Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 1 - Introduction to Computer Networks Basic Network Concepts People communicate with

other people in a variety of ways. For example, we talk to people faceto-face, or we write a letter and send it to someone and they write us a letter back. These are common forms of communication. When people use computers to communicate they use a computer network. This course is about computer networks and how they are used to transmit information between computers, and ultimately between people. It is a fundamental course that provides a broad overview and foundation for understanding networks and working in the computer and networking industry. A network is a group of connected devices. For people using computers to communicate with one another, a network must be used. Simply stated, the requirements of a network are to: Move information from a source to a destination Networks are an interconnection of computers. These computers can be linked together using a wide variety of different cabling types, and for a wide variety of different purposes. People use computers and networks for a wide variety of reasons. Three common reasons that people use networks to send information from a source, such as a personal computer (PC), to a destination, such as a printer, are: 1. Communicate and collaborate (i.e., e-mail and newsgroups) 2. Share information (i.e., document sharing) 3. Share resources (i.e., printers and servers) Take for example a typical office scenario where a number of users in a small business require access to common information. As long as all user computers are connected via a network, they can share their files, exchange mail, schedule meetings, send faxes and print documents all from any point of the network.

It would not be necessary for users to transfer files via electronic mail or floppy disk, rather, each user could access all the information they require, thus leading to less wasted time and hence greater productivity. Imagine the benefits of a user being able to directly fax the Word document they are working on, rather than print it out, then feed it into the fax machine, dial the number etc. Small networks are often called Local Area Networks (LAN). A LAN is a network allowing easy access to other computers or peripherals. The typical characteristics of a LAN are,  Physically limited (< 2km)  High bandwidth (> 1mbps)  Inexpensive cable media (coax or twisted pair)  Data and hardware sharing between users

Page 1 of 85

Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609

Owned by the user

Page 2 of 85

Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Examples of sharing resources are:  Sharing computer files and disk space  Sharing high-quality printers  Access to common fax machines  Access to common modems  Multiple accesses to the Internet Network Devices A source or destination can be any device capable of transferring information electronically from one point (source) to another point (destination). There are many examples of devices that communicate over a network. They take many forms and vary widely in capabilities. These include:  PCs  Macintosh computers  Workstations  Printers  Servers Generically speaking, these devices are referred to as nodes. Nodes are the various endpoints on a network, connected together to form a network. The connection between nodes is made using some type of connection medium. Examples of connection mediums include:  Copper cables  Fiber optic cables  Radio waves/wireless Networks are used in a wide variety of ways to tie computers together so they can communicate with one another and provide services to the user of a network. Computer Components Computers come in all shapes and sizes, and are manufactured to serve different purposes. Some computers are made for operation in a single-user environment. Other computers are made to support a small number of users in a workgroup environment, while still others may support thousands of users in a large corporation. Computers attach to a network through a network interface card (NIC). Typically cables are attached to a NIC to connect to other computers or networks. Several aspects of computer technology to be considered are:  Video  Microprocessor  Memory  Storage  Input/Output  Application software  System software  Device driver Whether the computer that attaches to the network is a small desktop computer or a powerful mainframe, all computers contain the same basic structure and the components mentioned above. Computers are the endpoints, or nodes, in a network and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. It is important to understand common components found in most computer systems. The CPU is the brain of any computer. The CPU executes instructions developed by a computer

Page 3 of 85

Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 programmer, and directs the flow of information within the computer. The terms microprocessor and CPU are often used interchangeably. At the heart of a CPU is a microprocessor.

Page 4 of 85

Most RAM is volatile. A computer’s memory stores information currently being worked on by the CPU. When you run a program. When used by itself. Every computer comes with a certain amount of physical memory. As soon as the power is turned off. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips or plug-in modules. The size of a bus. the more powerful the CPU is. also known as physical memory. Key Point The I/O of a computer travels over a bus. Memory differs from the long-term storage systems of a computer. which is physical memory. and a 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits of data. which means it requires a steady flow of electricity to maintain its contents. This is in contrast to read-only memory (ROM). The vast majority of all desktop PCs incorporate a single Intel architecture processor (such as Pentium). installed memory by moving old data to the hard drive. some of which are listed below:  RAM – RAM is the same as main memory. Most computers also use virtual memory. An internal bus connects all internal computer components to the CPU and main memory. Some programs remain in memory after execution and are called Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR). Virtual memory expands the amount of memory for an application beyond the actual physical. it is typically read from a disk drive (such as a hard drive or CD-ROM drive). and the address bus transfers information about where the data should go. usually referred to as main memory or RAM. After the program has completed or is no longer needed. such as a hard drive or floppy. the higher the value. Although Intel is the world’s largest microprocessor manufacturer. you can both write data into RAM and read data from RAM. the term RAM refers to read and write memory. Expansion slots connect plug-in expansion boards. Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) manufactures processors comparable to the Intel Pentium. such as the PCI bus. There are two basic characteristics that differentiate microprocessors:  Data bus size—the number of bits that a CPU can send or receive in a single instruction. All buses consist of two parts.  Clock speed—given in MHz. A fast bus allows data to be transferred faster. and put in memory for execution. the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute. In both the cases. where information is stored for longer periods of time. an address bus and a data bus. is important because it determines how much data can be transmitted at one time. When used in reference to desktop computers. such as SIMMs or DIMMs. to the I/O bus. the faster the bus clock. a 16-bit bus can transmit 16 bits of data. Every bus has a clock speed measured in MHz. On PCs. it is a short-term storage component of a computer. There are several different types of memory. that is. and directs the flow of information between different components of a computer.  ROM—Computers almost always contain a small amount of ROM that holds instructions for starting up the computer. For example. whatever data was in RAM is lost. The data bus transfers actual data. which only permits you to read data. which is a collection of wires that transmit data from one part of a computer to another. Page 5 of 85 . The local bus is a high-speed pathway that connects directly to the processor. The program waits for an event to occur that notifies them to begin processing.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A CPU runs computer programs. ROM cannot be written to after it is initially programmed. such as video data. a 64-bit microprocessor that runs at 450 MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit microprocessor that runs at 100 MHz. board-mounted storage area in the computer. making applications run faster. For example. it is typically removed from memory. For example. such as internal modems or NICs. the term bus usually refers to an internal bus. the ISA bus is being replaced by faster buses. swapped to a hard disk. Unlike RAM. the faster the bus’ data transfer rate. known as its width. A computer that has 1 megabyte (Mb) of memory can hold approximately 1 million bytes (or characters) of information. Memory is the systems internal. PCs made today include a local bus for data that requires especially fast transfer speeds. it does not have the entire PC processor market.

a place where cables are often terminated to provide continuing connections to other devices. the computer detects the new network card. simplifying installation. and the network topology used. the twisted pair cable goes to a punchdown block. The NIC attaches to a network via a twisted pair cable through a wall outlet. Other cards are PNP (Plug and Play). you cannot wipe it clean and reprogram it. If the network contains a dedicated server or other communicating device. New cards are software configurable. After the PROM has been programmed. Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM)—An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. The NIC provides the interface between the physical networking cable and the software implementing the networking protocols. using a software program to configure the resources used by the card. such as NICs. This bus connects adapter cards. the data you send to that computer is prefixed with the number of the card you are sending the data to. in order to transport the data to its correct destination. The speed at which data may be transferred to and from the NIC is determined by the I/O bus bandwidth. The NIC is responsible for transmitting and receiving information to and from a network.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609   Programmable read-only memory (PROM)—A PROM is a memory chip on which you can store a program. A typical adapter card looks like. Page 6 of 85 . For Ethernet. This allows intermediate devices in the network to decide in which direction the data should go. When talking to another computer. The NIC fits into an expansion slot on the motherboard’s I/O bus. On power-up. All the users need to assign the network details like computer name. These network card numbers are used in the Medium Access (MAC) Layer to identify the destination for the data. From the punchdown block. operating system. This number uniquely identifies the computer. assigns the correct resources to it. NIC design and quality of components. to the main CPU and RAM. and then installs the networking software required for connection to the network. a 48-bit number identifies each card. There are many ways to connect NICs to a network. auto-detection of new hardware makes network connections simple and quick. which automatically configure their resources when installed in the computer. EPROM can be reprogrammed and reused after it is has been erased. the twisted pair cable is sometimes connected to a hub or Multi-station Access Unit (MAU) that forms the central connecting point of the network. A NIC (pronounced “nick”) is the hardware component inserted into the PC or workstation that provides connectivity to a network. processor speed. On the other side of the wall. it also contains a NIC. With an operating system like Windows 95.

 Binary—Binary is the base two number system that computers use to represent data. number.g. external buses. It is measured in Hz for analog networks. Modulation is used to add intelligence to an analog wave. and memory. hard drives.e.  Electronic Mail (E-mail)—E-mail is a widely used application for transferring messages and files from one computer system to another. Internal buses are buses such as AT. EISA was designed in response to IBM’s MCA. and MCA that are internal to a PC. Clustering computers to execute a single application speeds up the operation of the application. A bit has a single binary value. In most computer systems. and LANs that operate on bus topologies. which is compatible with the Intel Pentium processor.  Clustering—Clustering is a grouping of devices or other components. There are many types of buses. such as a printer or hard disk drive. It consists of only two numbers: 0 and 1. the stream of bits that constitute a visual image within an application program).  Bus—A bus connects the central processor of a PC with the video controller..  Central Processing Unit (CPU)—A CPU is the processor in a computer that processes the code and associated data in a computer system.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Basic Computer Terminology  Analog—An analog signal. A DIMM has a 64-bit memory path to the CPU. and bps for digital networks.” or “?”).  Extended Data Output (EDO)—EDO is a type of RAM memory chip with faster performance than conventional memory. is a continuous electrical signal on a communication circuit. For instance.  Bandwidth—Bandwidth is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies or it is the maximum bit rate that can be transmitted across a transmission line or through a network. Although computers usually provide instructions that can test and manipulate bits.  Byte—In most computer systems. Unlike conventional RAM.  Client/Server—Client server or client/server is a mode in computer networking where individual computers can access data or services from a common high-performance computer. there are eight bits in a byte. when a PC needs data from a common database located on a computer attached to a LAN. 1s and 0s). also referred to as an analog wave or carrier wave. the PC is the client and the network computer where the database resides is the server. An analog signal in its normal form does not have intelligence. 1s and 0s (bits) are combined to form bytes and characters. either 0 or 1. ISA.  Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM)—DIMM is a small PC circuit board that holds memory chips. a byte is a unit of information that is 8 bits long. A byte can also hold a string of bits that need to be used in some larger unit for application purposes (for example. “g. A byte is the unit most computers use to represent a character such as a letter. such as letters of the alphabet. disk controller. they generally are designed to store data and execute instructions in bit multiples called bytes.  Bit—A bit is the smallest unit of data in a computer. Page 7 of 85 . including internal buses. If the two computers sending messages use different types of e-mail packages.  Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA)—EISA is a 32-bit bus technology for PCs that supports multiprocessing.. EISA. or typographic symbol (e.  Digital Data—Digital data is electrical information that represents digits (i.” “5. EDO RAM retrieves a block of memory as it sends the previous block to the CPU. an e-mail gateway is required to convert from one format to another. typically for the enhancement of performance. The value of a bit is usually stored as either above or below a designated level of electrical charge in a single capacitor within a memory device.  Device Driver—A device driver is a program that controls devices attached to a computer.

both EISA and MCA were replaced by the PCI bus. See “PCI” and “bus.” Hardware—Hardware is the physical part of a computer. which can include things such as hard drives.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 however. circuit boards inside a computer.  Page 8 of 85 . and other computer components.

MCA was never widely accepted by the PC industry. The NIC address is built into the network interface card of the destination node. read a file) is for the local computer or network server. and modems. is referred to as demodulation. and printers. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)—The PCMCIA slot in a laptop was designed for PC memory expansion.) Peripherals—Peripherals are parts of a computer that are not on the primary board (mother board) of a computer system. such as tape drives.. 8. and PCs use 32-bit. Network Interface Card (NIC)—A NIC is any workstation or PC component (usually a hardware card) that allows the workstation or PC to communicate with a network. A NIC address is another term for hardware address or MAC address. Micro Channel Architecture (MCA)—MCA is IBM’s 32-bit internal bus architecture for PCs.” Input/Output (I/O)—An I/O channel is the path from the main processor or CPU of a computer to its peripheral devices. Random Access Memory (RAM)—RAM is a computer’s main working memory. Internet Protocol (IP)—IP is the protocol responsible for getting packets of information across a network. Server—A server is a device attached to a network that provides one or more services to users of the network. They are used for scheduling. Modulation—Modulation is the process of modifying the form of a carrier wave (electrical signal) so that it can carry intelligent information on some sort of communications medium. and small database applications. RJ-45 Connector—An RJ-45 connector is a snap-in connector for UTP cable. Applications can repeatedly write new data to the same RAM. Applications use RAM to hold instructions and data during processing. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)—PDA devices are very small. The redirector is responsible for deciding if a request for a computer service (i. and provide a subset of the operations of a typical computer (PC). SIMM capacities are measured in bytes. disk drives. and was replaced by the PCI bus architecture.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609                    Industry Standard Architecture (ISA)—ISA is an older. floppy drives. Megahertz (Mhz)—One hertz is one cycle of a sine wave per second. and attach to networks and high-speed peripheral devices. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)—PCI is a newer 32-bit and 64-bit local bus technology for PCs. One MHz is 1 million cycles per second. See “bus. A SIMM has a 32-bit memory path to the CPU. See “bus. Peripherals include hard drives.” (Servers use 64-bit PCI. Local Area Network (LAN)—A LAN is a grouping of computers via a network typically confined to a single building or floor of a building. Page 9 of 85 . similar to the standard RJ-11 telephone cable connector. converting analog signals back into their original digital state. The opposite process. Redirector—A redirector is a client software component in a client/server configuration. Single Inline Memory Module (SIMM)—SIMM is a small PC circuit board that holds memory chips. Mainframe—A mainframe is a large-scale computer system.e. NICs and modems can attach to a laptop through the PCMCIA slot. Digital computer signals (baseband) are converted to analog signals for transmission over analog facilities (such as the local loop).or 16-bit PC bus technology used in IBM XT and AT computers. electronic notepads. Mainframe computers are powerful. but all data is erased from RAM when the computer loses power or is shut down.

Page 10 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609  Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM)—SDRAM is a type of RAM and is often referred to as DIMM. It is replacing EDO RAM because it is approximately twice as fast (up to 133 MHz).

The difference between PCs and workstations. such as departmental information processing. SGRAM can synchronize itself with the CPU bus clock. while a workstation typically runs a version of the UNIX operating system. Desktop computers are sometimes divided into two broad categories. It covers an extensive range of computer systems. although not always clear.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609     Synchronous Graphic Random Access Memory (SGRAM)—SGRAM is a type of dynamic RAM optimized for graphics-intensive operations. A workstation often features high-end hardware such as large. Linux is a UNIX-like clone. Some of these computers are small and can only run a limited amount of applications. large amounts of Random Access Memory (RAM). Workstations—Workstations are a type of computer. Others are large and can run many applications and service many users at the same time. Typical applications include:  Finance and accounting (AS/400)  Database (Intel-based or UNIX-based)  Printer servers (Intel or UNIX-based)  Communications servers (Intel-based) Page 11 of 85 . advanced graphics capabilities. up to speeds of 100 MHz. and Hewlett-Packard)  UNIX-based servers of all types Mid-range and server systems are commonly used in small to medium organizations. overlapping with desktop computers at one-end and mainframe computers at the other end. The two protocols working together provide for connectivity between applications of networked computers. is generally in the operating system software used and the graphics capabilities. Dell. and may support many users. There is a great deal of overlap in features and functions of desktop computers. or Macintosh Operating Systems in the case of Apple products. typically more powerful than a PC but still used by a single user. The term “mid-range” covers a wide range of computer systems that support more than one user. and high performance. PCs typically run one of several types of Microsoft Windows operating systems. There are many different types of computers used in organizations. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)—TCP is normally used in conjunction with IP in a TCP/IP-based network. possibly attached to a network that is used by a single individual. It is an alternative to PC and Macintosh computer operating systems. This lesson looks at classifications of computers found in networks and the primary purpose of each type. UNIX—UNIX is an operating system used in many workstations and mid-range computer systems. Computer classifications include:  Desktop computers  Mid-range computers and servers  Mainframe computers  Others A desktop computer is a computer. and the distinctions between PCs and workstations are blurring. most of which are tied to a network. Like SDRAM. Midrange computers include:  High-end Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) CPU-based  Servers (IBM AS/400)  Intel-based servers (Compaq. personal computers (PCs) and workstations. fast disk drives. multiprocessors.

and Windows 2000.999% reliability). The tasks of an operating system include:  Managing the operation of computer programs  Interpreting keyboard input  Displaying data to the computer screen  File I/O  Controlling peripheral devices. called application programs. a level of reliability desired and measured in nines (99. and printers. and keystrokes of the application running on the server.  Multiprocessing—Supports running a program on more than one CPU. in that they are reminiscent of the terminal of mainframe days. and security—mainframes provide automatic and constant backup. such as the UNIX-based operating systems. tracking. such as administration and training. E-mail. Palmtops are also catching up with performance. and printers Operating systems can be classified as follows:  Multitasking—Allows more than one program to run. thin client terminals have staged a comeback. calendering. mouse movements. and caters to emerging applications like multimedia. the most popular operating systems are Windows 95. Software and Operating System Two primary types of system software are discussed in this lesson. but others are also available. and thin client terminals have become mainstream devices in the personal computing world over the last five years. Key Point Operating systems provide a software platform that can run other programs. The terminal only displays the screen images. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. and handwriting recognition compatible with Windows operating systems have become a reality with the newest generation palmtops. such as floppy disks. In the last few years. It is a group of software programs that control a computer. To satisfy a society that is increasingly mobile. Windows NT.  Multithreading—Allows different parts of a single program to run. Your choice of operating system determines. palmtops or PDAs.  Huge economies of scale—the vast resources of mainframes reduce the hidden costs associated with multiple LANs. Windows 98. operating systems and device drivers. low-end spreadsheets. laptops and palmtops have become prevalent. Thin client terminals allow for an even greater reduced cost at the desktop computer level by having a central server handle processing otherwise handled by a PC. Operating systems perform the basic tasks computers do to perform useful work. and safeguarding of data. but with graphics capabilities. including digitized video on demand. This is sometimes referred to as a number of nines. recovery. The unique and inherent capabilities of leading-edge mainframe systems include:  Constant availability—mainframes are designed to be operated around the clock every day of the year. extra disk space.  Rigorous backup. store and ensure the integrity of massive amounts of crucial data. For PCs. Laptops. to a great extent. Page 12 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Mainframe computers (also referred to as super computers) and associated client/server products can manage huge organization-wide networks. and drive data across an organization. Performance in laptops is closing in on the desktop computer as miniaturization compounds annually. hard disks. the applications you can run.  Multiuser—Allows multiple users to run programs on the same computer at the same time. Some operating systems running on large-scale computers permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users.  High bandwidth I/O facilities—the huge I/O bandwidth on mainframes allows rapid and effective data transfer so that thousands of clients to be serviced simultaneously. including Linux.

