p o s s i b l e j u s t before and a f t e r t h e o c c u l t a t i o n s of t h e O r b i t e r by Venus, when t h e r a d i o s i g n a l must p a s s q u i t e c l o s e t o t h e p l a n e t s u r f a c e on i t s way t o E a r t h . D i s t o r t i o n s ( s c i n t i l l a t i o n s ) of t h e O r b i t e r s i g n a l d u r i n g these p e r i o d s r e v e a l v a r i a t i o n s i n upper atmosphere d e n s i t y . Simultaneous r a d i o t r a c k i n g of t h e O r b i t e r w i t h e x t r a g a l a c t i c r a d i o s o u r c e s w i l l allow v e r y p r e c i s e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e o r b i t s of E a r t h and Venus w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s e e x t r a galactic objects. -more-

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D u a l F r e q u e n c y R a d i o O c c u l t a t i o n E x p e r i m e n t -- T h i s e x p e r i m e n t s t u d i e s t h e a t m o s p h e r e of Venus by o b s e r v i n g how O r b i t e r X- a n d S-band r a d i o s i g n a l s p e n e t r a t e V e n u s ' a t m o s p h e r e o n t h e way t o receivers o n E a r t h . The 4 0 o c c u l t a t i o n s w i t h Venus which t h e O r b i t e r t r a j e c t o r y e n c o u n t e r s o v e r i t s m i s s i o n l i f e t i m e w i l l p r o d u c e 80 p r o f i l e s o f t h e s i g n a l d i s t o r t i n g p r o p e r t i e s of t h e p l a n e t ' s l o w e r a n d u p p e r atmosphere and i o n o s p h e r e . By a n a l y z i n g t h e s c i n t i l l a t i o n s i n r a d i o s i g n a l s c a u s e d by v a r i o u s a t m o s p h e r i c l a y e r s , i n v e s t i g a t o r s c a n i n f e r t h e r e f r a c t i o n , t e m p e r a t u r e , p r e s s u r e a n d d e n s i t i e s o f t h e atmosp h e r e from 3 4 k m ( 2 0 m i . ) a l t i t u d e up t h r o u g h t h e i o n o s p h e r e . A s t h e r a d i o s i g n a l s p i e r c e t h e ionosphere, i n v e s t i g a t o r s c a n m e a s u r e s i g n a l d i s t o r t i o n d u e t o v a r y i n g e l e c t r o n dens i t i e s i n t h i s barely-known r e g i o n . S i n c e most of t h e s e m e a s u r e m e n t s a r e made o n V e n u s 1 : n i g h t s i d e , d a t a i s p r o v i d e d on t h e r e p o r t e d l y v a r i a 5 l e Venusian n i g h t t i m e i o n o s p h e r e . The O r b i t e r h i g h - g a i n a n t e n n a i s s p e c i a l l y aimed d u r i n g o c c u l t a t i o n s so t h a t t h e r e f r a c t e d r a d i o s i g n a l i s o p t i m a l l y aimed a t E a r t h . DSN s t a t i o n s on E a r t h a r e e q u i p p e d w i t h s p e c i a l r e c e i v e r s t o t r a c k t h e i n c o m i n g s i g n a l s as t h e i r phase and f r e q u e n c i e s are modified during transmission through Venus's atmosphere. A t m o s p h e r i c a n d S o l a r Wind T u r b u l e n c e E x p e r i m e n t -- The experiment o b s e r v e s t h e s m a l l scale t u r b u l e n c e (less t h a n 1 0 km o r 6 m i . ) i n t h e V e n u s i a n a t m o s p h e r e above 3 5 km ( 2 2 m i . ) altitude. I t w i l l r e v e a l t h e v a r i a t i o n of atmospheric t u r b u l e n c e w i t h l a t i t u d e , l o n g i t u d e and a l t i t u d e changes d u r i n g t h e 4 0 o c c u l t a t i o n s when O r b i t e r s p a c e c r a f t s i g n a l s m u s t p a s s through Venus' a t m o s p h e r e o n t h e i r way t o E a r t h t r a c k ing stations. Because t h e s i g n a l s t r a v e l through t h e ionos p h e r e a s w e l l , f l u c t u a t i o n s i n e l e c t r o n d e n s i t y c a n a l s o be i n f e r r e d from t h e d a t a . Following c o n c l u s i o n of t h e normal m i s s i o n l i f e t i m e ( a r o u n d August 1 9 7 9 ) , t h e O r b i t e r w i l l p r o v i d e d e n s i t y and v e l o c i t y m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e s o l a r wind n e a r t h e S u n . Venus w i l l t h e n a p p r o a c h s u p e r i o r c o n j u n c t i o n ( E a r t h a n d Venus w i l l b e on o p p o s i t e s i d e s of t h e S u n ) . T h i s i s a n i d e a l t i m e t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s o l a r w i n d , t h e stream o f i o n i z e d p a r t i c l e s c o n s t a n t l y s w i r l i n g o f f t h e Sun. Because t h e s o l a r wind i s s o c h a n g e a b l e , r e p e a t e d O r b i t e r o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e s o l a r wind n e a r t o a n d f a r from t h e Sun w i l l p r o v i d e n e e d e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t s o l a r wind d e n s i t y , t u r b u l e n c e a n d v e l o c i t y uniformity. Two D S N s t a t i o n s w i l l a n a l y z e t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s ( s c i n t i l l a t i o n s ) i n t h e O r b i t e r S - a n d X-band s i g n a l s as t h e y p a s s t h e s o l a r wind o n t h e i r way t o E a r t h . -morel

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Atmospheric Drag Experiment -- T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t a k e s d r a g measurement f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e of a n o t h e r p l a n e t ' s atmosp h e r e , a s t h e atmosphere " f r i c t i o n " of Venus s l o w s t h e O r b i t e r . E x p e r i m e n t e r s w i l l u s e d r a g measurements t h r o u g h o u t t h e O r b i t e r m i s s i o n t o s e a r c h f o r any v a r i a t i o n s i n atmosp h e r i c d e n s i t y t h a t c o r r e l a t e w i t h s o l a r wind a c t i v i t y changes i n s o l a r u l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n and d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e n s i t y on t h e p l a n e t ' s night s i d e . I n addition, p r o j e c t s c i e n t i s t s are l o o k i n g f o r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e seeming four-day r o t a t i o n of t h e lower atmosphere e x t e n d s i n t o t h e upper atmosphere.
D S N s t a t i o n s a n a l y z e t h e Doppler e f f e c t on t h e s p a c e c r a f t ' s X- a n d S-band r a d i o s i g n a l , caused by a t m o s p h e r i c drag-induced change i n t h e O r b i t e r ' s d i r e c t i o n and s p e e d .
T h e e n t i r e s p a c e c r a f t , e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s h a p e of a c y l i n d e r , a c t s a s t h e t e s t i n s t r u m e n t . Atmospheric d e n s i t y i s d e t e r m i n e d b e s t i n t h e v i c i n i t y of p e r i a p s i s (between 1 5 0 and 2 5 0 km o r 9 3 a n d 1 5 5 m i . ) , where t h e d r a g e f f e c t i s much g r e a t e r than elsewhere along t h e O r b i t e r t r a j e c t o r y . A s t h e p e r i a p s i s a l t i t u d e changes, v a r i a t i o n s of a t m o s p h e r i c d e n s i t y w i t h a l t i t u d e can b e p l o t t e d .

Knowledge of a t m o s p h e r i c d e n s i t y a i d s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of m a s s s p e c t r o m e t e r f i n d i n g s , i n f e r s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e upper atmosphere and a i d s i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a model of Venus' upper atmosphere. L a r g e P r o b e Experiments N e u t r a l Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r -- The n e u t r a l m a s s s p e c t r o meter measures t h e a t m o s p h e r i c c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e lower 6 0 k m (36 m i . ) of Venus I atmosphere ( l a r g e l y t h e atmosphere below t h e m a s s i v e c l o u d l a y e r s ) a s t h e Large Probe d e s c e n d s by p a r a c h u t e . Knowledge o f t h e r e l a t i v e abundances of g a s e s w i l l h e l p answer q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e e v o l u t i o n , s t r u c t u r e and h e a t b a l a n c e of Venus. The i n s t r u m e n t d e t e r m i n e s t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n of n o n - r e a c t i v e gases, c h e m i c a l l y a c t i v e g a s e s and r a t i o s of i n e r t g a s i s o t o p e s . Water v a p o r ( i f i t e x i s t s ) i s a l s o measured. The i n s t r u m e n t i s mounted i n s i d e t h e L a r g e Probe p r e s s u r e v e s s e l . I t r e c e i v e s a c o n t i n u o u s flow of a t m o s p h e r i c g a s t h r o u g h two u n i q u e ceramic i n l e t t u b e s t h a t p r o t r u d e The i n l e t t u b e s a r e c a l l e d through t h e p r e s s u r e v e s s e l w a l l . C e r a m i c Micro Leaks (CMLS) and a r e made t o g r e a t l y l i m i t t h e amount of g a s e n t e r i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t , w i t h o u t c h e m i c a l l y a l t e r i n g it. -more-

