NEVWS

RELEASE

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
400 MARYLAND AVENUE, SW, WASHINGTON, D. C. 20546 TELEPHONES: WORTH 2-4155 -------- WORTH3-6925

FOR RELEASE:
RELEASE NO. 63-254

SUNDAY November 24, 1963

SECOND CENTAUR FLIGHT TEST (AC-2) SCHEDULED BY NASA

The second test flight of the Centaur space launch vehicle by the National Aero:.autics and Space Administration is scheduled within the next several days. The

mission, designated AC-2, will be attempted from Cape Canaveral, Fla., no earlier than November 26.

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-2 In this second developmental flight, Centaur will not carry a scientific payload.
stage --

The burned-out Centahr second
will go into orbit,

weighing about five tons --

however, and the weight of a spacecraft will be simulated by developmental instruments located throughout the vehicle to gather flight performance data. After burnout and separation of the Atlas booster and sustainer engines, the two second stage engines will be ignited and burn for more than six minutes (380 seconds). If this performance is as planned, the empty Centaur stage weighing about 10,200 pounds -will be injected into Earth
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orbit with an apogee of 1,035 statute miles and a perigee of 345 miles. This will result in an orbit of the Earth in The launch azimuth will be 100.5

a little under two hours. degrees.

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-3BACKGROUND Centaur is a two-stage launch vehicle which will take advantage of the high energy characteristics of hydrogen as a fuel to perform more complex deep space missions for NASA than have been attempted heretofore. Hydrogen offers

more pounds of thrust per pound of propellant consumed than any other fuel now used in chemical rockets. It provides

about a 35 percent increase in launch vehicle capability over conventional kerosene-type fuels. Since it is pioneering liquid hydrogen technology in flight, Centaur has broad applications in other major NASA programs. kydrogen also will fuel upper stages of the

Saturn I, I-B, and V vehicles and NERVA--nuclear engine for rocket vehicle applications. With its high-energy capability, Centaur will play a key role in launching U.S. scientific payloads of medium weight. It will be capable of lifting some 8,500 pounds

of scientific equipment into near-Earth orbit, 2,300 pounds to the Moon, and 1,300 pounds to Mars or Venus. It is planned for use by NASA in launching the Surveyor softlanding spacecraft to the surface of the Moon and, later, Mariner B spacecraft on missions about the near planets.
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Firs';, however, the vehicle must be proven in flight test. This is the second of eight planned Centaur vehicle

test flights. Th first was attempted on Mky 8, 1962, and ended 55

seconds after lift-off when a weather shield came off the

second stage and was followed by a rupture of the hydrogen tank which resulted in an explosion. That flight was followed by a criticai the Centaur development program. reappraisal of

Both gove.. ent and

industry Centaur program management was tightened and responEibilities were more specifically defined. Within NASA, Centaur management was transferred from the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala. to the Lewis Research Center, Cieveland, Ohio, to free Dr. Wernher von Braun's team at Marshall l r Their vital Saturn developmnti work an" to take advantage of Lewis' long experience

in propulsion research. Under Lewis direction, extensive design changes were made in the Oentaur vehicle and a vigorous ground test program was oegun.

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-5The At-2 configuration is not the same as the Centaur which will perform operation missions. To simplify

performance requirements on this flight, for instance, second stage insulation panels and the nose cone fairing will not be jettisoned. In the operational Centaur, the RL-10 engines will have the capability of being started, shut down and restarted in space to accomplish changes of direction and velocity. In the AC-2 mission, however, there will be

only a single ignition of the engines. Lift-off thrust of the Atlas booster stage is 367,000 pounds. The Centaur stage is powered by two RL-10 engines

with a thrust of 15,000 pounds each. Centaur is a project of the Vehicle and Propulsion Pi-ograms Division of NASA Headquarters' Office of Space Science and Applications. It is being developed by General Dynamics/i.stronautics under the direction of NASA's Lewis Research Center. The

.RL-10engines are produced by Pratt anJ Whitney Aircraft Division of United Aircraft Corporation under technical direction of NASAb Marshall Space JVlight Center.
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6by GD/A will be supervised by Goddard Space Flight Center's Field Projects Branch. More than 300 other contractors are participating in the Centaur development effort.

