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SNA'IONAJ.AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NE -WASH NGtONp.C. 20546
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w- 2-4 355 VW03-6925
TUESDAY P M. 9M
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*VEHICLE-DEL'LAUNCH *T.-I.ROS-M POJECT TEAM- ----------------------------------. , -,4 ,ES US .> OFIPOE .RSGPRTOA A
*.NATii~ti*L .PER6:UTi'CS, AND PA& ADMINISTATION -(202) 962-i55 (202) 963-69.5 TES:
* fOR RELEASE:
January 13, 1970
NEW TIROSSERIES LAJNCH
A-new era in- global, weather ~predi~ction is: expe~ct~d to begn his Year with the- launching b~y the .Natiofial
. .aoe Adini.istrati-o. ote it i a
AeronAutics' and. S
'new~series of operationa
Called TIROS-M or Iffiproved TIROS'Operati~onal.. Satellite-i '(ITOS-l) in orbit, the s~atellite, is's~cheduled to be~launched no. earlier thanm.Jan., 15 from the Western
Test Range, Lopoc,alif.
... . .. .N.r
The la~unch vehiicle will be the two-stage- Delta-'N oi.2ulsrp 1'use, for the first t-ime, si 'which wil on rockets for addi~tional thrust at 'liftoff and at about 146,000 feet.
-2The spacecraft will be placed in a: circular,' 909Mile altitude polar orbit, inclined 78.224 degrees (retrograde) to. the Equator and will circle the Earth'every 115 ' minutes. It's orbit will be 5un-synchronous (Sun always ,
:at the same angle behind the spacecraft) to provide maximum 'powerforkeeping batteries charged and for illiumination ,for photography. -In.addition, Aus-tralis'OSCAR-7A, a.39-pqund.spacecraft
. desig'ned and construc-ted-by amateur radio. operators, has : been accepted.as a secondary payload. aboard the Delta second
This second-generation operational spacecraft will not only more.,than double the daily weather coverage now possible from t~ie current-seri'es of Environmental Survey Satellites :(ESSA), but at less cost, more effectively and during a longer ., lifet~ime..,
It is capable of taking infrared pictures .of the Earth's cloud cover at right. and will be able to transmit cloud top andi'surface temperatures.
None of' this- was, possihle wvithl peouoeational weatber sa~tel lites.. However,. simidlar sensors have-be'en (n flown successf'ul)y o 114ASA's reisea~rdh and dev 1opineiet
Nimnbus weather: ;atellites.'-
eldith~the nightti'me p1'oto -capability mneteorologlsts-will -be provided yith .c)qud.c~ovex -photos ni'ght-and dy art er tban, jtoneadywh-atie evr.12 hours '-.TV pictures only 'ap, is now thicase with'_ESSA''satellites&.~ Automatic Picture T'rdnsmlssilon (AT)-system Asati~6ns, relatively'nepensive ground receiviflg units, cn rcei the night and day pictures as well as the cloud and surfa~ee tempierature d~ata.
Other experiments include a solar -proton monitor i'or solar flare warnings and-a radiometer to measure the Earth's heat balance Cthe amount of.-heat reflected fr~om and absorbed' by te atMosphere), Another new feature is the attitude contr~ol S'ystei.' Instead of spinning the whole spacecraft, as with Previous 'ESSA satellites, the body of the spacecraft will be stabilized in all.''three- axes (pitch,, yaw and r*oll) so that' it *will'always *face the E~arth. Employing a large, spinniffg wheel and
appropriate 'elect~ronic circuitry, this-stabilization sy-Ste-m
is called "Stabillite."
.-4Such a system-has distinct aadvantages over a spnriing b3atelli~te., 'They.are:, --Sensors will be able to scan the Earth constantly, providing'cloud cover photos and temperature measurernents. --The spacecraft's antenna will point toward Earth all.'the -tine providing better communications. --Several weather-measurinig sensors can be operated* ' simultaneously. TIROS-M will weigh, more than twice as T±ROS Operatiohs
ruch as previous 682 pourds' as
opposed to.,300 pounds-, and will return more and''better . data qu s* . .p, than two of the present TOS or ESSA. satellites.' ,
Instead of' aving the
TOS hatbox shape -with
solar cells around the extertor,,TIROS-M is rectangular isrcanua .TROor box-shaped with.-a deployable three-panel solar array. With the panels unfolded the spacecraft measures 14 feet across.
Re 'her than two TOS satellites carrying two cameras each, two APT cameras in one and two Advanced Vidicon Cameras (AVCS) in the,.other,'the new.spacecraft will carry two 'of In
each with the AVCS-.cameras being much improved models.
addition, .TIROS-M will carry redundant two-channel infraredradiometers for global daytime and nighttime cloud cover and surface data which can be transmitted to the more than 500 APT statio.ns in 50 countries along with the conventional day-time A-T pictures. -more--
The radiometer data will also be taped on the spacecraft for later readout at ESSA's two main data acquisition stations at Wallops lsland,.Va., and at. Fairbanks, Alasica. The AVCS takes a series of photos which are also recorded on a ,spacecraft tape recorder''for later .readout at the main data acquisition stations. They. are then'transr
"s mitted to the'Environmental Science Services Administration National Environmental 'Satellite Cefter, Suit'landtDd.' -this
systeim takes. photoi 6of the-'entire Earth daily..