LARGE PROBE EXPERIMENTS

co
W

I

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SOLAR FLUX RADIOMETER

ELECTRONICS A T M O ~ P H ERIC STRUCTURE (BEHIND MASS SPECTROMETER

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The CMLs a r e p a s s i v e d e v i c e s and t h e amount of g a s f l o w i n g t h r o u g h them i n c r e a s e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e . To p r e v e n t " f l o o d i n g " of t h e i n s t r u m e n t , one CML i s s e a l e d when t h e a t m o s p h e r i c p r e s s u r e i s a b o u t 1 . 5 b a r s . A f t e r e n t e r i n g t h e instrument, t h e atmospheric g a s i s f i r s t i o n i z e d and t h e s e p a r a t e d i o n s s o r t e d o u t f o r m a s s and q u a n t i t y of e a c h c o n s t i t u e n t by t h e i r d i f f e r e n t d e f l e c t i o n s i n p a s s i n g through magnetic f i e l d s . The s p e c t r o m e t e r can i d e n t i f y g a s e s w i t h masses up t o 208 atomic m a s s u n i t s , b e l i e v e d t o b e a l a r g e enough m a s s range f o r a l l molecules l i k e l y t o be encountered i n t h e lower atmosphere. S e n s i t i v i t y i s one p a r t p e r m i l l i o n . S i x t y a t m o s p h e r i c s a m p l i n g s a r e p l a n n e d , w i t h a m a s s spectrum t a k i n g 6 4 s e c o n d s . An onboard m i c r o p r o c e s s o r c o n t r o l s t h e instrument and accumulates data f o r t e l e m e t r y t o E a r t h . The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 1 0 . 9 kg ( 2 4 l b . ) and u s e s 1 4 w a t t s .
G a s Chromatograph -- The g a s chromatograph measures t h e g a s e o u s c o m p o s i t i o n of Venus' lower atmosphere. By f i n d i n g t h e major s o u r c e s of i n f r a r e d o p a c i t y ( t h o s e g a s e s t h a t t r a p h e a t ) , s c i e n t i s t s s h o u l d b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d why Venus has 4 8 0 d e g r e e C (900-degree F . ) s u r f a c e t e m p e r a t u r e s . From t h e measurement of g a s e s produced by r a d i o a c t i v e d e c a y , s c i e n t i s t s c a n i n f e r t h e d e g r e e of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n Venus' i n t e r i o r . E x p e r i m e n t e r s w i l l a l s o b e a b l e t o deduce t h e s i m i l a r i t y of t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e solid p a r t s of Venus and E a r t h by t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v a r i o u s s u l f u r i c g a s e s .
T h e i n s t r u m e n t samples t h e lower atmosphere t h r e e t i m e s d u r i n g t h e L a r g e P r o b e ' s d e s c e n t . The atmosphere f l o w s i n t o a t u b e p e n e t r a t i n g t h e e x t e r i o r of t h e L a r g e Probe and i n t o a helium g a s s t r e a m , which sweeps t h e sample i n t o t w o chromat o g r a p h columns. Atmospheric g a s e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d by t h e t i m e i t t a k e s them t o f l o w through t h e columns. A s a C a l i b r a t i o n c h e c k , t w o samples of f r e o n ( a g a s n o t l i k e l y t o b e e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e atmosphere) a r e added t o t h e t h i r d sample, and t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n n o t e d .

The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 6 . 3 kg ( 1 3 . 8 l b . ) and u s e s 4 2 w a t t s , t h e most of any P i o n e e r Venus i n s t r u m e n t .

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S o l a r F l u x Radiometer - - T h i s i n s t r u m e n t measures where s o l a r energy i s d e p o s i t e d i n the l o w e r Venusian atmosphere, g i v i n g a v e r t i c a l p r o f i l e of s u n l i g h t i n p u t . I t r e v e a l s how much s u n l i g h t i s absorbed by t h e c l o u d s and h o w much s u n l i g h t reaches t h e s u r f a c e , i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f o r res o l v i n g whether Venus h a s a greenhouse weather machine and e x p l a i n i n g why i t s s u r f a c e i s so h o t .
T h e i n s t r u m e n t c o n t i n u a l l y measures t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n s u n l i g h t i n t e n s i t y d i r e c t l y above and below t h e Large Probe horizon as t h e probe d r i f t s t o t h e p l a n e t s u r f a c e . F i v e q u a r t z l e n s e s of 3 mm (1/8 i n . ) d i a m e t e r i n s i d e f i v e f l a t s a p p h i r e windows c o l l e c t t h e l i g h t and t r a n s m i t i t by q u a r t z rods t o an electronic l i g h t detector. S u n l i g h t i n t e n s i t y i s d e t e c t e d i n t h e s p e c t r a l r a n g e of 0 . 4 t o 1 . 8 p m ( m i c r o m e t e r s ) , t h e wavelength r a n g e f o r most s o l a r energy. V e r t i c a l resol u t i o n i s 7 0 0 t o 1 , 0 0 0 m ( 2 , 3 0 0 t o 3 , 3 0 0 f t . ) . Lenses a r e p o s i t i o n e d b o t h up and down t o f i n d t h e amount of s o l a r energy absorbed i n l a y e r s of t h e atmosphere. To a v o i d having t h e p r o b e o r i t s p a r a c h u t e i n t h e f i e l d of view, t h e radiometer samples s u n l i g h t i n narrow 5-degree f i e l d s of view. T h e i n s t r u m e n t weighs 1 . 6 kg ( 3 . 5 l b . )

and u s e s 4 w a t t s .

I n f r a r e d Radiometer

t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n i n t h e atmosp h e r e from Large Probe p a r a c h u t e deployment a t 6 7 km ( 4 0 m i . ) down t o t h e s u r f a c e . I t a l s o d e t e c t s c l o u d l a y e r s and water v a p o r , b o t h of w h i c h may w e l l be t r a p p i n g enormous amounts of h e a t and p r e v e n t i n g t h e i r r e r a d i a t i o n back i n t o s p a c e . F i n d i n g major h e a t s o u r c e s (and t r a p s ) i s e s s e n t i a l t o proving Venus h a s a greenhouse h e a t i n g mechanism.
S i x p y r o e l e c t r i c i n f r a r e d d e t e c t o r s w e r e chosen because t h e y do n o t need s p e c i a l c o o l i n g equipment f o r t h e i r u s e i n t h e extreme a t m o s p h e r i c h e a t . Each detector views t h e atmosp h e r e v i a r o t a t i n g l i g h t p i p e s through a d i f f e r e n t i n f r a r e d f i l t e r between 3 and 50 microns. T h e views of t h e detectors i s d i r e c t e d a t 4 5 degrees above and below t h e probe h o r i z o n through a diamond window heated t o p r e v e n t p a r t i c l e contamin a t i o n d u r i n g p a s s a g e through c l o u d s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n i n f r a red r a d i a t i o n , c l o u d o p a c i t y and w a t e r vapor between t h e two viewing a n g l e s i s telemetered t o E a r t h e v e r y 6 s e c o n d s , g i v i n g a v e r t i c a l i n f r a r e d s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n of 250 m ( 8 2 5 f t . ) o r better.

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The i n f r a r e d r a d i o m e t e r measures

Two of t h e s i x detectors m o n i t o r t h e t e m p e r a t u r e and o p t i c a l u n i f o r m i t y of t h e diamond viewing window, two d e t e c t o r s d e t e c t and measure water v a p o r , one d e t e c t o r measures c l o u d o p a c i t y and t h e remaining d e t e c t o r measures t h e i n f r a r e d i n t e n s i t i e s of t h e a t m o s p h e r i c l a y e r s t h e Large Probe p a s s e s through.
T h e i n s t r u m e n t w e i g h s 2 . 6 kg ( 5 . 8 l b . )

and u s e s 5 . 5 w a t t s .

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Cloud P a r t i c l e S i z e S p e c t r o m e t e r This instrument measures t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e and s h a p e and d e n s i t y of Venus' c l o u d s i n t h e l o w e r atmosphere from 6 7 k m ( 4 0 m i . ) down t o the surface. Through measurements o f p a r t i c l e s i z e and mass, t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n p r o v i d e s a v e r t i c a l p r o f i l e of p a r t i c u l a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n f o r 34 d i f f e r e n t s i z e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , ranging from 1 t o 500 microns i n d i a m e t e r ( a micron i s o n e m i l l i o n t h of a meter o r r o u g h l y t w o t e n - t h o u s a n d t h s o f an i n c h ) . Such measurements w i l l g i v e c l u e s t o b a s i c c l o u d f o r m a t i o n p r o cesses and c l o u d - s u n l i g h t i n t e r a c t i o n s on Venus. The s p e c t r o m e t e r a l s o d i f f e r e n t i a t e s ice c r y s t a l s -- i f any a r e p r e s e n t -- from o t h e r c r y s t a l l i n e p a r t i c u l a t e s by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i c e ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c " a s p e c t r a t i o " -- t h e r a t i o of p a r t i c l e thickness t o s i z e . The i n s t r u m e n t d i r e c t s a l a s e r beam o n t o a n e x t e r n a l m i r r o r s u p p o r t e d 1 5 c m ( 6 i n . ) from t h e p r e s s u r e v e s s e l ' s o u t e r s u r f a c e . The m i r r o r d i r e c t s t h e beam back i n t o a backscatter detector. A s a p a r t i c l e e n t e r s the instrument's f i e l d of view, i t s shadow i s imaged o n t o a p h o t o d i o d e a r r a y d e t e c t o r , where i t s shadow s i z e i s measured and r e c o r d e d . The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 4 . 4 kg ( 9 . 6 l b .) L a r u e and S m a l l Probe I n s t r u m e n t s Atmospheric S t r u c t u r e Experiments -- These i n v e s t i g a t i o n s m (120 m i . ) d e t e r m i n e Venus' a t m o s p h e r i c s t r u c t u r e from 2 0 0 k t o impact a t f o u r e n t r ; s i t e s w e l l s e p a r a t e d from one a n o t h e r . Temperature, p r e s s u r e and a c c e l e r a t i o n s e n s o r s on a l l f o u r p r o b e s y i e l d d a t a on t h e l o c a t i o n and i n t e n s i t i e s of atmosp h e r i c t u r b u l e n c e , t h e v a r i a t i o n of t e m p e r a t u r e s w i t h p r e s s u r e and a l t i t u d e , t h e a v e r a g e a t m o s p h e r i c m o l e c u l a r w e i g h t and t h e r a d i a l d i s t a n c e t o t h e c e n t e r o f Venus. I f t h e Probes s u r v i v e impact ( a remote p o s s i b i l i t y ) , t h e y w i l l rev e a l any seismic a c t i v i t y i n t h e c r u s t of t h e p l a n e t . The t e m p e r a t u r e s e n s o r s a r e d u a l r e s i s t a n c e thermometers. Each h a s one f r e e w i r e e l e m e n t p r o t r u d i n g i n t o t h e atmosphere f o r maximum s e n s i t i v i t y and o n e e l e m e n t bonded t o t h e s u p p o r t I t s extreme t e m p e r a t u r e frame f o r maximum s u r v i v a b i l i t y . r a n g e p e r m i t s i t t o r e c o r d t e m p e r a t u r e s from below f r e e z i n g t o 4 7 0 d e g r e e s C ( 9 0 0 d e g r e e s F.). P r e s s u r e s e n s o r s are m u l t i p l e range, m i n i a t u r e s i l i c o n diaphragm s e n s o r s . The wide r a n g e needed from 30 m i l l i b a r s t o 1 0 0 b a r s p r e s s u r e i s a c h i e v e d by 1 2 s e n s o r s of o v e r l a p p i n g s e n s i t i v i t y . T h i s a l s o p r o v i d e s redundancy i n case of a sensor malfunction. and u s e s 20 w a t t s .