you normally interact with the operating system through a set of commands.1. management. and remote access. It has many of the same features as Windows 95. Windows 95 is a true operating system. and is still used in many networks. and a range of features intended to appeal to the network manager. floppy drives. Microsoft’s 32-bit operating system. and NetWare on LAN servers.0 replaced Windows NT 3. Windows NT. Popular OS Microsoft Windows was the initial GUI that ran on top of DOS.1 and the Microsoft Windows Network software (which provides the peer-to-peer networking capability). Other enhancements include improvements to the user interface. Linux UNIX. It was a combination of Windows 3. long file names. The mid-range software market is characterized by competition between UNIX. These specific pieces of hardware can be disk drives.11 was Microsoft’s first peer-to-peer network operating system. The Macintosh operating system is a competitor. Some vendors only offer UNIX on their platforms (e. and upgrading considerably easier. It was first launched in response to the need to make PCs easier to use. 3. UNIX on midrange servers. and then with the Windows user interface. and video playback. but includes a different user interface and Web-related features. or NICs. It is similar to the Apple Macintosh computer.g. which makes system setup. The commands are accepted and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or command line interpreter.. Other vendors accept and support a multiplicity of operating environments: Windows on PCs. not just a GUI as found in standard Windows. Windows NT 3. connectivity. Sun with Solaris).1. Windows NT Workstation requires only 16 MB of RAM. better fax and modem support. Page 13 of 85 . which runs on a very wide range of hardware platforms from workstations to mid-range systems. Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen. Microsoft has generally dominated the PC operating system market since its foundation. improved system administration. It runs on Intel 486 or higher PCs and PC servers. There are two Windows NT options: Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 As a user.51. better support for NetWare servers. a graphical overlay for DOS. which runs on Macintosh platforms and not PC-based platforms. The operating system and associated applications on the computer can use the device driver to communicate with the NIC and send and receive information on a network. Windows 95 is the first operating system to support Plug and Play. C2 versions of Windows NT are also available. designed specifically for interactive multiuser applications developed by the leading systems vendors. was first launched in July 1993. and 3. For users with a strong requirement for security. Device drivers for NICs control the operation of the NIC and provide an interface for the computer’s operating system. Windows 3. known for its easy-to-use operating system. Windows 98 is another version of Microsoft Windows. with enhancements such as improved disk I/O performance.1 was the most popular Windows software. Windows for Workgroups 3. and Digital Equipment’s Alpha chip family. Windows NT release 4.5. and the proprietary operating environments. Another product called Windows 2000 has also been released. first with its command line-based disk operating system (DOS). making it far more accessible. and remote network access. A device driver is special-purpose software used to control specific hardware devices in a computer system. and proprietary environments on mid-range systems and mainframes that need higher-than-average reliability and security.

An example of a word processor is Microsoft Word. memos. such as a local hard drive.  Desktop publishing—Desktop publishing goes beyond basic word processing. If you are using a word processor and want to store a file on a hard drive. Commonly used applications are described below. Netscape Navigator is an example of an Internet browser.  Print services—Clients generate print requests that are serviced by a print server.  Graphics—Graphics programs are used to create pictures and artwork that are used by themselves or imported into other documents using programs such as desktop publishing packages. and reports.  Database—A database program provides the capability to input. They provide an easy mechanism to manipulate numbers and compute mathematical equations. Perhaps you want to store the information on a hard drive Page 14 of 85 . and networked or multiuser applications. When users log on to a network.  Spreadsheets—Spreadsheet applications are primarily used to create financial reports and organize financial information. the e-mail server downloads email messages to the individual clients in the network. such as Windows 98. Lotus 123 is a spreadsheet program that is commonly used. Novell NetWare provides print services to NetWare clients. others run almost exclusively as a networked application. print. Examples of graphics programs are Adobe Illustrator and Shapeware Visio.  E-mail—E-mail programs typically reside on both a client. An example of a desktop publishing package is Adobe Framemaker. This includes accepting keystrokes from a keyboard and displaying the typed information on a computer screen. and the client is notified when the print job has been completed. such as magazines and newsletters. Applications are software programs used to perform work.  Fax services—Clients generate fax requests that are serviced by the server similar to print requests. edit.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Application Software Applications are computer programs that are used for productivity and automation of tasks. Application-to-Application Communication Applications use the underlying operating system. format. Oracle is an example of a client/server database. with packages such as Eudora. The operating system stores the information on the hard drive by communicating with the appropriate hard drive device driver to physically place the word processor’s information on the drive. It is used to design professional publications. Single-user applications include:  Word processors—A word processor is used to enter. These programs are designed to produce various documents for organizations. Some applications run primarily as a single-user application. the application would rely on the operating system to store the information. store. Microsoft Windows NT Small Business Sever provides built-in fax services. The Information is stored in records and is managed by a database program. Microsoft Access is a common database program. and on a server. to carry out the needed tasks of the application. such as letters. and retrieve information on a computer system.  Web browsers—Web browsers are used to locate and retrieve information from the World Wide Web. Applications can be divided into two basic categories: single-user applications. Network applications include:  Database access—Database requests from client to server are made to retrieve records from a single source. Jobs are queued by the print server. They are primarily used to go directly to another Internet Web site or search the Internet for specific information. and save documents. analyze. Networks are used to move application information from source to destination. Some applications can run in both modes.

4. 3. or other hard drives on the network. such as a TCP/IP protocol stack. The request is sent from the main CPU of the computer. Key Point Client software requests are placed inside protocol headers for delivery across a network. but is destined for a remote disk drive. such as a file server on the network. including a hard drive located in our computer. Page 15 of 85 . 6. The NIC transmits the information across the networking cables to the final destination. such as a NIC. It is up to the local operating system to make sure the file gets properly stored on the local computer hardware. What must happen in this case? The following three items must be installed on the local machine by the local operating system to provide for communication across a network:  NIC and NIC device driver  Client software  Communication software The appropriate accessory card. Client software is also needed to provide an interface between the local operating system and communication software. Some client software provides file and print sharing capabilities for computers. along with the corresponding device driver. The following steps are typical 1. If you install a 3Com Ethernet NIC. 2. The redirector takes the “store file” request from the application and requests the services of the communication software. You must also have communication software loaded on the machine.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 located on the other side of the building. The user of the application requests that a file be stored on a drive other than a local drive (a network drive). over the network. in other words. while others provide the capability to connect to shared resources on other computers. 5. From the user’s perspective. we have the ability to store files at multiple locations. Computer software on the client machine (also known as a redirector) determines the file is not destined for a local disk drive. across the local bus to the NIC. Ethernet device driver software must also be installed. the request must be redirected out of the computer via a NIC to the appropriate machine located on the network. The communication software adds the appropriate communication information on the “store file” request. must first be installed in the computer. When we want to store information across a network.

LANs often use a single cable to connect the resources. MAN. on the other hand. converted to a suitable format and transported to the proper destination. LANs operated at 10 to 100 Mbps. The exact digital value can be received at the destination with very few errors. Campus Area Networks . MANs are limited to within a single city. CAN. Wide Area Networks . a MAN has one or two cables and does not require a switching element. It is discrete and well defined. analog and digital.Group of multiple LANs and/or CANs that communicate over a city and/or several city blocks. The two types of carrier systems are:  FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) -. Local area networks can be defined as privately owned networks that generally span an entire building or up to a few kilometers in size.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 2 – Network Media. This makes them particularly susceptible to errors. A carrier. GAN Local Area Networks . LAN can be effectively used to connect personal computers and other resources like printers. MAN uses similar technology as that of LAN. All types of media can be decomposed into bits. Page 16 of 85 . LAN. digital signals vary from dial tone pulses to complex computer and data signals. In this lesson we will examine both. or one entire Digital Transmission This is the single fastest growing family of signals.floor of a building. Cables and Connectors Digital and Analog Transmission The telecommunications network can transmit a variety of information. This allows compression and encryption that is not possible with analog signals. in two basic forms. This property enables them to be efficiently used for cable television. They support both voice and data. Broadcast LANs follow many topologies. Digital transmissions are discrete in both time and value. have low delays and make few errors. Typically. Analog Signals An analog signal. which suggest that digital networks can be used for integrated services (ISDN). this level allows for more refinement in our definitions. Where: A circuit/channel is a transmission path for a single type of transmission service (voice or data) and is generally referred to as the smallest subdivision of the network.analog  TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) . Metropolitan Area Networks . or sine wave. The difference is that the area coverage of MANs is more than LANs.covers a large campus that has might include several city blocks. is a continuously varying signal Analog transmissions are continuous in both time and value. Typically. it will distinguish between say the Microsoft HQ CAN and the MAN which covers the city that the CAN is in. department within a floor. WAN. is a transmission path in which one or more channels of information are processed.Groups of MANs that communicate over larger geographical distances like cities or states. WANs span city to city and State to state but will stay within a country.local to a single limited geographical area. This information may be transmitted over a circuit/channel or over a carrier system.

Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. when a router receives a packet." This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. also referred to as routers. This level was added to differentiate a WAN from the larger Global Networks. it stores the packet until the required output line is free and then forwards it. In addition. but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. those devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options years ago. The typical structure of a WAN consists of a number of host machines (which run applications) connected by a communication subnet. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a bus. there are a number of transmission lines connected to a router. Subnets employing such a technique are called point-to-point or store-and-forward subnets. A single cable. the backbone functions as a shared communication medium. In such a situation. Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types:  Bus  Ring  Star  Tree  Mesh More complex networks can be built as hybrids of two or more of the above basic topologies.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Wide area networks. performance problems will likely result. For example. The main function of the subnet is to transfer data from one host to another.covers a country's geographical area or a larger area worldwide. the term topology refers to the layout of connected devices on a network. as the name suggests. Data is actually transferred via the transmission lines. Not all routers are connected to each other. if the backbone cable fails. Global Area Networks . The Internet is the most famous example of the GAN Network Topologies (Ring. GANs span countries and are our International level of Networking. However. Bus. the entire network effectively becomes unusable. A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see. Hybrid) In networking. bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. spans a large geographical area. but it would be highly unlikely to find an actual ring topology there. Star. The switching elements connect two or more transmission lines and decide in which outgoing line to forward the data. unconnected routers interact with each other indirectly via other routers. Typically in a WAN. One can think of a topology as a network's "shape. Page 17 of 85 . consists of two components – transmission lines and switching elements. Bus Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) Bus Topology use a common backbone to connect all devices. The subnet. in turn. Thus. This article introduces the standard topologies of computer networking. the computers on a home LAN may be arranged in a circle.

Page 18 of 85 . every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (effectively either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). To implement a ring network. Rings are found in some office buildings or school campuses. SONET. or Token Ring technology.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Ring Topology Ring In a ring network. A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. one typically uses FDDI.

Mesh Page 19 of 85 . Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be an actual hub or a switch. however. but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN.) Tree Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Star Many home networks use the star topology. (If the hub Star Topology fails. the entire network also fails. only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus and each hub functions as the "root" of a tree of devices. a star network generally requires more cable. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub ports) alone. In its simplest form. Compared to the bus topology.

Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. Unlike each of the previous topologies. Page 20 of 85 . messages can only travel in one direction. messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. like the Internet. employ mesh routing. although two cable paths exist. (Recall that in a ring.) Some WANs.

Due to the shielding structure. which is surrounded by an insulating material. Each channel can transmit analog or digital data. they give excellent noise immunity. Two types of coaxial cables that are widely used. The standard cable television network is an excellent example where broadband coaxial cables are used.  The baseband coaxial cable is a 50-ohm cable and is commonly used for digital transmission. Longer cables may also be used. however. Typically. Twisted pair can be used for both analog and digital transmission. Typically. Unguided medium refers to that medium in which the information is transmitted irrespective of the location of the destination machine. A cylindrical conductor in the form of a closely woven braided mesh surrounds the insulator. provide lower data rates unless used with amplifiers or repeaters.  The broadband coaxial cable is a 75-ohm cable mostly used for analog transmission. Good examples of guided medium can be copper wire and optical fibers. They. Coaxial cable has better shielding than twisted pair. These mediums can be broadly classified into guided and unguided medium. The telephone system is an excellent example of a twisted pair network. they have the advantage that they can span longer distance at relatively higher speed. The bandwidth depends on the length of the cable. The bandwidth that can be achieved with twisted pair depends on the thickness and the distance traveled. Thus. A plastic coating then covers this entire setup. typically about 1mm thick. a transmission rate of several megabits per second can be achieved for a few kilometers. These two wires are twisted together in a helical form. The broadband coaxial cables can give up to 450 MHz and can span for nearly 100 kms for analog transmission. This twisting reduces the electrical interference from similar cables close by. A coaxial cable consists of a stiff copper wire as the core.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Media The actual transmission of information in a computer network takes place via a transmission medium. Broadband systems can be subdivided into a number of independent channels. Page 21 of 85 . 1 to 2 Gbps1 is possible for a 1km cable. Guided medium can be termed as that medium where the packets are directed towards the destination. Twisted Pair The twisted pair transmission medium consists of two insulated copper wires.

They can also be used long distance transmission. At low frequencies. In addition. because of the fact that microwaves travel in a straight line. The light source. Wireless Transmission The transmission media described above provides a physical connection between two computers. employ the medium of light to transmit information. it necessitates the transmitter and the receiver to be aligned in a straight line without interference. The transmission medium used is an ultra-thin fiber of glass. Microwave Transmission Microwave transmission offers a high signal to noise ratio. is called wireless communication. Thus. The presence of no light is equivalent to 0 bit. information can be transmitted at very high speed . This is quite often not feasible especially when the geographical distance between the two computers is very large.000 Gbps is possible. Some waves may be refracted off low-lying atmospheric layers and thus may take slightly longer to arrive. as the name suggests. Page 22 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Optical fibers. The detector at the other end of the transmission medium detects the presence of light pulses and generates an electrical signal accordingly. However. radio waves etc.the speed of light and it eliminates problems like heat dissipation. They may also be out of phase with the direct wave thus creating a situation called multipath fading where the delayed wave tend to cancel out the direct wave. the radio waves tend to travel in a straight line and bounces of obstacles. radio waves have the disadvantage that arises from the fact that radio waves are frequency dependent. The technology behind optical fibers employs three components: the light source. can travel longer distances. Optical fibers are typically used to provide a bandwidth of 1 Gbps although bandwidth in excess of 50. transmission medium and the detector. generates a pulse of light that corresponds to 1 bit of data. Microwaves have the advantage that they are relatively inexpensive and require less space to setup antennas. At high frequencies. Radio Transmission The obvious advantage of using radio waves comes from the fact that radio waves are easily generated. the power of the radio waves deteriorates as the distance traveled from the source increases. employing these types of mediums. it becomes necessary to provide repeaters for long distances since the curvature of the earth becomes an obstacle. Communication in these types of setup is carried out by employing various other mediums such as microwaves. They are also absorbed by rain and are subjected to interference from motors and other electrical equipment. Communication. connected at one end of the transmission medium. This limitation is due to the unavailability of technology that can convert optical signals to electrical signals and vice versa at such a fast rate. However. can penetrate buildings and are omnidirectional.

a 568A patch cable will work in a network with 568B wiring and 568B patch cable will work in a 568A network. You will need a modular crimp tool. The electrons couldn't care less. Despite what you may have read elsewhere. perform the cross-over function. Here are the diagrams: Note that the TX (transmitter) pins are connected to corresponding RX (receiver) pins. It makes no functional difference which end is which. Two wire color-code standards apply: EIA/TIA 568A and EIA/TIA 568B. Modular Plug Crimp Tool. each having a network interface card (NIC) or network adapter and running network software. one of the two units must. This one is very similar to the one I have been using for many years for all kinds of telephone cable work and it works just fine for Ethernet cables. It makes no functional difference which standard you use for a straight-thru cable. connected together with a crossover cable. You don't need a lot of bells and whistles. Connectors and Terminators Twisted Pair (Shielded Twisted Pair and Unshielded Twisted Pair) is becoming the cable of choice for new installations. A crossover cable has different ends. plus to plus and minus to minus.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Cabling A LAN can be as simple as two computers. in effect. Let's start with simple pin-out diagrams of the two types of UTP Ethernet cables and watch how committees can make a can of worms out of them. just a tool that will securely crimp RJ-45 connectors.   A straight-thru cable has identical ends. Twisted pair cable is readily accepted as the preferred solution to Page 23 of 85 . The next step up would be a network consisting of three or more computers and a hub. You can start a crossover cable with either standard as long as the other end is the other standard. If you use a straight-through cable. And that you must use a crossover cable to connect units with identical interfaces. Each of the computers is plugged into the hub with a straight-thru cable (the crossover function is performed by the hub).

It provides support for a range of speeds and configurations. where they are then patched accordingly. The various jack connectors used in the wiring closet look like. All workstations are wired back to a central wiring closet. Within an organization. which limits speed and distances  Low to medium capacity  Medium to high loss  Category 2 = up to 1Mbps (Telephone wiring)  Category 3 = up to 10Mbps (Ethernet and 10baset)  Category 5 = 100mbps (supports 10baset and 100baset) Unshielded Twisted Pair cable used in Category 5 looks like Category 5 cable uses 8 wires. the length of the horizontal wiring. each PC is wired back to a central hub using its own cable. the limitations effectively limit a workstation to wall outlet of 3 meters. which surrounds all the other wires. There are limits imposed on the length of drop cable from the PC network card to the wall outlet. 100baset (100Mbps)  Reasonably cheap  Reasonably easy to terminate [special crimp connector tools are necessary for reliable operation  UTP often already installed in buildings  UTP is prone to interference. Distance limitations exist when cabling.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 cabling. Shielded twisted pair uses a special braided wire. In 10BaseT.  Used in token ring (4 or 16mbps). the IT department either performs this work or sub-contracts it to a third party. Page 24 of 85 . and from the wall outlet to the wiring closet. and is widely supported by different vendors. The features of twisted pair cable are. and wall outlet to wiring closet of 90 meters. 10baset (Ethernet 10mbps). which helps to reduce unwanted interference. For category 5 cabling at 100Mbps.

which can often be purchased in kit ready format. straight through or reversed. looks like The connectors used in thin-net Ethernet LAN's are T connectors (used to join cables together and attach to workstations) and terminators (one at each end of the cable).Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Patch Cables Patch cables come in two varieties. This has been mainly due to its ease of use and low cost. (RJ means "Registered Jack"). These are the straight through variety. there are RJ45 plugs designed for both solid core wire and stranded wire. If the colors appear in the reverse order. One application of patch cables is for patching between modular patch panels in system centers. Reversed cables are normally used for voice systems. If the colors are in the same order on both plugs. as used in Ethernet LAN's. RJ-45 plugs are similar to those you'll see on the end of your telephone cable except they have eight versus four or six contacts on the end of the plug and they are about twice as big. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable has traditionally been the cable of choice for low cost. Another application is to connect workstation equipment to the wall jack. and these could be either straight through or reversed depending upon the manufacturer. The T-connectors and terminators look like The straight through and cross-over patch cables discussed in this article are terminated with CAT 5 RJ-45 modular plugs. How to determine the type of patch cable Align the ends of the cable side by side so that the contacts are facing you. small user networks. Persons with minimal network understanding can readily build a LAN using coax components. The general features of coaxial cable are. Also. Others are designed specifically for one kind of wire or the other. and then compare the colors from left to right. Make sure they are rated for CAT 5 wiring. the cable is straight through.  Medium capacity  Ethernet systems (10mbps)  Slighter dearer than utp  More difficult to terminate  Not as subject to interference as utp  Care when bending and installing is needed  10base2 uses rg-58au (also called thin-net or cheaper net)  10base5 uses a thicker solid core coaxial cable (also called Thick-Net) Thin coaxial cable [RG-58AU rated at 50 ohms]. Page 25 of 85 . the cable is reversed.

