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Booklet #2

Arithmetic Reasoning

The CSEA Examination Preparation Booklet Series is designed to help members prepare for New York State and local government civil service examinations. This booklet is designed for practice purposes only and its content may not conform to that of any particular civil service examination. Copyright, Reprinted March 1998 Not To Be Reproduced Without Permission

ARITHMETIC REASONING

For most people, the math sections of examinations are the most difficult. This section is one of the least popular, as it consists solely of mathematical word problems. Yet we’ve found that people can dramatically improve their scores by practicing with word problems before the exam, and consciously cultivating good problem solving habits. There are usually fifteen Arithmetic Reasoning questions. Most are of moderate difficulty, a few are pretty easy, and two or three are sometimes very tricky. If you get stuck on one of the more difficult questions, you~can put a check mark next to it and come back to it later, if there’s time. On most exams, people don’t usually run out of time, just patience. This is understandable, but points given for correctly answering one or two of these difficult questions may sometimes make a difference in one’s place on a promotion list, so it’s good to go back and try different approaches to solving a problem, rather than just guessing. We suggest you check the answer key after every three questions. (Try to be sure to spend enough time on each question. Don’t just give up quickly and turn to the answer key, as you won’t get as much out of the process if you do this). If you’ve missed any questions, consult the Self Study Guide and go through the explanation thoroughly before you continue on to the next question. This way you will gain practice and confidence as you go from question to question. (Don’t worry if you don’t do very well at first. It’s been a long time since most people answered these types of questions, if they ever did). We also suggest you use the Diagnostic Worksheet for each question you missed, to gain insight into areas of problem solving you may need to work on. If your exam won1t allow you to use a calculator, it’s a good idea to practice these questions without a calculator to increase speed, accuracy and confidence. Remember, these questions are not easy for most people. They may seem really difficult at first and some may seem impossible. If, however, a real effort is made to practice and learn from mistakes, scores in this area can improve considerably. We suggest you do these problems again a week before the exam. Good luck!

or 15% of its non-personnel expenses that month. Jean’s weekly income is $80 more than half of Betty’s. 8 Cannot be determined from information given 6. for postage. She spent $196 for all of the tickets. A conference with 3600 participants gathers in Albany. It costs $360 for Office X’s service contract with a typewriter company to service 18 typewriters for six months. d. 266 133 c. d. d.00. d. b. b. What were its total non-personnel expenses for December? a. and 50% of the males are age 30 or younger. How much does Barbara make? a. $9. b.800 people. At this same rate. Half of those attending the conference signed up for meals. 150 300 3. $3200 $552 c. d. 5796 2898 c. Betty makes $200 a week. $90 $60 4. If Jean’s weekly income doubled she would be making $120 a week more than Barbara. Agency Y employs 13. and $8. Catherine bought an equal number of $11. How many have special dietary needs? a. b. 6 7 c. b. How many of each did she buy? a. Of these. d. $180 $200 c.00 tickets for a concert. In December. How many males are there in Agency Y who are older than 30? a. 42% are male. an office spent $480. $5520 $7200 5. 3471 2910 1 .ARITHMETIC REASONING 1.00. $80 $75 c. $240 $360 2. how much would it cost Office X to service six typewriters for three months? a. One of every twelve people attending the conference who have ordered meals has special dietary needs. b.

b.2 hours c. If they sell all but three of the ten dollar tickets. Robin can wallpaper a room in four hours. A cabinet maker has a round piece of wood 1/2" in diameter and 3/4 yards long.5 hours 3. a community organization buys tickets to the theatre to resell 25% above cost. How many pegs will she have? a. If they run at a constant rate and it takes Mary 40 minutes while Alice finishes in half an hour. d. $248. 25 ten dollar tickets and 25 fifteen dollar tickets. what was its original price? a. $218. A typewriter and a dictation machine cost a total of $840. how much did the dictation machine cost? a.33 miles 12. Susan can wallpaper the same room in seven hours.75 $1273 c. d. A machine can collate 126 400 page books in 14 days. 18 9 c. b. If the typewriter cost $360 more than the dictation machine.5 hours 2. b. d. d. 270 8. b. She needs half the length for the back of a chair and the remaining piece for 3/4" pegs. d. d. how many 400 page books could it collate in 30 days? a. 4. 290 d. If it continues to collate at this same rate. $480 $440 c. They buy 50 eight dollar tickets. b. $768 $512 c. 2/3 mile 1. $800 $780 2 . 5. Mary and Alice jog 3 miles each evening. How long will it take them to wallpaper the room if they work together? a. 256 c. As a fund raiser.5 hours 11.75 $1243. b. If a couch cost $640 after a 20% discount. how much money have they made? a. 10 8/9 10. $240 $280 9.75 13.7. I mile 3/4 mile c. how much distance does Mary have left when Alice finishes? a. 248 b.

b. How much will it cost to can 76 quarts of tomatoes and 20 pints of jelly if the jars are bought at the cannery? (Jars are not sold individually).4 c. How many ounces of the second ingredient.95 18. A community cannery charges 15¢ per quart and 25¢ for 2 pints for processing. approximately what percent of a junior year class of 650 took Latin? a. 2. People using the cannery purchase can jars there at 15% discount off the regular price of $4. $32. approximately what percent of sales for the three days went to gas and vehicle maintenance? a. Approximately how many pounds of food will be distributed for each dollar budgeted for the program? a. A pharmacist combines ingredients x. $46. 3. d.49 $13. The purpose of the program in Question 16 is to distribute 250.000. and 98 miles Wednesday for $2300 worth of sales. 72 miles Tuesday. ingredient y.4 8. d.9 13.6 3 .14.4 c. 1. b. d. The proposed budget for a new social service program is $102. d.2 3. a. y and z in a ratio of 1:2:7 to produce cough medicine. A salesperson traveled 145 miles Monday.4 15. What percent of the budget has been secured inkind? a 9 b.200 worth of office equipment as inkind contributions.25 per case of a dozen quart or pint jars.1 17. 2.500 worth of transportation services and $1. The budget states that the project has secured $14.45 2. 3% 8% c. 81 13 16.15 c.14 c. d. b. If one of every eight junior year students at a high school takes Latin.90 19. 6% 1% 15.39 $37. 6 14 c. b.000 pounds of food to disadvantaged persons. 20.73 2. If the business pays 2l¢ a mile for gas and vehicle maintenance. d. 21. is needed to make a 12 ounce bottle of the medicine? a. b.