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A c c e l e r a t i o n s e n s o r s ( f o u r on t h e l a r g e r probe, one o n each of t h e s m a l l p r o b e s ) have a p e n d u l o u s mass, maint a i n e d i n n u l l ( z e r o ) p o s i t i o n b y t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of a c u r r e n t i n a c o i l i n s i d e t h e mass w i t h a m a g n e t i c f i e l d . The n u l l i n g c u r r e n t i s t h e measure of a c c e l e r a t i o n . An e l e c t r o n i c s p a c k a g e d i s t r i b u t e s power t o a l l s e n s o r s , s a m p l e s t h e i r o u t p u t , c h a n g e s t h e i r r a n g e s a n d stores data. The i n s t r u m e n t s o n t h e L a r g e P r o b e weigh 2.3 kg ( 5 . 1 l b . ) and u s e 4 . 9 w a t t s . On e a c h o f t h e S m a l l P r o b e s t h e i n s t r u m e n t s w e i g h 1 . 2 kg ( 2 . 7 l b . ) a n d u s e 3.5 w a t t s . N e p h e l o m e t e r -- The n e p h e l o m e t e r s e a r c h e s f o r c l o u d p a r t i c l e s ( s o l i d o r l i q u i d ) i n t h e l o w e r a t m o s p h e r e from 6 7 km ( 4 0 m i . ) t o t h e s u r f a c e . By p r o v i d i n g a l l f o u r p r o b e s w i t h nephelometers, i n v e s t i g a t o r s can determine whether c l o u d l a y e r s v a r y from l o c a t i o n t o l o c a t i o n o r a r e u n i f o r m l y distributed across the planet.
A l i g h t e m i t t i n g d i o d e (LED) o f 9 , 0 0 0 Angstroms t o g e t h e r with a p l a s t i c Fresnel lens f o r focusing the l i g h t illuminate t h e a t m o s p h e r e t h r o u g h a window mounted i n t h e p r o b e p r e s s u r e v e s s e l . The t r a n s m i t t e d l i g h t beam i s p r o j e c t e d a d i s t a n c e beyond t h e t u r b u l e n t a t m o s p h e r e s u r r o u n d i n g t h e p r o b e s a s t h e y d e s c e n d . Through a s e c o n d window, a r e c e i v e r m e a s u r e s t h e i n t e n s i t y of l i g h t b a c k s c a t t e r e d ( a b o u t 1 7 5 d e g r e e s ) b y atmospheric p a r t i c l e s . Both windows a r e p r o t e c t e d from t h e s e a r i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s o f t h e V e n u s i a n a t m o s p h e r e and f r o m stray light.

I n v e s t i g a t o r s w i l l u s e t h e backward l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g p r o p e r t y of c l o u d s a n d h a z e s t o c o n s t r u c t a v e r t i c a l p r o f i l e o f p a r t i c l e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e lower a t m o s p h e r e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e two s m a l l p r o b e s d e s c e n d i n g i n t h e s u n l i t s i d e w i l l b e measuring t h e v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of solar s c a t t e r e d l i g h t a t 3 , 5 0 0 Angstroms a n d 5 , 3 0 0 A n g s t r o m s . The i n s t r u m e n t w e i g h s 1.1 kg ( 2 . 4
l b . ) and uses 2 . 4

watts.

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S m a l l Probe Experiments
N e t F l u x Radiometer -- T h i s i n s t r u m e n t maps t h e planet a r y p o s i t i o n s of s o u r c e s and absorbers of r a d i a t i v e energy and t h e i r v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of r a d i a t i v e energy ( h e a t and s u n l i g h t ) powers t h e a t m o s p h e r i c c i r c u l a t i o n on Venus a s w e l l a s E a r t h . T h e i n s t r u m e n t data w i l l b e r e l a t e d t o t h e observed a t m o s p h e r i c motions, t e m p e r a t u r e s t r u c t u r e and c l o u d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f r o m o t h e r P i o n e e r Venus experiments t o g a i n a m o r e a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of Venus' w e a t h e r machine.

The i n s t r u m e n t s o n each of t h e t h r e e S m a l l Probes are i d e n t i c a l and can o p e r a t e e q u a l l y i n e i t h e r day o r n i g h t hemispheres. Following d e s c e n t i n t o t h e lower atmosphere below 7 2 km ( 4 5 m i . ) t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s s e n s o r i s deployed from a p r o t e c t i v e e n c l o s u r e t o a p o s i t i o n l o c a t i n g i t beyond t h e t u r b u l e n c e n e a r t h e base of t h e h e a t s h i e l d . D a t a c o l l e c t i o n c o n t i n u e s u n t i l impact.
The i n s t r u m e n t ' s f l u x p l a t e i s o r i e n t e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e p l a n e t ' s s u r f a c e . A d i f f e r e n c e between upward a n d downward r a d i a n t energy f a l l i n g on t h e two s i d e s of t h e p l a t e produces a t e m p e r a t u r e g r a d i e n t through i t , which i n d u c e s a n e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t . The p l a t e i s f l i p p e d 1 8 0 degrees e v e r y second t o a s s u r e even d a t a c o l l e c t i o n .

The i n s t r u m e n t weighs 1.1 kg ( 2 . 4 l b . ) and u s e s 3 . 8 w a t t s . M u l t i p r o b e Bus Experiments N e u t r a l Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r -- T h e n e u t r a l m a s s s p e c t r o meter measures t h e v a r i o u s components (atoms and m o l e c u l e s ) of t h e atmospheres and t h e i r v e r t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n f r o m a b o u t 1 , 0 0 0 k m ( 6 0 0 m i . ) t o 1 3 0 km ( 8 0 m i . ) , emphasizing t h e a l t i t u d e r a n g e 1 5 0 t o 1 2 0 km ( 9 0 t o 7 5 m i . ) w h i c h n e i t h e r t h e O r b i t e r nor t h e f o u r p r o b e s reach. (The Bus i s e x p e c t e d t o b u r n up a t a n a l t i t u d e of a b o u t 1 2 0 km ( 7 5 m i . ) .
From t h e i n s t r u m e n t d a t a , i n v e s t i g a t o r s c a n d e r i v e t h e h e i g h t of t h e t u r b o p a u s e ( t h e r e g i o n above which a t m o s p h e r i c gases do n o t m i x ) , f i n d t h e r a t i o s of atmospheric i s o t o p e s and d e r i v e eddy d i f f u s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (mathematical e x p r e s s i o n s d e s c r i b i n g how r a p i d l y t h e atmosphere i s m i x e d ) . T h e composition of t h e i o n o s p h e r e ' s maximum d e n s i t y can a l s o be determined, as w e l l a s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e of t h e exosphere, t h e o u t e r m o s t f r i n g e of Venus ' atmosphere.

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The i n s t r u m e n t i o n i z e s a t m o s p h e r i c components up t o 4 6 a t o m i c m a s s ( h y d r o g e n t o i r o n ) b y e l e c t r o n bombardment. It t h e n s e p a r a t e s them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r masses b y how f a r t h e y a r e d e f l e c t e d b y a m a g n e t i c f i e l d . The i n s t r u m e n t feat u r e s a f a s t d a t a sampling and t e l e m e t e r i n g capaci-ty t o cope w i t h t h e 3 km-per-second ( 1 1 0 mph) Bus d e s c e n t s p e e d . One d a y b e f o r e Venus e n c o u n t e r , a known amount of g a s i s released i n t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d m e a s u r e m e n t , t o be u s e d as a r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e s p e c t r o m e t e r ' s s e n s i t i v i t y . The i n s t r u m e n t w e i g h s 6 . 8 kg ( 1 5 l b . ) a n d u s e s 5 w a t t s . I o n Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r -- The i o n m a s s s p e c t r o m e t e r measures t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n c e n t r a t i o n of p o s i t i v e l y c h a r g e d i o n s i n t h e u p p e r Venus a t m o s p h e r e from- 1 2 0 km ( 7 5 m i . ) up t h r o u g h t h e i o n o s p h e r e .
(See O r b i t e r I o n Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r f o r i n s t r u m e n t description.)