The -two daytime cameras, APT anrd AVCS, vith a picture
resolution of two miles, will operate for about 48 minutes of each 'orbit. The radiometer, with a resolution of' about' two miles during the day and four miles at night, will operate'for 71.minutes of each orbit. With the improved technology housed in one spacecraft' rather than in two, and' the new stabilization system, the TIROS-M is expected to be longer lived as well, as substantially more.economical. Earlier TOS satellites were expected to
'last about six months, but most of them have operated up to a number of years.'
-6The ITOS System is a joint effor, Commerce Department's Environme-. istration. -While TIROS-M,
ScienceServices Admin-' of the riew. series was
funded by NASA,
with Thie' exception of the meteorological the ITOS series will be fyund.d ' .
sensors,. future spacecraft in ,Pby the
'i'h>e.cuirrent contract with the prime contractor, RCA Corp.', calls for six' ITOS spacecraft, including TIROS-M. All ; ,the ITOS spacecraft, w ill be launched and checked'.
the Commerce.Dept.' With- the . out in orbit by NASA "for. exception of TIROS-M, the ITOS spacecraft will be turned over ' to. ESSA shortly, after they have'been launched and checked out in orbit by NASA. Since rIROS-M is a prototype.of a.new series, NASA.
*willlmaintain control 'of the satellite in- orbit for several months to-assess its engineering performance. weather data from Itros spacecraft All of the,
including TIROS-M, Will,
be transmitted in real time to'ESSA. This maiden flight of TIROS--M comes almost one decade' after the world!s first weather satellite, TIROS-1, blasted off from. Cape Kennedy, Fla. 1960. (then,'Cape Canaveral),April 1,,
Meteorologists hailed it as one, of the most "revolu-
tionary" events in the history'of weather forecasting.
Since that fi rst-
total of 10 TIROS and (i i^,R, launched.
a.her, observers have been
All, have met or e;xc^,eded trieir mission objectives.-.
1 1/4 xrpi l1ic n
weather pictures. Since the first operation8al' wather Ceye iriSSA 1, was
4 launched Feb. -3, 1966,;the'-woold.tored daily by ESSA satelle ..
weather-has been joni-
.TIROS and ESSA satelli I-es nave tracked nearly-all
of the more than )400,tropic~al storms, hurricarnes and typhoons recorded since TIROS I was launched..i.n 1960. called the APT
The world meteorological community'has
camera the "tsing e most significant-coqntributLon to met6or-
olcqy in the past tw~enty, yers." A number of private.users in the UniteedStates an d numerous foreign countries have built thei' own reccivers'
and facsimile machines at costs ran'ging from severa1 hundred to several thousand dollars.
-8.May I Qf' the world's la rge airports have APT pictures Now, .iith for commercial pilots to study before a flight.
see wceat~her condithe TVIROS-M0 system, pilots will be able to
hours, from New tions during the night as well as daylight 'York to London, or San Francisco to Tokyo. Sorietime' in'the,
frWture it is expected that. pilots will be able to receive APT 6loud iover photons in flight' TIROS In addition to contributing to meteorology, and ESSA satellites have been extremely n ack reconnaissance. valuable in ice
ESSA publishes sea-ice charts of the
a;s ah Great Lakes and other important sea travdiJroutes aid to navigators.
The operational weather .satellftJt
program is a Joint
Admineffort of NKASA and theEnvironmental Science Services *istration The Delta booster for ITOS missions is managed
by Goddard while launch operations are conducted 'by NAgA-'s: Kennedy Space Center, ITOS spacecraft, Fla. Unmanned Launch Operations'.
as well as the earlier 19 TIROS/ESSA*
satellites,. were built for NASA by the RCA Corp,, Ast-t6 Electronics Division, Princeton, N.J. Prime contractor 'for
Huntingtonr tie Delta booster is the McDonnell Douglas Corp., Beach, Calif.
The Australis OSCAR-A piggyback satellite was built by'a group of arnatour radio operat6rs at Melbournlo University in Australia, giving.rise to the "Australis" position of its name. Tho Radio Amateur Satellite Ccrp.'
(ASSAT), a group of United States amateurs, is. preparing' the, satellite for lauhch, testing and qualifying It t.ocomply with NASA requirements. OSCAR is an acionym for Orbiting X
'Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio.