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-7FLIGHT OBJECTIVES

Major test objectives co the AC-2 mission art to: 1. Demonstrate the structural integrity of the Atlas Centaur vehicle. 2. 3. Verify the Atlas Centaur separation system. Demonstrate the ability of the Centaur propulsion system to be ignited in space and to burn for 380 seconds. 4. Evaluate the accuracy of the Centaur guidance system. In addition, the mission will serve to evaluate Atlas Centaur vibration, elastic behavior and structural adequacy; determine environmental levels; verify trajectory and orbit parameters; and evaluate performance of major subsystems. In appearance, the AC-2 vehicle closely resembles the vehicle used for the first Centaur test mission. A number

of significant changes have been made, however, both in the space vehicle itself and in flight procedures. One important change is in the engine chilldown procedure -described in detail later -which results in an

increase of some 50 pounds of payload. engines will be used on AC-2,

Improved RL-10

Second stage insulation panels

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-8and the payload nose fairing, normally jettisoned after the vehicle leaves the atmosphere, will remain on throughout the AC-2 mission since no payload is being carried. A new separation system, consisting of linear-shaped explosive charges which cut through the interstage adapter and retro-rockets mounted on Atlas will be used for the first time. Baffles have been added to the Centaur liquid

oxygen tank to prevent sloshing. To determine how well the flight objectives are met
hj AC-2,

a wealth of information will be radioed back to

ground stations during the flight. Of the 1180 data measurements to be radioed from Centaur, some 320 are devoted to the upper stage. A

maJority oC the upper stage instrumentation will gather data on cnginc sequenuing, behavior. The 160 booster stage measurements are primarily to record the normal functions of engines and guidance systems, plus standard vibration, bending and temperature measurements. autopilot operation and structural

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-9TRACKING

Centaur will be carefully tracked during powered and orbital portions of its flight to obtain information on its
performance.

Initial tracking down the Atlantic Missile Range will be done by stations at Cape Canaveral, Antiqua, Grand Bahama, San Salvador, and Ascension Islands. Following injection into orbit, a 960 megacycle beacon attached to the Centaur stage wili be tracked for its tenhour lifetime by the Deep Space Network of stations located at Johannesburg, South Africa; Woomera, Australia; and Goldstone, Calif. This network is operated by the Jet Propulsion contracted to NASA by the California

Laboratory which is

Institute of Technology. DSN is the network which will be used to track the Surveyor spacecraft when Centaur launches this spacecraft on its lunar missions. Precision tracking data for a longer period of time will be supplied by the Smithsonian Astrophysical observztory's world-wide network of Baker Nunn cameras. This tracking data will be used to accurately determine parameters of orbital injection at the time of burnout which in turn will be a measure of the performance of the vehicle. -more-

LAUNCH COMPLSX 36 Launch Complex 36 now comprises two pads. AC-2 will be

launched from 36A which was used for the first time on May 8, 1962: when tIe first Centaur test flight was attempted. Construction on 36B was begun last March under direction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and it is due for completion in late 1964. Each ptd will include a service tower, propellant storage tanks and transfer lines and numerous electric ':stems to test and activate the vehicle, to fuel it by remote control, and to launch it. They will share a common blockhouse. With the comple4tion of 36B, the Centaur program will have a dual launch capability so that one vehicle can be ready launch while a second is being prepared for a mission. The launch will be conducted by cD/A under direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center's Field Projects Branch which acts as launch systems manager for the Lewis Research Center, This is Field Projects Branch's firs; launch operation with the Centaur but is has logged 19 strELight successes with the Delta vehicle. FPB acts as launch operations systems for

manager for all NASA unmanned spacecraft at Cape Canaveral which use the Atlas Agene (except for Gemini target vehicles), Atlas Centaur or Delta vehicles. -more
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FLIGHT SEQUENCE The first stage portion of the Centaur flight Is similar to that of the normal Atlas rocket. The booster's three main

engines and two verniers are ignited on the pad and the vehicle is released. After about 15 seconds of flight, the vehicle The launch

will begin a progrwnmed pitchover, or tilting.