612 c.6 days 6.425 174. b.6% c. 130 124 22.4 days 23. d. b. the student-faculty ratio is 16:1. In a university with 2000 students. 119 127 c. How far will the car travel when the plane travels 500 miles? a.4 miles 37. then the smaller number is: a.10% 15. and their ratio is 7:3. 19. b. 41.7 miles 26.500 25. A car travels 50 miles an hour. If 18% of the faculty have completed some of their own study at the university.515 people in 1982. d. 12.20. d. and 125 the third. if they worked at the same rate. this reflected an increase of: a.8 days c. 106 the second.539 188. The population in 1972 was 145. 50. Agency Y served 187. 111. If the agency served 210. 17.5 miles c.6 miles 39.000. b.9 days 18. What was the population in 1982? a. 23 103 4 . approximately how many have not? a.9% 21. how many people attended the fourth week? a. d. d. If the sum of two numbers is 280. to complete the same project? a. d. If there were 105 people attending the first week. and a plane travels 10 miles a minute. 118 128 c. 196. 56 196 24. It takes 16 typists 11 days to complete a project. b. The number of people attending a weekly training program in the month of January averaged 116 people. 28 84 c.565 people in 1981. How long would it take 10 typists. 6. The population of Metropolis county in 1982 is 130% of its population in 1972. b.2% 10. d. b.

. Emily owes $17 to Jean and $9 to Mary.. Emily 5 . the temperature dropped at a constant rate. 45° 49° 29. If Janet can build 22 tables in 14 days. paid a tax of $110. 14. the temperature was 54°and by 1 a.1% 30. A discount house advertises that they sell all merchandise at cost plus 10%. b.5 days c.3% c.000 32. Her neighbor. A woman paid a tax of $88. and Anne can build 22 tables in 16 days.m. approximately how long will it take them to build 22 tables together? a. But Cynthia borrowed $14 from Jean. Cynthia loaned $35 to Mary. approximately what is the store’s profit? a. The remainder is divided among three people. 15 days 8 days 33. 18.5 days 7. b. 89 70 c. until midnight.000 $31. From midnight until 1 a.26 28. d. Her score converted to a scale of 0-100 is approximately: a. $30. $35. 9. d. On a promotional exam a woman scored 143 on a scale of 0-160. b. b. assessed at the same rate. it was 37° what was the . d. One eighth of a half gallon carton of ice cream has been eaten. If Jane buys a TV set for $300.000.2% d.27.400 c. d. Who left with $10 less than she came with? a. What was the assessed value of the neighbor’s house? a. From 6 p.m..m.00 c.m.400 $32. 46° 48° c. Mary d. 29.00 $27. it dropped 8° If at 6 p. temperature at 10 p. $22. Approximately what percentage of a gallon does each person get? a. and $16 from Emily.? a. b.27 $32. d. b. Cynthia Jean c. One day they got together to settle their accounts. 91 84 31. b.6% 11. $27.00 on property assessed at $28..m.

34. approximately what was its original cost? a. A train travels 70 miles when a bus travels 50 miles. b. A tax analyst earns four times as much in April as in each of the other months. What part of her entire year’s earnings does she earn in April? a. What is the interest on $600 at 8% for 30 days? a. The purchase price. 40 78 c.25 $536. b.50 39.41 and the sales tax rate is 4%. The sales tax on a typewriter is $13. was: a. $4 $11. before the tax was added. d. will Ozzie need to cover a floor that is 11 feet wide and 18 feet long? a. 99 150 c. A car has depreciated to 72% of its original cost. b.33 $245 c. d. How many miles will the train travel when the bus travels 60 miles? a. 163 198 35. $335. $4507 $2336 36. each 12 inches on a side. d.40 c.52 c. 4/15 4/13 40. What was the cost of the fencing? a. $210 $122. A garden is 30 feet by 40 feet.80 38. If the car is presently valued at $3245.50 37. b. d. at a cost of $1.75 per foot of fencing. $5219 $5582 c.50 $4.10 $317. b. d. A fence is built around the garden. 4/11 1/3 c. $133. $279. b. d. d. How many square tiles. b. $7. 90 84 6 .

c 28. c 32. d 16. b 12. c 26. d 8. b 6. d 4. d 7 . d 11. c 14. a 15. a 5. a 23. c 9. d 25. c 36. a 30. c 3.ANSWER KEY ARITHMETIC REASONING 1. c 2. b 39. b 33. a 31. a 38. c 18. b 29. a 37. a 13. c 21. b 22. d 34. a 19. d 35. b 17. b 7. a 20. b 24. d 27. a 10. c 40.

8. 9.ARITHMETIC REASONING For each question you missed. 14. Question Number(s) _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ _____________ _____ 1. 6. so I gave up I made a careless error I jumped to an incorrect conclusion I misinterpreted the question I “followed a hunch” without checking it through I didn’t step back and evaluate the reasonableness of my solution I worked mechanically because I knew it was hopeless I didn’t check all of my work I didn’t try to visualize the problem I didn’t break the problem down into more easily understandable parts I didn’t learn from previous problems I tried to solve the problem with out realizing that my understanding of a section of the problem was vague I was inconsistent in my interpretation of words or operations I was falsely reassured because the answer I got was one of the choices. 4. This exercise should give you insight into problem solving behaviors that may need work. 2. 10. 12. 5. 3. 11. so I didn’t check my work 8 . Trait Exhibited 1 had little confidence I could solve the problem 1 couldn’t solve the problem. 7. 15. 13. go through the checklist below and place the number of the question missed next to the trait exhibited.

BOOKLET #2 SELF STUDY GUIDE ARITHMETIC REASONING 9 .