M u l t i p r o b e Radio S c i e n c e Experiments D i f f e r e n t i a l Long B a s e l i n e I n t e r f e r o m e t r y -- T h i s i n s t r u m e n t m e a s u r e s t h e v e l o c i t y a n d d i r e c t i o n o f Venus winds as t h e f o u r p r o b e s descend through t h e atmosphere. By c o m p a r i n g t h e d e s c e n t p a t h s o f t h e p r o b e s w i t h s i m u l t a n e o u s measurements o f a t m o s p h e r i c t e m p e r a t u r e and p r e s s u r e from p r o b e s e n s o r s , i n v e s t i g a t o r s c a n assemble a b e t t e r model o f V e n u s ' atmospheric c i r c u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o wind s p e e d s . W h i l e t h e f o u r p r o b e s d e s c e n d t o t h e s u r f a c e , t h e Bus follows a b a l l i s t i c t r a j e c t o r y i n t h e upper atmosphere. T h i s t r a j e c t o r y s e r v e s as a reference. Probe v e l o c i t i e s c a n b e r e c o n s t r u c t e d and measured v e r y a c c u r a t e l y r e l a t i v e t h e b u s , and a b s o l u t e probe v e l o c i t i e s c a n b e r e c o n s t r u c t e d from t h e known b u s v e l o c i t y . I n v e s t i g a t o r s assume d e v i a t i o n s of t h e p r o b e t r a j e c t o r i e s from a n a t m o s p h e r e l e s s m a t h e m a t i c a l model a r e c a u s e d by a t m o s p h e r i c w i n d s . Two w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d D S N s t a t i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t r a c k i n g a l l s p a c e c r a f t d e t e r m i n e t h a t p a r t of t h e v e l o c i t y vector a l o n g t h e E a r t h - V e n u s l i n e of s i g h t . D i f f e r e n t i a l l o n g - b a s e d i n t e r f e r o m e t r y u s e s t h r e e D S N s t a t i o n s t o f i n d t h e o t h e r two components of t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r t o t r i a n g u l a t e o r g e t a " f i x " i n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s on t h e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g p a t h s of t h e f a l l i n g p r o b e s . -more-

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Atmospheric P r o p a g a t i o n Experiment -- T h i s i n v e s t i g a surface t i o n a t t e m p t s t o g l e a n i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t Venus' and atmosphere by t h e e f f e c t s of t h e atmosphere on t h e p r o b e s ' r a d i o s i g n a l s . A s t h e p r o b e s descend, P i o n e e r s c i e n t i s t s s e a r c h f o r e v i d e n c e of a v e r y weak s i g n a l t h a t t r a v e l s downward, r e f l e c t s o f f t h e s u r f a c e of Venus and t h e n bounces t o E a r t h . Such a d i s t o r t e d s i g n a l i s Doppler s h i f t e d away from t h e p r o b e s i g n a l of 2 , 3 0 0 MHz ( m i l l i o n H e r t z ) by less t h a n Hz and i s a l m o s t u n d e t e c t a b l e . I f t h i s s i g n a l i s discovered, it should r e v e a l information about t h e Venusian s u r f a c e -- hence, a i d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e r a d a r mapping d a t a . The d e s c e n d i n g p r o b e s a l s o r e v e a l i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e atmosphere. Probe r a d i o s i g n a l s weaken w i t h d e c r e a s i n g a l t i t u d e due t o COi! a b s o r p t i o n , atmosphere r e f r a c t i o n and a d d i t i o n a l a b s o r p t i o n from c l o u d l a y e r s o r some o t h e r abs o r b e r . The s t r e n g t h of t h e p r o b e s i g n a l s s h o u l d r e v e a l t h e unknown a b s o r b e r ; i f i t i s a c l o u d l a y e r , i n v e s t i g a t o r s can measure t h e h e i g h t and t h i c k n e s s of t h e l a y e r . Atmospheric T u r b u l e n c e Experiments -- T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t u d i e s t h e t u r b u l e n c e i n t h e Venusian atmosphere, t h u s a i d i n g i n t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e dynamics of Venus' atmosp h e r e c i r c u l a t i o n . A s a l l f o u r p r o b e s descend t o t h e s u r f a c e , t h e i r t r a n s m i t t i n g s i g n a l s w i l l l i k e l y b e d i s t o r t e d by s m a l l r e g i o n s of t u r b u l e n c e c a u s e d by t e m p e r a t u r e , p r e s s u r e and v e l o c i t y f l u c t u a t i o n s . D S N r e c e i v i n g s t a t i o n s on E a r t h w i l l a n a l y z e t h e s i g n a l s f o r d i s t o r t i o n c a u s e d by a t m o s p h e r i c t u r b u l e n c e . The probe d a t a complements a t m o s p h e r i c t u r b u l e n c e d a t a above 35 k ( 2 1 m i . ) t a k e n by t h e O r b i t e r . m

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P R I N C I P A L I N V E S T I G A T O R S AND SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS

Orbiter Spacecraft

D r . James Hansen Goddard I n s t i t u t e of S p a c e Studies
Dr.

Cloud P o l a r i m e t e r , Imaging Experiment

(Team Leader) , Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology

Gordon P e t t e n g i l l

Radar Mapper

D r . Fredric Taylor J e t Propulsion Laboratory
Dr.

Temperature Sounding
I n f r a r e d Radiometer

Ian Stewart

U n i v e r s i t y of C o l o r a d o
D r . Hasso Niemann Goddard S p a c e F l i g h t C e n t e r
Harry T a y l o r Goddard S p a c e F l i g h t C e n t e r
D r . J o h n Wolfe A m e s Research C e n t e r

U l t r a v i o l e t Spectrometer
N e u t r a l Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r

I o n Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r
S o l a r Wind/Plasma A n a l y z e r
Magnetometer

Dr.

Christopher R u s s e l l U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a ,

L o s Angeles
D r . Frederick Scarf TRW, I n c .

E l e c t r i c F i e l d Detector

L a r r y Brace
Goddard S p a c e F l i g h t C e n t e r

E l e c t r o n Temperature Probe
Retarding P o t e n t i a l Analyzer

D r . W i l l i a m Knudsen Lockheed Missiles and Space C o .
D r . W . D . Evans Los A l a m o s S c i e n t i f i c Laboratory

Gamma Ray B u r s t D e t e c t o r

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- .

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O r b i t e r Radio S c i e n c e Radio s c i e n c e experiments measure i n t e r a c t i o n of s p a c e c r a f t r a d i o s i g n a l s w i t h Venus and i t s atmosphere, u s i n g t h e O r b i t e r and f i v e probe c r a f t as i n s t r u m e n t s . D r . Gordon P e t t e n g i l l , M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Technology, i s team l e a d e r .
D r . Roger P h i l l i p s J e t Propulsion Laboratory
D r . I . I . Shapiro Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology D r . Arvydas K l i o r e J e t Propulsion Laboratory Dr.

Venus I n t e r n a l Density Distribution
C e l e s t i a l Mechanics

Radio O c c u l t a t i o n

Thomas C r o f t S t a n f o r d Research I n s t i t u t e

Radio Occultation

D r . Richard Woo J e t Propulsion Laboratory D r . Gerald Keating Langley Research C e n t e r

Atmospheric and S o l a r Corona Atmospheric Drag

M u l t i p r o b e S p a c e c r a f t (Large Probe)
D r . J o h n Hoffman U n i v e r s i t y of Texas, D a l l a s

M a s s Spectrometer
G a s Chromatograph

Vance Oyama A e Research C e n t e r ms Alvin S e i f f
A e Research C e n t e r ms

Atmosphere S t r u c t u r e
S o l a r F l u x Radiometer

Dr.

M a r t i n Tomasko U n i v e r s i t y of Arizona Robert Boese

I n f r a r e d Radiometer

Ames Research C e n t e r

Cloud P a r t i c l e S i z e D r . R o b e r t Knollenberq P a r t i c l e Measuring Systems, I n c . Spectrometer
Dr.

B o r i s Ragent

Nephelometer ( c l o u d s e n s o r ) Nephelometer
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A e Research C e n t e r ms

J a c q u e s Blamont U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s
Dr.

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M u l t i p r o b e S p a c e c r a f t [ T h r e e S m a l l Probes) Alvin S e i f f
A e Research C e n t e r ms
D r . B o r i s Ragent Ames Research C e n t e r D r . J a c q u e s Blamont U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s D r . Verner Suomi U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin

Atmosphere S t r u c t u r e Nephelometer Nephelometer
N e t Flux Radiometer

M u l t i p r o b e S p a c e c r a f t (Bus)
U l f von Zahn U n i v e r s i t y of Bonn, West Germany
Dr.

Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r

Harry T a y l o r Goddard Space F l i g h t C e n t e r

I o n Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r

M u l t i p r o b e Radio S c i e n c e (All P r o b e s )
D r . C h a r l e s C . Counselman M a s s a c h u s e t t s I n s t i t u t e of Techno logy Dr.

D i f f e r e n t i a l Long-Baseline I n t e f erometry Atmospheric A t t e n u a t i o n Atmospheric Turbulence

Thomas Croft S t a n f o r d Research I n s t i t u t e
Dr.

Richard W o o

J e t Propulsion Laboratory

Interdisciplinary Scientists I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y s c i e n t i s t s have been selected f o r
b o t h t h e Multiprobe and O r b i t e r Missions t o p r o v i d e assist a n c e i n a n a l y s e s of t h e Venusian atmosphere. They are: Dr.

S i e g f r i e d Bauer Goddard Space F l i g h t C e n t e r

D r . Thomas Donahue U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n

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l

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D r . R i c h a r d Goody Harvard U n i v e r s i t y
Dr.

