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What are the empirical relationship between ultimate strength of materials and fatigue limits of
steels for completely reversed stress cycles.(ref P320 MIR R. Kinasoshvili)

Ans: σt-c = 0.28σu,

σb = 0.4σu,
τtorsion = 0.22σu, where
σt-c= Fatigue limits for a completely reversed stress cycle in tension-compression;
σb = Fatigue limits for a completely reversed bending stress cycle. and
τtorsion = Fatigue limits for a completely reversed torsion stress cycle.

Note:- σt-c = 0.7σb and τtorsion = 0.58σb.

26(a) Higher the strength of steel, the more sensitive it is to ________(Ans:Stress Concentration).

(b) High-Strength steels require more careful ________________(Ans:Surface finish)

(c) The effective ______________ increases with increasing strength of steel & increasing
______________ of parts. (Ans: S.C.F- stress concentration factor; dimensions)

27. ________________ iron is less sensitive to stress concentration (Ans:Cast Iron)

28(a) Draw the graph of stress Vs time showing σm,σa, σmax & σmin.
(b) Draw the graph of ,σa Vs σm


σm σmax
σmin σa σm
Mean Stress
(a) (b)
Fig 18.
(1) (σm + σa ) for any point on curve (b) yields the value of endurance limit for a given mean stress.

(2) Stress cycles represented by points within the shaded region of fig18(b) are safe stress cycles.

29. Draw the graph of stress Vs number of cycles for the completely reversed stress cycles.

Stress kgf/mm2

0 N
0 5 10 Endurance limit
Number of cycles in million
Fig 19.
(i)Stresses above the endurance limit, which the material can withstand for only a limited number of
cycles, are called endurance limits for a given number of cycles.

(ii)Fatigue limits are determined for different types of deformation: tension-compression, alternating
bending and alternating torsion.

30. What do you mean by failure of a material by external load?

Ans: Onset of yielding point for ductile materials and fracture for brittle materials.

31.Give an example of materials in which [σt ] ≠ [σc ]

Ans:Cast Iron.

32.What is the impact strength of a material?

Ans:Work required to break a specimen per unit cross-sectional area (unit: m-kgf/cm2)

33.How small are the allowable deflections of a beam, subjected to bending?

Ans:About one thousandth of the length of the beam. .(ref P227 MIR R. Kinasoshvili)

34.What is the error introduced in the value of radius of curvature when ρ = ±(1+y’2)3/2÷d2y/ dx2 is
replaced by ρ = ±1/y”( ref P227 MIR R. Kinasoshvili.)

Ans: Error 0.5%.

35.While solving equation of elastic curve ±EId2y/dx2=M it is possible to reduce the number of
unknown constants of integration to two, by adhering to certain rules and procedures. What are they?

1. Choose the origin of coordinates at the left end of the beam, with x positive to the right and y
positive upward.
2. We shall always determine the moment at a given section approaching it from the left.
3. Integrate expressions containing parenthesis without opening them.
Example:- ∫ P(x-a)mdx = [ P(x-a)m+1/(m+1)] + c
4. If a beam is subjected to a distributed load which does not reach the end of the beam, it should be
extended up to the end, and distributed load of the same intensity but opposite in sign must be
added along the extended portion.

Fig 20.

EId2y/dx2 = -qx2/2 + q(x-a)2/2

EIdy/dx = -qx3/6 + q(x-a)3/6 +c etc.,
5. If a beam is acted on by a concentrated moment ‘m’ at a distance ‘a’ from the left support, the
B.M. in 2nd portion of the beam = Ax-m
= Ax-m(x-a)0; Where A = m/l

Fig 21.

If the foregoing procedures are followed, there never will be more than two arbitrary constants of
integration, regardless of the number of portions of the beam.

36. Draw qualitatively S.F and B.M diagrams for the following cases.

Fig 22(a). Fig 23(a) Fig 24(a)

Fig 27(a)
Fig 25.(a) Fig 26(a)

Fig 30(a)
Fig 28(a) Fig 29(a)
F ig 2 4 (b )
F ig 2 2 (b ) F ig 2 3 (b )

Fig 25(b) Fig 26(b) Fig 27(b)

Fig 28(b) Fig 29(b) Fig 30(b)
37. For an element shown in figs(31)., below, the stresses acting on the edges σx, σy,τxy are as shown.
On a plane inclined as θ (see diagram), normal stress σ and shear stress τ are acting. Write down the
expressions for σ,τ. When does σ becomes principal stress and when does τ attain its maximum
value. Draw the corresponding Mohr’s circle.

σx σx
θ X
Fig 31(a)
τ xy

σx θ σx θ σx
τxy τxy

σy σy
(b) (C)
σ = (σx + σy)/2 + [(σx - σy)/2] cos2θ + τxysin2θ
τ = τxy cos2θ - [(σx - σy)/2] sin2θ
τ=0 ⇒ Principal stresses ⇒ tan2θ = 2τxy / (σx - σy)
Principal stresses:
σ1 (max)= (σx + σy)/2 + √[((σx - σy)/2 )2 + τ2xy]

σ1 (min)= (σx + σy)/2 - √[((σx - σy)/2 )2 + τ2xy ]

τmax = √[((σx - σy)/2 )2 + τ2xy]

τ σσx τ
σσ2 yof selfσequilibrated Figmax
38. Give some examples 1 τ Mohr’s Circle
loads in a structure.

Eg: Self equilibrated loads are these if either the structure is heated or tightened by a nut.

38. Give some examples of self-equilibrated loads in a structure.

Eg: Self equilibrated loads are as shown below:

These occur if either the structure is heated or tightened by a nut.

Fig 32.

39. Why long columns fail at a much lower stress as compared to very short columns.

Ans: Because Long columns are subjected to direct as well as bending stresses.
40. What are the Principal normal stresses induced when there is combined bending and torsion
(M&T). Also what is the max shearing stress etc.

p1= [16/(πd3)] * (M + √(M2 + T2)) Note:- Equivalent torque TE = √(M2 + T2)

p2= [16/(πd3)] * (M - √(M2 + T2))

τmax =(p1-p2)/2 = [16/(πd3)] * √(M2 + T2)

Position of principal plane is given by: tan2θ = T/M

Maximam strain, emax = (p1/E – p2/mE), Where 1/m = Poisson’s ratio

41. Differentiate between beam and beam columns.

Beams carry only lateral loads.

Bars subjected to axial compression while simultaneously supporting lateral loads are termed as

Note:- Beams serve to transmit loads acting on them, to supports on which they are resting.

42. Draw the torque diagram for the system shown in figure(33).
T1 = T2 + T3.

Fig 33.

43. With respect to a coordinate axes,draw the elastic curve of a deflected beam, clearly showing the
sign conventions adopted for loading, S.F., B.M., slope and deflection.

θ B
4 4
(1) Loading: w = EI d y/dx
θA Upward δ(-ve)
load is taken positive.
Fig 34. load is taken negative. (Note:- W ≡ w(x))

(2) S.F:
F = EI d3y/dx3
(3) B.M:
M = EI d2y/dx2
(4) Slope:
θA = dy/dx = -ve
θB = dy/dx = +ve

(5) Deflection:
δ = +ve (upward deflection)
δ = -ve (downward deflection)

W=w(x), loading is negative.

F at x = RA + ∫ dF = RA - ∫w(x) dx

and B.M at x = 0 + ∫ dM
= 0 + ∫ F.dx
Fig 35.

44. Draw the torque diagram for the case shown below and write compatibility equations for angular
displacements at section C and section D.

T1(-) T2(-)

TA(+) TB(+)
A L1


-(TA-T1) TB= - (TA-T1-T2)

or (TB-T2) T2

Fig 36.

TA - T1 - T2 + TB = 0 ⇒ TA +TB = T1 + T2 ...........…………….....................…(1)

(i)Compatibility equations at section C:

θC = (TA L1/G1 J1) = (TBL3/G3J3)+(TB -T2 )L2/G2J2.............…………….............(2)

(ii)Compatibility equations at section B:

θB = 0 = (TA L1/G1 J1) + (TA – T1)L2/G2J2) + (TA -T1-T2 )L3/G3J3.........................(3)

Either solve (1) & (2) or solve (1) & (3), and obtain TA & TB.

45. For the load cases shown in figure 37, indicate which diameter is critical.
Root diameter is critical for tensile
∴πd2/4 * ftu = T

For this case, shank diameter ‘d’ is

Fig 37. ∴πd2/4 * fs = P

46. Compare the weights of solid shaft and hollow shaft of same length, material, and outer diameter,
if they are subjected to same torque and angular twist.

Wt. of solid shaft

Wt of hollow shaft

47. For the cantilever shown, we assume reactions at support as shown in figure 38. But what are the
probable support reactions?

Fig 38.

Probable Support Reactions