If you feel you need a more thorough review of these. if ever. and you consistently get the right answer using it. there’s certainly no need to change. or you can consult one of the large number of basic math textbooks that exist. With practice you will improve.$120 = $240. In many cases these questions require using methods you may not have used in years. Two times Jean’s salary of $180 would be $120 a week more than Barbara’s salary. In explaining the answers. If you have a different approach. Basically. It’s only in the next to last sentence that we’re actually given someone’s salary. No knowledge of advanced math is required. Choice C. You shouldn’t get discouraged if you seem totally lost at first. you can order Booklet Number One in the series. two times $180. and all of them have been able to improve their ability to answer word problems by conscientiously using it. The first sentence tells us that if Jean’s weekly income doubled she would be making $120 a week more than Barbara. we briefly review working with fractions. would be $120 a week more than Barbara’s salary. Basic Mathematics. so Jean’s salary is $80 more than $100. percents and ratios. We are presenting methods that are the easiest for most people. and we have kept our explanations free of jargon and intimidating formulas. Jean’s weekly income is $80 more than half of Betty’s. and solve it step by step. but it becomes clear after careful reading that we can’t find Barbara’s salary unless we find Jean’s. $360 is $120 more than what number? $360 . We have tested this guide with many people. You will get out of this guide the fruits of whatever effort you put in. We’re told that Betty makes $200 a week. The question asks for Barbara’s salary. So. We don’t mean to suggest that sometimes it won’t be hard work – you may need to re-work and re-read some of the problems many times before they make sense. 10 . The answer is C. Jean’s salary is $80 more than half of $200. This kind of question is difficult unless you break it down into parts. It’s also important to remember that there are often many ways to do a particular problem. and perseverance in problem solving is always critical. what you need is a knowledge of basic math and perseverance. or $180. Good luck! ARITHMETIC REASONING 1. however.SELF STUDY GUIDE ARITHMETIC REASONING You should consult this guide whenever you miss a question or aren’t sure why you got the answer you did. however. which equals $360.

A ratio shows the relationship between two numbers. by the denominator. comparing those with special needs who ordered meals to all who ordered meals. Choice (C). and apply it to the 1800 people who have ordered meals. 1/12 is expressed in decimal form as . have ordered meals. One out of every twelve people who have ordered meals has special dietary needs. 1/2 of the 3600 people have ordered meals 3. One out of 12 (or 1/12) of those who ordered meals has special dietary needs It’s important to remember that in order to solve this we must keep in mind that only half of the attendees have ordered meals. 1 1 1800 1800 × 1800 = × = = 150 12 12 1 12 So. the top number. 150 of those who have ordered meals have special dietary needs.2. 1800 x 1/12 = 1800 x . from this point on.0833 (to find the decimal form of a fraction. There are many ways to solve this problem. Or you could have used decimals. Of these.) You also could have set up a ratio. From the question. 3600 people are attending the conference 2. Choice (C) is the answer: It’s important in a question like this to identify and break down the information you are given.94 = 150 people.0833 = 149. and the denominators by each other. Special dietary needs 1 as as All who ordered meals 12 what number? 1800 One way to do this is to cross multiply. In this case. So 1/12 of the 1800 people signed up for meals have special dietary needs. we know: 1. One way is to simply multiply 1800 by 1/12 to find the answer. (To multiply fractions. multiply the numerators by each other. we use ratios in “real life” – inches to miles on a map. (It comes out a little unevenly because the decimal has been rounded off. one out of every twelve has special dietary needs. A Review of Ratios Ratios are intimidating for many people in an exam setting. or 1800. or the ratio of ingredients in recipes in cooking. 1 12 = ? 1800 1 12 ? 1800 11 . Yet. So half of the 3600 people. the bottom number). To cross multiply. it shows the relationship between those who have dietary restrictions and ordered meals to all those who ordered meals. we multiply the top of one number by the bottom of the other. so we need to examine the relationship between the numbers one and twelve. divide the numerator.

1800 and 1. 3. since that will give you the answer. So it costs $20 to service each typewriter for a six month period.000. If you use different methods than those in this booklet. they will always equal each other. obviously too big a number. by dividing the 1800 by the 12. in a ratio problem. In this case. This means that when you multiply the “inside” numbers in a ratio problem together. 12 and ?. and would equal the “outside” numbers that have been multiplied together. as long as you set up the relationship between the numbers involved correctly (part is to whole as part is to whole). there’s no need to change what you’re doing. but it’s important to keep these methods in mind for other questions. We’re told that it costs $360 to service 18 typewriters for six months. per typewriter. Again. We need to find out how much it would cost to service six typewriters for a three 12 . $360. for a six month period. the total amount. and then multiply the “outside” numbers together. dividing gives you 150 people. we would set it up like this: 1 is to 12 as ? is to 1800 The “inside” numbers. The answer is D.12 times what number? 1 x 1800 12 x ? = 1800 1800 ? = = 150 12 (You have to divide the 1800 by the 12. If you get as far as 12 x ? = 1800. it would cost. there are many ways to solve math problems. you can still get the correct answer. and your results are consistently correct. So 12 x 12 ? = ? x = 1800 x 1 ? = 1800 1800 = 150 12 All of this may have seemed totally unnecessary. when using them may be very helpful. and multiplying gives you 270. and there are a number of ways to do it. So. because the difference between multiplying and dividing is so large that common sense will tell you which is right. would be multiplied together. divided by the total number of typewriters. One way would be to first determine how much the office is paying per typewriter. because you want to “isolate” the ? on one side. you should be able to solve it. the only way you could “free” the ? was to move the 12 over to the other side of the equal sign. Since the 12 and the ? were being multiplied by each other. $360 ÷ 18 = $20 per typewriter. 12 x ?. 18. So. This problem is actually easier than it may look at first. and can’t remember whether you should multiply or divide. In this case.) Another way some people do ratios is by remembering that “the product of the means equals the product of the extremes”.