As described previously. especially in the areas of connectivity. for example. Each software module that implements a protocol can be developed and updated independently of other modules. sometimes referred as “protocol stack” such as the TCP/IP family protocols. a protocol is a formal description of messages to be exchanged and rules to be followed for two or more systems to exchange information. Page 26 of 85 . if followed. and flexibility. These rules cover:  Syntax – Data format and coding  Semantics – Control information and error handling  Timing – Speed matching and sequencing Layered Approach A networking model represents a common structure or protocol to accomplish communication between systems. Recall that a protocol is a set of rules governing the exchange of data between two entities. Many protocols are used to provide and support data communications. ultimately. These protocols define the procedures to use for the systems involved in the communication process. are a set of rules that must be followed for devices to communicate  Are implemented in software/firmware Each protocol provides for a function that is needed to make the data communication possible. or may even include different types of systems that need to communicate.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 3 . Each area is the key in establishing an efficient and effective internetwork. to communicate between systems. allows interoperability between software and hardware vendors  Eases troubleshooting Implementing a functional internetwork is no simple task. The challenge when connecting various systems is to support communication among disparate technologies. You can think of a layer as a step that must be completed to go on to the next step and. Different sites. Many challenges must be faced. reliability. as long as the interface between modules remains constant. A data communication protocol is a set of rules that must be followed for the two electronic devices to communicate.Communication Protocols and Services Protocols Computer networks use protocols to communicate. Model = Structure Layer = Function Protocol = Rules Some of the advantages of using a layered model are:  Allows changes or new features to be introduced in one layer leaving the others intact  Divides the complexity of networking into functions or sublayers which are more manageable  Provides a standard that. may use different types of media operating at varying speeds. network management. Many protocols are used so that the problem can be broken into manageable pieces. They form communication architecture. Protocols:  Define the procedures to be used by systems involved in the communication process  In data communications. These models consist of layers.

reliability. Finally. the OSI layers afford extensibility. In practice there are so many different functions. that a set (also known as suite or stack) of protocols are usually defined. The layered approach to OSI offers several advantages to system implementers. error reporting. The upper layers are sometimes known as "middleware" because they provide software in the computer which convert data between what the applications programs expect. which ensure data exchanged are in correct and understandable form. internetworks must provide a certain level of reliability. There are many functions which may be need to be performed by a protocol.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Because companies rely heavily on data communication. which are primarily designed to provide a connection or path between users to hide details of underlying communications facilities. The transport layer provides the connection between the upper (applications-oriented) layers and the lower (or network-oriented) layers. there is a distinction between the functions of the lower (network) layers. Each protocol in the suite handles one specific aspect of the communication. will be much more likely to interoperate with another vendor's Layer 3 product when both vendors follow this standard model. simple changes such as adding one terminal type to the list of those supported by an architecture often required changes to essentially all communications software at a site. etc. This permits changes in a layer without affecting other layers. This is an unpredictable world.or communications language. By separating the job of networking into logical smaller pieces. The precise functions in each layer vary. options. vendors can more easily solve network "problems" through divide-andconquer. An ordered approach to network communication is a way out. New protocols and other network services will generally be easier to add to a layered architecture than to a monolithic one. All major telecommunication network architectures currently used or being developed use layered protocol architectures. In each case. addresses of the communications nodes. The packets exchanged between nodes are defined by a protocol . and what the network can transport. A basic principle is to ensure independence of layers by defining services provided by each layer to the next higher layer without defining how the services are to be performed. Prior to the use of layered protocol architectures. The protocols are usually structured together to form a layered design (also known as a "protocol stack"). These range from the specification of connectors. identification of interfaces. A product from one vendor that implements Layer 2. and the upper (or higher) layers. however. for example. so many large internetworks include redundancy to allow for communication even when problems occur. The basic idea of a layered architecture is to divide the design into small pieces. Each layer adds to the services provided by the lower layers in such a manner that the highest layer is provided a full set of services to manage communications and run distributed applications. Page 27 of 85 . Protocol Layers The communication between the nodes in a packet data network must be precisely defined to ensure correct interpretation of the packets by the receiving intermediate and the end systems. flow control. synchronization.

instead of dedicated LANs. all computers on the network generally could host those services on short notice. since for each pair of protocols a separate "gateway" product had to be developed. Although one computer may act as the file server or FAX server at any given time. It was costly to connect computers with different proprietary protocols. Once computers became readily available at economic prices. This differs from client/server architectures. the Internet itself becomes the network of choice. P2P signifies a shift in emphasis in peer networking from the hardware to the applications. Many types of client/server systems remain popular today. in which some computers are dedicated to serving the others. Client Server Ages ago (in Internet time). This definition captures the traditional meaning of peer-to-peer networking. users saw the need to interconnect the computers from different manufacturers using computer networks. particularly PC-based LANs running end-user database applications. Computers in a workgroup. when mainframe dinosaurs roamed the Earth. Page 28 of 85 . Client/server proved to be a more costeffective way to build many types of networks. since variants of the protocol existed and not all variants were defined by published documents. In particular. In effect.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Protocol Stacks The protocol stacks were once defined using proprietary documentation . This process was made more complicated in some cases. devices can now join the network from anywhere with little effort. or home computers. a new approach to computer networking called "client/server" emerged. the computers will typically be situated near each other physically and will run the same networking protocols. are configured for the sharing of resources such as files and printers. Peer-to-peer networks are generally simpler. but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads. Network Communication Network Architectures  Peer to Peer  Client Server  Console Terminal Peer To Peer A peer-to-peer type of network is one in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities.each manufacturer wrote a comprehensive document describing the protocol. P2P systems involve seven key characteristics:  User interfaces load outside of a web browser  User computers can act as both clients and servers  The overall system is easy to use and well-integrated  The system includes tools to support users wanting to create content or add functionality  The system provides connections with other users  The system does something new or exciting  The system supports "cross-network" protocols like SOAP or XML-RPC In this updated view of peer-to-peer computing. This approach was appropriate when the cost of computers was very high and communications software was "cheap" in comparison. Easier configuration and control over the application allows non networking-savvy people to join the user community.

the name regularly changes as they click links on the pages. client/server maintains a distinction between processes and network devices. Console Terminal The Console-Terminal architecture is one in which the Terminal has to access the Console for every piece of information. the user enters a computer name (or sometimes an IP address) into the interface to set up future connections to the server process. Page 29 of 85 . For example. Likewise. Client/Server Applications Some of the most popular applications on the Internet follow the client/server design:  Email clients  FTP (File transfer) clients  Web browsers Each of these programs presents a user interface (either graphic. Client/server networking. whereas Web clients often include features to support the graphic user interface of the browser such as high-end video cards and large-screen displays. a Web server will often contain large amounts of memory and disk space. focuses primarily on the applications rather than the hardware. The terminals are also some times referred to as ‘thin clients’. The same device may function as both client and server. Many home LAN gaming applications also use a single-server/multiple-client configuration.about. In the Web model. Client/Server at Home Many home networker’s use client/server systems without even realizing it. the HTML content developer encoded in the anchor tags provides server information. Cable modem and DSL routers also include a DHCP server with the hardware unit. Usually a client computer and a server computer are two separate devices. for example. for example.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 What Is Client/Server? The most basic definition of client/server Client/server is a computational architecture that involves client processes requesting service from server processes. In general. Web server hardware functions as both client and server when local browser sessions are run there. In the case of email and the name or address of the server appears in the URL of each request.or text-based) in a client process that allows the user to connect to servers. When using a Web browser. a device that is a server at one moment can reverse roles and become a client to a different server (either for the same application or for a different application). relies on DHCP server and client functionality built into the operating system. Microsoft's Internet Connection Sharing (ICS). however. each customized for their designed purpose. Although a person may start a Web surfing session by entering a particular server name (such as www.

 The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions need not be thrown together in the same layer out of necessity.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 4 .OSI Reference Model The OSI Reference Model Modern computer networks are designed in a highly structured way. and small enough that the architecture does not become unwieldy. The OSI model has seven layers. The principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers are as follows:  A layer should be created where a different level of abstraction is needed.  Each layer should perform a well defined function. The OSI Reference Model is based on a proposal developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).  The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the interfaces. The Seven Layers Model Seven layers are defined: Application : Provides different services to the applications Presentation : Converts the information Session : Handles problems which are not communication issues Transport : Provides end to end communication control Network : Routes the information in the network Data Link : Provides error control between adjacent nodes Physical : Connects the entity to the transmission media Page 30 of 85 . To reduce their design complexity. The model is called ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model because it deals with connecting open systems .  The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining internationally standardized protocols.that is. most networks are organized as a series of layers. systems that are open for communication with other systems. each one built upon its predecessor.

or in only one direction at a time. when the editor moves the virtual terminal's cursor to the upper left-hand corner of the screen. and invoices. For example. Only the side holding the token may perform the critical operation. A typical example of a presentation service is encoding data in a standard. etc. For example. a piece of software must be written to map the functions of the network virtual terminal onto the real terminal. directory lookup. and various other general-purpose and special-purpose facilities. One way to solve this problem is to define an abstract network virtual terminal for which editors and other programs can be written to deal with. there are hundreds of incompatible terminal types in the world. They exchange things such as people's names. All the virtual terminal software is in the application layer. The presentation layer is also concerned with other aspects of information representation. A session allows ordinary data transport. as do electronic mail. Most user programs do not exchange random binary bit strings. amounts of money. Transferring a file between two different systems requires handling these and other incompatibilities. These items are represented as character strings. along with a standard encoding to be used "on the wire". agreed upon way. rather than letting each user solve the problems. integers and so on. data compression can be used here to reduce the number of bits that have to be transmitted and cryptography is frequently required for privacy and authentication. The job of managing these abstract data structures and converting from the representation used inside the computer to the network standard representation is handled by the presentation layer. The Session Layer The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. One of the services of the session layer is to manage dialogue control. unlike all the lower layers. dates. the data structures to be exchanged can be defined in an abstract way. Page 31 of 85 . For some protocols. which are just interested in moving bits reliably from here to there. The Presentation Layer The presentation layer performs certain functions that are requested sufficiently often to warrant finding a general solution for them. integers. In particular. and so on. too. To manage these activities. different ways of representing text lines. the session layer provides tokens that can be exchanged. In order to make it possible for computers with different representation to communicate. Different file systems have different file naming conventions. A related session service is token management. Different computers have different codes for representing character strings. belongs to the application layer. To handle each terminal type. the session layer can help keep track of whose turn it is. If traffic can only go one way at a time. but it also provides some enhanced services useful in a some applications. and data structures composed of several simpler items. This work. the presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. this software must issue the proper command sequence to the real terminal to get its cursor there too. For example. remote job entry. escape sequences for inserting and deleting text. A session might be used to allow a user to log into a remote time-sharing system or to transfer a file between two machines. each with different screen layouts. Sessions can allow traffic to go in both directions at the same time. moving the cursor. as does the transport layer.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 The Application Layer The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed. Consider the plight of a full screen editor that is supposed to work over a network with many different terminal types. floating point numbers. it is essential that both sides do not attempt the same operation at the same time. Another application layer function is file transfer.

Flow control between hosts is distinct from flow control between switches. service and transport isolated messages with no guarantee about the order of delivery. there is often some accounting function built into the network layer. the users of the network. a program on the source machine carries on a conversation with a similar program on the destination machine. Since the operators of the subnet may well expect remuneration for their efforts. dividing the data among the network connections to improve throughput. the software must count how many packets or characters or bits are sent by each customer. the transport layer is required to make the multiplexing transparent to the session layer. On the other hand. and ultimately. The Transport Layer The basic function of the transport layer. the whole transfer would have to start over again. The Network Layer The network layer is concerned with controlling the operation of the subnet. only the data after the last checkpoint has to be repeated. Consider the problems that might occur when trying to do a two-hour file transfer between two machines on a network with a 1 hour mean time between crashes. to produce billing information. if creating or maintaining a network connection is expensive. Many hosts are multi-programmed. is to accept data from the session layer. split it up into smaller units if need be. and in a way that isolates the session layer from the inevitable changes in the hardware technology. the session layer provides a way to insert checkpoints into the data stream. so that after a crash. A key design issue is determining how packets are routed from source to destination. the transport layer musk takes care of establishing and deleting connections across the network. In other words. and broadcasting of messages to multiple destinations. There must also be a mechanism to regulate the flow of information. They could also be determined at the start of each conversation. The transport layer is a true source-to-destination or end-to-end layer. and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end. After each transfer was aborted. they will get in each other's way. The transport header is one place this information could be put. At the very least.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Another session service is synchronization. The type of service is determined when the connection is established. Finally. which implies that multiple connections will be entering and leaving each host. In all cases. Furthermore. The transport layer also determines what type of service to provide to the session layer. To eliminate this problem. other possible kinds of transport. If the transport connection requires a high throughput. using the message headers and control messages. the transport layer creates a distinct network connection for each transport connection required by the session layer. the transport layer might multiplex several transport connections onto the same network connection to reduce the cost. Under normal conditions. and would probably fail again with the next network crash. forming bottlenecks. Page 32 of 85 . pass these to the network layer. so that process on one machine has a way of describing with whom it wishes to converse. although similar principles apply to both. However. being determined anew for each packet. for example a terminal session. In addition to multiplexing several message streams onto one channel. all this must be done efficiently. they could be highly dynamic. If too many packets are present in the subnet at the same time. The control of such congestion also belongs to the network layer. This requires some kind of naming mechanism. to reflect the current network load. Routes could be based on static tables that are "wired into" the network and rarely changed. the transport layer might create multiple network connections. however. The most popular type of transport connection is an errorfree point-to-point channel that delivers messages in the order in which they were sent. so that a fast host cannot overrun a slow one. There needs to be some way to tell which message belongs to which connection.

The Physical Layer The physical later is concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. so the network layer is often thin or even nonexistent. If the line can be used to transmit data in both directions. It accomplishes this task by having the sender break the input data up into data frames (typically a few hundred bytes). When a packet has to travel from one network to another to get to its destination. not as a 0 bit. whether transmission may proceed simultaneously in both directions. Another issue that arises in the data link layer (and most of the higher layers as well) is how to keep a fast transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data. Since the physical layer merely accepts and transmits a stream of bits without any regard to meaning of structure. The problem is that the acknowledgment frames for A to B traffic compete for the use of the line with data frames for the B to A traffic. and process the acknowledgment frames sent back by the receiver. the accounting can become complicated. It is up to this layer to solve the problems caused by damaged. The second one may not accept the packet at all because it is too large. It is up to the network layer to overcome all these problems to allow heterogeneous networks to be interconnected. The protocols may differ. This can be accomplished by attaching special bit patterns to the beginning and end of the frame. However. and how many pins the network connector has and what each pin is used for. for example. it is received by the other side as a 1 bit. In this case. this introduces a new complication that the data link layer software must deal with. how the initial connection is established and how it is torn down when both sides are finished. transmit the frames sequentially. if the acknowledgment frame from the receiver back to the sender was destroyed. many problems can arise. with different rates on each side. The data link layer should provide error control between adjacent nodes. In broadcast networks.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 When a packet crosses a national border. and procedural interfaces. The design issues here deal largely with mechanical. electrical. Some traffic regulation mechanism must be employed in order to let the transmitter know how much buffer space the receiver has at the moment. the data link layer software on the source machine must retransmit the frame. The data link layer may offer several different service classes to the network layer. Physical layer design can properly be considered to be within the domain of the electrical engineer. special care must be taken to avoid confusion. which lies below the physical layer. The Data Link Layer The main task of the data link layer is to take a raw transmission facility and transform it into a line that appears free of transmission errors in the network layer. each of a different quality and with a different price. the routing problem is simple. If there is a chance that these bit patterns might occur in the data. it is up to the data link layer to create and recognize frame boundaries. The addressing used by the second network may be different from the first one. how many microseconds a bit lasts. for convenience. and the physical transmission medium. A duplicate frame could be sent. flow regulation and error handling are integrated. The Data Link Layer: Error Control A noise burst on the line can destroy a frame completely. Page 33 of 85 . The design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends a 1 bit. Frequently. multiple transmissions of the same frame introduce the possibility of duplicate frames. list. Typical questions here are how many volts should be used to represent a 1 and how many for a 0. and so on. and duplicate frames.

each layer adds its own layer information to that which it receives from a higher layer). the encapsulation information is stripped off. data is passed from one layer down to the next lower layer at the sending computer.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Sending Data via the OSI Model Each layer acts as though it is communicating with its corresponding layer on the other end. As the data it passed down to a lower layer. it is encapsulated into a larger unit (in effect. At the receiving end. the message is passed upwards to the desired layer. and as it passes upwards through each layer. Page 34 of 85 . In reality. till the Physical Layer finally transmits the data onto the network cable.