: group of American radio operators based- on the A Pacific Coast has successfully launched and operated f6ur ,amateur'radio satellites since 1961 in a program'known as Pr")Jeot OSCAR. The previous four OSCAR-launches were in.
conajunction-with Department of De'fensejspacecraft. The satellite (OSCAR-5 in -orbit) will be placed into a 910-mile orbit and will be inclined 102 degrees to the. Equator with a period of about 114 minutes. Transmission frequencies are 29.45 megahertz in the telemeter band and at )14.05 Mhz in the two-meter band.
A transmitting life of approximately two months is expected from the 20 pounds of batteries carried by the satellite. END OF RELEASE; BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOLLOWS
TIROS'-M FACT SHEET
Spacecraft: Stabilization: Mission Objectives: Primary '. .
Box-shapped, 14 *feet-wide with solar panelsdeployed, weighing 682 pounds. Earth ,oriented and three-axis stabilized to within.1 degree
'Observe day and night'cloud covr in . the visible and infrared spectrums for "live" transmission to users anywhere in the world. Ob1serve global caoudlcover.daily. in afd-invnlStbe both thevvivsibres (infrared) spectrums as recprdOd in the satellite for later playbacl and processing (AdvancedVidicon Camera Sy~stem & Scanntng Radiometer) ,
' Gather heat balance data (Flat Plate Radiomete, )'.and ideyntify proton-'flux ' levels at the spacecraft altitude (Solar Proton Monitor)..
Launch Ihformation:' Vehicle' 'Complex Azimuth'
Delta N (Two Stage) with six s6lids serapped onto 'the first stage Thor Western Test Range, Calit.., SLC-2 West 259 degrees True
'No earlier than January 15, 1970 3:31 AM PST
3:51 AM PST
Circular, 909 statute. miles
115 minutes ,
' 78 degrees (retrobgrade) 10,000 negatlve-on-positive',solar. cells mounted an three identical panels 3 feet wide by 5 feet ,long
producing 250 watts of average
Tracking:' Orbit Sixteen stations in NASA's worldwide Space Tracking and Data Acquisition Network (STADAN)
D.ata Acquisition Facilities
Fairbanks, Alaska (Giihnore Creek) and Wallops Is'land, Virginia.More than 500.independent stations In more than 50 countries'in every continent. On-e year Office of Space Science and Applications, NASA Headquarter~s,, and the Goddard Space Flight Center,' Greenbelt, Md'."
Automatic Picture Trahsmission.Ground Stations -Spacecraft Lifetime: *.Spacecraft Management: : . . u.ch Lau
Vehicle: Godda'rd Space Flight CenteP'
Management Operations Prime Contractors.. Spacecraft
NASA/Kennedy Space Center Unmanned Launch Operations
Astro Electronics Corp.
'Division 'Launch Vehicle McDonnell/Douglas
Major features of the spac~ecraft, ar~e.the equipment' module (main body), the dep~loyable three-panel solar array, and the momentum flywheel. The base of the mairn body is' approximately 4O.inches x 40.'inches. and the overall height of' the body is'approximately. 48 ihches . Total tleight is approximat-elv 682 pounds. The solar array-consists of three panels, "each Indepent dent~ly hinged to the main body -of.the spacecraft'-with a total 6 arr'ay'area. of 48-square''feet. Eabch pacnel measures'3 .4 inches .x 63.8 inches. In the launch configuration,. the ,panel-s are folded and held agair.st the.sides of the. eqluipment.modu~le. Following the initial orientation maneuver,. squib,-abctuated pinh pullers' ar~e fired, allowing spring~-~.aded actuattors't'o deploy, each',. erpeidicular -to t1,e spacecriaft panel 'so that its surface, is, akis.. pitch Dynamics'Control Subsystem Four major dynamics control.devices are incorporated in the spacecraft: a.quarter-orbit magnetic-attitude control. (QOMAC) coil, a magnetic bias control (MBC) ooil, a pitch control lodp.(two devices operate by establishing magnetic 'fields which interact with the magnetic field-of the Earth to produce a torque on the',pacec'raft. The torque, in turn, causes the spacecrafttO. preces's or change it.s orbital path slightly to the west each day. ' 'The QOMAC system is used to postition the spin ax-is (pitch axis) of the spacecraft so that it will be perpendicular to the plane of the orbit. The MBC coil is use& to.reduce the residual magnetic dipoie moment of the spacecraft and retain the necessary dipole'moment to precess the spacecraft approximately one degree per day. for"'the required Sun-synchronism. The pitch control loop consists of a momentnm flywheel, a flywheel drive motor,. a.scanning mirror, pitch and roll. sensors, two momdentum coils,, and associated electronics'. AThe flywheel, operating in the mission mode at a nominal spped of 150 rpm,.provides gyroscopic stiffness to 'the spacecraft and serves as a source'and sink of pitch momentum. Trhough 'the action of the pitch control loop, the' spacecraft sensors are continuously' maintained in alignment with the 'Localver" tical. The mome-tum coils provide fine-wheelspeed momentum Control about the spacecraft pitch axis. -more-,
TIROS M CONFIGURATION
ACTIVE THERMAL ZONTROLLER FLAPS MOMENTUM FLY W}IEEL SOLAR SEPARATION -PANEL RING li , SOLAR APT. CAMERAS
PROTONj -O . '
1* -5 1
". *A -t
,4/9' ,A PAhEE
N AND OUTRND ANTFENNA 1SITION'
-TH1ERMAL-Fh8CE RADIOMETERS RADIMETE AVCS AYCS~.