we’d notice that 7% = .0825 = 8 25%. you could have multiplied each choice by 15%. Many people miss this question.month period. it would be half that amount. because they aren’t quite sure what to do with the 15% figure they’re given. The answer is A. and since the time involved is 1/2 of the total time. if we had to convert a decimal like . Some people select Choice D. a 7% sales tax reflects a tax of $. In this case. especially if you’re nervous. Choice A. So 480 is 15% of 3200. So. common sense should tell you.046%. Consulting the sales tax example. 7% = . In the corner of your scrap paper you could write. It’s important in these exams to step back and evaluate the reasonableness of your solutions. 480 ÷ 15% = 480 ÷ .07 = 7% the decimal was moved two places to the right. So in order to find the answer we need to know what number 480 is 15% of. or 8. for a total of 6 x $10 = $60. . Sorry if this was unnecessary.15 = 3200.15 = 480.00046 to a percent. we get 480. so we’d do the same here. we get . if you had multiplied. consulting the sale tax. We are told that $480 is 15% of the office’s non-personnel expenses for December. you would have gotten $72 as an answer.15 = 15%. but many people get confused when dealing with decimals and percents on an exam. Is 480 15% of 3200? If we divide 480 by 3200. This is a legitimate way to solve these types of problems. Since we are considering six typewriters. If you weren’t sure how to do it.0825. we divide 480 by 15%. and then aren’t sure where to put the decimal points. you’ll be able to convert it to decimal form more easily. (If you get confused. we’d see in the case of . Or we could have said that we’re being asked to find the cost of one third of the typewriters (6 is 1/3 of 18).0035% would equal . . 1/2 of $120 equals $60. 13 . would have become the obvious choice. the cost would be six typewriters at $10 each.07 meant the decimal was moved two places to the left when going from percents to decimals.07 = 7%. 3200 x .15. we are asking “480 is 15% of what number?” To find this. Or we could have set it up using fractions: 360 x 1/2 x 1/3 = 360 = 60 6 4.00046 would then equal . One third of the typewriters would cost 1/3 as much: 1/3 x $360 = $120. For example. because they incorrectly multiply. It was also possible in this question to work backwards from the answers given to get the right answer. and if we multiply 3200 by . It’s always a good idea to go back to the problem and check our answer to see if it makes sense. so . because of the difference between the two numbers that result. we suggest you use the sales tax to help you remember. to see which one was equal to $480. when a percent like . for half the time (3 months is half of six months). or $10 per typewriter. We know the service cost of each typewriter is $20 for six months. Some people aren’t sure whether to multiply or divide.0035% comes along on a word problem.07. which doesn’t make much sense.07 on every dollar. If you do this.000035. yet people often fail to do this. For three months. Or.25% = . Again. .

5. you could set up a ratio and cross-multiply (see #2). but by spending time looking at the problem and “playing with” the possible choices. We’re told a machine can collate 126 400 page books in 14 days. 196 ÷ 28 = 7. ? 126 = 30 14 14 x ? = 126 x 30 14 x ? = 3780 ? = 3780 ÷ 14 ? = 270 ? 30 126 14 14 . Or. 6.800 people. We need to find how many books it could collate in 30 days. The answer is D.800 x . The answer is B. ? 126 = . however. thinking that it’s not possible to find the answer from the information given. Some people aren’t sure how to do this problem at first. 126 is nine times 14. 50% are age 30 or younger.5. so we can find out how many of each she bought by dividing 196 by 28. Agency Y employs 13. This is another ratio problem (see question #2). Many people put D as an answer. Of these. the answer will be in the same proportion as 126 is to 14. That means that the relationship between each of the ticket amounts will always be equal. So half of the 5.796 males will be older than 30. She spent a total of $196. (It’s true that if the question didn’t state there were equal amounts of tickets.800 x 42% = 13. Since it collates at the same rate. The answer is B.00 tickets. we can find the answer by: 1) adding up the cost of the tickets and 2) dividing this figure into the total dollar amount she paid for them. D would be the correct answer). 13. or 270. So we would multiply 13.796 ÷ 2 = 2898 males older than 30. 42% of whom are male. There are many ways to do this. There are many ways you could solve this problem. The first thing we need to do is find the number of males in Agency Y.800 by 42% to find the number of males.00 or $8. The key thing to note here is that the question says Catherine bought an equal number of tickets. Since we know there are equal amounts of each ticket. $11 + $9 + $8 = $28. it becomes clearer.42 = 5796 males in Agency Y. There won’t be more $11 tickets than $9. 30 14 One is to first find the relationship between 14 and 126. so the answer will be 9 times 30. So. 7.

” (See Question #2) 14 : 126 as 30 : ? 14 x ? = 125 x 30 14 x ? = 3780 3780 14 ? = 270 ?= 8. We’re looking for an answer that will total $840 for the two objects. Many people miss this question. So. without the algebra. and to check Choice A. it becomes apparent that Choice C is the answer. $600. One is to use a little algebra. This will always give you the smaller number. 15 . but the total is not $840. because it’s more difficult than it looks. and that will also show that the typewriter is $360 more. so it checks out. $240 + $360 = $600. and the dictation machine. according to Choice A. The $600 typewriter is $360 more than the $240 typewriter. The answer is C. though. and get $480. We know the typewriter and dictation machine together cost $840. 480 ÷ 2 = 240. Adding the typewriter. But the question states the total of both was $840.360 = 480. Another way to solve a problem like this is to take the difference between the total of the two numbers and the difference between them. 840 . we’ll see that Choice A can’t be the correct answer. The total cost of the typewriter and dictation machine then becomes $360 + $840 = $1200. In Choice A. Yet. We’re also told that the typewriter cost $360 more than the dictation machine. if we go back through the problem and re-read it. This method will always work. the typewriter costs $840. $360 + $480 = $840. A very legitimate way is to “work backwards” from the possible answers. and see if they total $840. Working backwards from the answers given will also always work. Choice A. they total $840. $240. and then divide by two. So. so we know something is wrong. we should be able to add $360 to Choice A’s $480 to find the cost of the typewriter. There are many other ways to solve it.Or. Many will simply subtract $360 from $840. You can take each choice add $360 to it. to find the cost of the typewriter.360 2 x = 480 x = 240 You don’t need to know algebra to solve it. you could have used “the product of the means equals the product of the extremes. the cost of the typewriter. If you do this. This is a perfectly acceptable way to solve this problem. the typewriter comes out to be $360 more. as it’s the same mathematical operation used in algebra. x + x + 360 = 840 2 x = 840 . There are several ways you can do this problem.