Donald Hunten

U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a
D r . James P o l l a c k A m e s Research C e n t e r

N e l s o n Spencer
Goddard S p a c e F l i g h t C e n t e r H a r o l d Masursky U .S Geological Survey

.

Dr. Dr.

George M c G i l l Andrew Nagy

U n i v e r s i t y of M a s s a c h u s e t t s

U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan
Dr.
Gerald Schubert

U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , L o s Angeles

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LAUNCH VEHICLE
The A t l a s C e n t a u r i s N A S A ' s s t a n d a r d l a u n c h v e h i c l e I t i s used f o r t h e launch f o r intermediate weight payloads. o f l u n a r , E a r t h o r b i t a l , E a r t h s y n c h r o n o u s and p l a n e t a r y missions. Developed a n d l a u n c h e d u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f N A S A ' s L e w i s R e a e a r c h C e n t e r , C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , C e n t a u r was t h e n a t i o n ' s f i r s t h i g h - e n e r g y , l i q u i d h y d r o g e n - l i q u i d oxygen I t became o p e r a t i o n a l i n 1 9 6 6 propelled launch vehicle. w i t h t h e l a u n c h of S u r v e y o r 1, t h e f i r s t U . S . s p a c e c r a f t t o s o f t l a n d o n t h e Yoon's s u r f a c e . S i n c e t h a t t i m e , b o t h t h e A t l a s b o o s t e r and C e n t a u r s e c o n d s t a g e h a v e u n d e r g o n e many i m p r o v e m e n t s . A t p r e s e n t , t h e v e h i c l e c o m b i n a t i o n c a n p l a c e 4 , 5 3 6 kg ( 1 0 , 0 0 0 lb.) i n low E a r t h o r b i t , 1,882 kg ( 4 , 1 5 0 l b . ) i n a s y n c h r o n o u s t r a n s f e r o r b i t and 9 0 7 k g ( 2 , 0 0 0 l b . ) on a n i n t e r p l a n e t a r y trajectory.
T h e A t l a s C e n t a u r , s t a n d i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 m (131 f t . ) h i g h , c o n s i s t s o f a n A t l a s SLV-3D b o o s t e r a n d C e n t a u r D-1A s e c o n d s t a g e . The A t l a s b o o s t e r d e v e l o p s 1 , 9 1 3 k i l i n e w t o n s ( 4 3 0 , 0 0 0 l b . ) o f t h r u s t a t l i f t o f f , u s i n g two 8 2 2 , 9 2 0 newton ( 1 8 5 , 0 0 0 l b . ) t h r u s t b o o s t e r e n g i n e s , Q n e 266,890 N ( 6 0 , 0 0 0 lh.) t h r u s t s u s t a i n e r e n g i n e a n d two v e r n i e r e n g i n e s d e v e l o p i n g 2,976 U ( 6 6 9 l b . ) t h r u s t e a c h . The two RL-10 e n g i n e s o n C e n t a u r p r o d u c e a t o t a l o f 1 3 1 , 2 2 2 1J ( 2 9 , 5 0 0 l b . ) t h r u s t . \ Both t h e A t l a s and t h e Centaur are 3 m ( 1 0 f t . ) i n diameter.

C e n t a u r c a r r i e s i n s u l a t i o n p a n e l s which are j e t t i s o n e d j u s t b e f o r e t h e v e h i c l e l e a v e s t h e E a r t h ' s atmosphere. The i n s u l a t i o n p a n e l s , w e i g h i n g a b o u t 553 k i l o g r a m s (1,220 l b . ) surround t h e second s t a g e p r o p e l l a n t t a n k s t o p r e v e n t h e a t o r a i r f r i c t i o n from c a u s i n g b o i l - o f f o f l i q u i d h y d r o g e n d u r i n g f l i g h t through t h e atmosphere. The s p a c e c r a f t w i l l b e e n c l o s e d i n a n 8.8-m l o n n , 3-m (l?-ft.)-dianete~ f i ? e r g l a - , s 2osef a i r i n g which i s j e t t i s e a 2 . d a f t e r l e a v i n g t h e a t m o s p h e r e .
(2n-cL_.)

U n t i l e a r l y 1974, C e n t a u r w a s u s e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e A t l a s booster. I t w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y u s e d w i t h a T i t a n I11 b o o s t e r t o l a u n c h h e a v i e r P a y l o a d s onto interplanetary trajectories.

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-102The Centaur D-1A has an i n t e g r a t e d e l e c t r o n i c system which h a n d l e s n a v i g a t i o n and guidance t a s k s , c o n t r o l s p r e s s u r i z a t i o n and v e n t i n g , p r o p e l l a n t management, t e l e metry f o r m a t s and t r a n s m i s s i o n and i n i t i a t e s v e h i c l e e v e n t s . Most o p e r a t i o n a l needs can be m e t by changing t h e computer s o f t w a r e . LAUNCH FLIGHT SEQUENCE

A t l a s Phase A f t e r l i f t o f f , AC-50 w i l l r i s e v e r t i c a l l y f o r about 15 seconds b e f o r e b e g i n n i n g i t s p i t c h program. S t a r t i n g a t two seconds a f t e r l i f t o f f and c o n t i n u i n g t o T p l u s 15 seconds, t h e v e h i c l e w i l l r o l l t o t h e d e s i r e d f l i g h t azimuth.
A f t e r 139 seconds of f l i g h t , t h e b o o s t e r e n g i n e s a.re s h u t down (Booster Engine C u t o f f , BECO) and j e t t i s o n e d . BECO o c c u r s when an a c c e l e r a t i o n o f 5 . 7 G ' s is s e n s e d by a c c e l e r o m e t e r on t h e Centaur and t h e s i g n a l i s i s s u e d by t h e Centaur guidance system. (The b o o s t e r package i s j e t t i s o n e d 3 . 1 seconds a f t e r BECO.) The A t l a s s u s t a i n 9 r engine c o n t i n u e s t o burn f o r approximately 79 seconds a f t e r BECO p r o p e l l i n g t h e v c h i c l e t o an a l t i t u d e of about 1 4 6 k m (91 m i . > , a t t a i n i n g a speed o f 13,659 km/hr ( 8 , 4 8 7 m p h ) .

P r i o r t o s u s t a i n e r e n g i n e c u t o f f , Centaur i n s u l a t i o n p a n e l s and t h e n o s e f a i r i n g are j e t t i s o n e d .

The A t l a s and Centaur s t a g e s a r e t h e n s e p a r a t e d . An explosive charge slices through t h e i n t e r s t a g e adapter. R e t r o r o c k e t s mounted on t h e A t l a s slow t h e s p e n t s t a g e . Centaur Phase
A t 4 minutes 2 6 seconds i n t o t h e f l i c r h t , t h e Cent a u r ' s t w o RL-10 e n g i n e s i g n i t e f o r a planned 5 minute 1 0 second burn. The Centaur e n g i n e s t h e n s h u t down and O r b i t e r and Centaur w i l l coast f o r 9 t o 1 0 m i n u t e s , depending on t h e d a t a of l a u n c h , i n a c i r c u l a r p a r k i n g o r b i t . A t t h e end of t h e c o a s t p e r i o d , t h e Centaur e n g i n e s r e s t a r t and burn f o r 2 minutes and 1 7 s e c o n d s , p u t t i n g t h e O r b i t e r on i t s Venus f l i g h t p a t h .
A t t h e end of t h e second Centaur burn t h e Centaur w i l l o r i e n t t h e s p i n a x i s of t h e s p a c e c r a f t such t h a t it i s w i t h i n n i n e d e g r e e s of p e r p e n d u c u l a r t o t h e E a r t h ' s o r b i t p l a n e , and t h e P i o n e e r Venus O r b i t e r w i l l s e p a r a t e from Centaur.

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LAUNCH VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS *Liftoff weight including spacecraft: Liftoff height: launch complex: Launch azimuth sector: 146,972 kilograms (324,018 l b s . ) 40.3 m (132 ft.) 36A 93-108 degrees

SLV- 3D Booster

Centaur S t a s e 17,678 kg (38,981 1bs.I 14.6 m (48 ft.) (with payload fairing) 131,200 N e w t o n s (29,500 lbs.) vacuum Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen Two 65,611-newton (14,750-1b.lthrust RL-10 engines. Twelve small hydrogen peroxide thrusters 26.7 newton (6 lb.) thrust each
P
0
W

Weight: Height:

130,390 kg (287,509 lbs.)
22.9 m_(75 ft.)

(including interstaye adapter) Thrust: Propellants: Propulsion: 1,917,174 Newtons (431,000 lbs.) sea level Liquid oxygen and R P - 1 MA-5 system two 822,920-newton (185,000-lbs.)-thrust engines, one 266,893-newton (60,000-lb.) sustainer engine and two 2,976newton (669-lb.)-thrust vernier engines)

I

I

-

Velocity:

9,122 km/hr (5,668-mph) at BECO; 13,659 km/hr. (8487 mph) at SECO Pre-programmed pitch rates through BECO . Switch to Centaur inertial guidance f o r sustainer phase. centimeters (two inches) of r i s e .

26,580 km/hr (16,516) at MECO-1 41,127 km/hr (25,555 m p h ) at MECO-2 Inertial guidance

Guidance :

*

Measured at 5.08

ATLAS CENTAUR FLIGHT SEQUENCE (AC-51)
Time (Sec )

Event
Liftoff B o o s t e r Engine C u t o f f J e t t i s o n Booster J e t t i s o n I n s u l a t i o n Panel Jettison N o s e Fairing Sustainer/Vernier Cutoff

.

A1 ti t u d e
Km
0

Mi.
0
35.9 37.8 61.2 79.3 89.8 90.5 93.7 105.7 102.6 115.6 224.4

S u r f a c e Range Km Mi.
0

Relative Velocity Km/Hr Mph
0
9,109 9,190 10,386 12,010 13,463 13,465 13,416 26,595 26,663 39,566 39,064

0

0
50.5 54.9 120.2 193.6 251.1 255.6 276.9 1,291.9

0
5,660 5,710 6,454 7,463 8,366 8,367 8,336 16,525 16,568 24,585 24,273
P 0

139.3 142.4 184.3 224.3 251.5 253.5 263.0

57.7 60.8 98.5 127.5 144.5 145.6 150.8 170.2 165.1 186.0 361.1

81.2 88.3 193.5 311.6 404.1 411.3 445.6 2,079.1

Atlas/Centaur Separation

I

Centaur I g n i t i o n 1

C e n t a u r Main Engine C u t o f f 1 582.9
Centaur I g n i t i o n 2 C e n t a u r Main Engine C u t o f f 2
Spacecraft Separation

I

* *
*

* *

* *

*Depends on P a r k i n g O r b i t C o a s t T i m e , 1 4 - 2 0 m i n u t e s .

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LAUNCH OPERATIONS A NASA-contractor team under the direction of Kennedy Space Center's Expendable Vehicles Directorate is responsible for the preparation and launch of unmanned space vehicles from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The Atlas Centaur rocket to be used for the second Pioneer Venus flight -- AC-51 -- will be launched from Pad A, northernmost of the two pads at Launch Complex 3 6 . AC-51 was erected on Pad A June 1-2. The Pioneer Venus Multiprobe was delivered to the Cape June 6 and underwent initial processing in Hangar AO. The Probe craft was moved to Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2) in the KSC Industrial Area in mid-July, where it was scheduled to be encapsulated within its payload shroud the third week of July and taken to the pad for mating with AC-51 on July 26. A series of electrical and functional tests are designed to clear the space vehicle for launch about Aug. 7.

MISSION OPERATIONS For Pioneer Venus, mission controllers will be operating simultaneously two different spacecraft on two different missions. The Orbiter and Multiprobe are launched within three months of each other and arrive at the planet less than a week apart.

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D u r i n g t h e Venus e n c o u n t e r p e r i o d , l a u n c h o f t h e f o u r p r o b e s from t h e t r a n s p o r t e r Bus t o t h e i r a t m o s p h e r i c e n t r y p o i n t s w i l l b e a c c o m p l i s h e d : t h e Bus w i l l b e r e t a r g e t e d for i t s e n t r y ; t h e O r b i t e r w i l l be p l a c e d on i t s 24-hour, h i g h - i n c l i n a t i o n , h i g h l y e l l i p t i c a l o r b i t . Five d a y s a f t e r O r b i t e r e n c o u n t e r , p r o b e e n t r y w i l l b e monit o r e d , and t h e c r i t i c a l p r o b e d a t a r e c e i v e d and s t o r e d f o r later a n a l y s i s . With c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e M u l t i p r o b e m i s s i o n - - a f t e r i m - p a c t of t h e p r o b e s on t h e s u r f a c e and burn-up o f t h e Bus c o n t r o l l e r s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e t h e Orl-)iter f o r t h e e i g h t months o f i t s p r i m a r y m i s s i o n . C o n t r o l l e r s may make s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e o r b i t d u r i n g t h i s extended mission period. S i n c e a l l P i o n e e r s are r e l a t i v e l y unadtomated spacec r a f t , m i s s i o n o p e r a t i o n s o f t e n r e q u i r e 24-hour-a-day c o n t r o l and c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s a n d p l a n n i n g i n s h o r t t i m e spans. Ground-controlled s p a c e c r a f t provide f l e x i b i l i t y f o r c h a n g i n g p l a n s and o b j e c t i v e s . They a l s o o f f e r e c o n o m i e s i n s p a c e c r a f t d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n . p i o n e e r Venus c o n t r o l a n d s p a c e c r a f t o p e r a t i o n s w i l l be a t t h e P i o n e e r Mission O p e r a t i o n s C e n t e r ( P M O C ) , Ames R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , Mountain V i e w , C a l i f . , f r o m t h e t i m e b o t h s p a c e c r a f t s e p a r a t e from t h e i r l a u n c h v e h i c l e s t h r o u g h t h e end of t h e Orbiter m i s s i o n . P i o n e e r Venus o p e r a t i o n s w i l l b e made somewhat more complex by t h e c o n t i n u e d o p e r a t i o n a t t h e PMOC o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y launched Pioneer s p a c e c r a f t . Pioneers 6 t o 9 c o n t i n u e t o c i r c l e t h e Sun and r e t u r n i n t e r p l a n e t a r y d a t a . Pioneer 1 0 continues t o e n t e r p r e v i o u s l y unexplored s p a c e on i t s way o u t o f t h e s o l a r s y s t e m ( i t i s now app r a c h i n g U r a n u s ' o r b i t ) . P i o n e e r 11 i s d e s c e n d i n g b a c k toward t h e e c l i p t i c a n d m a n ' s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h S a t u r n i n September 1 9 7 9 . The P O i s t h e c e n t r a l m i s s i o n c o n t r o l c e n t e r . MC It i s u n d e r o p e r a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e F l i g h t D i r e c t o r . T h i s a r e a w i l l o r i g i n a t e a l l command i n f o r m a t i o n and receive and d i s p l a y t e l e m e t r y d a t a r e q u i r e d f o r m i s s i o n cont r o l . A l t h o u g h a l l commands a r e o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e PMOC, emergency p r o c e d u r e s i n c l u d e b a c k u p command g e n e r a t i o n a t t h e DSN s t a t i o n s , i f n e c e s s a r y .

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The PMOC h a s computing c a n a b i l i t y b o t h f o r commanding t h e t w o s p a c e c r a f t and f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d a t a s t r e a m as it i s r e c e i v e d from t h e DSN s t a t i o n s f o r u s e by f l i g h t c o n t r o l l e r s m o n i t o r i n g s p a c e c r a f t performance.

S e v e r a l groups of s p e c i a l i s t s d i r e c t and s u p p o r t launch i n t e r p l a n e t a r y , o r b i t a l and a t m o s p h e r i c e n t r y o p e r a t i o n s . The P i o n e e r Mission O p e r a t i o n s team c o n s i s t s of p e r s o n n e l from government and c o n t r a c t o r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and o p e r a t e s under c o n t r o l of t h e P r o j e c t Manager and Mission O p e r a t i o n s S y s t e m Manager. Because P i o n e e r Venus i n c l u d e s two m i s s i o n s , two f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n s g r o w s have been named f o r each--an O r b i t e r group and a M u l t i p r o b e group. Both groups have t h e same e l e m e n t s . The S c i e n c e A n a l y s i s Team i n e a c h group i s composed o f science o p e r a t i o n s p e o p l e from t h e p r o j e c t and t h e p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( o r t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ) f o r e a c h e x p e r i m e n t on board t h e O r b i t e r and M u l t i p r o b e . They d e t e r m i n e t h e s t a t u s of each s c i e n t i f i c i n s t r u m e n t , and f o r m u l a t e command s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . Both groups a l s o have S p a c e c r a f t Performance Analys i s teams, made up of e n g i n e e r i n g s p e c i a l i s t s on s p a c e c r a f t systems such as: communications, t h e r m a l c o n t r o l a n d power. T h e s e teams a n a l y z e and e v a l u a t e s p a c e c r a f t performance and p r e d i c t s p a c e c r a f t r e s p o n s e s t o commands.
A t h i r d organization serves both spacecraft. This is t h e N a v i g a t i o n and Maneuvers g r o u p , which h a n d l e s s p a c e c r a f t n a v i g a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n i n s p a c e ; o r b i t a l i n j e c t i o n , t r i m , and changes and p r o b e - t a r g e t i n g and l a u n c h . T h i s group i s made up of e n g i n e e r i n g s p e c i a l i s t s i n s p a c e c r a f t o r i e n t a t i o n geometry, t r a j e c t o r i e s , and maneuvers. The J e t P r o p u l s i o n L a b o r a t o r y , under c o n t r a c t t o Ames, d o e s computer a n a l y s i s of D S N t r a c k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o determine s p a c e c r a f t t r a j e c t o r i e s .

The Mission O p e r a t i o n s T e a m a l s o i n c l u d e s a l a u n c h s p e c i a l i s t , a hardware e x p e r t and a computer systems development and o p e r a t i o n s group. S u p p o r t groups a t Ames and o t h e r YASA f a c i l i t i e s a s s i s t t h e m i s s i o n o p e r a t i o n s team t o perform computer s o f t w a r c development, m i s s i o n c o n t r o l and o f f - l i n e d a t a p r o c e s s i n g .

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DATA RETURN.

COMMAND AND T R A C K I N G

N A S A ' s Deep S p a c e Network (DSN) w i l l t r a c k and rec e i v e d a t a d i r e c t l y from a l l s i x P i o n e e r Venus s p a c e c r a f t ( t h e O r b i t e r , t h e Bus a n d t h e f o u r p r o b e s ) . Commands a r e t r a n s m i t t e d t o s p a c e c r a f t f r o m t h e P i o n e e r M i s s i o n Operat i o n s C o n t r o l C e n t e r t h r o u g h t h e DSN s t a t i o n s .

T r a c k i n g w i l l be by t h e D S N ' s g l o b a l n e t w o r k o f 26-m ( 8 5 - f t . ) a n d h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e 64-m ( 2 1 0 - f t . ) a n t e n n a s . The 6 4 s w i l l b e used d u r i n g c r i t i c a l p h a s e s o f t h e m i s s i o n s u c h as r e o r i e n t a t i o n , v e l o c i t y c o r r e c t i o n s , o r b i t i n s e r t i o n , and e n t r y o f t h e f o u r p r o b e s i n t o V e n u s ' a t m o s p h e r e -- a s w e l l as f o r s p e c i a l s c i e n c e e v e n t s s u c h as o c c u l t a t i o n . A t t h e e n d o f t h e O r b i t e r p r i m a r y m i s s i o n , Venus w i l l b e 2 0 3 m i l l i o n km ( 1 2 6 m i l l i o n m i . ) f a r t h e r f r o m E a r t h t 5 a n a t Orbiter arrival. D u r i n g t h e c r i t i c a l two-hour p e r i o d of a t m o s p h e r i c e n t r y by t h e Bus and f l i g h t s down t o t h e s u r f a c e by t h e f o u r p r o b e s , b o t h t h e 64-m ( 2 1 0 - f t . ) a n t e n n a s a t G o l d s t o n e , C a l i f . , and a t C a n b e r r a , A u s t r a l i a , w i l l b e u s e d t o receive and r e c o r d Venus a t m o s p h e r e d a t a , coming i n s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from a l l f i v e p r o b e c r a f t . The Deep S p a c e Network w i t h f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d a t approximately 120-degree i n t e r v a l s around t h e E a r t h , w i l l s u p p o r t t h e P i o n e e r Venus s p a c e c r a f t . The p r i m a r y m i s s i o n o f t h e O r b i t e r i s 1 5 months: s i x months i n t r a n s i t a n d e i g h t A s t h e O r b i t e r and M u l t i p r o b e " s e t " a t months i n o r b i t . one s t a t i o n due t o t h e E a r t h ' s r o t a t i o n , t h e y w i l l rise a t t h e n e x t one. The D S N , o p e r a t e d by t h e J e t P r o p u l s i o n L a b o r a t o r y ( J P L ) , P a s a d e n a , C a l i f . , h a s s i x 26-ml ( 8 5 - f t . ) p a r a b o l i c - r e f l e c t o r d i s h a n t e n n a s , two a t G o l d s t o n e , i n C a l i f o r n i a ' s Mojave Desert; two a t M a d r i d , S p a i n a n d two a t C a n b e r r a . T h e r e a r e a l s o t h r e e 6 4 - m ( 2 1 0 - f t . ) a n t e n n a s , o n e e a c h a t Golds t o n e , Madrid and C a n b e r r a . Rarlio s c i e n c e e x p e r i m e n t e r s w i l l e s t i m a t e wind s p e e d s a n d d i r e c t i o n s i n t h e Venus a t m o s p h e r e by compiitinq t h e t h e e x a c t f l i g h t p a t h s o f t h e f o u r p r o b e s u s i n g DSN d a t a . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e G o l d s t o n e and C a n b e r r a s t a t i o n s , t w o NASA STDN s t a t i o n s a t Guam and S a n t i a g o , C h i l e , w i l l s u p port this effort. Radio i n t e r f e r o m e t r y i n a t r i a n g u l a t i o n p r o c e s s w i l l be u s e d i n t h i s c o m p u t a t i o n . ( S e e M u l t i p r o b e E x p e r i m e n t s - Radio S c i e n c e . )

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PIONEER V E N U S COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK
GOLDSTON E, DEEP SPACE NETWORK (DSN) MADRID, DSN

I P 0
W

I

SANTIAGO, SPACECRAFT TRACKING A N D D A T A NETWORK (STDN)

GUAM, STDN

CANBERRA, DSN

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During l a u n c h , t r a c k i n g w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t by t h e DSN w i t h t h e a i d o f o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s . These a r e t r a c k i n g a n t e n n a s of t h e A i r Force E a s t e r n T e s t Range and e l e m e n t s of N A S A ' s S p a c e c r a f t T r a c k i n g Data Network ( S T D N ) together w i t h s u p p o r t by f o u r i n s t r u m e n t e d a i r c r a f t , t h e Apollo Range I n s t r u m e n t e d A i r c r a f t ( A R I A ) . The a i r c r a f t are o p e r a t e d by Wright P a t t e r s o n A i r Force Base.
A t a l l t i m e s , incoming t e l e m e t r y d a t a from t h e s p a c e c r a f t i s f o r m a t t e d a t DSN s t a t i o n s f o r high-speed t r a n s m i s s i o n t o A e computers. These computers w i l l ms check f o r unexpected o r c r i t i c a l changes i n d a t a and prov i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a n a l y s i s by s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h e spacec r a f t , e x p e r i m e n t s and ground s y s t e m . T h e i r a n a l y s e s w i l l be used for s p a c e c r a f t c o n t r o l . Outgoing commands a r e v e r i f i e d by A e computers and s e n t t o D S N s t a t i o n s ms where t h e y are r e v e r i f i e d by computer and t h e n t r a n s m i t t e d . N a v i g a t i o n d a t a and t r a j e c t o r y computations f o r t h e P i o n e e r s p a c e c r a f t i s f u r n i s h e d by JPL's N a v i g a t i o n System S e c t i o n under c o n t r a c t t o Ames. They do computer a n a l y s i s o f DSN Doppler and range t r a c k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r o v i d e spacec r a f t t r a j e c t o r i e s for c a l c u l a t i o n of Venus o r b i t and planetary targeting

.

For P o i n e e r Venus, t h e DSN has made a number of spec i a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s . Added receivers a r e needed t o handle t h e f i v e d i f f e r e n t d a t a s t r e a m s a t once of t h e f o u r probes and Bus. S p e c i a l wideband recorders a r e r e q u i r e d t o cope w i t h t h e l a r g e frequency s h i f t s which w i l l happen w i t h t h e changes i n v e l o c i t y a t entry--and a t m o s p h e r i c e f f e c t s on s i g n a l p r o p a g a t i o n as t h e probes descend t o Venus' s u r f a c e . To s a v e a l l of t h e one-change-only d a t a , due t o v a r i a n c e s o u t s i d e t h e p r e d i c t e d range o f frequency changes, t h e D S N h a s p r o v i d e d s p e c i a l equipment t o autom a t i c a l l y t u n e t h e r e c e i v e r s t o t h e s i g n a l t r a n s m i t t e d by each probe. Incoming t e l e m e t r y i s f o r m a t t e d a t D S N s t a t i o n s f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n v i a NASA Communications System (NASCOV) high-speed c i r c u i t s t o t h e P i o n e e r Y i s s i o n Tomputing C e n t e r (PMCC). T h e r e i t i s p r o c e s s e d t o s u p p l y v a r i o u s t y p e s of r e a l t i m e d i s p l a y i n f o r m a t i o n on s p a c e c r a f t and instruments s t a t u s .

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I n a d d i t i o n t o use of telemetry f o r providing m i s s i o n o p e r a t i o n s and q u i c k - l o o k d a t a , a l l t e l e m e t r y w i l l be p r o c e s s e d a t t h e PMCC t o p r o v i d e d a t a r e c o r d s f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i m e n t e r s i n t h e form of E x p e r i m e n t e r Data Records. P r o v i d e d t o P r i n c i p a l I n v e s t i g a t o r s , i t becomes t h e raw m a t e r i a l f o r u s e by them i n p r o d u c i n g m i s s i o n findings

.

F o r a l l o f N A S A ' s unmanned m i s s i o n s i n d e e p s p a c e , t h e D S N p r o v i d e s t r a c k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on c o u r s e and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f l i g h t , v e l o c i t y and r a n g e from t h e E a r t h . I t s g l o b a l s t a t i o n s a l s o r e c e i v e e n g i n e e r i n g and s c i e n c e t e l e m e t r v and s e n d s comani?s. 911 c o m m u n i c a t i o n s l i n k s a r e i n S-band f r e q u e n c y ( t h o u g h Venus Q r h i t e r o c c u l t a t i o n e x p e r i m e n t s are X-band c a r r i e r o n l y . No t e l e m e t r y d a t a are s e n t .
DSN s t a t i o n s r e l a y s p a c e c r a f t Doppler t r a c k i n g t o
JPL.

High s p e e d d a t a l i n k s a l l o w r e a l t i m e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a l l d a t a f r o m s p a c e c r a f t d i r e c t l y t o t h e PMOC a t Ames. T h r o u g h o u t t h e m i s s i o n , s c i e n t i f i c d a t a r e c o r d e d on magn e t i c t a p e w i l l be s e n t from DSN s t a t i o n s t o A m e s f o r process i n g

.

NASA's n e t w o r k s a r e d i r e c t e d by t h e O f f i c e of T r a c k i n g and D a t a A c q u i s i t i o n , NASA H e a d q u a r t e r s , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C .
J P L manages t h e D S N f o r NASA, w h i l e STDN and NASCOM are managed by NASA's Goddard S p a c e F l i g h t C e n t e r , Greenb e l t , Md.

The G o l d s t o n e D S N s t a t i o n s a r e o p e r a t e d by J P L , ass i s t e d by t h e B e n d i x F i e l d E n g i n e e r i n g C o r p o r a t i o n . The C a n b e r r a s t a t i o n i s o p e r a t e d by t h e A u s t r a l i a n D e p a r t m e n t of Supply. The Madrid s t a t i o n i s o p e r a t e d by t h e S p a n i s h government's I n s t i t u t o Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial
(INTA)

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PIONEER VENUS TEAM

NASA H e a d u u a r t e r s Dr.

Noel H i n n e r s

Associate A d m i n i s t r a t o r
f o r Space S c i e n c e Deputy A s s o c i a t e A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r Space S c i e n c e

Andrew J . S t o f a n
A.

Thomas Young Geoffrey A. Briggs

D i r e c t o r , P l a n e t a r y Programs
Deputy D i r e c t o r , P l a n e t a r y Programs

Dr.

Fred D.

Kochendorfer

P i o n e e r Venus Program Manager

P a u l Tarver
D r . R o b e r t E . Murphy
John F. Yardley J o s e p h B . Mahon

Deputy P i o n e e r Venus Program
Manager P i o n e e r Venus Program

Scientist
Associate Administrator f o r
S p a c e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Systems

D i r e c t o r , Expendable Launch
V e h i c l e Programs Manager, A t l a s C e n t a u r

F . R o b e r t Schmidt Dr.

W i l l i a m C. Schneider

Associate A d m i n i s t r a t o r f o r Space T r a c k i n g and Data
Systems Network O p e r a t i o n s Network S u p p o r t

Arnold C . B e l c h e r

Maurice E . B i n k l e y
A m e s Research C e n t e r
C . A.
Syvertson

Director

Dr.

Dean R . Chapman

Director o f A s t r o n a u t i c s
P i o n e e r Venus P r o j e c t Manager

Charles F. H a l l

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Ames Research C e n t e r ( c o n t ' d . )
Dr.

Lawrence C o l i n

P i o n e e r Venus P r o j e c t Scientist S p a c e c r a f t Systems Manager Experiment Sys t e m s Manager M i s s i o n O p e r a t i o n s Manager R e l i a b i l i t y and Q u a l i t y Assurance Magnetics

Ralph W . H o l t z c l a w J o e l Sperans Robert U . H o f s t e t t e r Henry Asch Ernest J. Iufer

J e t Propulsion Laboratory
Dr.

Bruce C . Murray

Director

Richard B. M i l l e r Eugene S . Burke, J r .

T r a c k i n g and D a t a Systems Manager Supervisor, DSN Operations P l a n n i n g Group

L e w i s Research C e n t e r
Dr. Dr.

B e r n a r d Lubarsky Seymour C . H i m m e l

Acting D i r e c t o r Associate Director Chief, Vehicles Engineering Division C h i e f , Program I n t e g r a t i o n Division Mission Project Engineer

Lawrence J . R o s s
C a r l B . Wentworth

Edwin Muckley

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Kennedy S p a c e C e n t e r

Dr.

L e e R.

Scherer Griffin

Director
Deputy Director

Gerald D.

D r . Walter J . Kapryan
George F . Page John D. Gossett Sheppard

D i r e c t o r o f Space V e h i c l e
Operations

D i r e c t o r , Expendable V e h i c l e s
Manager, C e n t a u r O p e r a t i o n s Manager, S p a c e c r a f t and Support Operations Division Chief Engineer, A t l a s Centaur
KSC P r o j e c t E n g i n e e r f o r

Donald C .

C . A.

Terhune

Barry Olton

P i o n e e r Venus
Hushes A i r c r a f t C o . S . D. Dorfman

P i o n e e r Venus P r o j e c t Manager
f o r Hughes
CONTRACTORS

Hughes A i r c r a f t C o . S p a c e and Communications Group E l Segundo, C a l i f . Hughes A i r c r a f t C o D a t a Systems D i v i s i o n Culver C i t y , C a l i f .

( P r i m e contractor) S p a c e c r a f t and Radar Mapper

.

Data S t o r a g e U n i t

General Electric C o . Philadelphia, Pa.
Motorola, I n c .
Phoenix, A r i z . T h i o k o l Chemical C o . E l k t o n , Md.

D e c e l e r a t i o n Modules

Transponders

O r b i t I n s e r t i o n Motor S t a r Sensors

B a l l B r o t h e r s R e s e a r c h Corp. B o u l d e r , Colo.

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-115N o r t h r o p Corp. L o s Angeles, C a l i f . Frequency E l e c t r o n i c s , I n c . N e w Hyde P a r k , N . Y . Thermal Louvers Stable Oscillators

General Electric Co. Gainesville, F l a .
Eagle-Picher J o p l i n , Mo. Industries, Inc.

Nickel-Cadmium

Battery C e l l s

Silver-Zinc Battery C e l l s S o l a r C e l l s and Covers

Spectrolab, Inc. Sylmar, C a l i f .

A r c t u r n s Manufacturing C o .
Oxnard, C a l i f . Newbrook Machine Corp. S i l v e r Creek, N . Y . Southwest Research I n s ti t u t e

Pressure V e s s e l Forgings
P r e s s u r e V e s s e l Yachining

Pressure V e s s e l Testing
Input Buffers Large P r o b e N e u t r a l Mass Spectrometer L a r g e and S m a l l Probe A t m o s phere S t r u c t u r e Instruments, Orbiter Plasma Analyzer L a r g e and S m a l l P r o b e

S a n A n t o n i o , Texas
Siliconix, Inc. Santa Clara, C a l i f .

U n i v e r s i t y of Texas a t Dallas

Western Aerospace L a b o r a t o r i e s
Gardena, C a l i f . Sys tron-Donner Concord, C a l i f . U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a

Accelerometers
Large Probe S o l a r Flux Radiometer S e n s o r Large Probe S o l a r Flux Radiometer E l e c t r o n i c s Large Probe I n f r a r e d Radiometer and Cloud P a r t i c l e S i z e Spectrometer L a r g e P r o b e G a s Chromatograph, L a r g e and Small Probe Nephelom e t e r s , Orbiter Electric F i e l d Detector

Tucson, A r i z .
M a r t i n M a r i e t t a Corp. Denver, C o l o .
B a l l B r o t h e r s Research Corp. Boulder, C o l o . TRW Systems Group TRW, I n c . Redondo Beach, C a l i f .

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University of Wisconsin
Madison, W i s . Aiken I n d u s t r i e s , I n c . C o l l e g e P a r k , Md. Lockheed Missiles and S p a c e C o . Sunnyvale, C a l i f .
IPW F r e i b u r g , West Germany

S m a l l Probe N e t F l u x Radiometer
M u l t i p r o b e Bus and O r b i t e r I o n Mass S p e c t r o m e t e r s O r b i t e r Retarding P o t e n t i a l

Analyzer
O r b i t e r Retarding P o t e n t i a l

Analyzer Sensor
O r b i t e r U l t r a v i o l e t Spectrometer O r b i t e r Magnetometer

U n i v e r s i t y of C o l o r a d o
B o u l d e r , Colo.

U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a a t
L o s Angeles Westinghouse, I n c . B a l t i m o r e , Md.

O r b i t e r Magnetometer

J e t Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, C a l i f .
Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e o f Technology Cambridge, Mass.

O r b i t e r I n f r a r e d Radiometer M u l t i p r o b e and O r b i t e r Ground Based Radio S c i e n c e

Experiments

P a r t i c l e Measuring S y s t e m s , I n c . L a r g e P r o b e Cloud P a r t i c l e Boulder, C o l o . S i z e Spectrometer
DCA R e l i a b i l i t y L a b o r a t o r y Mountain V i e w , C a l i f . Bendix F i e l d E n g i n e e r i n g Corp. Sunnyvale, C a l i f .

E l e c t r o n i c P a r t s Procurement
and S c r e e n i n g

M i s s i o n s O p e r a t i o n s and
S o f t w a r e Development Launch V e h i c l e s

General Dynamics Convair D i v i s i o n S a n Diego, C a l i f .
Los Alamos S c i e n t i f i c Laboratory L o s A l a m o s , N.M.
Sandia L a b o r a t o r i e s Albuquerque, N .M.

O r b i t e r G a m m a Ray B u r s t

Detector
O r b i t e r G a m m a Ray B u r s t

Detector

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S a n t a B a r b a r a Research

O r b i t e r Cloud P h o t o p o l a r i m e t e r

Center S a n t a Barbara, C a l i f .

U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota
M i n n e a p o l i s , Minn. U n i v e r s i t y of Bonn Bonn, Germany J e t Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, Calif.

M u l t i p r o b e Bus N e u t r a l Mass Spectrometer M u l t i p r o b e Bus N e u t r a l M a s s Spectrometer M u l t i p r o b e and O r b i t e r Ground Based Radio S c i e n c e Experiments M u l t i p r o b e and O r b i t e r Ground Based Radio Science Experiments

SRI I n t e r n a t i o n a l Menlo P a r k , C a l i f .

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-118VENUS STATISTICS

Orbital Mean d i s t a n c e from Sun: .723 a s t r o n o m i c a l u n i t s 1 0 8 . 2 m i l l i o n km 67.2 m i l l i o n m i . 3.3 degrees 225 E a r t h d a y s 126,180 km/hr 7 8 , 4 0 8 mph
4 2 m i l l i o n km 26 m i l l i o n m i .

I n c l i n a t i o n of o r b i t t o p l a n e of e c l i p t i c : Sidereal period ( r e l a t i v e t o stars): Mean o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y : C l o s e s t approach t o E a r t h : Planetary

D i a m e t e r ( s o l i d s u r f ace) :
D i a m e t e r ( t o p of c l o u d s ) :
Mass:

12,100 k m 7,519 m i .
12,240 k m 7,606 m i .

0.815 E a r t h masses 5.26 gm/cm3 243.1 E a r t h d a y s

Density : Axial r o t a t i o n period (retrograde) Rotation p e r i o d , cloud tops: (retrograde) Length of s o l a r day: I n c l i n a t i o n of r o t a t i o n a x i s : Surface atmospheric pressure:

4 .O E a r t h days ( a p p r o x . )
116.8 E a r t h days
6.0 degrees
9 5 atmospheres 9 , 6 1 6 kPa 1;396 p s i

S u r f a c e temperature:

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