Data-link addresses sometimes are referred to as physical or hardware addresses. Each frame is a packet of data with a sequence number that is used to ensure delivery and a checksum to track corrupted frames. Datalink addresses usually exist within a flat address space and have a pre-established and typically fixed relationship to a specific device. Selective repeat The last two allow several frames to be in transit. LLC is defined in the IEEE 802. 3.2 defines a number of fields in data link layer frames that enable multiple higher-layer protocols to share a single physical data link. The basic protocol works as follows. Stop and Wait. The Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer manages protocol access to the physical network medium.2 specification and supports both connectionless and connection-oriented services used by higher-layer protocols. The sending station 1. The sending station awaits acknowledgements of the sent frames before transmitting further frames. End systems generally have only one physical network connection and thus have only one datalink address. If no acknowledgement for a particular frame arrives within a fixed time the frame is retransmitted The Receiving Station The receiving station acknowledges uncorrupted frames as they are received. IEEE 802. The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer of the data link layer manages communications between devices over a single link of a network. The sending station sends one or more frames with a sequence numbers them. 1. which enable multiple devices to uniquely identify one another at the data link layer. Three protocols for the data link layer. 2. Go back n 3. Page 35 of 85 . This requires only two sequence numbers 2. Note that there must be a large enough range for the sequence numbers so that the receiving station can distinguish between resends (this will happen if an ACK gets lost) and new frames. Routers and other internetworking devices typically have multiple physical network connections and therefore have multiple data-link addresses. Data Link Layer Addresses A data link layer address uniquely identifies each physical network connection of a network device. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has subdivided the data link layer into two sublayers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC). The IEEE MAC specification defines MAC addresses. Several algorithms are available for use to acknowledge delivery of packages.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 5 – LAN Protocols & Standards Data Link Layers Protocols (LLC and MAC) The logical link layer deals with the transmission of frames.

Figure 1-14 illustrates the relationship between MAC addresses. MAC addresses are unique for each LAN interface. MAC addresses identify network entities in LANs that implement the IEEE MAC addresses of the data link layer.3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) . Ethernet.This protocol is commonly used in bus (Ethernet) implementations.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 MAC Addresses Media Access Control (MAC) addresses consist of a subset of data link layer addresses. data-link addresses. Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet 802. MAC addresses sometimes are called burned-in addresses (BIAs) because they are burned into readonly memory (ROM) and are copied into random-access memory (RAM) when the interface card initializes. identify the manufacturer or vendor and thus comprise the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI). Carrier sense refers to the fact that each station listens to see if no other station is transmitting before sending data. Multiple access refers to the fact that in bus systems. which are administered by the IEEE. FAST Ethernet. The last 6 hexadecimal digits comprise the interface serial number. As with most data-link addresses. each station has access to the common cable. and the IEEE sublayers of the data link layer. or another value administered by the specific vendor. MAC addresses are 48 bits in length and are expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. The first 6 hexadecimal digits. Page 36 of 85 .

Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Collision detection refers to the principle of listening to see if other stations are transmitting whilst we are transmitting. In bus systems, all stations have access to the same cable medium. It is therefore possible that a station may already be transmitting when another station wants to transmit. Rule 1 is that a station must listen to determine if another station is transmitting before initiating a transmission. If the network is busy, then the station must back off and wait a random interval before trying again. Rule 2 is that a station, which is transmitting, must monitor the network to see if another station has begun transmission. This is a collision, and if this occurs, both stations must back off and retry after a random time interval. As it takes a finite time for signals to travel down the cable, it is possible for more than one station to think that the network is free and both grab it at the same time. CSMA/CD models what happens in the real world. People involved in-group conversation tend to obey much the same behavior. Fast Ethernet The growing importance of LANs and the increasing demand for data in a variety of forms (text, digital images, and voice) are fueling the need for high-bandwidth networks. To continue to support business operations, information systems (IS) managers must consider extending or replacing traditional network technologies with new, high-performance solutions. Managers with networks already running on 10megabit per second (Mbps) Ethernet have an advantage. They can easily upgrade to Fast Ethernet for 100 Mbps performance with minimal cost and service disruption. As a simple evolution of the familiar IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard, 100Base-T Fast Ethernet preserves the core structure of Ethernet and includes support for up to 100Mbps and the most widely used cabling schemes. It can be easily integrated with existing 10 Mbps Ethernet networks to provide ten times more network throughput to the desktop at a minimal incremental cost. Its interoperability with other low- and high-bandwidth networking technologies offers network administrators more flexibility in structuring high-speed LANs and WAN. Fast Ethernet is a natural extension of the existing 10 Mbps Ethernet technologies. It is backward compatible with existing networking protocols, media, and standards. It is cost-effective, easy to deploy, and offers 10times the speed of 10Base-T Ethernet at a low cost of ownership. 100BaseT's backward compatibility allows information resource departments to protect their investment in Ethernet expertise while delivering the performance required by power users. 100Base-T Fast Ethernet consists of five component specifications: the Media access Control (MAC) layer, the Media Independent Interface (MII), and three physical layers supporting the most widely used cabling types. Each of these components was designed to preserve compatibility with 10 Mbps Ethernet and existing installations. The Fast Ethernet architecture allows scalable performance up to 100 Mbps, meaning that higher throughput of the workstation at the sending or receiving end directly translates into more performance through the network. With a Fast Ethernet connection, users can finally tap into the network I/O performance of their high-end workstations and servers. The growing importance of LANs and the increasing complexity of desktop computing applications are fueling the need for high performance networks. A number of high-speed LAN technologies are proposed to provide greater bandwidth and improve client/server response times. Among them, Fast Ethernet, or 100BASE-T, provides a non-disruptive, smooth evolution from the current 10BASE-T technology. The dominating market position virtually guarantees cost effective and high performance Fast Ethernet solutions in the years to come. 100Mbps Fast Ethernet is a standard specified by the IEEE 802.3 LAN committee. It is an extension of the 10Mbps Ethernet standard with the ability to transmit and receive data at

Page 37 of 85

Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 100Mbps, while maintaining the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Ethernet protocol Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is based on the same Ethernet standard that IT managers already know and use. One of the original network architectures, defined during the 1970s, Ethernet is now widespread throughout the world. From the first implementation of the Ethernet specification — jointly developed by Digital, Intel and Xerox — this networking technology has proven itself in terms of performance, reliability and an ever-growing number of established network installations. Gigabit Ethernet builds on these proven qualities, but is 100 times faster than regular Ethernet and 10 times faster than Fast Ethernet. The principal benefits of Gigabit Ethernet include:  Increased bandwidth for higher performance and elimination of bottlenecks  Broad deployment capabilities without re-wiring, using 1000BASE-T Gigabit over Category 5 copper cabling  Aggregate bandwidth to 16Gbps through IEEE 802.3ad and Intel® Link Aggregation using Intel server adapters and switches  Full-duplex capacity, allowing data to be transmitted and received at the same time so that the effective bandwidth is virtually doubled  Quality of Service (QoS) features which can be used to help eliminate jittery video or distorted audio  Low cost of acquisition and ownership Standards Evolution Gigabit Ethernet is a function of technological evolution in response to industry demand. It is an extension of the 10Mbps Ethernet networking standard, 10Base-T, and the 100Mbps Fast Ethernet standards, 100Base-TX and 100Base-FX (Table 1). Two benefits leading to Ethernet's longevity and success are its low cost and ease of implementation. Besides offering high-speed connectivity at an economical price and support for a variety of transmission media, the Ethernet standard also offers a broad base of support for a huge and ever-growing variety of LAN applications. It is also easily scalable from 10Mbps to systems with higher-speed 100Mbps and 1000Mbps throughput. Nomenclature 10BASE-T 100BASE-TX 100BASE-FX 1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-CX 1000BASE-T Speed 10Mbps 100Mbps 100Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps Distance 100m 100m 2Km 5Km 550m 550m 275m 25m 100m Media Copper Copper Multimode Fiber Singlemode Fiber Multimode Fiber Multimode Fiber (50u) Multimode Fiber (62.5u) Copper Copper

In June of 1998, the IEEE approved the Gigabit Ethernet standard over fiber (LX and SX) and short-haul copper (CX) as IEEE 802.3z. The fiber implementation was widely supported. With approval of 802.3z, companies could rely on a well-known, standards-based approach to improve traffic flow in congested areas without having to upgrade to an unproven or non-standardized technology.

Page 38 of 85

Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Gigabit Ethernet was originally designed as a switched technology, using fiber for uplinks and for connections between buildings. Since then, Gigabit Ethernet has also been used extensively in servers with Gigabit Ethernet network adapters and along backbones to remove traffic bottlenecks in these areas of aggregation. In June of 1999, the IEEE further standardized IEEE 802.3ab Gigabit Ethernet over copper (1000BASE-T); allowing 1Gb speeds to be transmitted over Category 5 cable. Since Category 5 makes up a large portion of the installed cabling base, migrating to Gigabit Ethernet has never been easier. Organizations can now replace network adapters with Gigabit Ethernet and migrate to higher speeds more extensively without having to re-wire the infrastructure. This is especially important in areas where existing network wiring is difficult to access, such as the utility risers typically located between floors in large office buildings. Without the new standard, future deployment of Gigabit Ethernet might have required costly replacement of cabling in these risers. However, even with the new standard, existing cabling must meet certain characteristics. Gigabit Ethernet is fully compatible with the large installed base of Ethernet and Fast Ethernet nodes. It employs all of the same specifications defined by the original Ethernet standard, including:  CSMA/CD protocol  Ethernet frame or "packet" format  Full duplex  Flow control  Management objects as defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard Because it's part of the Ethernet suite of standards, Gigabit Ethernet also supports traffic management techniques that deliver Quality of Service over Ethernet, such as:  IEEE 802.1p Layer 2 prioritization  ToS coding bits for Layer 3 prioritization  Differentiated Services  Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Gigabit Ethernet can also take advantage of 802.1Q VLAN support, Layer 4 filtering, and Layer 3 switching at Gigabit speeds. In addition, bandwidth up to 16Gbps can be achieved by trunking either several Gigabit switch ports or Gigabit server adapters together using IEEE 802.3ad or Intel Link Aggregation. All of these popular Ethernet technologies, which are deployed in a variety of network infrastructure devices, are applicable to Gigabit Ethernet.

Page 39 of 85

Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 6 – Network Components Network Segments A network segment:  Is a length of cable  Devices can be attached to the cable  Has unique address  Has a limit on its length and the number of devices, which can be attached to it

Combining several individual network segments together, using appropriate devices like routers and/or bridges, makes large networks.

In the above diagram, a bridge is used to allow traffic from one network segment to the other. Each network segment is considered unique and has its own limits of distance and the number of connections possible. When network segments are combined into a single large network, paths exist between the individual network segments. These paths are called routes, and devices like routers and bridges keep tables, which define how to get to a particular computer on the network. When a packet arrives, the router/bridge will look at the destination address of the packet, and determine which network segment the packet is to be transmitted on in order to get to its destination.

Page 40 of 85

such as the gateway address and your computer's IP address. The repeater counts as a single node in the maximum node count associated with the Ethernet standard (30 for thin coax). Disconnecting one side of a repeater effectively isolates the associated segments from the network. Page 41 of 85 . There are limits on the number of repeaters. This allows the distance limitations of network cabling to be extended. Using repeaters simply allows you to extend your network distance limitations. It does not give you any more bandwidth or allow you to transmit data faster. They amplify the incoming signal received from one segment and send it on to all other attached segments. Repeaters also allow isolation of segments in the event of failures or fault conditions.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Introduction to Dial-Up Networking Dial-up networking refers to the technology that enables you to connect your computer to a network via a modem. Your ISP will need to provide certain information. which can be used. you need to configure Dial-Up Networking (DUN) to dial a Point of Presence (POP) and log into your Internet Service Provider (ISP). If your computer is not connected to a LAN and you want to connect to the Internet. Repeaters and Hubs Repeaters EXTEND network segments.

which runs at 10Mbps and is for the exclusive use of that workstation. Repeater features  Increase traffic on segments  Have distance limitations  Limitations on the number that can be used  Propagate errors in the network  Cannot be administered or controlled via remote access  Cannot loop back to itself (must be unique single paths)  No traffic isolation or filtering There are many types of hubs. which were available during the 1980's. with the advent of 10BaseT. hub concentrators are being very popular. unlike bus networks where the bandwidth is shared. which make them radically different from the older hubs. In addition.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 It should be noted that in the above diagram. A repeater works at the Physical Layer by simply repeating all data from one segment to another. These 10BaseT hubs also include buffering of packets and filtering. Each workstation plugs into a separate port. These 10BaseT hubs provide each client with exclusive access to the full bandwidth. thus there is no contention to worry about like in Ethernet. the traffic generated on one segment is propagated onto the other segment. it's not a good idea to use a repeater. SNMP management is also a common feature. Page 42 of 85 . Nowadays. Passive hubs are simple splitters or combiners that group workstations into a single segment. These are very sophisticated and offer significant features. so that unwanted packets (or packets which contain errors) are discarded. This causes a rise in the total amount of traffic. the network number assigned to the main network segment and the network number assigned to the other side of the repeater are the same. so if the network segments are already heavily loaded. whereas active hubs include a repeater function and are thus capable of supporting many more connections.

this is a better option for adding more workstations than the use of a repeater. allowing informed decisions to be made concerning the state of the network.  Each port has exclusive access to its bandwidth (no CSMA/CD)  Hubs may be cascaded to add additional ports  SNMP managed hubs offer good management tools and statistics  Utilize existing cabling and other network components  Becoming a low cost solution Bridges and Switches Bridges interconnect Ethernet segments. The advantages for these newer 10BaseT hubs are. it does not contend with other workstations for access. the bridge learns about the network and the routes. This internal table is then used to determine which segment incoming frames should be forwarded to. Hub options also include an SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) agent. Traffic on the bus is controlled using the CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) protocol. The hub provides a number of ports. to allow packets to be held in case the hub or port is busy. And. which often runs at a much higher data rate than that of the ports. Detailed statistics related to port usage and bandwidth is often available. all stations are connected to the same network segment in bus configuration. because each workstation has its own port. The ports on a hub all appear as one Ethernet segment. which are logically. The size of this table is important. Each time the bridge is presented with a frame. to add more ports per segment. This allows the use of network management software to remotely administer and configure the hub.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 In standard Ethernet. Ports can also be buffered. combined using a single backplane. During initialization. Page 43 of 85 . and all stations share the available bandwidth. the source address is stored. Packets are passed onto other network segments based on the MAC layer. The workstations attach to the hub using UTP. In addition. having the entire bandwidth available for its exclusive use. The bridge builds up a table. As hubs do not count as repeaters. 10BaseT Hubs dedicate the entire bandwidth to each port (workstation). hubs can be stacked or cascaded (using master/slave configurations) together. especially if the network has a large number of workstations/servers. which identifies the segment to which the device is located on.

it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols  Since bridges work at the MAC layer. giving rise to broadcast storms on the network Bridges are ideally used in environments where there a number of well defined workgroups. A bridge works at the MAC Layer by looking at the destination address and forwarding the frame to the appropriate segment upon which the destination computer resides. the best place to locate that server is on the same segment as the workstations. Ideally.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 The advantages of bridges are  Increase the number of attached workstations and network segments  Since bridges buffer frames. require the frames to be modified before transmission onto the new segment. and the shortest path is not always taken  Bridges pass on broadcasts. This causes delays  In complex networks. which combine different MAC protocols. with occasional access to servers outside of their localized workgroup or network segment. as this minimizes traffic on the other segment. they are transparent to higher level protocols  By subdividing the LAN into smaller segments. Bridges do not offer performance improvements when used in diverse or scattered workgroups. overall reliability is increased and the network becomes easier to maintain  Used for non routable protocols like NETBEUI which must be bridged  Help localize network traffic by only forwarding data onto other segments as required (unlike repeaters) The disadvantages of bridges are  The buffering of frames introduces network delays  Bridges may overload during periods of high traffic  Bridges. each operating more or less independent of each other. Page 44 of 85 . data may be sent over redundant paths. The diagram below shows two separate network segments connected via a bridge. where the majority of access occurs outside of the local segment. Note that each segment must have a unique network address number in order for the bridge to be able to forward packets from one segment to the other. and avoids the delay incurred by the bridge. if workstations on network segment A needed access to a server.

and then it’s forwarded to that segment. it looks at the MAC address in the header. the segments are still part of the same broadcast domain [a broadcast domain is a group of Page 45 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Bridge features  Operate at the MAC layer (layer 2 of the OSI model)  Can reduce traffic on other segments  Broadcasts are forwarded to every segment  Most allow remote access and configuration  Often SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) enabled  Loops can be used (redundant paths) if using spanning tree algorithm  Small delays introduced  Fault tolerant by isolating fault segments and reconfiguring paths in the event of failure  Not efficient with complex networks  Redundant paths to other networks are not used (would be useful if the major path being used was overloaded)  Shortest path is not always chosen by spanning tree algorithm Ethernet switches increase network performance by decreasing the amount of extraneous traffic on individual network segments attached to the switch. so are invisible to the switch. the header is checked to determine which segment the packet is destined for. reducing the traffic. Nodes. hence better performance. Each segment into the switch has its own collision domain (where the bandwidth is competed for by workstations in that segment). In this way. should be placed on the same segment. but instead of reading the entire incoming Ethernet frame before forwarding it to the destination segment. Ethernet switches work and function like bridges at the MAC layer. Higher protocols like IPX and TCP/IP are buried deep inside the packet. and decides which segment to forward the packet to. However. Switches divide the network into smaller collision domains [a collision domain is a group of workstations that contend for the same bandwidth]. the packet is dropped and not retransmitted. offering fewer delays through the network. This prevents the packet being "broadcasted" onto unnecessary segments. which inter-communicate frequently. the packet is forwarded without delay. If the packet is destined for the same segment that it arrives on. Each segment attached to the switch is considered to be a separate collision domain. usually only read the destination address in the frame before re-transmitting it to the correct segment. switches forward frames faster than bridges. Switches work at the MAC layer level. In addition. As packets arrive at the switch. They also filter packets a bit like a router does. When a packet arrives. Once the destination segment has been determined.

by looking at information embedded within the data field. will be forwarded to all other segments (unlike a router). Most routers can also perform bridging functions. because they can filter packets at a protocol level. Ethernet is a widely used standard  Improved efficiency and faster performance due to low latency switching times  Each port does not contend with other ports. it is possible to disable this broadcast traffic. an internal WWW server can be allowed IP access from external networks. whereby a limit is placed on the number of broadcasts forwarded by the switch over a certain time period. Routers generally work at the protocol level. Broadcast packets. They work similar to bridges and switches in that they filter out unnecessary network traffic and remove it from network segments. each having their own full bandwidth (there is no contention like there is on Ethernet) Routers and Gateways Packets are only passed to the network segment they are destined for. Ethernet Switching: Advantages  Existing cabling structure and network adapters is preserved  Switches can be used to segment overloaded networks  Switches can be used to create server farms or implement backbones  Technology is proven. which connects to the Internet. Routers were devised in order to separate networks logically. so that external hosts outside the company are prevented access (you could even deny internal workstations access if required). On some switches. an organization. in TCP/IP this is defined by the subnet mask]. Filtering at this level (on TCP/IP addresses. A router works at the Network Layer or higher. will install a router as the main gateway link between their network and the outside world. A major feature of routers. For instance. which only looks at the MAC layer. Typically. This is essentially a barrier. no additional broadcasts are forwarded till the time period has expired and a new time period begins. which originate on any segment. Some vendors implement a broadcast throttle feature. then forwards the frame to the appropriate segment upon which the destination computer resides. a TCP/IP router can segment the network based on groups of TCP/IP addresses. For example.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 workstations which share the same network subnet. Once a threshold level has been reached. By configuring the router with access lists (which define what protocols and what hosts have access) this enforces security by restricted (or allowing) access to either internal or external hosts. but other company servers which contain sensitive data can be protected. like a TCP/IP address. which prevents unwanted packets either entering or leaving designated areas of the network. also known as level 3 switching) will take longer than that of a bridge or switch. Page 46 of 85 . is to act as a firewall.

the gateway is the ISP that connects the user to the Internet. Page 47 of 85 . not gateways. and a switch. For example. The gateway is also associated with both a router. In enterprises. when a user connects to the Internet.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Router features  Use dynamic routing  Operate at the protocol level  Remote administration and configuration via SNMP  Support complex networks  The more filtering done. the gateway is the computer that routes the traffic from a workstation to the outside network that is serving the Web pages. that person essentially connects to a server that issues the Web Pages to the user. IGRP and OSPF] A Gateway is a machine on a network that serves as an entrance to another network. the lower the performance  Provides security  Segment networks logically  Broadcast storms can be isolated  Often provide bridge functions also  More complex routing protocols used [such as RIP. In enterprises. In homes. which provides the actual path for the packet in and out of the gateway. which use headers and forwarding tables to determine where packets are sent. These two devices are host nodes. the gateway node often acts as a proxy server and a firewall.