that asks you to combine the efforts of two people. The diameter of the wood is not needed. 13½ inches are left for the pegs. by 3/4 of an inch to find how many pegs can be made. four hours and seven hours. 13½ inches. and Susan can wallpaper a room in 7 hours. 3/4 yard equals how many inches? 3/4 yards equal 27/36. we invert the second fraction and then multiply) 27 4 108 × = = 18 pegs 2 3 6 Or. add them together. One way to do this is to remember the following method. Let x be the time it takes.9. There are several ways to do a problem like this. Since 13½ inches are being used for the back of the chair. we should divide the total length available. you could have converted to decimals and then divided. add together. primarily because unnecessary information is thrown in. The problem can also be solved algebraically. Since each peg is 3/4 of an inch. Robin does x x part of the work.545 16 . So these numbers become 1/4 and 1/7. The answer is A. Then. Twenty-eight is a number both four and seven will divide evenly into. you will always be able to answer this type of question. Robin can wallpaper a room in 4 hours. if you hate fractions. (1/4 + 1/7 do not equal 1/11. invert. 28 = 2. 27 ÷ 2 = 13½ inches. In x hours. 27 inches. as we have to find a common denominator first). 7 4 Together they do the complete job. and invert again. and Susan does part of the work. x x + =1 4 7 (Multiply the equation by 28 to get rid of the fractions) 7x+4 x 11 x x = = = 28 28 28 11 = 2. We know that half the length of the wood is needed for the back of the chair. 10. invert the two numbers you’re given. The answer is D. We need to find what half of 27 inches is to find how many inches will be used for pegs. the easiest approach would be to convert 3/4 of a yard into inches. First. Because the rest of the problem is given in inches. 13½ ÷ 3 27 3 = ÷ 4 2 4 (to divide fractions.545 11 If you remember this method. This question looks more difficult than it is. 1 7 1 4 = and = 4 28 7 28 7 4 11 + = 28 28 28 The last thing needed is to invert again to find the answer.

$193. But we need to subtract the $30 worth of unsold tickets from this. 12. The answer is C. Of the 25 ten dollar tickets.075 x 10 = . There was a $55 profit on the ten dollar tickets sold. three were unsold. but also because of their basic irrationality – who ever jogs.75 is the profit from the $8 and $15 group of tickets.75 13. Remember that the organization made $193. In this problem. So the total spent on these two groups of tickets was $400 + $375 = $775. The answer is B. 50 $8 tickets = 50x8 = $400 25 $10 tickets = 25x10 = 250 25 $15 tickets = 25x15 = 375 Since all the $8 and $15 tickets were sold at 25% above cost. $30 was spent by the organization in buying those tickets that did not come back. 17 . Since each ticket was worth $10. We know Mary runs for 40 minutes. One way to do this is to ask. 11. or 3/4 of a mile. . $640 is 80% of what number? 640 = 800 .80 (If you’re not sure whether to multiply or divide. If you multiply. multiply her speed. and there were three unsold. Most people find these types of questions irritating. it’s good to use the first method or the algebraic method. it’s important to know how to do these. When that isn’t possible.075 miles per minute. We should then find the profit on the 22 ten dollar tickets that did sell. or builds chairs) at exactly the same rate every time? Nevertheless. We can do this by dividing the distance she traveled (3 miles) by her time (40 minutes). we need to first find Mary’s speed. We first need to determine how much the organization spent on each group of tickets.Sometimes it’s also possible to estimate an answer in these types of questions. not only because they bring back bad memories.75 on the other ticket sales. 55 . as they always work with this type of work problem. so Mary has 10 minutes of running time left when Alice finishes.75. 22 x 10 = $220. the money spent on these tickets came back and the organization made a profit of 25%. The answer is A.75.25 x 220 = $55. the total profit was $218. We need to find the 25% profit on these.75. 25% profit on $220 = . There are many ways to do this. 25% of 775 = .30 = $25 profit on ten dollar tickets. or rate by the time left.00. Alice runs the same distance in 30 minutes. Another percent problem. (or wallpapers.25 x 775 = $193. To find how much distance Mary has left. 3 ÷ 40 = . So the $30 will have to be substracted from whatever profit is made. Adding $25 to $193. you could still figure it out.

$512.87%. Choice C is $800.500 + 1. The number 650 is irrelevant.000 There were 2.4% 102. 18 . We first need to determine the total value of the inkind contributions by adding $14.700. But the question is asking for the percent of students.15 ÷ 2300 = .$160 = $640. 16. This is a tricky question.45 money budgeted 102. The answer is D. So the cost is 315 x . because many people assume they must set up a ratio.45 pounds of food aistributed for each dollar spent.21 = $66. All we need to find is what percent 1 is of 8. 12.000 80 × ? = 640 × 100. The answer is A. ? = 800 80 Or. 15. is less than $640. Another way to do it would have been to set up a ratio. 3% is the closest of the four possible choices. The answer is B. (They don’t need to put a percent sign next to each choice. of food 250.000 = = 2. ? = . as the question is asking for an answer in percents. 15.000. Then we need to find what percent of the total of $102.200 = $15. 14. this question shows the importance of reading the problem carefully.000 the inkind total of $15.500 and $1.15 by $2300. $800 x . at 21¢ per mile. 13. It’s first necessary to determine the total amount spent on travel costs in the three days.700 is. 80 × ? = 64.15.200.700 = . 000 The answer is C. not number of students.125 = 12. 17. $800 . 66. We know from question #16 that the program has a budget of $102.20 = 160. multiplying by 20% and then subtracting this amount. We can do this by dividing the inkind contributions by the total budget. 640 80 = (80% is to 100%) ? 100 64. 14.5%. to see which choice would give you $640.1539 = 15. you could work backwards and go through each choice.5% is closest to choice D. To do this we divide $66. The salesperson traveled 315 miles. and find the number of students. We can find the answer by setting up a relationship between the pounds of food distributed to the money budgeted.000.0287 = 2. lbs. The total mileage was 145 + 72 + 98 = 315.) Once again. so it couldn’t be correct.you should notice that the answer you get. We need to find what percent the travel costs were of sales. 1 : 8 = . Choice A. One out of every eight students takes Latin.