asimuth will be 100.5 degrees to make effective use of tracking facilities. After more than two minutes of powered flight, Lhe two main engines are Jettisoned. to provide thrust. minutes of flight. Insulation panels around the second stage fuel tanks serve to keep liquid hydrogen boiloff at an acceptable level while on the pad and during flight through the atmosphere when peak aerodynamic heating is encountered. The insulation The sustainer engine continues

First stage power ends after nearly four

panels and nose cone fairing, the latter designed to protect the payload, will be Jettisoned in later flights, but will remain a part of the AC-2 second stage throughout the mission. At the time of Atlas sustainer engine cutoff--about four minutes after liftoff--the Atlas will be separated from Centaur by linear-shaped charges, which cut through the int3rstage adapter, and eight retrorockets mounted on the aft end of Atlas. Thi. will occur at an altitude of about l!O miles. -more-

-12Immediately following Atlas/Centaur separation, Centaur's two RL-10 engines will be ignited and burn for about 380

seconds.

This will place the Centaur in an eccentric earth

orbit with a 1035 statute mile apogee and 345 mile perigee. For the LG-2 mission, the hydrogen-oxygen engines will be ignited only once, to demonstrate successful ignition and burn. During later missions, Centaur will fly into a parking

orbit about the Earth, coast until it is in the most advan-

tageous position for

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lunar or deep space trajectory, then

restart its engines to accelerate the vehicle to escape velocity. In addition to the new separation system, a second major change in the Centaur flight sequence has been made since transfer of the project to the Lewis Center. Previously,

because of aerodynamic heating during time on the pad and flight through the atmosphere, the boost pumps for the RL-10 engines required a 24-second chilldown period following Atlas/Centaur separation. This was accomplished by pumping

liquid hydrogen through the pumps and overboard, which resulted in a payload loss of 3A pounds per second of prestart time.
A new procedure premits chilldown of the pumps with liquid helium prior to launch, thus reducing the inflight prestart chilldown time to about four seconds.

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-13VEHICLE DESCRIPTION The Centaur space vehicle is a multistage, high-energy, liquid-fueled launch vehicle combining a modified Series D Atlas with a Centaur second stage. Both stages are of a

constant 10-foot diameter and use stainless steel tank construction developed for the Atlas program. maintains its shape through pressurization. All main engines and the Atlas verniers are gimballed for directional control. The entire vehicle is 10 feet in diameter and 109 feet high. Its fueled weight is about 300,000 pounds. First Stao The Centaur first stage is a modified Series D Atlas space booster similar to that used for Mercury and Agena projects, except that the tapered nose has been eliminated to accommodate the second stage. A 10-foot diameter interThe entire vehicle

stage adapter and separation system have been added. Two booster engines and one sustainer engine are powered by liquid oxygen and a type of kerosene called RP-1. They

are produced by the Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation. In addition to the main engines, two small verniers A total of 367,000 pounds cf

provide directional control.

thrust is produced in the first stage. -more-

The standard Atlas radio guidance is eliminated since a new inertial guidance system is carried in the second stage. The first stage is about 60 feet in height, plus the 13-foot interstage adapter. 260,000 pounds. Second Stage The second stage, 28.5 feet in length and ten feet in diameter, weighs about 38,500 pounds fully fueled, plus several hundred pounds of insulation around the fuel tank to prevent excessive liquid hydrogen boiloff. The second stage is powered by two Pratt and Whitney RL-10 engines of 15,000 pounds thrust each.
of

Fueled, the stage weighs about

They are capable These

being shut down and re-started during flight.