A LAN switch is a device that typically consists of many ports that connect LAN segments (Ethernet and Token Ring) and a high-speed port (such as 100-Mbps Ethernet. The trend toward fewer users per segment is known as micro segmentation. Micro segmentation allows the creation of private or dedicated segments. For this reason. airlines. This chapter provides a summary of general LAN switch operation and maps LAN switching to the OSI reference model. LAN switches can accommodate network designs featuring fewer users per segment. They were Layer 2 devices dedicated to solving bandwidth issues. or whenever the device sends a broadcast or multicast packet. The data is stored on computers than on paper. the LAN switch forwards frames from Port 1 to Port 2. collisions (a normal phenomenon in shared-medium networks employing hubs) do not occur. it can do so because the LAN switch can forward frames from Port 3 to Port 4 at the same time it forwards frames from Port 1 to Port 2. Page 48 of 85 . Whenever a device connected to the LAN switch sends a packet to an address that is not in the LAN switch's table (for example. and each port represents a different segment. the LAN switch sends the packet out all ports (except for the port from which the packet originated) ---a technique known as flooding. connects the LAN switch to other devices in the network. That way. The earliest LAN switches were developed in 1990. A LAN switch forwards frames based on either the frame's Layer 2 address (Layer 2 LAN switch). insurance companies and many government organizations would stop functioning if there were a network failure. The high-speed port. or in some cases. Fiber Distributed Data Interface [FDDI]. Today. Recent LAN switches are evolving to multi-layer devices capable of handling protocol issues involved in high-bandwidth applications that historically have been solved by routers. or 155-Mbps ATM). A LAN switch has dedicated bandwidth per port. the frame's Layer 3 address (multi-layer LAN switch). to a device that is beyond the LAN switch). thus sparing other hosts on Port 3 from responding to frames destined for Host B. Each user receives instant access to the full bandwidth and does not have to contend for available bandwidth with other users. the reliance on networks is so high and the network traffic is increasing. that is. in turn. and the dependence on networking is so high that banks. If Host C needs to send data to Host D at the same time that Host A sends data to Host B. one user per segment. A LAN switch is a device that provides much higher port density at a lower cost than traditional bridges. Since. As a result. thereby increasing the average available bandwidth per user. When a LAN switch first starts up and as the devices that are connected to it request services from other devices. when Host A on Port 1 needs to transmit to Host B on Port 2. the switch builds a table that associates the MAC address of each local device with the port number through which that device is reachable. Although Ethernet LAN switches are most common. Operations of these industries depend on computers and networking. whereas an ATM switches forwards cells. LAN switches are being used to replace hubs in the wiring closet because user applications are demanding greater bandwidth. we have to address some of the bandwidth problems this has caused and find ways to tackle them.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 7 – Switching Switched Ethernets Local Area Network (LAN) technology has made a significant impact on almost every industry. Token Ring and FDDI LAN switches are becoming more prevalent as network utilization increases. A LAN switch is also called a frame switch because it forwards Layer 2 frames.

flow control at the client level may be used. So. Another big advantage of full duplex is that since there cannot be a collision in full duplex. However with a switched network one can connect each port directly so bandwidth is shared only among a number of users in a workgroup (connected to the ports). that LAN switches that support VLANs are more scalable than traditional bridges. although ways for manual configuration are also available. The user is unaware of full duplex operation. The effective bandwidth is equal to the number of switched ports times the bit rate on medium/2 for half duplex and for full duplex equal to number of switched ports times the bit rate on medium. However with increase in the speed of workstation the bandwidth requirement of each machine has grown more that five times in the last few years. upgrading the backbone that connects various LANs could solve it. and a station can transmit whenever a frame is queued in the adapter. the traffic from workstations to server has increased. there is no MAC layer limitation on the distance. token ring and FDDI all use shared media. Full duplex mode of Ethernet allows simultaneous flow of traffic from one station to another without collision. Coupled with bandwidth hungry multimedia applications and unmanaged and bursty traffic this problem is further aggravated. the use of a large number of GUI applications means more pictures and graphics files need to be transferred to the workstations. switching routers. Thus. they do not scale well. These multiple independent data paths increase the throughput capacity of a switch. and no new software applications are needed for this enhancement. If a segment is attached to a port of a switch then CSMA/CD is used for media access in that segment. media speed rates can be sustained depending upon the station and the switch to which it is attached. Bridges and routers can be used to keep the number of users per LAN at an optimal number. Local Area Networks in many organizations have to deal with increased bandwidth demands. Ethernet in full duplex mode doesn't require collision detection when only one port station is attached to each port. like the following. This has a potential to double the performance of the server. switching hubs are also sold. that while a client can send as well as receive the frames at the same time. e. One catch to this is. The source and destination Medium Access Control (MAC) address of incoming frame is looked up and if the frame is to be forwarded. 2500 m for Ethernet. there are a variety of features that distinguish them. Conventional Ethernet is bridged or routed. it is sent to the destination port. Switches normally have higher port counts than bridges and divide network into several dedicated channels parallel to each other. A network built and designed only with LAN switches appears as a flat network topology consisting of a single broadcast domain. One can have a 100 km Ethernet using a single mode fiber. If this was the only problem. Note. This may lead to frame loss and eventual loss of connection to the server. Another advantage of switches is that most of them are self-configuring.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Because they work like traditional "transparent" bridges. The basic operation of a switch is like a multiport bridge. Page 49 of 85 . A 100 Mbps Ethernet will have to divide its bandwidth over a number of users because of shared access. Ethernet. With the increasing use of client-server architecture in which most of the software is stored in the server. Further. However. This is another cause of increased traffic per workstation. Although this is mostly what all switches do. these networks are liable to suffer the problems inherent in flat (or bridged) networks---that is. with virtually every network vendor marketing its products. To avoid such a situation. The station can also receive at the same time. LAN switching is a fast growing market. minimizing network downtime. at peak loads server might be overburdened. Since there is reduced media sharing more bandwidth is available. The limitation now is at physical layer. Switches can also maintain multiple connections at one point.g. The reason it works is simple. There is no contention between stations to transmit over a medium. Besides LAN switches. Consequently. There is no contention to gain access and LAN switch architecture is scalable. if the port has only one station attached then there is no need for any media access protocol. however. LAN switches dissolve previously welldefined workgroup or department boundaries. More and more users are being added to the existing LANs.

Since the buffers are only meant for absorbing peaks traffic.1d Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 (L2) protocol designed to run on bridges and switches.8 microsecond per byte). respond with a jam message. For example when we have a slow port transmitting to a fast port. It is a costly operation as delay is of the order of seconds for each dropped frame. Traditional networks do not have a layer 2 flow control mechanism. Page 50 of 85 . Since the decoding of MAC address is fast and a switch can. While the frame is being received. so it will wait a random time before retransmit ting. Filtering of runts is important as they seriously waste the bandwidth of the network. The delay in these switches is about 60 microseconds.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Flow control is necessary when the destination port is receiving more traffic than it can handle. To the sender. The delay thus for 1500 byte frame is 1200 microsecond. The frame must be buffered and transmitted only when it is completely received. and rely mainly on higher layers for this. Thus frame latency is about 1/20th of that in store-andforward switches (explained later). The specification for STP is called 802. collision or packet loss can be avoided. Store-and-forward switching This type of switches receive whole of the frame before forwarding it. CRC is verified and the frame is directly forwarded to the output port. in very little time. processing is done. No Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) verification is done in these switches. in some cases store-and-forward switching has its obvious advantage. Another advantage would be in high traffic conditions.1d. Switching Methods Cut-through switching Marked by low latency. with excessive load frames may be dropped. Switches come with various flow control strategies depending on the vendors. jam packet is like a virtual collision. Even though there are some disadvantages of store-andforward switches. Compare this with store-and-forward switches where every frame is buffered (delay: 0. these switches begin transmission of the frame to the destination port even before the whole frame is received. so even cut-through switches may need to buffer the frames. when the frames have to be buffered since the output port may be busy. Thus. The main purpose of STP is to ensure that you do not run into a loop situation when you have redundant paths in your network. Cut-through switches with runt (collision fragments) detection will store the frame in the buffer and begin transmission as soon as the possibility of runt is eliminated and it can grab the outgoing channel. Loops are deadly to a network. Some switches upon finding that the destination port is overloaded will send jam message to the sender. This strategy works as only those frames that go to the overloaded destination port are jammed and not the others. in certain cases they are essential. STP IEEE 802. As traffic increases the chances of a certain output port being busy obviously increase. Upon complete arrival of the frame.

a broadcast or multicast packet transmitted from Station M and destined for Station N would simply keep circulating again and again between both switches. Without STP on the bridges and switches.1d being the most popular and widely implemented.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 STP runs on bridges and switches that are 802. STP is implemented on bridges and switches in order to prevent loops in the network. the backup links are activated so that users can continue using the network. STP should be used in situations where you want redundant links. for example. Consider the following network: In the network diagram above. If your primary fails. a redundant link is planned between Switch A and B.1d-compliant. but not loops. Page 51 of 85 . but this creates the possibility of having a bridging loop. with IEEE 802. such a situation could result in a loop. There are different flavors of STP. Redundant links are as important as backups in case of failover in a network. This is because.

14. you need to select a switch to be the root of the spanning-tree. Note: The selection of the root switch for a particular VLAN is very important. or you can let the switches decide it on their own.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 However. All other decisions in the network. With STP. They are also less likely to be disturbed during moves and changes within the network. and instead accepts that of Switch A. 203. such as which port is blocked and which port is put in forwarding mode. it should be the most centralized switch on the network. the key is for all the switches in the network to elect a root bridge that becomes the focal point in the network. are made from the perspective of this root bridge. A switched environment. 16. Before configuring STP. The root for the different VLANs can all reside in a single switch. If the Root ID on Switch A is advertising it is smaller than the Root ID that its neighbor (Switch B) is advertising.  The following VLANs are defined on the network: 1. If a link in forwarding state becomes unavailable. Each switch compares the parameters in the BPDU that they are sending to their neighbor with the one that they are receiving from their neighbor.  The VTP domain name is STD-Doc. or it can reside in varying switches. while leaving others in a forwarding state. When implemented in a switching network. It does not necessarily have to be the most powerful switch.  Switches 12. STP defines a tree that spans all switches in an extended network. 202. To provide this desired path redundancy. STP forces certain redundant data paths into a standby (blocked) state. because they typically do not have end stations connected to them. which is different from that of a bridge. The second option is risky because there may be sub-optimal paths in your network if the root selection process is not controlled by you. and 17 are switches attached to workstations and PCs. the root bridge is usually referred to as the root switch. You can choose it. Page 52 of 85 . Each VLAN (because it is a separate broadcast domain) must have its own root bridge. as well as for subsequent configuration of the network. with STP running on both switches. It is also important that this switch be the least disturbed switch in the network. Switch B stops advertising its Root ID. 201. The backbone switches are often selected for this function. most likely deals with multiple VLANs. Switch A's information is better. the network logically looks as follows: The following applies to the network diagram above:  Switch 15 is the backbone switch. The BPDU contains parameters that the switches use in the selection process. All the switches exchange information to use in the selection of the root switch. STP reconfigures the network and reroutes data paths by activating the appropriate standby path. All dataflow across the network will be from the perspective of this switch. 200. as well as to avoid loop condition. The thing to remember in the STP root selection process is that smaller is better. and 204. This information is carried in Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). 13.

it will be automatically selected by the other switches as the root switch. They determine this path by comparing the information in all the BPDUs received on all their ports.  STP Rule Three: In a given LAN segment. it proceeds to Rule Two. Rules of Operation: The rules for how STP works are listed below. This helps prevent time-outs on clients that use Novell Netware or that use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to obtain an IP address. The portfast variable.  STP Rule One: All ports of the root switch must be in forwarding mode (except for some corner cases where self-looped ports are involved). the switches communicate with each other to determine which switch on that LAN segment is best to use for moving data from that segment to the root bridge. the switches follow the rules defined below. In addition. set the appropriate variables to designate it as the root switch. Page 53 of 85 . The only variable you have to set is the bridge priority. From this comparison. when enabled on a port. they start the root switch selection process by each switch transmitting BPDU to its directly connected switch on a per-VLAN basis. Most other STP variables should be left at their default values.  STP Rule Four: All other ports in all the switches (VLAN-specific) must be placed in blocking mode. The port with the smallest information contained in its BPDU is used to get to the root switch. When the switches first come up. each switch determines the best path to get to the root. they remain forwarded. the switches come to an agreement as to who the root switch is. The switch with the lowest priority in the network wins this election process. the designated switch's port that connects to that LAN segment must be placed in forwarding mode. As the BPDU goes out through the network. Note: Remember. there will be one root switch identified per VLAN. It could potentially result in a loop. it is important that you do not use this command when you have switch-to-switch connection. However. This switch is called the designated switch. If this switch has a bridge priority that is lower than all other switches. that port is called the root port. This is only for ports that are connected to other bridges or switches. causes the port to immediately switch from blocking mode to forwarding mode. Next. After a switch figures out its root port. This is done on a per-port basis. The 30-60 second delay that occurs when transitioning from blocking to forwarding mode transition prevents a temporal loop condition in the network when connecting two switches. Clients (end stations) on switch ports: You can also issue the set spantree portfast command. After that root switch has been identified.  STP Rule Two: Once a switch determines its root port that port must be set to forwarding mode.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 After you decide which switch should be the root switch. for each LAN segment. Ports connected to workstations or PCs are not affected by STP. each switch compares the BPDU it sent out to the one it received from its neighbors.

Another standard architectural model that is often used to describe a network protocol stack is the OSI reference model. Layered Approach Generally. each protocol is only concerned with communicating to its peer—it does not care about the layers above or below it. Theoretically. ARP. The internetwork layer is commonly used to describe TCP/IP. Peer-level communications are standardized to ensure that successful communications take place. the internetwork layer. This model consists of a seven-layer protocol stack. a layer does not define a single protocol—it defines a data communication function that may be performed by any number of protocols. It is used not only to explain communication protocols but to develop them as well. A peer is an implementation of the same protocol in the equivalent layer on a remote computer. These three layers are as follows: • Network Access Layer • Host-To-Host Transport Layer • Application Layer An additional layer. has been added to this model. To describe TCP/IP based firewalls more precisely. The DoD Protocol Model This model is based on the three layers defined for the DoD Protocol Model in the DDN Protocol Handbook. each of which provides a service suitable to the function of that layer. TCP/IP is described using three to five functional layers. UDP and MAC TCP/IP An architectural model provides a common frame of reference for discussing Internet communications. which is also known as the Internet reference model. Every protocol communicates with its peer. Volume 1. we have chosen the common DoD reference model. TCP.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 8 – TCP/IP  Layered Approach  Understanding Architectural Models and Protocols  How a Protocol Stack Works  Encapsulation of Data for Network Delivery  Internet Protocol Suite  ICMP. Understanding Architectural Models and Protocols In an architectural model. It separates the functions performed by communication protocols into manageable layers stacked on top of each other. Page 54 of 85 . Because each layer defines a function. Each layer in the stack performs a specific function in the process of communicating over a network. it can contain multiple protocols. IP.

This control information is called a header and/or a trailer because it is placed in front of or behind the data to be transmitted. The upper layers rely on the lower layers to transfer the data across the underlying network. These wrapped messages are then passed into the layer below along with additional control information. protocols (which compose the various layers) are like a pile of building blocks stacked one upon another. information received from a lower layer is interpreted as both a header/trailer and data. exists between the layers. and checksum) to ensure proper delivery. The process of removing headers and trailers from data is called decapsulation. routing controls. they only need to know how to pass data to them. An address mechanism is the common element that allows data to be routed through the various layers until it reaches its destination. Because every layer is involved in sending data from a local application to an equivalent remote application. This mechanism enables each layer in the transmitting computer to communicate with its corresponding layer in the receiving computer. however. the process is called encapsulation. Each layer strips off its header and/or trailer before passing the data up to the layer above. As information flows back up the stack. and it knows nothing about the procedures that the other layers follow. Page 55 of 85 . The individual layers do not need to know how the layers above or below them function. some of which may be forwarded or derived from the higher layer. nested wrappers—one for each layer of protocol through which the data passed. The four layers in this reference model are crafted to distinguish between the different ways that the data is handled as it passes down the protocol stack from the application layer to the underlying physical network. the layers must agree on how to pass data between themselves on a single computer. Each layer treats all of the information that it receives from the layer above it as data.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A dependency. How a Protocol Stack Works As the reference model indicates. When a protocol uses headers or trailers to package the data from another protocol. Because of this structure. Each layer has specific responsibilities and specific rules for carrying out those responsibilities. the data is passed up the stack to the receiving application. the original message is enveloped in multiple. Encapsulation of Data for Network Delivery When data is received. groups of related protocols are often called stacks or protocol stacks. and it places its own header and/or trailer around that information. until it is transmitted over the network by the network access layer protocols. At the remote end. By the time a message exits the system on a physical link (such as a wire). Data is passed down the stack from one layer to the next. Each layer in the transmitting computer communicates with its peer layer in the receiving computer via a process called peer-to-peer communication. A layer carries out its tasks and delivers the message to the next layer in the protocol stack. the opposite happens. Each layer in the stack adds control information (such as destination address.