Ingredient z is worth 7 parts. $32.25 = .64 (to the nearest cent). Jars are sold in cases of 12. so we’ll need 2 cases. which represents one part. 1. If you can remember these two steps.64 = $3. In this case. 565 (the earlier 1981.565 to 210. dividing 76 by 12. Now.18. One way is to first add the parts given in the ratio in the problem.61 per case.the discount of . Then divide this number into the total amount of whatever substance you’ve been given. 20 ÷ 12 = 1. and the cost of procressing 20 pints. There are 76 quarts at l5¢ per quart.2.61 per case. The regular price per case of jars is $4. We’re told the people served by Agency Y increased from 187. 1 + 2 + 7 = 10.49. 20. For 20 pints of jelly. Or.950 divided by 187.25. we need 7 cases. The difference between 210.0 ounces. $2. to find how many ounces of each ingredient is used. If there are 76 quarts of tomatoes. 19 . Ingredient X is worth 1 part. The questior asks us for the amount of ingredient Y.2 x 7 = 8. not individually.565 is 22. 2. choice A. $32.122 = 12.50.50 = $46. So the cost of jars alone is $3.15 x 4. We’ll need a total of 9 cases of jars. 19.2 2A = 2. dividing 20 by 12. This is a percent increase question. 12 ÷ 10 = 1.637 = .25/2 = $2.4 oz.2 + 2. But there is a discount of 15%. so ingredient x = 1.515 and 187. Ingredient Y is worth 2 parts. the number that chronologically came first. so 1. you will always be able to answer this type of question. Since we can’t buy jars individually. $4. you could have expressed this algebraically: A + 2A + 7A = 12 10A = 12 12 A= 10 A = 1. We need to find the percent increase.4 oz.2%.50.40. 15% of 4. The answer is C. but in this case it’s more work than using the above methods.39. and occur on this section as well. The cannery charges 15¢ per quart.61 x 9 = $32. so it checks out. $11. 22. you could work backwards from each choice. the cost of processing 76 quarts.33 cases. or 10 x .40. and 2) Divide this difference by the original number. the cost of the canning will be the total of the cost of the jars.40 + 2.50.4 + 8. Percent increase and decrease problems occur very often on the tabular section.25 = .66. There are 20 pints that need to be processed at a cost of 25¢ for 2 pints. This is a different kind of ratio problem.4 oz. One way to do this is to first find how many cases of jars were purchased.49 + 11. so 1. we get 6.2 oz. There are several ways to solve it. We can check to see if adding them would give us 12 ounces.15 = $11. by the ratio of each of the ingredients given.4 Or. This will give the value of each part.2 x 1 = 1.25 = $2. TO FIND PERCENT INCREASE OR DECREASE: 1) Take the difference between the two numbers being considered. The answer is A. so the cost of processing equals 76 x .2 x 2 = 2. There are 9 cases that are purchased at $3.25 .2. So.515. we’ll do the same. The answer is A.950.49.4 = 12. we would multiply 1. Next we have to find the cost of the processing. so the cost of processing will be 20 x . it’s 12 ounces of cough medicine. figure) equals .

There are many ways to approach these problems. by 10/16. so it would have taken them 16 days. adding it to the other three numbers. The above equation shows that if we add the four numbers together. Dividing by 4. 2 typists is half of four typists. The number of days it took was 8. we get 116. If you weren’t at all sure how to do this. It would take 2 typists how many days?” You would have figured out that 2 typists would take twice as long. so it checks out. 4 x 105 + 106 + 125 + ? = 116 x 4 105 + 106 + 125 + ? = 464 336 + ? = 464 ? = 464 . The 2 typists would complete the job 2/4. and then dividing by four to see if their average was 116. The 10 typists would complete the job 10/16 as quickly. The answer is A. If you examined how you got this answer more carefully. you could have solved this problem by working backwards.6 16 8 5 5 days. To get rid of it.21. This problem can be solved without a lot of difficulty if the relationships between the workers and their times is kept clearly in mind. 22. Choice B. So we could find the answer by dividing the days it took 16 typists. we can multiply each side by 4. Or. If. If you did this. and the unknown number equals 116. you shouldn’t worry as long as you’re getting the right answers. what if the question had read “It takes 4 typists 8 days to complete a project. 11 days. we need to find how long it will take 10 typists working at the same rate. taking each of the possible choices. you may have wanted to first use a simpler example. The answer is B. or half as quickly. For example. you would also have gotten 128. There are several ways to do this. If it takes 16 typists 11 days to complete a project. 11 ÷ 10 5 8 88 = 11 ÷ = 11× = = 17.336 ? = 128 You can check this if you wishby adding 105 + 106 + 125 + 128 = 464. we’ll get 116. One way to do this would be to set up an equation. while doing these problems you use different methods. and then divide by 4. which is a perfectly legitimate way to solve problems of this type. 105 + 106 + 125 + ? = 116 4 The average of the three known numbers. You would then divide 8 by 1/2 to get the answer. 20 . so that you could then visualize what needed to be done. The 4 as a divisor is cumbersome. you would be able to derive a method that could be used to solve the question.

500 miles = 50 minutes 10 miles/minute We need to find how far the car has traveled in 50 minutes. To find how far the car will travel when the plane travels 500 miles.000. and the larger will equal 7 parts of 28. The smaller number will equal 3 parts of 28. 280 ÷ 10 = 28. We then divide this into the total of the two numbers. not a decrease. 84 + 196 = 280. If the car travels 50 miles in 60 minutes.66. how far will it travel in 50 minutes? We can set up a ratio to find this. The answer is C. We know that the plane travels 10 miles a minute. which wouldn’t make sense since there was an increase. multiply. clearer relationship between two numbers. Choice D. it’s a good way to gain insight into how to solve it. (If you weren’t sure whether to multiply or divide. 24. the plane will take 500 miles divided by 10 miles a minute. 84. and that was divide. 500 miles 60 minutes as ? miles 50 minutes One way to solve it is to notice that.000 = 188. (l30% = l. We’re asked for the smaller number. and the car travels 50 miles an hour. We can check this by adding 84 and 196 to see if they equal 280. 50 5 is 60 6 So the answer will be 5/6 of 50. 280. division would have given you a smaller number than the 1972 figure. 8÷ 23. Another percent problem. you had a clue in that you knew the answer was 16. 145. The answer is D. 25. 7 x 28 = 196. in population).30) 1.30 x 145. So the population will be 130% x 145. The answer is B. using a simpler. 5/6 x 50 = 250/6 = 41. these numbers will be in direct proportion to each other. since this is a ratio problem. we need to first find out how long it will take the plane to travel 500 miles. At 10 miles a minute. 7 + 3 = 10. The first thing we need to do is add the parts of the ratio together.1 2 = 8 × = 16 2 1 If you weren’t sure what you were supposed to do at this point. The 1982 population of Metropolis county is 130% of its 1972 population. So you would do whatever would give you 16. or whatever. This is the same type of ratio problem as Question 19. This means each part is equal to 28. Choice C. 21 . in that case. If you’re stuck on how to approach a question. seeing how the problem wou1d be solved.500.000. divide. 3 x 28 = 84. and then applying the method to the test question. This is a legitimate way to solve a problem.

We know the ratio of students to faculty is 16:1. We need to find 82% of 125. The answer is D. 50 : 60 = ? : 50 60 × ? = 2500 2500 60 ? = 41. We first need to find the total number of faculty. cross multiply: 16 × ? = 2000 × 1 16 × ? = 2000 2000 ? = 16 ? = 125 Or. 22 . So we can find this by setting up a ratio.66 ?= Or you could use “the means equals the product of the extremes (see Question #2). Or. One way is to observe that 2000 is 125 times greater than 16. 125 x .82 = 102. If approximately 18% of them studied at the university. Students Faculty as Students Faculty 16 1 = 2000 ? You can solve from here in a number of ways. (see Question #2). so what we’re trying to find will be 125 times greater than 1. then 82% did not.5 (Or you could have multiplied 125 by 18% and then subtracted the result from 125).66 ?= 26. and there are 2. use “the product of the means equals the product of the extremes”.000 students.Or you could cross multiply: 50 ? = 60 50 60 × ? = 2500 2500 60 ? = 41. 16 : 1 = 2000 : ? 16 × ? = 2000 × 1 16 × ? = 2000 2000 ? = 16 ? = 125 We know there are 125 faculty.

Choice B states that $27 is the profit.50 degrees. if you’re not sure. So we know $272.70. $27 is 10% of $270. not $300. for a total of $330. The answer is A. plus a 10% profit added on) of what number? 300 ÷ 110% will give us the answer.. But she bought the set for $300. if 1/8 of a half gallon has already been eaten.27. To find the rate the temperature dropped each hour. In a problem like this. 37°.m. and working backwards if you’re stuck is certainly being resourceful.m.m. Most people select Choice A. Choice C is the answer. Or we could add two hours times 1. 28. The temperature dropped at a constant rate from six p. and there is only a half gallon of ice cream to begin with. 1/8 x 1/2 = 1/16. 546 = 48°.5° each hour. to midnight.97. 300 ÷ 1. Added together they equal $297. This is a drop of 9°. If the profit was $30.26 is 10% of $322.. One way to do this would be to work backwards from each choice given. is that they are asking for what percent of a gallon each person gets. Arithmetic Reasoning is also testing your resourcefulness at working with numbers. or $27. the set would have to cost $300. and before this it dropped at a constant rate. Since the answer says approximately.m. it’s possible to work backwards to get the answer.m. The profit will be 10% of this.70 + 27. we can add 8° to the temperature given at 1 a. Choice B. Since the temperature dropped 1. One of the few good things about multiple choice math questions is that the answer has to be one of the four given. 37 + 8 = 45° at midnight. $272. We know that one eighth of a half gallon carton of ice cream has been eaten.5 degrees). The answer is C.60.5. plus $30 (the 10% profit) added on.27. this looks like a safe choice. But just in case.27 is 10% of $272.m. so you may want to spend some time studying them. we would divide 9 by 6. $300 is 110% (100% is the cost of the item. Choice C is $27. the temperature dropped 9°. 29. 3°. if you can’t figure it out. and the remainder is divided by three people. We know that the temperature dropped 8° from midnight until 1 a. by subtracting (4 hours times 1. to find the temperature at midnight. The trick to this question. we can find out how much this is by multiplying 1/8 by 1/2.72. so we know that they won’t add up to $300.27. $27.. So. we can check Choice D. we can find the temperature for 10 p. So Choice A can’t be correct. Working backwards from 1 a. During that time it went from 54° to 45°.10 = $272. the cost. $32. not $300. the temperature at 10 p.72 is the actual cost. so Choice B is incorrect. 6 hours elapsed from 6 p. This is a perfectly good way to solve this problem.m. not of a half gallon. You could also say to yourself. The answer is B. and it’s a tricky question. So 1/16 of a gallon has been eaten. on to the midnight temperature of 45°. But this would mean the total cost would be $300.27 = $299. because they misread and think $30 is the ten percent profit of the sales price of $300. and the question states that they sell all merchandise at cost plus 10%. to midnight. 54-45. 23 . from 54. 45 + 3 = 48°. In 6 hours. 9 ÷ 6 = 1. Or you could have set up a ratio: 300 110 = (110% is to 100%) ? 100 These methods are quicker than working backwards. which equals 6°.

000 88 ? = 35.000 ? You can then solve it.000 : ? 88 × ? = 110 × 28.893 = 89. 31.The remainder is divided by three people. This means that out of 160 questions.000 3. few of the exam questions are this tricky. We’re asked to convert her score “to a scale of 0-100”.080. she got 143 correct. The answer is C. we can set up a ratio between the numbers involved.000 88 × ? = 3. 8/16 .000 ? = 24 .000 Or. (Percents are based on 100. But the answer has to be expressed in percents.000 3. If you cross multiply: 88 110 = 28.000 ? = 88 ? = 35.080. The answer is A.000 ? 88 × ? = 28.6%. is divided by 3 people.1/16. It’s always good to re-check your answers. 88 : 110 as 28. but 1/16 has been eaten. Fortunately. The remainder. This is another ratio problem. 7/16. This question looks more difficult than it is. 7/48 as a percent is 7 divided by 48 = . Choice A.000 × 110 88 × ? = 3. we divide 143 by 160. There was a half gallon.080. (See Questions 2.000 as 110 ? or tax tax as value value 88 as 110 28. All that means is that we’re going to convert her score into a percent. 143 ÷ 160 = . 30. you could use “the product of the means equals the product of the extremes”.1/16 = 7/16 left.) tax value as tax value 88 28. with this type of question. We know the woman got a score of “143 on a scale of 160”. That leaves 1/2 .1458 = 14.) 143 is what percent of 160? To find this.4. 25.080. 26. Since the assessment is at the same rate. 7 16 ÷ 3 = 7 1 × = 16 3 7 48 So each person gets 7/48 of a gallon. Choice A.