engines burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen. Small hydrogen per-ox-1e rockets mounted on the periphery of the second stage provide additional thrust for propellant ullage control as vell as attitude control during coast periods. The payload, guidance and electronic equipment are mounted on the forward bulkhead of the liquid hydrogen tank and are protected by a plastic fiberglass nose fairing which is jettisoned after the vebicle leaves the atmosphere. -more-

-15Guidance

The ve.itaur vehicle is controlled in flight by a single inertial (self-contained) four-gimbal guidance system. Min-

iaturization.of these inertial components, built by MinneapolisHoneywell Regulator Co., allows an advanced, overall lightweight platform. control system. The guidance system was originally designed for the precision task of launching a 24-hour synchronous communications satellite but has been adapted to the current Surveyor soft-landing lunar mission and Mariner planetary fly-bye. The guidance system is calibrated before launch and correction factors are stored in the computer memory. During In addition, each stage has its own autopilot

flight the guidance system provides steering commands to the Atlas sustainer and the Centaur stage. For the AC-2 flight

the guidance system will be flown "open loop"; that is, steering commands will be monitored by telemetry for evaluation purposes, but they will not steer the vehicle, Vehicle steer-

ing will be accomplished by a program stored in the Centaur jrogramimer. This procedure is accurate enough for a test

flight like AC-2 where the actual orbit achieved is not important. -more-

The inertial guidance system is comprised of five boxes mounted on the forward end of the Centaur stage. The 30-

pound inertial platform has four gimbals, three gyros for stabilization and three accelerometers for measurements. 18.3-pound platform electronics unit contains amplifiers, resolvers, and relays. The 60-pound pulse rebalance unit The

contains the accelerometer rebalance circuits and the system power supply. The 65-pound computer consists of memory and The 9-pound signal conditioner processes

arithmetic sections.

information about the guidance system operation and feeds it to the telemetry system for post flight evaluation on the ground. RL-10 Engine Two RL-10 engines are used to power the second stage of the Centaur launch vehicle. Using liquid hydrogen and liquid

oxygen as propellants, each engine generates 15,000 pounds of thrust for a total of 30,000 pounds. The RL-10 is the first

such high-energy engine developed by the United States for space applicatf on. The RL-10, developed by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Division of United Aircraft C-rporation, is under the technical direction of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Six of these engines

will be used in the upper stage of the Saturn I vehicle. -more-

-17The RL-10 dces not look like an evolut:onary step in engine design from the outside, but the advances in internal engine design are immense. utilization of the fuel. One such advance is multiple Most rocket engines use a portion These

of the burning propellant to drive gas generators.

generators in turn drive the pumps to move the main body oi propellant to the thrust chamber. The RL-10 eliminates this cycle. Liquid hydrogen at

423 degrees below zero enters the cooling jacket around the thrust chamber. Inside the thrust chamber, hydrogen and oxygen

are burning at temperatures around 6,000 degrees F. The hydrogen in the outer jacket cools the engine wall, protecting it from the destructive heat of the mixture buring inside. As it

removes heat from the engine, the hydrogen becomes a gas. This gas, still cold at 100 degrees below zero, is expanded through a turbine to furnish the mechanical power needed to pump more liquid hydrogen into the combustion chamber. The

same turbine also furnishes the power to keep liquid oxygen flowing through pumps toward the thrust chamber. serves two purposes before it is burned. It Thus, hydrogen

3ools the thrust It is

cnamber and drives the pumps in a "boot strap" system.

burned only in the thrust chamber where it produces useful thrust. -more-

-18The RL-10 has a nozzle area ratio of 41 to 1, that is, the nozzle's exhaust area is 40 times as large as its throat. It operates at a nominal chamber pressure of 300 pounds per square inch. Work on the RL-10 began in 1958. Seven months later the Extensive

first engine thrust chamber was actually tested.

testing--more than 700 firings for an accumulated time of more than 60,000 seconds-- followed.

-19LIQUID HYDROGEN Hydrogen in its natural gaseous state has been known as a major element of our atmosphere for almost four centuries. Men have been trying to use hydrogen to fly for almost half
that time -since 1766 when the English chemist Henry

Cavendish announced that hydrogen or "inflammable air" was lighter than air. Twenty years after Cavendish's work, the first "charliers" began to bob about in the skies above France. Named for their

inventor, J. A. C. Charles, these hydrogen balloons fell into disuse when the explosive qualities of hydrogen became apparent. Hydrogen was not widely used again until the dirigible era that ended abruptly with the fatal flight of the Hindenburg in 1937. Now, as a liquid fuel for Centaur, hydrogen has again entered the propulsion scene. But this time research and developIn fact, an entire new

ment preceeded the use of hydrogen.

technology has been evolved for handling, controlling and utilizing hydrogen in its liquid form. Supercooled to 423 degrees below zero, this colorless, odorless liquAd is powerful -and tempermental. It must be kept at

its cryogenic temperature of -423 degrees or it will vaporize.
It is very lightweignt -only one-fourteenth as heavy as air.

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As long as ignition is avoided, liquid hydrogen is chemically inert in the presence of all common materials including air, oil and oxygen. It is nontoxi
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nonirritating and noncorrosive.

It

does not deteriorate or decompose from long-term storage. Mixed with liquid oxygen in a rocket engine, hydrogen will provide about 35 per cent more thrust for every pound than the conventional kerosene-type rocket fuels. ideal rocket fuel. NASA's Lewis Research Center did much pioneering work in developing the new technology for liquid hydrogen. In 1953, the In short, it is an

Lewis Center was far enough along in liquid hydrogen work to fire an experimental liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen engine with 5000 pounds of thrust. A decade later, in 1962, Lewis was assigned technical manageinent of Centaur -the evolutionary step between conventional Centaur faced many

rocketry and high energy fueled vehicles. problems in the beginning.

Many on these problems demanded soBut,

lutions near or even beyond the current state-of-the-art.

as the problems were studied and clearly defined, they were met and solved. One such problem centered around the rapid boiloff and violent expansion of liquid hydrogen exposed to heat. Fuel storage tanks

must be carefully shielded from friction heat, the heat of the engines and even the warming rays of the Sun.

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-21The cryogenic temperature requires tank construction materials that will not freeze, become brittle and fail under the stresses of space flight. The production of large quantities

of liquid hydrogen require new processing systems, new storagec facilities and new means of transporting the sensitive fuel. Behavior ot liquiA hydrogen under weightlessness was another unknown and vital question. It is hoped that development flights

late in tle Centaur R&D program will provide more vital information on the weightlessness problem. Does the liquid hydrogen gather Will it pass through

around the walls of a half-filled tank? the pumps into the ignition chamber?

Is the shielding adequate

to protect it from violent boiloff in the increased heating necessary in lift off? During coasting? Zero gravity fields can be simulated for brief times in aircraft or drop towers. But most of these questions can be completely How does it behave during steering maneuvers?

answered only in actual flight. Chemical rockets such as Centaur are the backbone of NASA's current program. But taming liquid hydrogen for use in chemical

engines is a stepping stone toward the eventual use of liquid hydrogen in nutclear rockets. The lightweight, cold liquid hydrogen As it passes through, it

can be passed through a nuclear reactor.

heats up and the resulting hot gas can be expanded through a rocket nozzle to provide thrust. -more-

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Although Centaur is pioneering in practical use of the new liquid hydrogen technology, its potential as a rocket fuel has been known for a long time. In 1903, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, a Russian theoretician, wrote "Treatise on Space Travel,'.' urging that a rocket engine using liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen be built. Six years later, Dr. Robert Goddard, the American rocket pioneer, listed liquid hydrogen in his notebook as an excellent potential rocket propellant. He further proposed a method for In 1910, he announced

regenerative cooling of a hydrogen engine.

that it might be possible to produce hydrogen and oxygen on the Moon. Recent research tends to confirm this. NASA scientists

speculate that reactor-powered rockets of the future may land on the Moon or planets and convert their reactor to a power plant for processing Moon minerals into fuel for the return trip. In 1921, Dr. Goddard fired a gaseous hydrogen rocket. Literary interest in liquid hydrogen continued through these early phases of' rocketry but liquid hydrogen was still a laboratory curiosity and not available in the quantities necessary for actual experimentation. In 1945, the first significant firing of a liquid hydrogen engine occurred at Ohio State University. Two years later,

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-23Aerojet-General Corporation developed a 3,000 pound thrust engine using liquid hydrogen. Then in 1953, the National

Bureau of Standards solved another problem with liquid hydrogen by devising a nethod to keep it from rapidly evaporating in storage. As interest in liquid hydrogen grew, it oecame more available. The first production-line plant for liquid hydrogen began operation in 1947. Its output was a low 12 pounds an hour.

When Pratt and Whitney received the contract to build Centaur's RL-10 engines, the U.S. Air Force built the first tonnage production facility next to the P&W Florida Research and Development Center in West Palm Beach. This facility takes

crude oil and natural gas, breaks it down into hydrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and other products and then refrigerates and
purifies the hydrogen. The end product -liquid hydrogen --

is believed to be 99.99999 per cent pure, rankingz it among the purest materials known tr, man. The current interest in liquid hydrogen is well-indexed by its consumption. In 1961, industry, university and government In 1963, the Estimates

research used six million pounds of liquid hydrogen.

figure is nearly six times greater -- 35 million pounds. for 1966 run as high as 95 million pounds.

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Lightweight hydrogen has been called the ultimate fuel. The Sun itself "burns" hydrogen in its internal thermonuclear reactions that provide light and heat to our solar system. Fusion rockets duplicating the energetic reactions of the Sun are in the infancy stages of research but hydrogen will find more immediate use in nuclear rockets. With additional research and the Centaur development program, liquid hydrogen will develop to the desired end-point where the now-exotic fael will become commonplace.

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-25TEST PROGRAM
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Because of the many problems to be overcome in developing a space vehicle system employing liquid hydrogen technology, Centaur is being subjected to one of the most extensive ground test programs in the history of U.S. rocketry. Ground test facilities are being used at the Lewis Research Center, General Dynamics/Astronautics in California, Pratt and Whitney in Florida and Connecticut and at subcontractor facilities located throughout the country. At GD/A, maJor Centaur test facilities are located in three areas: Pt. Loma, Sycamore Canyon and Edwards Rocket Test Site,

near Edwards Air Force Base. At Pt. Loma, near San Diego, a multiple test stand facility is in operation conducting cryogenic tests of propellant tanks, structural tests of tanks, insulation panels and nose fairings, dynamic tests of separation systems, and functional tests of coast phase attitude control systems. At Edwards Rocket Site, a heavy-walled propulsion type vehicle is used for exhaustive captive firing. Full-duration captive firings of the complete Centaur vehicle are conducted at Sycamore Canyon near San Diego to verify functional operation of all airborne systems, plus development of launch countdown procedures. -more-

-26Ultimate in the Centaur ground test program will be a Combined Systems Test Stand (CSTS) now under construction for NASA at GD/A, San Diego, where both the Atlas and Centaur vehicles are produced. The $6 million CSTS, scheduled for completion in late 1964, will permit cGmplete pre-launch ground testing of the Centaur vehicle and Surveyor spacecraft prior to shipment to Cape Canaveral. It is anticipated the facility will reduce consider-

ably time-on-the-pad required prior to Centaur missions. In the CSTS, the Atlas will be horizontal. Centaur, with

Surveyor mounted on top, will stand vertically near the Atlas. All three systems will be mated electrically and will function as if on an actual mission. Prior to completion of CSTS, an interim combined systems test stand is in use at GD/A to check out the Atlas-Centaur combination with the Surveyor payload. At the Lewis Research Center's Plum Brook Station near Sandusky, Ohio, a full-scale Atlas booster has been erected and is undergoing a series of structural dynamic tests to determine how it will react during flight through the Earth's atmosphere. A second stage test vehicle will be mated to Atlas in late 1963 to continue structural testing of the Atlas-Centaur launch vehicle system. Shortly thereafter a dynamic model of the Surveyor space-

craft will be mated to Centaur for complete combined systems testing. -more-

-27Centaur engineers at Lewis have modified an altitude wind tunnel, now called a space power chamber, to accommodate a Centaur test vehicle for extensive environmental testing. Engine and electrical systems will be tested in a simulated space environment up to Centaur engine ignition. These tests

will continue for possibly two years with the vehicle being modified periodically. A second area in the space power chamber was used to coniuct Atlas-Centaur separation tests using a full-scale "whalebone" Atlas configuration and a mock-up Centaur vehicle. These tests,

conducted at a simulated altitude of 97,000 feet, successfully demonstrated a new method of separation using flexible linearshaped charges and eight 500-pound thrust retrorockets mounted on the aft end of Atlas. This system is being tested for the

first time in actual flight on the AC-2 mission. Lewis engineers also used the Center's 10 x 10-foot supersonic wind tunnel to study hydrogen venting characteristics of a 1/10th scale model of Centaur. The RL-10 engine has been fired extensively in Lewis' Propulsion System Laboratory altitude chamber, which can be exhausted to simula-e approximately 90,000 feet altitude. RL-10 engine can be gimballed while under test. A single

Pre-launch chill-

down of the engine pumps with cold helium also was studied in the
chamber.

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-28Pratt and Whitney test facilities at its West Palm Beach Research and Development Center include two horizontal singleengine stands and a vertical dual--engine stand for test firings. All three stands have steam ejector systems to simulate altitude conditions.

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-29PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS The Centaur project is under the overall direction of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, headed by Dr. Homer E. Newell. Dr. Richard B. Morrison directs the

Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Programs Division. Technical direction of the project is under NASA's Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Director of Lewis. Development. Dr. Abe Silverstein is

Bruce T. Lundin is Associate Director for

David S. Gabriel is Centaur Project Manager.

Prime contractor for Centaur is General Dynamics/Astronautics, San Diego, Calif. Grant L. Hansen is a vice-president of GD/A

and Centaur program director. Technical direction of the RL-10 engine is the responsibility of NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. RL-10 project manager for MSFC is Rodney Stewart. Associate prime contractor for the RL-10 is Pratt and Whitney Division of United Aircraft Corp., Hartford, Conn. The engine is P&W's

assembled and tested at P&W's West Palm Beach, Fla., plant. project manager is Gordon Titcomb.

Centaur launches will be supervised by Goddard Space Flight Ce.'.er's Field Projects Branch, Cape Canaveral, under Lewis direction. Robert Gray is in charge of Field Projects Branch.

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-30Under Lewis contract, Space Technology Laboratories., Redondo Beach, Calif., has provided technical support to the Centaur program by evaluating vehicle and ground support equipment design and performance in order to better determine requirements of the development program. The guidance system was developed by Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co., Minneapolis, Minn., and the system's computer by Librascope Division of General Precision, Inc., San Marcas, Calif. The MA-5 first-stage propulsion system was built by Rocketdyne Division of North American Aviation, Inc., Canoga Park, Calif. Boost pumps for the RL-10 engines were designed and built by Pesco Products Division, Borg-Warner Corp., Cleveland, Ohio. Turbines for the boost pumps are built by General Electric Co.,
Lynn, Mass.
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Bell Aerosystems Co., Buffalo, N.Y., makes the attitude control rockets for the second stage and the hydrogen perioxide propellant tank. Telemetry equipment is provided by Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, Tex.; Collins Radio Co., Dallas, Tex.; and Motorola, Inc., Scottsdale, Ariz.
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