Unlike higher level protocols. Page 56 of 85 . and the application layer. the layer above the network access layer is called the internetwork layer. a layer is unaware of the data structures used by the layers above and below it. the network access layer protocols must understand the details of the underlying physical network. operating systems. The communicating entities—which can be computers.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Each layer also has its own independent data structures. that the network needs to route the datagram. the host-to-host transport layer. The following section describes the Internet reference model in more detail. Datagrams are packets of information that comprise a header. each layer has its own data structures and its own terminology to describe those structures. such as the packet structure. which is used to ensure that the data is not modified in transit. which is a dedicated hardware device that passes packets from one network to a different network. Conceptually. processes. Trailers typically contain a checksum value. the network access layer protocols use the physical addresses of the nodes on the network. In reality. the data structures of a layer are designed to be compatible with the structures used by the surrounding layers for the sake of more efficient data transmission. Understanding the details and constraints of the physical network ensures that these protocols can format the data correctly so that it can be transmitted across the network. This layer is responsible for routing messages through internetworks. the Internet reference model contains four layers: the network access layer. such as the source address and security labels. data. we describe the function of each layer in more detail. We will use this reference model throughout this guide to describe the structure and function of the TCP/IP protocol suite and Cisco Centric Firewall.  They deliver data between two devices on the same network. A physical address is stored in the network adapter card of a computer or other device. A header can also contain other information. such as the destination address. This computer accepts network packets from one network on one network card and routes those packets to a different network via the second network adapter card. starting with the network access layer and working our way up to the application layer. or people—that use the datagram services must specify the destination address (using control information) and the data for each message to be transmitted. Still. Two types of devices are responsible for routing messages between networks. The second device is a router. In the following sections. The internetwork layer protocols provide a datagram network service. Internetwork Layer In the Internet reference model. Network Access Layer The network access layer is the lowest layer in the Internet reference model. The header contains information. and it is a value that is "hard-coded" into the adapter card by the manufacturer. The first device is called a gateway. which is a computer that has two network adapter cards. and the physical address scheme that is used. and a trailer.  They exchange data between the computer and the physical network. This layer contains the protocols that the computer uses to deliver data to the other computers and devices that are attached to the network. maximum frame size. The internetwork layer protocols package the message in a datagram and send it off. Understanding The Internet Reference Model As mentioned earlier. To deliver data on the local network. programs. the internet work layer. which is the data unit passed across the physical connection. The protocols at this layer perform three distinct functions:  They define how to use the network to transmit a frame.

then called ARPANET. Instead of using the term "session. the TCP/IP protocols were developed. This layer provides functions for users or their programs. In 1968.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A datagram service does not support any concept of a session or connection. it is often referred to as the DoD protocol suite or the Internet protocol suite. This layer accepts information to be transmitted as a stream of characters. In the TCP/IP protocol hierarchy. Application Layer The top layer in the Internet reference model is the application layer. and it is the layer in which user-access network processes reside. The TCP/IP protocols played an important role in the development of the Internet." TCP/IP uses the terms "socket" and "port" to describe the path (or virtual circuit) over which cooperating applications communicate. the service retains no memory of the entity with which it was communicating. they became standard protocols for ARPANET. the network that was initially constructed as a result of this research. For cooperating applications to be able to exchange data. sessions are not identifiable as a separate layer. The abilities to retransmit data and check it for errors are minimal or nonexistent in the datagram services. However. The service employs the concept of a connection (or virtual circuit). gradually became known as the Internet. Most of the application protocols in this layer provide user services. the protocols in the host-to-host transport layer maintain it. TCP/IP originated out of the investigative research into networking protocols that the Department of Defense (DoD) initiated in 1969. and new user services are added often. In the early 1980s. If such a memory is needed. it simply ignores (or drops) the datagram without notifying the receiving higher-layer entity. It is responsible for providing end-to-end data integrity and provides a highly reliable communication service for entities that want to carry out an extended two-way conversation. The application layer also manages the sessions (connections) between cooperating applications. If the receiving datagram service detects a transmission error during transmission using the checksum value of the datagram. Its name comes from two of the more important protocols in the suite: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). Once a message is sent or received. In addition to the usual transmit and receive functions. The name TCP/IP refers to a suite of data communication protocols. as well as other processes of which the users are not aware. they must agree about how data is represented. It provides the services that user applications use to communicate over the network. The original focus of this research was to facilitate communication among the DoD community. These processes include all of those that users interact with directly. The application layer is responsible for standardizing the presentation of data. Other functions that process user data. Page 57 of 85 . and it is highly specific to the application being performed. such as data encryption and decryption and compression and decompression. Host-to-Host Transport Layer The protocol layer just above the internetwork layer is the host-to-host transport layer. The name is misleading because TCP and IP are only two of dozens of protocols that compose the suite. the host-to-host transport layer uses open and close commands to initiate and terminate the connection. can also reside at the application layer. Because of the history of the TCP/IP protocol suite. and these functions are performed by the host-to-host transport layer. This layer includes all applications protocols that use the host-to-host transport protocols to deliver data. In 1983. and it returns information to the recipient as a stream. the DoD Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) began researching the network technology that is now called packet switching. A connection is the state of the host-to-host transport layer between the time that an open command is accepted by the receiving computer and the time that the close command is issued by either computer.

if a host is connected to more than one network (called a multi-homed host). The TCP/IP protocols were built to transmit data over the ARPANET. IP is sometimes called an unreliable protocol. it acts like any other gateway and is considered to be a gateway. If the destination address is the address of a host on the directly attached network. the packet is passed to a gateway for delivery. If the datagram received from one network is longer than the other network's MTU. If the destination address is not on the local network. which means that IP does not exchange control information (called a handshake) to establish an end-to-end connection before transmitting data. IP represents the heart of the Internet protocols. When the handshaking is successful.  Fragment and reassemble datagrams. it may be necessary for the IP module in a gateway to divide the datagram into smaller pieces.  Move data between the Network Access Layer and the Host-to-Host Transport Layer. In traditional TCP/IP jargon. Each type of network has a maximum transmission unit (MTU). Deciding which gateway to use is called routing. IP is documented in RFC 791 and is the primary network-layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite. the computers are said to have established a connection. the packet is delivered directly to the destination. Gateways and routers are devices that switch packets between the different physical networks.  Define the Internet addressing scheme. This selection is done by using the protocol number in the datagram header. IP also relies on protocols in another layer to provide error detection and error recovery. it must pass the data portion of the datagram to the correct host-to-host transport layer protocol. When IP receives a datagram that is addressed to the local host. Each host-tohost transport layer protocol has a unique protocol number that identifies it to IP. which is the largest packet it can transfer. However. As a datagram is routed through different networks. which is the basic unit of transmission in the Internet.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Internet Protocol IP is a connectionless protocol. IP delivers the datagram by checking the destination address in the header. there are only two types of network devices: gateways and hosts. connection-oriented protocol exchanges control information with the remote computer to verify that it is ready to receive data before sending it. it is necessary to divide the datagram into smaller fragments for transmission. A packet is a block of data that carries with it the information necessary to deliver it—in a manner similar to a postal letter that has an address written on its envelope. A datagram received from one network may be too large to be transmitted in a single packet on a different network. moving them toward their final destination. best-effort delivery of datagrams through an Page 58 of 85 . The Internet Protocol (IP) is a network-layer (Layer 3) protocol that contains addressing information and some control information that enables packets to be routed. IP has two primary responsibilities: providing connectionless. When a multi-homed host forwards packets. In contrast. This condition only occurs when a gateway interconnects dissimilar physical networks. Each packet travels the network independently of any other packet. Along with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). it can forward packets between the networks. A packet switching network uses the addressing information in the packets to switch packets from one physical network to another. which was a packet switching network. IP makes the routing decision for each individual packet.  Route datagrams to remote hosts. The datagram is the packet format defined by IP. IP relies on protocols in other layers to establish the connection if connection-oriented services are required. This division process is called fragmentation. Because it contains no error detection or recovery code. The functions performed at this layer are as follows:  Define the datagram. Gateways forward packets between networks and hosts do not. Internet gateways are commonly (and perhaps more accurately) referred to as IP routers because they use IP to route packets between networks.

and providing fragmentation and reassembly of datagrams to support data links with different maximum-transmission unit (MTU) sizes. Page 59 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 internetwork.

a host can dynamically discover the MAC-layer address corresponding to a particular IP network-layer address. such as security.  Options—Allows IP to support various options. of the entire IP packet. they must know the other machine's physical (or MAC) addresses.  IP Header Length (IHL)—Indicates the datagram header length in 32-bit words. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) For two machines on a given network to communicate. Page 60 of 85 . The middle bit specifies whether the packet is the last fragment in a series of fragmented packets.  Time-to-Live—Maintains a counter that gradually decrements down to zero.  Protocol—Indicates which upper-layer protocol receives incoming packets after IP processing is complete. and assigns datagrams various levels of importance.  Destination Address—Specifies the receiving node. which allows the destination IP process to properly reconstruct the original datagram. including the data and header. This field is used to help piece together datagram fragments.  Type-of-Service—Specifies how an upper-layer protocol would like a current datagram to be handled. The low-order bit specifies whether the packet can be fragmented.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 IP Packet Format The following discussion describes the IP packet fields illustrated in Figure 30-2:  Version—Indicates the version of IP currently used.  Fragment Offset—Indicates the position of the fragment's data relative to the beginning of the data in the original datagram. This keeps packets from looping endlessly. By broadcasting Address Resolution Protocols (ARPs). The third or high-order bit is not used. at which point the datagram is discarded. in bytes.  Flags—Consists of a 3-bit field of which the two low-order (least-significant) bits control fragmentation.  Data—Contains upper-layer information.  Header Checksum—Helps ensure IP header integrity.  Identification—Contains an integer that identifies the current datagram.  Total Length—Specifies the length.  Source Address—Specifies the sending node.

Among the services TCP provides are stream data transfer. Host A then acknowledges all bytes Host B sent with a forward acknowledgment indicating the next byte Host A expects to receive (ACK = Y + 1). TCP Connection Establishment To use reliable transport services. Full-duplex operation means that TCP processes can both send and receive at the same time. A time-out mechanism allows devices to detect lost packets and request retransmission.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 After receiving a MAC-layer address. reliability. and multiplexing. IP devices create an ARP cache to store the recently acquired IP-to-MAC address mapping. Data transfer then can begin. RARP. This is necessary so that packets are not transmitted or retransmitted during session establishment or after session termination. Then. when sending acknowledgments back to the source. A three-way handshake synchronizes both ends of a connection by allowing both sides to agree upon initial sequence numbers. thus avoiding having to broadcast ARPS when they want to recontact a device. Bytes not acknowledged within a specified time period are retransmitted. The second host (Host B) receives the SYN. TCP corresponds to the transport layer (Layer 4) of the OSI reference model. or misread packets. Page 61 of 85 . Host B includes its own initial sequence number (SEQ = Y). Connection establishment is performed by using a "three-way handshake" mechanism. With stream data transfer. This service benefits applications because they do not have to chop data into blocks before handing it off to TCP. full-duplex operation. might be used by diskless workstations that do not know their IP addresses when they boot. end-to-end reliable packet delivery through an internetwork. and replies by acknowledging the SYN (with an ACK = X + 1). Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) The TCP provides reliable transmission of data in an IP environment. Instead. which is the logical inverse of ARP. the three-way handshake proceeds in the following manner: The first host (Host A) initiates a connection by sending a packet with the initial sequence number (X) and SYN bit set to indicate a connection request. the receiving TCP process indicates the highest sequence number it can receive without overflowing its internal buffers. efficient flow control. If the device does not respond within a specified time frame. TCP delivers an unstructured stream of bytes identified by sequence numbers. records the sequence number X. RARP relies on the presence of a RARP server with table entries of MAC-layer-to-IP address mappings. the cache entry is flushed. TCP offers efficient flow control. It does this by sequencing bytes with a forwarding acknowledgment number that indicates to the destination the next byte the source expects to receive. TCP offers reliability by providing connection-oriented. which means that. This mechanism also guarantees that both sides are ready to transmit data and know that the other side is ready to transmit as well. The reliability mechanism of TCP allows devices to deal with lost. TCP hosts must establish a connection-oriented session with one another. TCP groups bytes into segments and passes them to IP for delivery. An ACK = 20 means the host has received bytes 0 through 19 and expects byte 20 next. delayed. In addition to the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is used to map MAC-layer addresses to IP addresses. Each host randomly chooses a sequence number used to track bytes within the stream it is sending and receiving. This technique is called forward acknowledgment. duplicate. Finally. TCP's multiplexing means that numerous simultaneous upper-layer conversations can be multiplexed over a single connection.

window sizes are expressed in bytes. means "Send no data. Because TCP provides a byte-stream connection. however. In the same packet. By assigning each packet a sequence number. the sender might have a sequence of bytes to send (numbered 1 to 10) to a receiver who has a window size of five. the receiver might indicate that its window size is 0 (because." In a TCP sliding-window operation. TCP Sliding Window A TCP sliding window provides more efficient use of network bandwidth than PAR because it enables hosts to send multiple bytes or packets before waiting for an acknowledgment.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Positive Acknowledgment and Retransmission (PAR) A simple transport protocol might implement a reliability-and-flow-control technique where the source sends one packet. At this point. In this packet. the source retransmits the packet. The receiver would respond with an ACK = 6. indicating that it is expecting sequenced byte 11 next. This means that a window is the number of data bytes that the sender is allowed to send before waiting for an acknowledgment. Initial window sizes are indicated at connection setup. for instance. PAR is an inefficient use of bandwidth. If the acknowledgment is not received before the timer expires. and only one packet can be sent at a time. The sender then would place a window around the first five bytes and transmit them together. the receiver would indicate that its window size is 5. The receiver would respond with an ACK = 11. for example. It would then wait for an acknowledgment. because a host must wait for an acknowledgment before sending a new packet. starts a timer. The sender then would move the sliding window five bytes to the right and transmit bytes 6 to 10. the sender cannot send any more bytes until the receiver sends another packet with a window size greater than 0. the receiver specifies the current window size in every packet. PAR enables hosts to track lost or duplicate packets caused by network delays that result in premature retransmission. TCP Packet Format Page 62 of 85 . A window size of zero. The sequence numbers are sent back in the acknowledgments so that the acknowledgments can be tracked. indicating that it has received bytes 1 to 5 and is expecting byte 6 next. but might vary throughout the data transfer to provide flow control. and waits for an acknowledgment before sending a new packet. Such a technique is called positive acknowledgment and retransmission (PAR). its internal buffers are full). for example. In TCP.

or error-recovery functions to IP. length. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless transport-layer protocol (Layer 4) that belongs to the Internet protocol family.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 TCP Packet Field Descriptions  Source Port and Destination Port—Identifies points at which upper-layer source and destination processes receive TCP services. Internet Protocols Application-Layer Protocols The Internet protocol suite includes many application-layer protocols that represent a wide variety of applications. and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). Checksum provides an (optional) integrity check on the UDP header and data. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).  Data—Contains upper-layer information.  Reserved—Remains reserved for future use.  Window—Specifies the size of the sender's receive window (that is. Domain Name System (DNS). this field also can be used to identify an initial sequence number to be used in an upcoming transmission. the buffer space available for incoming data). UDP is basically an interface between IP and upper-layer processes.  Acknowledgment Number—Contains the sequence number of the next byte of data the sender of the packet expects to receive. including the following:  File Transfer Protocol (FTP)—Moves files between devices Page 63 of 85 . A length field specifies the length of the UDP header and data. UDP is useful in situations where the reliability mechanisms of TCP are not necessary. and the FIN bit used for connection termination. including Network File System (NFS).  Urgent Pointer—Points to the first urgent data byte in the packet. Because of UDP's simplicity.  Options—Specifies various TCP options. These include source and destination ports. UDP is the transport protocol for several well-known application-layer protocols. such as in cases where a higher-layer protocol might provide error and flow control. Unlike the TCP. UDP adds no reliability. Source and destination ports contain the 16-bit UDP protocol port numbers used to demultiplex datagrams for receiving application-layer processes. UDP protocol ports distinguish multiple applications running on a single device from one another. In the connection-establishment phase.  Data Offset—Indicates the number of 32-bit words in the TCP header. including the SYN and ACK bits used for connection establishment. and checksum fields.  Flags—Carries a variety of control information.  Checksum—Indicates whether the header was damaged in transit. flow-control.  Sequence Number—Usually specifies the number assigned to the first byte of data in the current message. The UDP packet format contains four fields. UDP headers contain fewer bytes and consume less network overhead than TCP.

Only classes A. B. Each IP address has specific components and follows a basic format. IP Address Classes IP addressing supports five different address classes: A. 2. The network number identifies a network and must be assigned by the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) if the network is to be part of the Internet. These IP addresses can be subdivided and used to create addresses for subnetworks.C. 16. B. D. and represented in decimal format (known as dotted decimal notation).Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609       Simple Network-Management Protocol (SNMP)—Primarily reports anomalous network conditions and sets network threshold values Telnet—Serves as a terminal emulation protocol X Windows—Serves as a distributed windowing and graphics system used for communication between X terminals and UNIX workstations Network File System (NFS). Page 64 of 85 . The host number identifies a host on a network and is assigned by the local network administrator. and Remote Procedure Call (RPC)—Work together to enable transparent access to remote network resources Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)—Provides electronic mail services Domain Name System (DNS)—Translates the names of network nodes into network addresses IP Addressing As with any other network-layer protocol. Figure 30-3 illustrates the basic format of an IP address. Each host on a TCP/IP network is assigned a unique 32-bit logical address that is divided into two main parts: the network number and the host number. and C are available for commercial use. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) can obtain blocks of network addresses from the InterNIC and can itself assign address space as necessary. The minimum value for an octet is 0. as discussed in more detail later in this chapter. 32. 4. 1). and the maximum value for an octet is 255. 64. The left-most (high-order) bits indicate the network class. External Data Representation (XDR). IP Address Format The 32-bit IP address is grouped eight bits at a time. separated by dots. and E. Each bit in the octet has a binary weight (128. the IP addressing scheme is integral to the process of routing IP datagrams through an internetwork. 8.