^ ;O/M)O SuBANDv* i;
SOLAR PANELSOLAR ASPEC T INDICATOR PANEL
S-BAND ANTENNA NA5A SA 68-437 12-6-67
r. .. ..
digit'al soaTh,:: 'spacecraft uesfive attitude sensors:i a -!ak sensorsad soarasec *srnso Th E DSA S is used dupinog the Inir osesors.. -two. tll &'_,ro , Su 'd . aa,, ' , _me~ie; it derIves 'Its scanning, rrom .the torer nt'a t1ioYn .d ooeA56i. ten . . c.. .,Ž ae. .u~ .f ;Aftei±bhel. nltial orientation rnaneuveri; Senaingis.-ach1onizor~a'hd roll 'hohi~zon sensors which 'It',c copli'hed bcv. tiw, nJ ,nnrw ocated 6n the momentum viw hcErrora
omadad a ie.-snacecT'-fft ca'xries' four' antennas: be~oianv-enna!,, two reA-1. ime antier.-nas,.and 'a-play-akS7 The command and beacbr' antenna, a single whip bnd).-antenna e~ ln and the :beaqpn 'IC ConEna bo4 Ntj u~ _l Z ime 'antenna. c-onsi-st~S of two .half-wave-Ilhri~-_ Eaah'~ -ret.l-t 'metrV dio.,es.ns~ta.1lad at, tbh extremity -of one of'-the~so ar~paneles. h~e,.i ~v~ algrud a~ssddol T~he- S-Band aire
ow3r fThe v ower-for d spac&c raft trO~ ~plie.~
converts solar energy ,nto elec"rl:al . o. all tie -e.ectrical equi i"ent.of the
Irt 'Pomor~i se's asolar array,'power ,qupply elec'shunt'dissipa~tors..~s'and
nyti. pbit, the array supregulated
Dur-ng -the t''e bateries . achage
for thk~s-,acj(.-e.r4ft. subsystems afid for chapr-ing
ontroe. cbargi.nft rat .o f th6. batteries is o e .pacecraf Array power.
Te ats reqai'enirents,, L- di_~sspipted in thre -shutd1S f the batter-ies zuvqfly power 'dear:1g the rnXgh~t-tm prio exceed t-ne p(?wer' e~vaiLlab le. orbit and wl~er :t..acecr'aft (earnad
a ge6iietritally bs y bsVsem i s composed. cohntrol The . . t, ral surfaces (thersoal fence) on th. upper Pace of' II ls. ; var-ab g e .the ;spacecr ft., var-iat, Ierittance, surfaces on both the AVCS a.ida nro1 z- (Lhe val jable feature. provided by liquverAPT e 'qutipmcetit
iCn troiler;), and a fixed radiator onntle crpatcesurfaces of the. spacecraft or :qu ipmt
craft h-azer.l~ module are covored wlti h multifoilnlayerainsflslation blankets. Th. t-herma 1 rf cE, Is -designed 'to absorb more sblar energy -at .ngle, higher Sup,
' Th's desig'n compensates for the reduc't-ion in spacecrat Sun. angle. ,electrlcal.power level caused by, the increasing -. S . ............ ............. , .*,. *............................ ..,.*, ;,.,,...................................................... .......... , . Subsyste, Accelebromete.r . servo'-type.' Tne accelerom ter subsystem onsis ts of twc. measurements accelepomleters and-a contro. lunit.. I't provi.dze5 the.'Iaun' . the spicecraft.'during fn-l *o the g-ievels'nduced ; unch sep'aratio~n. Th'es maneuver, from" liftof , to.'spac'c rrafb/ statioyi .thebeacolo Ilnk-' dat& are transmfitted to the ground. in each, of The accelerations are sensed'iriyonly-one '.rectlof measureent,, ; .the tii-te 'of.d two. axs.. :It is anticipated that . may be alternate'di on s'uceeding'ITOS' spacecr ft. T-4.ros-M Weather Measuri'ngSensors,
tWs ,he primary me'trorologi'cal senso.s include nmas'for'stQrin Vidc4cn Camera System (AVCS) Automa'tic P6t6''ure.ATransmiofl (APT, tbe. world's weather; t -wo . . tstai'ons; and,-t 'drat agroun&d camera for irared),,r'O sei~±di'i"'4irec'.APT..'tctures.s scanning radiometer at : ei'itt.i.. as we.llas Flnsors"'are a Fiat- Plate 'Radio 'econdary meteor'ol'gica-These sensprs. meter (FPR)' and a .Solar Proton Moflitor -(SM). data.and'to 'have 1'een designed to gather Earth-he'tala-ce measure proton flux levels, at the satElitea-ltkude. . Primary Meteordlogicai'Sensors. Advanced Vidicon Camera Subsystem (AVCS)
. he AVCS takes a series o~f wide-angle, high, resolution 'tore .cover, .telev:stn p.icturesof'the Earth-and.4fts cl~ud
these 'pictures on:one. -of two 3atel-et'borne-tape recorders, station,,, , and, on commnandtransmits the v- de6 .signal.t'o. ground a 'w5icture-taking operatiiohs 'f the' AVCS' are conftrolled'iby; by a Drogram of Instructions tratnsmitPed'to 'te6:.satelliate 'Command and Data AcqUiisi %ion'dbA) sta'tion. .
48' mnuts, i*'complete picture seq , taken at intervals of d.riri, which ll pictures '(r frflen),are When . 260 st'conds and stored on t1e selectedi.tape recorder. recorded, the 'the last picture in ttie. sequence is. takenh:and AVCS. c'inmand substystem provides a "power off" signal for:'the -more-
-15and the picture-taking sequence lreA "polier on"'ommand until the active progra;er repeated during suciceeding orbits time .is deter* -eitser reloaded or turned. off. "The,repeat andnormal-ly is into the programmer mined bby-the data loaded the time of oile orbila1 revolut'io.'n. . orbit picture se~quenpes start Consequently, .succssaive.. latitude.,as'-.the. first,: bu't a're dis Y - 'a-t apbroxiatei) the-same 285degrees 'at thie x.r'laced in longitudce by a;proximaately xiatcr .1 overlap in This displacement proiduces a slight lateral overlap. In-' lateral . ov-erage at the quato.r., The. amount .'of Ltude'. with increa.sing lat '.cieas's
,.rbital -along 'the The overlap .of-sicces~siveiiotures$ and i5 of.the fixed pic'ture,,aking rate ;track'is a function ;, abput,' 50: 'percent . A.PT) ca'era Subsystem O - utomatic Picture .Transmis A AVCS cameza'subsystem,,. 'he.APT, camera subsystem;, like the pictuires 'of -the Earth is used-to take up to 1 wjide-angle TV of the satelcloud cbver'during the.daylight portion .and its the .APT and lite orbit. However, a taAc ddiffergnce'betweeh1 always trans*subsystem AVCS camera. subsystem is that the APT tak~en data directly as the picturesare being t ,' its television normally records the" real time). whereas the AVCS subsystemn n(i. . . .. . . TV..pibtures for i4ater playback.. . subsystem also has . Lke the AVC3 cameras, the APT camera by ground-' a picture resolution-oP-twomiles. It is: contrblled to the sate].lite from . . itiated cormrands that.are transmitted Etored.by.'the satellite's' the CD~A stations and are process'ed'and The program o,f-commands uirects the APT commani subsystem. at a
pictures cam'era subsystem'to start taking a sequence of
predeotermined point in orbit..
11 pictures may are taken' t 260-second. interval.ls. Any of. the 'so that'.a sequence may contain 'from. be omitted .)y programming be located at' one to ll pictures,,and the pictur'es taken may Once thesequence is any desired'positions ixn.the sequence. under satellite com'initiated, the camera will take pitctures has'been taken.' mand until the programmed, picture sequence stations within 'i'nese pictures are transmitted' to APT 'field a transmitter in the corrmiunications range.of the satellite *by rea3-tl.me data. link.
APT picture sequence contains' 11 pictures'.
Is turned off or of the satellite untiI the command subsystem pro~grammed otherwise by. a CA statin. vidicon.that. The 'APT camera emp].oys a.htg--Ders..stencv tiage.. Use of this vidcon per.'providesa-600x800scan-line signal which, in mits narrow band transmission of' the vi'deo equipment at the'' turn, allows the use' of relatively simple APT, field stations. Radiometer Subsystem .Scanning. subsystem, The scanning,' adioneter (SR), OI infrared the Earth during orbit day. and measures. emintted radiation. from the Earth during . *night and measures reflected radiatilon from in 'real time to ,is..transrnit'ted daytime. ,The data. obtaited' playback Qocal user stations and is also-recorded for.later 2 mi'es 'and ,4 tosthe CDA stations'. Daytime resolution.is at * ,milesnighttime. '
The sequence is repeated'automatically
durIng each. Qorit
spatial sensing two spectral re'gions and in its high measures reflected radiation from tIle tion. The radiometer durincr Earth.Inthe 0.52- to 0.73- Icron region (visible) 10.5- to' the daytime.ardeniitted radiation from the Earth'in and night. .12.,5- micron-iregion (infrared) during day surface tem*The subsystem permlts determination of the by the radiocloud tops viewed 6or peratures of ground, sea, in the 10.5- to 12.5- m'cron'spectral re-gion meter. Sr.nsitivity in daylight as 'permits surface temperatures to be determined in thiswavewe~ll as at night',.since.reflected solar. radiation .. radiance.. The *length region is small compared with.emitted has a higher visible measurement of reflected solar radia.tior, camera systems calibrati~on ac.curacy capability'than television which occurs in presently in use and is not subjectto shading * .the vidicon camera systemls. a The SR subsystem consists of. two scanning radiometers, recorders (SE dual SR processor and two scanning radiometer recorders). on or Each radiometer and tape recorder can be turned SR proEach haltr of the off by commend from. a CDA station. is powered when" *cessor is associated with one radiometer and are mouinted on radiometers that radiometer is powered. The them with the satellite structure in a manner to provide approximately a scan of maximum sun shielding and to permit ,150 degrees without obstruction. -mor'e-
instrument The scanning.radimeter,a meteorological is unique in on the ITOS satellite built especially for use resolu-
-17As the spacecraft proceeds along its orbit, t.he radio meter sc,ans'thle ,Earth.'s surface i~ronihorizon to hori'zon,scans .perpendicular to the orbital plane..@ The'.radiometer rotating mirror, whIc the Earth bt means -of a contipuopsly to. incliied; '45 -degrees to iVs ax-s . of rotation (narallel i 4s 'ctor.: veot a the tesl)te'5 *
: .tecoridary Solar Po6ton Mniitor. .
for vert these measurerent'. to a,f oating point binary c'ode and'tr,:nsmission to ground recording and subsequ'eit pla;yback stellite conssts ofastations. The SPM equipmeht oi,,t and .a'nelectrl'eal ''assemb, sensor 'assembly, anJ.electronics .harnesS. -
The So1ar.Prot'on-Monitor. (SPM).is designed to measure conrthe proton fluxes encountered in the ITOS orbit and to
'f .'olar, The solar proton monitor, will provide warnings High o.roton storins, which are cu'rrentty used in sever'al.ways. space-. mnanned altttude users,.such as supersonic transports and on the crart- make, provisions for-the proteestioh of.personnel *bas~s oXfthis- data. Solar. proton storms affect radhlo'frequency links (VLF ' through HF), andsince.satelIIte warnings of.ten prece-de. dsturbances., donoSpheric alternate radio pathz or frequencies are 6ften selected in advatnce. ot~her * The ITOS SPM data w'ill be correlated with datafrom with probes,. satellites (such as the TMP'and Fioneer). rocket ;grduhd based optical/radlo sightings.'. The long-term goal of this data-gatgherilg and correlation . betw~een activity is .the, better. understanding of' the interaction environmftent-by providing a-' solar.radiation'and the Earth's an extended syvstematic.mohitoring of 'the p:'ot6n fluxes' over during.the current solar cycle.. peri.od of time, e'specially' Flat Plate Radiometer, ,
of The flat plate-radiorfte~e'r (FPR) measures the amount * a.nd is employed heat being radiated. into -space by the Earth to 'continue the progrtAm of.mensuration of the Earth's heat balance initiated on the TOS spacecraft piogram.
to By knowiing, the- sola;r tPut-(belleved to be a constait)O. m!ay tothe Eatith, the a~ount~ of' heat absorbed by- tbe"£artih ~t of theFPE proqgram objecie ted~etermtfed;' One thus %ags., determ'tning. de termiine th6 long-term 'hea c olr isgtt-g warmer.o whet er 'the Earh -. P,-osedi a sig-enis~ of h~oneycomb h in~eaft material, dndludez the four' sensors, 'electronics,;and o'f' ensos iofi or, ea Iibr atf bone pirr,
* . .*-
electronicsThe-P1, con'sists of two p~i't io ns, -ih The, head, .cPns,.s'ts of. the four~ 'packa~e ar4ndthea s'ensor hed, rad onet'e rst he. r~ai-ative'- equ!3Jbrfu-m',iRV,-) -co6ling mirro'r the motor hiach -dfrives,. the ~ 1 e-m1 feedba~k :(TF), sensors, the. sensors -to teleeter the on theT-F hem!2s~heres, -ald' rnpertre.v 6, and,.--Ier6 sphe6e
rta Thwla.-lae:adioy ite iO mnouinted on the art hf teOaite~.lite. and is part ially .o'vered 'facing. fiace. 9, banie, ;It1b a~thermal
ESSAXUSE OF IMPROVED TKROS OPERATIONAL SATELLITES
The TIROS-M spacecraft is a prototype of the Improved TIROS Operationa' Satellilte (ITOS),'which'will become the vehicle for the Environmental Science Services Administration's operati.onal weather satellite'system.. willTIROS-M and the first three spacecraft in the ITCS.series will include the 'following sensors: 1) two Advanced Vidicon' -Camera Systems (AVCS); 2) two 'Automatic Picture Tran'smissi.on (APT) systems; 3). two dual-channel Scanniing Radiometer systems; . . 4) a low-resolution Flat Plate 'Radiometer; and 5) a Solar Mcnitor. Proton 'The new satellite combines, in one vehice,'the Automatic Picture Transmission and.the global picture stdrage capabilities that require the launch of sepai~Atc- spacecraft. in tjlne present operational system. Thus., fewer launcbes wil~lbe. needed to keep',the system .in operation.. As .in the current operational syste'ar, the global data f6r.' analysis by weather Aenters,.provided by the Advanced-Vldicon 'Camera Systems, will berecorded on magnetic tape for, transmission to an ESSA Comimiand and Data Acquisition station, and relay 'to.the ESSA National Environmental Satellite Center; the APT pictures will be.transmitted directly to ground re-' ceiving'stations. The Scanning Radiometer' systems wili provide data in The infrared da-ta -both" visible and infrared channels. operational basis -- can the first to be availabLe on.an provide 'cloud pictures at night as'well as during the day.'. The addition of nighttime observations tp tfie operational systeem will extend satellite coverage of th6 Eairth's weather Because the' AVCS and APT camera to.a truly glchal basis. only in daylight, the existing spacecraft systems phbtograph have not furni hed information on areas in polar darkne's. With nighttime picture coverage', the entire Earth will be observed twice each.day by both stored and direct readout systemS. The Scanning Radiometer data can be broadcast directly through the Automatic Picture Tran~srission.systein, and at the' same time recorded simultaneously for lat'er readout to The infrared data ESSA Conmmand and Data Acqui'sicion stations. from the SR system can be broadcast continuously for reception by APT stations during the approximately 70-minute nighttime portion of each orbit. Either infrared or visible data can be broadcast continuously; in place of APT pictures, during -more4.,'
t is However, of each orbit. the L5-minutQ daylight portion .channel radiometer data * planned init'allV to, transmit visible ploture transmissions APT for' 9)1' of the 102 seconds betweel. orbit. The radiometer data of the - during the daytime portion center of, the next- APT photograph sfi'il cover an area near the ,. to be broadcast. Radiometer provides The ihfrare~d Cchannel of' the Scanning clear air, or, at in the sur'ace 'temperat;ure measuremqents at ,ts signals can-be fed.into 'a computer the tQpS :of'clods. into& loud top he ights to cdnvert the cloud 'top temperatures Satellite pinctures ard to prepre a map o'f cl'ud-top',topopgraphy. winds, especially for regions are frequently used' to'estimate by measuring where' little upper-air informa-tionlis..available, pictures of; .Cloud in succesive.satellite otheotin difficult or impossible to . the':samearea. 'It'.s frequeltly t6ps;frbom the satellite photo-: determine the height of'cloud cases. the, altitude of the,,derived ' graphs alone, and 'in these on the -tepmperature., and by, wirid'is kdoubtf'l. JInf6rmRtion tops wi-l eliminate this inference the height, of. cloud, with better inrormatlon diffic -tY, and provide jmeteorologists the atmosphere... on wind at various levels' of'
computat-.:on of atmospheric 'temperature readings necessary fot- made by the Satellite teipperature profiles from. soundings
the 'radiometers will.ptovid6 surface
Irtfrared Soectrometer aboard. Nimbus'III.' 3ystem is The. low-rJesolution Flat Plate .Radiometer ESSA, AVCS spacecraft and.will siniilar to those ihc-luded- in the heat balance. continue gathering data on the Earth"'s in TIROS-M The.addition of the Solar Proton.Monitor the environthe exansion of. a-d'the ITdS series' re.sages. for future.operationa'lmentalsensing capabilities planned Solar Proton Mohitbr will The satel'lites'in the ESSA series. encountered in orbit. Its count the-energetic particles energetic solar prrotons. functi-on -is.to dece.dt-the arrival. of data will be relayed in the, vicinity of EarthV: Tape-recorded 'station to -the via. 'an ESSA Command and Data Acquisition for proctssing and N±tional.Enviropmental.Satellite.Center will be used by ESSA's Space. calibration'.' The inforrmatiolm Colo., for detection and Disturbances Laborattory in.Boulder, warning', of solar- storms.. operational Thej ITOS spacecraft, unlike the existing environmental additional satei'ltes, i's large enough to hold planned for later spacecraft are verti~cal sensors,.' Among.thos.e to the Satellite temperature profile sounders --. similar global temperature data Infrared Spectrometer--- to obtain programs. 'for use in riumeri-cal-weather prediction
DELTA LAUNCH VEHICLE flight for the' The TIROS-M mission will'be. the 76th the previous 75 lauhchiygs, workhorse Delta launch vehicle. Of 70 successpfully orbited their spacecraft. of.Space Sc'ience.and 'Delta is managed for NASA's Office Flight 'Center, GreenbeIt, Appllcations.by the Goddard Space the Kennedy'.Space Md. Launch operations are conducted by Th' McDonnell'Douglas Center's Unnanned Launch Op'eratiQnsf.' prime contractor. Corp;,, Hintingt.on'Beach, Cali. ,-<is Delta mark 'andther,firs.t in. "'. This Delta 76/TIROS-M mi'ssion.'wiill soidboosterswill 'Deltas.history. For.the firsttime,:six Theree.of these will b-e'<,strappe.d onto the.,first stage.Thor. -t the launch.pad, whilethe other ignite:. hi-l Delta is:stifll feconds artei' some..38 three. will. ".liht.O1-j'?at al.titude 'feet. above the'launchbsite., -off.and -abUtdu 6;.0 'to place, the.heavier.. The'three.extra s'olids are .needed orbit, TIR0S-,M/jTO8 s.pacecra'ft intbo 900mfm'le-high of the threeFollowing are the~generai characteristics - .. stage vehicle for the'TIP.OS-M mission:, 106 feet Total Height:-, Total Weij.kt: Maximum Diameter (First Stage
225,000 pounds 8 feet
pounds (includes solids.) ,
:00 (First Stage Thrust
Thor,.Produced (Liquid Only)i. Modif.ie~d Air Force Fir'ta by Rocketdyne Division o. by 0 onnelY-lDougla6.Corp.; engines 0 North;American Rockwell. . Height: Diameter': .'Propellants: ?rpe~an$
. ' ' ,
75 feet 8 feet RPkerosene for the juid oxygen (LOX) f6r the' fuel and
172 ,000 pounds
Weight: Burning time:
186,000, nounds 3 min.: 41 sec.
:Strap-on Solids' Three Castor . and thr-eeCastor !I rockets produced by the Thiokol Chemrical Corp.. Height: Diameter:
24 feet. 31 'inches
9,'2O pounds (Castor-I) 9,900 pounds :(Castor-II)Y-40
time:'Burning , :'
sec. (Castor)- , ~39 see. (Castdr-ii)
Produced by the McDonnell Dougldis Corp. utilizing Second Stag3e the Aerojet General'Corp., propulsion system; major contractbrs for the .autopilot include Minneapolis--Hbneywell, 'Inc., Texas Instruments, Inc., and Electro-solids Corp. Height: Diameter: Propellants: 13 feet 4 feet 7 inches Liquid, Unsymmeetrical.Dimethyl Hydrozine (UDMH) for the fuel and. Inhibited Red Fuming.Nitrid Acid (IFNA) for the oxidizer. ,7,800 pounds 13,000 pounds First burn
Thrust: Weight: BUrning.time:
6 min. 4 'sec.. 13 sec.
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U - S
U. .) r
wO rs +1
0) U-) Ef)~r:w
I fro 4 4
-24TIROS-M.PROJECT TEAM NASA HEADQUARTERS Dr. John E.Naugie Dr.'Jodhn M..DeNoyer Michael L. Garbacz.
..Joseph B. Mahon
Associate Administrator for Space 'Science and Applicat.ions Director, Earth Observations Programs Program Mahager, .Operational Meteorological Satellites,
Director, Launch Vehicle and Programs
T.. . Gillam.. GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER
PDr. John F., Clark
Herbert I. Butler Willi-am W. Jones' Charles M. Hunter Robert R. Golden
William Schindler KENNEDY SPACE CENTER,:
Dr.-'Kurt H. Debts ,
Chief, Operational Satellites Office TOS (TIROS-M) Proje6ct Manager TOS (TIROS-M) Spacecraft Manager Head, FlightOperatibns Head, Technical Staff Delta Project Manager
Robert H. Gray W. C. Thacker . Henry R. Van Goey * INDUSTRY
E. W. Bonnett
Assistant Director for Unmanned. Launch Operations Delt'a Operations Manager,xWT. Chief,, KSC Unmanneu Launch Operations,.WTR
Delta Project Manager,.
McDonnell Douglas Corp. McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Ct. Huntington Beach, Calif. Abraham Schnapf TIROS/ESSA Project Manager RCA-Corporatio;. Astro-Electronics Division Princeton, N. J.
Spacecraft Cameras- , ' :
Astro-Llectronics Division , Princeton, N. J.., .
Realtime transmitters Dynwsmies Systems including.. momentum wheel- (Pitchicontrol'-; stibsystem') , ' Command and:Control Sgacecraft- integratio'n'and test,,-, and launch support.
Hunti'ngton Beach, Calif.
Santa Barbara Research Center~ Subsidiary of Hughes:
.Sc anning Radiometers,
, . .
Santa.5arbara, Califf. Teledyne
RCA Camden, N. J.
Texas Instruments Dall~at,,Texas General Electric Co. aircYl.ld-Hiller d UlniJersity of Wisconsin Johtis 'lopkins University Applied Physics. Laboratory Baltimore .
Solar:cells .Battery cells
Integrated CircIlits ' .. ,
Flat Plate Radiometer' (FPR) Solar Proton Monitor
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