1/14 + 1/16 = 1 (In x days. It’s important to remember that they got together to settle their accounts. 14 days and 16 days. Multiplying 18 by 11 will give us the area that needs to be covered. +16 for Emily.) Sometimes it’s possible to estimate an answer. so -16 for Cynthia. So we’ll put a +35 under Cynthia’s name. The answer is B. +9 for Mary. Cynthia borrowed $14 from Jean: -14 for Cynthia (she’s paying Jean back). 14 16 112 112 112 112 112 Then invert again to find the answer. you could use algebra. we need to find out how large the floor is. The answer is D. 18 x 11 = 198 square feet. This is another tricky question. They become 1/14 and 1/16. +17 for Jean. Cynthia loaned $35 to Mary. 25 . with the amount they are paying back or receiving directly under her name. Cynthia +35 –14 –16 +5 Jean +14 +17 +31 Mary –35 +9 –26 Emily +16 –17 –9 –10 Total Emily left with $10 less than she came with. She also borrowed $16 from Emily. Cynthia will be getting back $35 from Mary. there are several approaches you can use. and that they are 12 inches on each side. The answer is D. To find out how many we’ll need. it’s good to use the first method or the algebraic method as they always work with this type of work problem. and a -35 under Mary’s. Or. A good way to do it is to write each person’s name out. Since each tile is exactly a foot on each side. letting x be 15 the time it takes. add them together. 34. +14 for Jean. So. 112 = 7.32. That means they were paying each other back. we’ll need 198 of them. For the type of work problem that asks you to combine the efforts of two different people. + = . Since they’ve gotten together to pay each other back.) x x + =1 14 16 8x + 7x = 112 15x = 112 x = 7. Then. Emily owes $17 to Jean: -17 for Emily. When this isn’t possible. You’ll need to find a common denominator to do this. Emily owes $9 to Mary: -9 for Emily. A lot of work for a point and a half.466 days. and Anne does 1/16 of the work. It’s a good idea to break this problem down into parts. One way to do this is to first invert the two numbers you’re given. 33. We know the tiles are square. Here’s another work problem (see question 10).466 (Multiply the equation by 112 to get rid of the fractions. 1 1 8 7 15 + = + . Together they do the complete job. Janet does 1/14 of the work. We’re told it’s 18 feet long and 11 feet wide.

the 30 days is expressed as one month.04 of what number? 13. 13. taking 4% of each answer until you got $13.41 13. there are four sides. and it does.94 Check it: is 3245 72% of 4506. They’re very common on this section. The answer is A. multiply $335.72 ? = 4506. the interest will equal the rate x principal x time. taking 72% of each of the possible answers to see which would give you $3245.41. and that it’s worth 72% of its original cost. we could ask “13.41 is 4% of what number?” 13. In this problem.72 = 72%.04 ? = 335. 3245 = 72 (72% is to 100%) ? 100 Or you could have worked backwards. or 1/12 of a year.08 × 600 × 1 1 48 = 48 × = = $4. To find this. Remember. 26 . to determine how much fencing is needed. For an interest problem like this one. 36. The time is always expressed as some part of a year. To find the purchase price before the tax was added.41. Two will be 40 feet. the interest will equal 8% x 600 x 1/12 (one month is 1/12 of a year). we could say “72% of what number is $3245?” 72% × ? = 3245 . We know the garden is 30 feet by 40 feet. Another percent problem.72 × ? = 3245 3245 ?= .41. We need to find the perimeter first. Or you could have used a ratio. The answer is B.04 × ? = 13. It should equal $13.41 = 4% × ? .41 is .94 = . 12 12 12 The trick with these types of problems is to remember to express the time in terms of a year. 38. In this case.94? 3245 ÷ 4506. We know the sales tax rate is 4%.41 4 = (4% is to 100%) ? 100 You could also have worked backwards. . a percent problem.25 by 4%.25 To check it. Or you could have set up a ratio. Again. We know the car is presently valued at $3245.41 ?= . The answer is C.35. 37. and the tax on the typewriter was $13. The answer is A.

40. We know she earns four times as much in April as in each of the other months.000. you could cross multiply: 70 ? = 50 60 50 × ? = 70 × 60 50 × ? = 4200 4200 50 = 84 ? ?= Or. We need to find what part of her entire year’s earnings she earns in April. Another ratio problem. April would equal 4 parts. 4 of which were April’s earnings. The answer is D. you could have assigned imaginary dollar values to see the relationship more clearly. so eleven months with one part each would equal eleven parts. The total would be $15.000. April’s earnings would be 4 times that. To find the perimeter. One way to do it would be to assign “parts”. It costs $1. or $4000. but the correct answer. Or. It sometimes helps to bring in “real life” examples to help see relationships more clearly. Each of the other months would equal one part.000.and two 30 feet. we need to add the four sides. The total would then be 15 parts. you could use “the product of the means equals the product of the extremes”. In the other eleven months she’d make $11. or 4/15. Many people miss this question. We need to find how many miles the train will travel when the bus travels 60 miles. So April’s earnings would equal 4 out of the 15 total parts.75 = $245. So the cost will be 140 x 1. April’s earnings would be $4000 of the $15. so the answer will be 7/5 of 60. We’re told a train travels 70 mile when a bus travels 50 miles. or 4000/15000 = 4/15. A fitting ending. 39. 40 + 40 + 30 + 30 = 140 feet.75 per foot for the fencing. Or. The answer is C. 7/5 x 60 = 420/5 = 84. (See Question #2) 70 : 50 as ? : 60 50 × ? = 70 × 60 50 × ? = 4200 4200 ?= 50 ? = 84 27 . Imagine she made $1000 each month. train bus as train bus 70 50 as ? 60 One way to do this is to notice that 70 is 7/5 of 50. An expensive fence.

We hope this booklet has helped you improve your ability to solve word problems. 28 . your ability to solve these kinds of problems should improve. We’ve tried to expose you to the most common types of reasoning processes required to solve these problems. By practicing and sharpening your skills. as they can be applied to most word problems. It’s these processes that are critical. There are an infinite variety of word problems available.

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