N. and C are available for commercial use.100). Hosts 16.H1 N. 543 (216 .g. IP address formats A. H = Host number. Because 172 falls between 128 and 191.0 to 126.255. The class of address can be determined easily by examining the first octet of the address and mapping that value to a class range in the following table. and one address is reserved for the network.2) 65.H.0.H N/A N/A N = Network number.255. In an IP address of 172.0.0 128.254.0 to 239. 1.2) 245 (28 .1. 1 Address Range 1.  First octet 224 and above are reserved for special purposes such as multicasting.0.255 No. for example. Bits Network/H ost 7/24 14/16 22/8 N/A (not for commercia l use) N/A Max. 2142 (224 .255. 1.0.0 to 254.2.0 to to 223. 0 1.254. Octets 0 and 255 are not acceptable values in some situations.0. the first octet is 172. B. 0 1.2) N/A N/A N.N. Page 65 of 85 .H. 0 1. 1.777.0 224. 172.N.0 192.H. One address is reserved for the broadcast address.255. 1. 10. This is useful when testing internal operations.0.255 240. 1. Address Class First Octet in Decimal High-Order Bits Class A 1 !Ð 126 0 Class B 128 !Ð 191 10 Class C 192 !Ð 223 110 Class D 224 !Ð 239 1110 Class E 240 !Ð 254 1111 Some first-octet values have special meanings:  First octet 127 represents the local computer.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Reference Information about the Five IP Address Classes IP Address Class A B C D E 1 2 Format Purpose Few large organizations Medium-size organizations Relatively small organizations Multicast groups (RFC 1112) Experimental HighOrder Bit(s) 0 1.255.1. but 0 can be used as the second and/or third octet (e.0. regardless of what network it is really in.2.H N.2 is a Class B address.0.0.

which would excessively burden most network technologies and their administrators. the outside world sees an organization as a single network and has no detailed knowledge of the organization's internal structure. Subnet mask bits should come from the high-order (left-most) bits of the host field. The subnet mask. has binary 1s in all bits specifying the network and subnetwork fields. Subnet masks use the same format and representation technique as IP addresses. and binary 0s in all bits specifying the host field. As such. including extra flexibility.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A class A network does not necessarily consist of 16 million machines on a single network. IP Subnet Mask A subnet address is created by "borrowing" bits from the host field and designating them as the subnet field. The number of borrowed bits varies and is specified by the subnet mask. more efficient use of network addresses. and the capability to contain broadcast traffic (a broadcast will not cross a router). Page 66 of 85 . Details of Class B and C subnet mask types follow. However. Class A addresses are not discussed in this chapter because they generally are subnetted on an 8-bit boundary. the class labels are still commonly used as broad descriptors. however. IP Subnet Addressing IP networks can be divided into smaller networks called subnetworks (or subnets). a large company is assigned a class A network. and segregates it further into smaller sub-nets using Classless Inter-Domain Routing. Subnetting provides the network administrator with several benefits. Instead. Subnets are under local administration.

255.255.255. The default subnet mask for a Class B address that has no subnetting is 255.248 6 that specifies eight bits of subnetting is 13 3 8 255.2 = 6 hosts per subnet.0 6 255. Class B Subnetting Reference Chart Number of Bits Subnet Mask 2 4 255.240 5 11 255.255.2 = 30 subnets possible.255.0 9 255.252 Number of Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4094 8190 16382 Number of Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 Number of Hosts 16382 8190 4094 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 Number of Hosts 62 30 14 6 2 Page 67 of 85 .0.255. 25 .255.248 14 = 254 hosts per subnet. while the subnet mask for a Class B address 171.255.128 10 255.With five bits available for subnetting.0.0 that specifies five bits of subnetting is 5 255.240. with 23 .0.255.0 4 255. with 28 .255.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Various types of subnet masks exist for Class B and C subnets.192 3 255.2 (1 for the network address and 1 for the broadcast address) = 254 subnets possible.252 Class C Subnetting Reference Chart Number of Bits Subnet Mask 2 255.0 7 255.255. The reason for this is that eight bits of subnetting or 28 .255.224 12 255.248. The subnet mask for a Class C address 192.

at least one intermediate node typically is encountered. it checks the destination address and attempts to associate this address with a next hop. it forwards the frame to the destination IP address. the latter of these is referred to as packet switching. while the destination network number remains. Finally.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 How Subnet Masks are Used to Determine the Network Number The router performs a set process to determine the network (or more specifically. Finally. The truth table provided in table 30-4 illustrates the rules for logical AND operations. path determination can be very complex. Destination/Next Hop Associations Determine the Data's Optimal Path Page 68 of 85 . Specifics regarding the logical AND operation are discussed in the following section. Route information varies depending on the routing algorithm used. The router then looks up the destination network number and matches it with an outgoing interface. which contain route information. Routing algorithms fill routing tables with a variety of information. which might seem to accomplish precisely the same thing to the casual observer. In the context of the routing process. Path Determination Routing protocols use metrics to evaluate what path will be the best for a packet to travel. First. so the two functions accomplish their tasks in different ways. IP Routing Routing is the act of moving information across an internetwork from a source to a destination. 0 "ANDed" with 0 yields 0. Routing is often contrasted with bridging. but routing achieved commercial popularity as late as the mid-1980s. Only relatively recently has large-scale internetworking become popular. Routing involves two basic activities: determining optimal routing paths and transporting information groups (typically called packets) through an internetwork. It then performs a logical AND operation to obtain the network number. that is used by routing algorithms to determine the optimal path to a destination. The topic of routing has been covered in computer science literature for more than two decades. To aid the process of path determination. such as path bandwidth. routing algorithms initialize and maintain routing tables. Along the way. Second. 1 "ANDed" with 1 yields 1. 1 "ANDed" with 0 yields 0. whereas routing occurs at Layer 3 (the network layer). First. Although packet switching is relatively straightforward. This causes the host portion of the IP destination address to be removed. This distinction provides routing and bridging with different information to use in the process of moving information from source to destination. The primary reason for this time lag is that networks in the 1970s were simple. homogeneous environments. the subnetwork) address. When a router receives an incoming packet. The primary difference between the two is that bridging occurs at Layer 2 (the link layer) of the OSI reference model. the router extracts the IP destination address from the incoming packet and retrieves the internal subnet mask. Three basic rules govern logically "ANDing" two binary numbers. Destination/next hop associations tell a router that a particular destination can be reached optimally by sending the packet to a particular router representing the "next hop" on the way to the final destination. A metric is a standard of measurement.

A variety of common metrics will be introduced and described later in this chapter. If the router knows how to forward the packet. ISs are further divided into those that can communicate within routing domains (intradomain ISs) and those that communicate both within and between routing domains (interdomain ISs). The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has developed a hierarchical terminology that is useful in describing this process. If the router does not know how to forward the packet. network devices without the capability to forward packets between subnetworks are called end systems (ESs). another example of a message sent between routers. Having acquired a router's address by some means. In most cases. but its protocol address remains constant. routing domains can be divided into routing areas. such as data about the desirability of a path. but intradomain routing protocols are still used for switching both within and between areas. The next hop may be the ultimate destination host. With certain protocols.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Routing tables also can contain other information. a router can build a detailed picture of network topology. By analyzing routing updates from all other routers. Routers communicate with one another and maintain their routing tables through the transmission of a variety of messages. A link-state advertisement. The preceding discussion describes switching between a source and a destination end system. Link information also can be used to build a complete picture of network topology to enable routers to determine optimal routes to network destinations. which executes the same switching decision process. Using this terminology. A routing domain generally is considered a portion of an internetwork under common administrative authority that is regulated by a particular set of administrative guidelines. a host determines that it must send a packet to another host. As the packet moves through the internetwork. this time with the protocol (network layer) address of the destination host. and these metrics differ depending on the design of the routing algorithm used. the source host sends a packet addressed specifically to a router's physical (Media Access Control [MAC]-layer) address. informs other routers of the state of the sender's links. the next hop is usually another router. Routers compare metrics to determine optimal routes. however. it typically drops the packet. Switching Switching algorithms is relatively simple. it is the same for most routing protocols. As it examines the packet's destination protocol address. Routing domains are also called autonomous systems. the router determines that it either knows or does not know how to forward the packet to the next hop. If not. whereas network devices with these capabilities are called intermediate systems (ISs). The routing update message is one such message that generally consists of all or a portion of a routing table. it changes the destination physical address to that of the next hop and transmits the packet. Page 69 of 85 . its physical address changes.

and each algorithm has a different impact on network and router resources. such as hardware failures. For example. Second. Because routers are located at network junction points. In other words. which depends on the metrics and metric weightings used to make the calculation.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Numerous Routers May Come into Play during the Switching Process Routing Algorithms Routing algorithms can be differentiated based on several key characteristics. The best routing algorithms are often those that have withstood the test of time and that have proven stable under a variety of network conditions. the routing algorithm must offer its functionality efficiently. Routing algorithms must be robust. but it may weigh delay more heavily in the calculation. First. various types of routing algorithms exist. high load conditions. Finally. routing algorithms use a variety of metrics that affect calculation of optimal routes. and incorrect implementations. with a minimum of software and utilization overhead. one routing algorithm may use a number of hops and delays. Routing algorithms often have one or more of the following design goals:  Optimality  Simplicity and low overhead  Robustness and stability  Rapid convergence  Flexibility Optimality refers to the capability of the routing algorithm to select the best route. they can cause considerable problems when they fail. the particular goals of the algorithm designer affect the operation of the resulting routing protocol. Page 70 of 85 . routing protocols must define their metric calculation algorithms strictly. which means that they should perform correctly in the face of unusual or unforeseen circumstances. Routing algorithms also are designed to be as simple as possible. Efficiency is particularly important when the software implementing the routing algorithm must run on a computer with limited physical resources. Naturally.

and are nothing but table mappings established by the network administrator before the beginning of routing. and network delay. If the message indicates that a network change has occurred. Routing algorithms that converge slowly can cause routing loops or network outages. Assume. Router 1 therefore forwards the packet to Router 2. These messages permeate the network. but because this router has not yet been updated. When a network event causes routes to either go down or become available. on optimal routes. it believes that the optimal next hop is Router 1. for example. Most of the dominant routing algorithms today are dynamic routing algorithms. routers distribute routing update messages that permeate networks. Algorithms that use static routes are simple to design and work well in environments where network traffic is relatively predictable and where network design is relatively simple. which means that they should quickly and accurately adapt to a variety of network circumstances. constantly changing networks. and the packet continues to bounce back and forth between the two routers until Router 2 receives its routing update or until the packet has been switched the maximum number of times allowed. router queue size.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 In addition. they will quickly select the next-best path for all routes normally using that segment. Router 1 already has been updated and thus knows that the optimal route to the destination calls for Router 2 to be the next stop. among other variables. a packet arrives at Router 1 at time t1. As many routing algorithms become aware of the problem. Page 71 of 85 . Because static routing systems cannot react to network changes. stimulating routers to rerun their algorithms and change their routing tables accordingly. Router 2 therefore forwards the packet back to Router 1. the routing software recalculates routes and sends out new routing update messages. which adjust to changing network circumstances by analyzing incoming routing update messages. These mappings do not change unless the network administrator alters them. they generally are considered unsuitable for today's large. Key differentiators include these:  Static versus dynamic  Link-state versus distance vector Static versus Dynamic Static routing algorithms are hardly algorithms at all. by all routers. Routing algorithms can be programmed to adapt to changes in network bandwidth. In the routing loop displayed in Figure 5-3. Algorithm Types Routing algorithms can be classified by type. that a network segment has gone down. Convergence is the process of agreement. stimulating recalculation of optimal routes and eventually causing all routers to agree on these routes. Slow Convergence and Routing Loops Can Hinder Progress Routing algorithms should also be flexible. routing algorithms must converge rapidly.

In essence. Today's open standard version of RIP. Each router. Link-state algorithms. RIP is also one of the more easily confused protocols because a variety of RIP-like routing protocols proliferated. But how. is one of the most enduring of all routing protocols. specifically. In link-state algorithms. Link-State Versus Distance Vector Link-state algorithms (also known as shortest path first algorithms) flood routing information to all nodes in the internetwork. Sophisticated routing algorithms can base route selection on multiple metrics. therefore. but only to its neighbors. which was then superceded in November 1994 by RFC 1723. can be designated to act as a repository for all unroutable packets. These algorithms emerged from academic research that dates back to 1957. or RIP. On the other hand. are routing tables built? What is the specific nature of the information that they contain? How do routing algorithms determine that one route is preferable to others? Routing algorithms have used many different metrics to determine the best route. link-state algorithms are somewhat less prone to routing loops than distance vector algorithms. as it is more commonly called. Consequently. RIP 2 enabled RIP messages to carry more information. A router of last resort (a router to which all unroutable packets are sent). These RFCs described an extension of RIP's capabilities but did not attempt to obsolete the previous version of RIP. however. sometimes referred to as IP RIP. each router builds a picture of the entire network in its routing tables. which permitted the use of a simple authentication Page 72 of 85 . ensuring that all messages are at least handled in some way. while distance vector algorithms send larger updates only to neighboring routers. which describes RIP 2 (the second version of RIP). Routing Metrics Routing tables contain information used by switching software to select the best route. Because they converge more quickly. Distance vector algorithms (also known as Bellman-Ford algorithms) call for each router to send all or some portion of its routing table. All the following metrics have been used:  Path length  Reliability  Delay  Bandwidth  Load  Communication cost Routing Protocols Routing Information Protocol The Routing Information Protocol. is formally defined in two documents: Request For Comments (RFC) 1058 and Internet Standard (STD) 56. for example. Link-state protocols are generally more scalable than distance vector protocols. link-state algorithms send small updates everywhere. sends only the portion of the routing table that describes the state of its own links. some of which even used the same name! RIP and the myriad RIP-like protocols were based on the same set of algorithms that use distance vectors to mathematically compare routes to identify the best path to any given destination address. Distance vector algorithms know only about their neighbors. link-state algorithms require more CPU power and memory than distance vector algorithms.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Dynamic routing algorithms can be supplemented with static routes where appropriate. As IP-based networks became both more numerous and greater in size. can be more expensive to implement and support. the IETF released RFC 1388 in January 1993. it became apparent to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that RIP needed to be updated. combining them in a single (hybrid) metric.

and if increasing the metric value by 1 causes the metric to be infinity (that is. In a RIP packet implementing any of the RIP 2 fields or using authentication. with a small random amount of time added whenever the timer is reset. the network destination is considered unreachable. Multiple RIP packets are used to convey information from large routing tables. The routing-update timer clocks the interval between periodic routing updates. The IP address of the sender is used as the next hop. Generally.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 mechanism to secure table updates. RIP includes a number of other stability features that are common to many routing protocols. ROUTING UPDATES RIP sends routing-update messages at regular intervals and when the network topology changes. The response can be an unsolicited regular routing update or a reply to a request. RIP routers maintain only the best route (the route with the lowest metric value) to a destination. For example. it is set to 30 seconds. When the route-timeout timer expires. 16). More importantly. which could result from all routers simultaneously attempting to update their neighbors. When a router receives a routing update that contains a new or changed destination network entry. RIP TIMERS RIP uses numerous timers to regulate its performance. and the sender is indicated as the next hop. The metric value for the path is increased by 1. Unused—Has a value set to zero. These updates are sent independently of the regularly scheduled updates that RIP routers send. After updating its routing table. This is done to help prevent congestion. These include a routing-update timer. RIP 2 supported subnet masks. Version—Specifies the RIP version used. Page 73 of 85 . Responses contain routing table entries. the route is marked invalid but is retained in the table until the route-flush timer expires. When a router receives a routing update that includes changes to an entry. this value is set to 2. The downside of this stability feature is that it limits the maximum diameter of a RIP network to less than 16 hops. These features are designed to provide stability despite potentially rapid changes in a network's topology. If a router receives a routing update that contains a new or changed entry. An IP RIP 2 Packet Consists of Fields Similar to Those of an IP RIP Packet    Command—Indicates whether the packet is a request or a response. RIP STABILITY FEATURES RIP prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination. The request asks that a router send all or a part of its routing table. Each hop in a path from source to destination is assigned a hop count value. RIP 2 Packet Format The RIP 2 specification (described in RFC 1723) allows more information to be included in RIP packets and provides a simple authentication mechanism that is not supported by RIP. a route-timeout timer. Each routing table entry has a route-timeout timer associated with it. which is typically 1. a critical feature that was not available in RIP. the router immediately begins transmitting routing updates to inform other network routers of the change. the router adds 1 to the metric value indicated in the update and enters the network in the routing table. The maximum number of hops in a path is 15. and a route-flush timer. RIP ROUTING METRIC RIP uses a single routing metric (hop count) to measure the distance between the source and a destination network. RIP implements the split horizon and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. it updates its routing table to reflect the new route.

and load. and each other. Distance vector routing protocols are often contrasted with link-state routing protocols. The popularity of Cisco routers and the robustness of IGRP encouraged many organizations with large internetworks to replace RIP with IGRP. These wide metric ranges are further complemented by a series of user-definable constants that enable a network administrator to influence route selection. Such protocols are known as Interior Gateway Routing Protocols. with one exception: If the AFI for the first entry in the message is 0xFFFF. If this field is zero. Route tag—Provides a method for distinguishing between internal routes (learned by RIP) and external routes (learned from other protocols). the network administrator can influence route selection by giving higher or lower weighting to specific moderatesized. single metric (hop count) support of only equal-cost load balancing did not allow for much routing flexibility in complex environments. In particular. Currently. which send local connection information to all nodes in the internetwork. its limits were being pushed by network growth. These constants are hashed against the metrics. IP address—Specifies the IP address for the entry. IGRP uses a composite metric that is calculated by factoring weighted mathematical values for internetwork delay. IGRP PROTOCOL CHARACTERISTICS IGRP is a distance vector Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Reliability and load. IGRP provides a wide range for its metrics. relatively homogeneous internetworks. and. learn of failures in the network. composite metric. while delay can take on any value from 1 to 2 24. Routers using a distance vector protocol must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing-update message at regular intervals to each of their neighboring routers. To provide additional flexibility. Cisco's principal goal in creating IGRP was to provide a robust protocol for routing within an autonomous system (AS). most importantly. reliability. Network administrators can set the weighting factors for each of these metrics. Dual equal-bandwidth lines can run a single stream of traffic in round-robin fashion. This flexibility allows administrators to fine-tune IGRP's automatic route selection. with automatic switchover to the second line if one line goes down. Thus. bandwidth. Although RIP was quite useful for routing within small. the most popular Interior Gateway Routing Protocol was the Routing Information Protocol (RIP).Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609       Address-family identifier (AFI)—Specifies the address family used. This measurement is known as the distance vector. or 16 for an unreachable route. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a routing protocol that was developed in the mid-1980s by Cisco Systems. IGRP permits multipath routing. Metric—Indicates how many internetwork hops (routers) have been traversed in the trip to the destination. Distance vector routing protocols mathematically compare routes using some measurement of distance. Inc. RIPv2's AFI field functions identically to RFC 1058 RIP's AFI field. As routing information proliferates through the network. the remainder of the entry contains authentication information. can take on any value between 1 and 255. Page 74 of 85 . This value is between 1 and 15 for a valid route. Next hop—Indicates the IP address of the next hop to which packets for the entry should be forwarded. In the mid-1980s. Subnet mask—Contains the subnet mask for the entry. no subnet mask has been specified for the entry. routers can identify new destinations as they are added to the network. in an algorithm that yields a single. RIP's small hop-count limit (16) restricted the size of internetworks. Multiple paths can have unequal metrics yet still be valid multipath routes. the only authentication type is simple password. bandwidth can take on values reflecting speeds from 1200 bps to 10 Gbps. calculate distances to all known destinations. although great care should be taken before any default values are manipulated. for example.

These include holddowns. Thus. and poison-reverse updates. a hold-time period. The IGRP default for this variable is three times the update period. Poison-reverse updates then are sent to remove the route and place it in holddown. These include an update timer.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 For example. In this case. Stability Features IGRP provides a number of features that are designed to enhance its stability. if one path is three times better than another path (its metric is three times lower). The invalid timer specifies how long a router should wait in the absence of routingupdate messages about a specific route before declaring that route invalid. Split horizons derive from the premise that it is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which it came. but poison-reverse updates are necessary to defeat larger routing loops. poison-reverse updates are sent if a route metric has increased by a factor of 1. the flush timer indicates how much time should pass before a route should be flushed from the routing table. Timers IGRP maintains a number of timers and variables containing time intervals. neighboring routers detect this via the lack of regularly scheduled update messages. The update timer specifies how frequently routing update messages should be sent. The IGRP default for this variable is 90 seconds.1 or greater. These triggered updates do not instantly arrive at every network device. OSPF was created because in the mid-1980s. These routers then calculate new routes and send routing update messages to inform their neighbors of the route change. In Cisco's implementation of IGRP. The holddown period usually is calculated to be just greater than the period of time necessary to update the entire network with a routing change. The working group was formed in 1988 to design an IGP based on the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm for use in the Internet. split horizons. it is possible for a device that has yet to be informed of a network failure to send a regular update message. and a flush timer. When a router goes down. the latter device would contain (and potentially advertise) incorrect routing information. The hold-time variable specifies the holddown period. Only routes with metrics that are within a certain range or variance of the best route are used as multiple paths. Finally. the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Page 75 of 85 . Increases in routing metrics generally indicate routing loops. which advertises a failed route as being valid to a device that has just been notified of the network failure. an invalid timer. The IGRP default is seven times the routing update period. Open Shortest Path First Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol developed for Internet Protocol (IP) networks by the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The IGRP default for this variable is three times the update timer period plus 10 seconds. Holddowns tell routers to hold down any changes that might affect routes for some period of time. Similar to the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). This activity begins a wave of triggered updates that filter through the network. the better path will be used three times as often. Holddowns are used to prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that might have gone bad. Variance is another value that can be established by the network administrator. The Split-Horizon Rule Helps Protect Against Routing Loops Split horizons should prevent routing loops between adjacent routers.

and general protocol components. including Bolt. and Newman's (BBN's) SPF algorithm developed in 1978 for the ARPANET (a landmark packet-switching network developed in the early 1970s by BBN). which sometimes is referred to as the Dijkstra algorithm. OSPF contrasts with RIP and IGRP. Routers running the distance-vector algorithm send all or a portion of their routing tables in routing-update messages to their neighbors. OSPF was derived from several research efforts. Beranek.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 was increasingly incapable of serving large. metrics used. and other variables is included in OSPF LSAs. As OSPF routers accumulate link-state information. underlying routing algorithm. Information on attached interfaces. Radia Perlman's research on fault-tolerant broadcasting of routing information (1988). OSPF is a link-state routing protocol that calls for the sending of link-state advertisements (LSAs) to all other routers within the same hierarchical area. Page 76 of 85 . and an early version of OSI's Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing protocol. Dr. which means that its specification is in the public domain. they use the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node. The OSPF specification is published as Request For Comments (RFC) 1247. The first is that the protocol is open. heterogeneous internetworks. which are distance-vector routing protocols. As a link-state routing protocol. OSPF has two primary characteristics. The second principal characteristic is that OSPF is based on the SPF algorithm. This chapter examines the OSPF routing environment. named for the person credited with its creation. BBN's work on area routing (1986).

Point-to-point lines are usually leased from a carrier and thus are often called leased lines. the switched circuit is initiated with the circuit number of the remote network. such as a telephone company. such as telephone companies. the call can be terminated. Point-to-point links are generally more expensive than shared services such as Frame Relay. For a point-to-point line.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 9 – WAN Technologies Fundamentals of WAN A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. In the case of ISDN circuits. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer. These circuits are generally priced based on bandwidth required and distance between the two connected points. pre-established WAN communications path from the customer premises through a carrier network. Page 77 of 85 . the carrier allocates pairs of wire and facility hardware to your line only. A Typical Point-to-Point Link Operates Through a WAN to a Remote Network Switched circuits allow data connections that can be initiated when needed and terminated when communication is complete. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a good example of circuit switching. WAN Technologies Operate at the Lowest Levels of the OSI Model A point-to-point link provides a single. to a remote network. When a router has data for a remote site. This works much like a normal telephone line works for voice communication. the device actually places a call to the telephone number of the remote ISDN circuit. the data link layer. and the network layer. When the data transmission is complete. they can transfer data. When the two networks are connected and authenticated.

Because this allows the carrier to make more efficient use of its infrastructure. The carrier can then create virtual circuits between customers' sites by which packets of data are delivered from one to the other through the network. Packet Switching Transfers Packets Across a Carrier Network Virtual Circuits A virtual circuit is a logical circuit created within a shared network between two network devices. The section of the carrier's network that is shared is often referred to as a cloud. Communication over an SVC consists of three phases: circuit establishment. data transfer. networks have connections into the carrier's network. Page 78 of 85 . but they decrease the cost associated with constant virtual circuit availability. and many customers share the carrier's network. The establishment phase involves creating the virtual circuit between the source and destination devices. SVCs are used in situations in which data transmission between devices is sporadic. largely because SVCs increase bandwidth used due to the circuit establishment and termination phases. Two types of virtual circuits exist: switched virtual circuits (SVCs) and permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). In a packet switching setup. the cost to the customer is generally much better than with point-to-point lines. and circuit termination.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A Circuit-Switched WAN Undergoes a Process Similar to That Used for a Telephone Call Packet switching is a WAN technology in which users share common carrier resources. and the circuit termination phase involves tearing down the virtual circuit between the source and destination devices. Data transfer involves transmitting data between the devices over the virtual circuit. SVCs are virtual circuits that are dynamically established on demand and terminated when transmission is complete.

modems. Other devices found in WAN environments that are used in WAN implementations include routers. The router is configured so that when a failure is detected on the primary circuit. the dial backup connection is terminated. such as point-to-point or packet switching. When the connection is made. The dial backup line then supports the WAN connection until the primary circuit is restored. In a DDR setup. and operate at the data link layer of the OSI reference model. PVCs decrease the bandwidth use associated with the establishment and termination of virtual circuits. and ISDN terminal adapters are discussed in the following sections. Dialup services offer cost-effective methods for connectivity across WANs.25. WAN Devices WANs use numerous types of devices that are specific to WAN environments. WAN switches. and multiplexers. These devices typically switch such traffic as Frame Relay. access servers. The router configuration specifies an idle timer that tells the router to drop the connection when the circuit has remained idle for a certain period. the router is configured to initiate the call when certain criteria are met.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 PVC is a permanently established virtual circuit that consists of one mode: data transfer. traffic passes over the line. When this occurs. Two popular dialup implementations are dial-on-demand routing (DDR) and dial backup. but they increase costs due to constant virtual circuit availability. such as a particular type of network traffic needing to be transmitted. in dial backup. the switched circuit is used to provide backup service for another type of circuit. and SMDS. PVCs are used in situations in which data transfer between devices is constant. PVCs are generally configured by the service provider when an order is placed for service. CSU/DSUs. Two Routers at Remote Ends of a WAN Can Be Connected by WAN Switches An access server acts as a concentration point for dial-in and dial-out connections. However. the dial backup line is initiated. Dial backup is another way of configuring DDR. Page 79 of 85 . X. DDR is a technique whereby a router can dynamically initiate a call on a switched circuit when it needs to send data. ATM switches. A WAN switch is a multiport internetworking device used in carrier networks.

At the source. these analog signals are returned to their digital form. enabling data to be transmitted over voice-grade telephone lines. including ADSL. SDSL. digital signals are converted to a form suitable for transmission over analog communication facilities. The term xDSL covers a number of similar yet competing forms of DSL technologies. The CSU/DSU also provides signal timing for communication between these devices. to service subscribers.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Modem A modem is a device that interprets digital and analog signals. ISDN Terminal Adapter An ISDN terminal adapter is a device used to connect ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) connections to other interfaces. such as multimedia and video. and VDSL. G. HDSL-2. although it is called a terminal adapter because it does not actually convert analog to digital signals. At the destination. IDSL. A terminal adapter is essentially an ISDN modem. xDSL is drawing significant attention from implementers and service providers because it promises to deliver high-bandwidth data rates to dispersed locations with relatively small changes to the existing telco infrastructure.SHDL. Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology is a modem technology that uses existing twisted-pair telephone lines to transport high-bandwidth data. CSU/DSU A channel service unit/digital service unit (CSU/DSU) is a digital-interface device used to connect a router to a digital circuit like a T1. such as EIA/TIA-232 on a router. HDSL. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Page 80 of 85 .

and network and internetwork capabilities. ISDN involves the digitization of the telephone network. video-on-demand. Users of these applications typically download much more information than they send. Beyond the TE1 and TE2 devices. high-speed file transfer.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) technology is asymmetric. The NT2 is a more complicated device that typically is found in digital private branch exchanges (PBXs) and that performs Layer 2 and 3 protocol functions and concentration services. where the NT1 function is not provided by the carrier network. the NT1 is a customer premises equipment (CPE) device. These are network-termination devices that connect the four-wire subscriber wiring to the conventional two-wire local loop. that predate the ISDN standards are referred to as terminal equipment type 2 (TE2). Specialized ISDN terminals are referred to as terminal equipment type 1 (TE1). Voice service is also an application for ISDN. Examples include EIA/TIA-232-C (formerly RS-232-C).24. This chapter summarizes the underlying technologies and services associated with ISDN.  U—The reference point between NT1 devices and line-termination equipment in the carrier network. including full-motion video. ubiquitous system capable of bringing multimedia. It allows more bandwidth downstream—from an NSP's central office to the customer site—than upstream from the subscriber to the central office. and exchange-termination equipment. user/network interfaces. This asymmetry. such as DTE. The emergence of ISDN represents an effort to standardize subscriber services. ISDN reference points include the following:  R—The reference point between non-ISDN equipment and a TA. The ISDN TA can be either a standalone device or a board inside the TE2. the NT1 is part of the network provided by the carrier. ADSL can literally transform the existing public information network from one limited to voice. video. it connects to the TA via a standard physical-layer interface. to every home this century. Such rates expand existing access capacity by a factor of 50 or more without new cabling. network-termination devices. combined with always-on access (which eliminates call setup). makes ADSL ideal for Internet/intranet surfing. ISDN specifies a number of reference points that define logical interfaces between functional groups. Non-ISDN terminals. ISDN applications include high-speed image applications (such as Group IV facsimile). text. text. In most other parts of the world. ISDN terminals come in two types. and other source material to be transmitted over existing telephone wires. which permits voice. WAN PROTOCOLS Integrated Services Digital Network Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is comprised of digital telephony and data-transport services offered by regional telephone carriers. ADSL transmits more than 6 Mbps to a subscriber and as much as 640 kbps more in both directions. The U reference point is relevant only in North America. In North America. data. graphics.  S—The reference point between user terminals and the NT2. An NT1/2 device also exists as a single device that combines the functions of an NT1 and an NT2.35.  T—The reference point between NT1 and NT2 devices. such as TAs and NT1s. and V. music. twisted-pair digital link. ISDN DEVICES ISDN devices include terminals. terminal adapters (TAs). and videoconferencing. V. and low-resolution graphics to a powerful. If the TE2 is implemented as a standalone device. the next connection point in the ISDN network is the network termination type 1 (NT1) or network termination type 2 (NT2) device. TE2s connect to the ISDN network through a TA. and remote LAN access. linetermination equipment. Page 81 of 85 . additional telephone lines in homes to serve the telecommuting industry. TE1s connect to the ISDN network through a four-wire.

Two of these devices are ISDN-compatible.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Figure illustrates a sample ISDN configuration and shows three devices attached to an ISDN switch at the central office. so they can be attached through an S reference point to NT2 devices. non-ISDN telephone) attaches through the reference point to a TA. Any of these devices also could attach to an NT1/2 device. In addition. Page 82 of 85 . The third device (a standard. although they are not shown. similar user stations are attached to the far-right ISDN switch. which would replace both the NT1 and the NT2.

bringing its total bit rate to 192 kbps. it is used over a variety of other network interfaces as well. are packet-switched networks. The advantage of this technique is that it accommodates more flexibility and more efficient use of bandwidth. Today. This chapter focuses on Frame Relay's specifications and applications in the context of WAN services. ISDN PRI Service ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) service offers 23 B channels and 1 D channel in North America and Japan. ISDN PRI in Europe.431. Frame Relay Frame Relay is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model. Packet-switched networks enable end stations to dynamically share the network medium and the available bandwidth. BRI D-channel service operates at 16 kbps and is meant to carry control and signaling information.430. BRI also provides for framing control and other overhead. such as Ethernet and Token Ring. BRI B-channel service operates at 64 kbps and is meant to carry user data. The BRI physical layer specification is International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunications Standards Section (ITU-T) (formerly the Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone [CCITT]) I. The D channel signaling protocol comprises Layers 1 through 3 of the OSI reference model. Statistical multiplexing techniques control network access in a packet-switched network. Australia. and other parts of the world provides 30 B channels plus one 64kbps D channel and a total interface rate of 2. yielding a total bit rate of 1. Page 83 of 85 . Frame Relay is an example of a packet-switched technology. although it can support user data transmission under certain circumstances. Frame Relay originally was designed for use across Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) interfaces. The PRI physical layer specification is ITU-T I.048 Mbps.544 Mbps (the PRI D channel runs at 64 kbps).Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Sample ISDN Configuration Illustrates Relationships between Devices and Reference Points There are two types of services associated with ISDN:  BRI  PRI ISDN BRI Service The ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) service offers two B channels and one D channel (2B+D). Most of today's popular LANs.

they may be owned by the customer. and the DCE device. Devices attached to a Frame Relay WAN fall into the following two general categories:  Data terminal equipment (DTE)  Data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) DTEs generally are considered to be terminating equipment for a specific network and typically are located on the premises of a customer.25 WANs. This capability Page 84 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Frame Relay often is described as a streamlined version of X. which are the devices that actually transmit data through the WAN. A number of virtual circuits can be multiplexed into a single physical circuit for transmission across the network.25. routers. these are packet switches. This chapter examines a commonly utilized protocol specification used in WAN networking: the Frame Relay protocol. Virtual circuits provide a bidirectional communication path from one DTE device to another and are uniquely identified by a data-link connection identifier (DLCI). Frame Relay is strictly a Layer 2 protocol suite. and makes Frame Relay suitable for current WAN applications. The connection between a DTE device and a DCE device consists of both a physical layer component and a link layer component. As mentioned earlier. The purpose of DCE equipment is to provide clocking and switching services in a network. This enables Frame Relay to offer higher performance and greater transmission efficiency than X. In fact.25.25 provides services at Layer 3 (the network layer) as well. such as a switch. This service is implemented by using a Frame Relay virtual circuit. functional. which is a logical connection created between two data terminal equipment (DTE) devices across a Frame Relay packet-switched network (PSN). such as LAN interconnection. offering fewer of the robust capabilities. and procedural specifications for the connection between the devices. personal computers. This means that a defined communication exists between each pair of devices and that these connections are associated with a connection identifier. The physical component defines the mechanical. whereas X. and bridges. electrical. The link layer component defines the protocol that establishes the connection between the DTE device. Examples of DTE devices are terminals. such as a router.25. such as windowing and retransmission of last data that are offered in X. Frame Relay Virtual Circuits Frame Relay provides connection-oriented data link layer communication. DCEs are carrier-owned internetworking devices. This is because Frame Relay typically operates over WAN facilities that offer more reliable connection services and a higher degree of reliability than the facilities available during the late 1970s and early 1980s that served as the common platforms for X. In most cases. One of the most commonly used physical layer interface specifications is the recommended standard (RS)-232 specification.

A virtual circuit can pass through any number of intermediate DCE devices (switches) located within the Frame Relay PSN. Frame Relay DLCIs have local significance.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 often can reduce the equipment and network complexity required to connect multiple DTE devices. maintained. but no data is transferred. After the virtual circuit is terminated. A Single Frame Relay Virtual Circuit Can Be Assigned Different DLCIs on Each End of a VC Page 85 of 85 . Unlike SVCs. Data-Link Connection Identifier Frame Relay virtual circuits are identified by data-link connection identifiers (DLCIs).  Data transfer—Data is transmitted between the DTE devices over the virtual circuit. PVCs always operate in one of the following two operational states:  Data transfer—Data is transmitted between the DTE devices over the virtual circuit. the DTE devices must establish a new SVC if there is additional data to be exchanged. Permanent Virtual Circuits Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) are permanently established connections that are used for frequent and consistent data transfers between DTE devices across the Frame Relay network. Switched Virtual Circuits Switched virtual circuits (SVCs) are temporary connections used in situations requiring only sporadic data transfer between DTE devices across the Frame Relay network. Communication across a PVC does not require the call setup and termination states that are used with SVCs. A communication session across an SVC consists of the following four operational states:  Call setup—The virtual circuit between two Frame Relay DTE devices is established. DTE devices can begin transferring data whenever they are ready because the circuit is permanently established. PVCs will not be terminated under any circumstances when in an idle state. which means that their values are unique in the LAN. If an SVC remains in an idle state for a defined period of time. and terminated using the same signaling protocols used in ISDN. DLCI values typically are assigned by the Frame Relay service provider (for example. It is expected that SVCs will be established. but no data is transferred. the call can be terminated.  Idle—The connection between DTE devices is still active.  Idle—The connection between DTE devices is active. Frame Relay virtual circuits fall into two categories: switched virtual circuits (SVCs) and permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). the telephone company). but not necessarily in the Frame Relay WAN.  Call termination – The virtual circuit between DTE devices is terminated.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful