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other people in a variety of ways. For example, we talk to people faceto-face, or we write a letter and send it to someone and they write us a letter back. These are common forms of communication. When people use computers to communicate they use a computer network. This course is about computer networks and how they are used to transmit information between computers, and ultimately between people. It is a fundamental course that provides a broad overview and foundation for understanding networks and working in the computer and networking industry. A network is a group of connected devices. For people using computers to communicate with one another, a network must be used. Simply stated, the requirements of a network are to: Move information from a source to a destination Networks are an interconnection of computers. These computers can be linked together using a wide variety of different cabling types, and for a wide variety of different purposes. People use computers and networks for a wide variety of reasons. Three common reasons that people use networks to send information from a source, such as a personal computer (PC), to a destination, such as a printer, are: 1. Communicate and collaborate (i.e., e-mail and newsgroups) 2. Share information (i.e., document sharing) 3. Share resources (i.e., printers and servers) Take for example a typical office scenario where a number of users in a small business require access to common information. As long as all user computers are connected via a network, they can share their files, exchange mail, schedule meetings, send faxes and print documents all from any point of the network.
It would not be necessary for users to transfer files via electronic mail or floppy disk, rather, each user could access all the information they require, thus leading to less wasted time and hence greater productivity. Imagine the benefits of a user being able to directly fax the Word document they are working on, rather than print it out, then feed it into the fax machine, dial the number etc. Small networks are often called Local Area Networks (LAN). A LAN is a network allowing easy access to other computers or peripherals. The typical characteristics of a LAN are, Physically limited (< 2km) High bandwidth (> 1mbps) Inexpensive cable media (coax or twisted pair) Data and hardware sharing between users
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Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609
Owned by the user
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Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Examples of sharing resources are: Sharing computer files and disk space Sharing high-quality printers Access to common fax machines Access to common modems Multiple accesses to the Internet Network Devices A source or destination can be any device capable of transferring information electronically from one point (source) to another point (destination). There are many examples of devices that communicate over a network. They take many forms and vary widely in capabilities. These include: PCs Macintosh computers Workstations Printers Servers Generically speaking, these devices are referred to as nodes. Nodes are the various endpoints on a network, connected together to form a network. The connection between nodes is made using some type of connection medium. Examples of connection mediums include: Copper cables Fiber optic cables Radio waves/wireless Networks are used in a wide variety of ways to tie computers together so they can communicate with one another and provide services to the user of a network. Computer Components Computers come in all shapes and sizes, and are manufactured to serve different purposes. Some computers are made for operation in a single-user environment. Other computers are made to support a small number of users in a workgroup environment, while still others may support thousands of users in a large corporation. Computers attach to a network through a network interface card (NIC). Typically cables are attached to a NIC to connect to other computers or networks. Several aspects of computer technology to be considered are: Video Microprocessor Memory Storage Input/Output Application software System software Device driver Whether the computer that attaches to the network is a small desktop computer or a powerful mainframe, all computers contain the same basic structure and the components mentioned above. Computers are the endpoints, or nodes, in a network and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. It is important to understand common components found in most computer systems. The CPU is the brain of any computer. The CPU executes instructions developed by a computer
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Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 programmer, and directs the flow of information within the computer. The terms microprocessor and CPU are often used interchangeably. At the heart of a CPU is a microprocessor.
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which means it requires a steady flow of electricity to maintain its contents. A computer’s memory stores information currently being worked on by the CPU. When used by itself. and directs the flow of information between different components of a computer. The data bus transfers actual data. a 16-bit bus can transmit 16 bits of data. For example. it is a short-term storage component of a computer.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A CPU runs computer programs. installed memory by moving old data to the hard drive. whatever data was in RAM is lost. When you run a program. and put in memory for execution. an address bus and a data bus. it does not have the entire PC processor market. usually referred to as main memory or RAM. which is physical memory. When used in reference to desktop computers. which is a collection of wires that transmit data from one part of a computer to another. Every bus has a clock speed measured in MHz. the higher the value. The local bus is a high-speed pathway that connects directly to the processor. and a 32-bit bus can transmit 32 bits of data. board-mounted storage area in the computer. known as its width. This is in contrast to read-only memory (ROM). Page 5 of 85 . A fast bus allows data to be transferred faster. All buses consist of two parts. Clock speed—given in MHz. Virtual memory expands the amount of memory for an application beyond the actual physical. Most computers also use virtual memory. For example. the faster the bus’ data transfer rate. After the program has completed or is no longer needed. PCs made today include a local bus for data that requires especially fast transfer speeds. it is typically read from a disk drive (such as a hard drive or CD-ROM drive). it is typically removed from memory. some of which are listed below: RAM – RAM is the same as main memory. There are two basic characteristics that differentiate microprocessors: Data bus size—the number of bits that a CPU can send or receive in a single instruction. the term bus usually refers to an internal bus. Key Point The I/O of a computer travels over a bus. For example. a 64-bit microprocessor that runs at 450 MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit microprocessor that runs at 100 MHz. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips or plug-in modules. swapped to a hard disk. the ISA bus is being replaced by faster buses. the faster the bus clock. the more powerful the CPU is. An internal bus connects all internal computer components to the CPU and main memory. where information is stored for longer periods of time. Unlike RAM. the clock speed determines how many instructions per second the processor can execute. Most RAM is volatile. The size of a bus. Some programs remain in memory after execution and are called Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR). Although Intel is the world’s largest microprocessor manufacturer. Every computer comes with a certain amount of physical memory. Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) manufactures processors comparable to the Intel Pentium. such as a hard drive or floppy. ROM cannot be written to after it is initially programmed. Memory differs from the long-term storage systems of a computer. the term RAM refers to read and write memory. On PCs. A computer that has 1 megabyte (Mb) of memory can hold approximately 1 million bytes (or characters) of information. The program waits for an event to occur that notifies them to begin processing. you can both write data into RAM and read data from RAM. is important because it determines how much data can be transmitted at one time. such as internal modems or NICs. The vast majority of all desktop PCs incorporate a single Intel architecture processor (such as Pentium). ROM—Computers almost always contain a small amount of ROM that holds instructions for starting up the computer. such as the PCI bus. that is. such as video data. such as SIMMs or DIMMs. also known as physical memory. In both the cases. Memory is the systems internal. There are several different types of memory. to the I/O bus. Expansion slots connect plug-in expansion boards. and the address bus transfers information about where the data should go. As soon as the power is turned off. making applications run faster. which only permits you to read data.
Page 6 of 85 . the data you send to that computer is prefixed with the number of the card you are sending the data to. in order to transport the data to its correct destination. Other cards are PNP (Plug and Play). After the PROM has been programmed. The NIC attaches to a network via a twisted pair cable through a wall outlet. a place where cables are often terminated to provide continuing connections to other devices. All the users need to assign the network details like computer name. EPROM can be reprogrammed and reused after it is has been erased. These network card numbers are used in the Medium Access (MAC) Layer to identify the destination for the data. A NIC (pronounced “nick”) is the hardware component inserted into the PC or workstation that provides connectivity to a network. The speed at which data may be transferred to and from the NIC is determined by the I/O bus bandwidth. The NIC fits into an expansion slot on the motherboard’s I/O bus.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Programmable read-only memory (PROM)—A PROM is a memory chip on which you can store a program. NIC design and quality of components. using a software program to configure the resources used by the card. simplifying installation. This number uniquely identifies the computer. to the main CPU and RAM. On the other side of the wall. A typical adapter card looks like. The NIC is responsible for transmitting and receiving information to and from a network. you cannot wipe it clean and reprogram it. This bus connects adapter cards. the twisted pair cable is sometimes connected to a hub or Multi-station Access Unit (MAU) that forms the central connecting point of the network. and then installs the networking software required for connection to the network. For Ethernet. assigns the correct resources to it. and the network topology used. the computer detects the new network card. From the punchdown block. New cards are software configurable. There are many ways to connect NICs to a network. a 48-bit number identifies each card. The NIC provides the interface between the physical networking cable and the software implementing the networking protocols. the twisted pair cable goes to a punchdown block. operating system. which automatically configure their resources when installed in the computer. Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM)—An EPROM is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. processor speed. With an operating system like Windows 95. such as NICs. When talking to another computer. it also contains a NIC. auto-detection of new hardware makes network connections simple and quick. This allows intermediate devices in the network to decide in which direction the data should go. On power-up. If the network contains a dedicated server or other communicating device.
Clustering—Clustering is a grouping of devices or other components.. Electronic Mail (E-mail)—E-mail is a widely used application for transferring messages and files from one computer system to another. 1s and 0s). Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM)—DIMM is a small PC circuit board that holds memory chips. when a PC needs data from a common database located on a computer attached to a LAN. a byte is a unit of information that is 8 bits long. Unlike conventional RAM. also referred to as an analog wave or carrier wave. A byte can also hold a string of bits that need to be used in some larger unit for application purposes (for example. an e-mail gateway is required to convert from one format to another. “g. For instance. Modulation is used to add intelligence to an analog wave. It consists of only two numbers: 0 and 1. ISA.” “5. The value of a bit is usually stored as either above or below a designated level of electrical charge in a single capacitor within a memory device. Binary—Binary is the base two number system that computers use to represent data. including internal buses. In most computer systems. Although computers usually provide instructions that can test and manipulate bits. An analog signal in its normal form does not have intelligence. they generally are designed to store data and execute instructions in bit multiples called bytes. and LANs that operate on bus topologies. hard drives. such as letters of the alphabet. Page 7 of 85 . Client/Server—Client server or client/server is a mode in computer networking where individual computers can access data or services from a common high-performance computer. Bandwidth—Bandwidth is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies or it is the maximum bit rate that can be transmitted across a transmission line or through a network. 1s and 0s (bits) are combined to form bytes and characters.. If the two computers sending messages use different types of e-mail packages. typically for the enhancement of performance. EDO RAM retrieves a block of memory as it sends the previous block to the CPU. A bit has a single binary value. EISA was designed in response to IBM’s MCA. such as a printer or hard disk drive. and MCA that are internal to a PC. is a continuous electrical signal on a communication circuit. Clustering computers to execute a single application speeds up the operation of the application. There are many types of buses. A byte is the unit most computers use to represent a character such as a letter. Digital Data—Digital data is electrical information that represents digits (i. Internal buses are buses such as AT. It is measured in Hz for analog networks.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Basic Computer Terminology Analog—An analog signal. Bus—A bus connects the central processor of a PC with the video controller. the PC is the client and the network computer where the database resides is the server. number. Byte—In most computer systems. there are eight bits in a byte. either 0 or 1. which is compatible with the Intel Pentium processor. external buses. Bit—A bit is the smallest unit of data in a computer. or typographic symbol (e. Extended Data Output (EDO)—EDO is a type of RAM memory chip with faster performance than conventional memory. Central Processing Unit (CPU)—A CPU is the processor in a computer that processes the code and associated data in a computer system.” or “?”). and bps for digital networks. EISA. A DIMM has a 64-bit memory path to the CPU. the stream of bits that constitute a visual image within an application program). Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA)—EISA is a 32-bit bus technology for PCs that supports multiprocessing. and memory.e. Device Driver—A device driver is a program that controls devices attached to a computer. disk controller.g.
circuit boards inside a computer. both EISA and MCA were replaced by the PCI bus.” Hardware—Hardware is the physical part of a computer. and other computer components. See “PCI” and “bus. which can include things such as hard drives.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 however. Page 8 of 85 .
disk drives. Internet Protocol (IP)—IP is the protocol responsible for getting packets of information across a network. A SIMM has a 32-bit memory path to the CPU. electronic notepads. Digital computer signals (baseband) are converted to analog signals for transmission over analog facilities (such as the local loop).or 16-bit PC bus technology used in IBM XT and AT computers. Mainframe computers are powerful. and PCs use 32-bit. SIMM capacities are measured in bytes.e.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Industry Standard Architecture (ISA)—ISA is an older. Single Inline Memory Module (SIMM)—SIMM is a small PC circuit board that holds memory chips.” Input/Output (I/O)—An I/O channel is the path from the main processor or CPU of a computer to its peripheral devices. Server—A server is a device attached to a network that provides one or more services to users of the network. Peripherals include hard drives. and modems.” (Servers use 64-bit PCI. floppy drives. Micro Channel Architecture (MCA)—MCA is IBM’s 32-bit internal bus architecture for PCs. and small database applications. One MHz is 1 million cycles per second. read a file) is for the local computer or network server.. and provide a subset of the operations of a typical computer (PC). is referred to as demodulation. and was replaced by the PCI bus architecture. The NIC address is built into the network interface card of the destination node. converting analog signals back into their original digital state. but all data is erased from RAM when the computer loses power or is shut down. RJ-45 Connector—An RJ-45 connector is a snap-in connector for UTP cable. Random Access Memory (RAM)—RAM is a computer’s main working memory. 8. NICs and modems can attach to a laptop through the PCMCIA slot. Network Interface Card (NIC)—A NIC is any workstation or PC component (usually a hardware card) that allows the workstation or PC to communicate with a network. A NIC address is another term for hardware address or MAC address. Redirector—A redirector is a client software component in a client/server configuration. The opposite process. Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)—PCI is a newer 32-bit and 64-bit local bus technology for PCs. similar to the standard RJ-11 telephone cable connector. Modulation—Modulation is the process of modifying the form of a carrier wave (electrical signal) so that it can carry intelligent information on some sort of communications medium. See “bus. The redirector is responsible for deciding if a request for a computer service (i. They are used for scheduling. and attach to networks and high-speed peripheral devices. See “bus.) Peripherals—Peripherals are parts of a computer that are not on the primary board (mother board) of a computer system. Local Area Network (LAN)—A LAN is a grouping of computers via a network typically confined to a single building or floor of a building. MCA was never widely accepted by the PC industry. Mainframe—A mainframe is a large-scale computer system. Applications can repeatedly write new data to the same RAM. Megahertz (Mhz)—One hertz is one cycle of a sine wave per second. and printers. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)—The PCMCIA slot in a laptop was designed for PC memory expansion. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)—PDA devices are very small. such as tape drives. Page 9 of 85 . Applications use RAM to hold instructions and data during processing.
Page 10 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM)—SDRAM is a type of RAM and is often referred to as DIMM. It is replacing EDO RAM because it is approximately twice as fast (up to 133 MHz).
although not always clear. SGRAM can synchronize itself with the CPU bus clock. advanced graphics capabilities. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)—TCP is normally used in conjunction with IP in a TCP/IP-based network. The term “mid-range” covers a wide range of computer systems that support more than one user. Desktop computers are sometimes divided into two broad categories. is generally in the operating system software used and the graphics capabilities. typically more powerful than a PC but still used by a single user. UNIX—UNIX is an operating system used in many workstations and mid-range computer systems. up to speeds of 100 MHz. Linux is a UNIX-like clone. fast disk drives. multiprocessors. possibly attached to a network that is used by a single individual. such as departmental information processing. while a workstation typically runs a version of the UNIX operating system. A workstation often features high-end hardware such as large. Some of these computers are small and can only run a limited amount of applications. Midrange computers include: High-end Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) CPU-based Servers (IBM AS/400) Intel-based servers (Compaq. The difference between PCs and workstations. overlapping with desktop computers at one-end and mainframe computers at the other end. Dell.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Synchronous Graphic Random Access Memory (SGRAM)—SGRAM is a type of dynamic RAM optimized for graphics-intensive operations. and the distinctions between PCs and workstations are blurring. It covers an extensive range of computer systems. There is a great deal of overlap in features and functions of desktop computers. most of which are tied to a network. or Macintosh Operating Systems in the case of Apple products. Typical applications include: Finance and accounting (AS/400) Database (Intel-based or UNIX-based) Printer servers (Intel or UNIX-based) Communications servers (Intel-based) Page 11 of 85 . There are many different types of computers used in organizations. and may support many users. Computer classifications include: Desktop computers Mid-range computers and servers Mainframe computers Others A desktop computer is a computer. Others are large and can run many applications and service many users at the same time. and Hewlett-Packard) UNIX-based servers of all types Mid-range and server systems are commonly used in small to medium organizations. Workstations—Workstations are a type of computer. This lesson looks at classifications of computers found in networks and the primary purpose of each type. The two protocols working together provide for connectivity between applications of networked computers. PCs typically run one of several types of Microsoft Windows operating systems. It is an alternative to PC and Macintosh computer operating systems. and high performance. large amounts of Random Access Memory (RAM). Like SDRAM. personal computers (PCs) and workstations.
such as the UNIX-based operating systems. Windows 98. and printers. in that they are reminiscent of the terminal of mainframe days. High bandwidth I/O facilities—the huge I/O bandwidth on mainframes allows rapid and effective data transfer so that thousands of clients to be serviced simultaneously. the applications you can run. called application programs. such as floppy disks. The unique and inherent capabilities of leading-edge mainframe systems include: Constant availability—mainframes are designed to be operated around the clock every day of the year. mouse movements. thin client terminals have staged a comeback. and drive data across an organization. operating systems and device drivers. a level of reliability desired and measured in nines (99. and handwriting recognition compatible with Windows operating systems have become a reality with the newest generation palmtops. Multithreading—Allows different parts of a single program to run. and thin client terminals have become mainstream devices in the personal computing world over the last five years. to a great extent. hard disks. E-mail. Performance in laptops is closing in on the desktop computer as miniaturization compounds annually. and caters to emerging applications like multimedia. For PCs. Windows NT. tracking. but others are also available. but with graphics capabilities. calendering. and security—mainframes provide automatic and constant backup.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Mainframe computers (also referred to as super computers) and associated client/server products can manage huge organization-wide networks. The application programs must be written to run on top of a particular operating system. Laptops. including digitized video on demand. In the last few years. and keystrokes of the application running on the server. Software and Operating System Two primary types of system software are discussed in this lesson. Key Point Operating systems provide a software platform that can run other programs. Page 12 of 85 . Palmtops are also catching up with performance. Multiprocessing—Supports running a program on more than one CPU. extra disk space. Huge economies of scale—the vast resources of mainframes reduce the hidden costs associated with multiple LANs. The tasks of an operating system include: Managing the operation of computer programs Interpreting keyboard input Displaying data to the computer screen File I/O Controlling peripheral devices. such as administration and training. palmtops or PDAs. Your choice of operating system determines. Rigorous backup. store and ensure the integrity of massive amounts of crucial data. the most popular operating systems are Windows 95. This is sometimes referred to as a number of nines. Multiuser—Allows multiple users to run programs on the same computer at the same time. It is a group of software programs that control a computer. low-end spreadsheets. and Windows 2000. The terminal only displays the screen images. Thin client terminals allow for an even greater reduced cost at the desktop computer level by having a central server handle processing otherwise handled by a PC. including Linux. Operating systems perform the basic tasks computers do to perform useful work. To satisfy a society that is increasingly mobile.999% reliability). and printers Operating systems can be classified as follows: Multitasking—Allows more than one program to run. recovery. laptops and palmtops have become prevalent. Some operating systems running on large-scale computers permit hundreds or even thousands of concurrent users. and safeguarding of data.
There are two Windows NT options: Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server. It runs on Intel 486 or higher PCs and PC servers. long file names. Microsoft has generally dominated the PC operating system market since its foundation. and is still used in many networks.5. Linux UNIX. It was a combination of Windows 3. A device driver is special-purpose software used to control specific hardware devices in a computer system. and a range of features intended to appeal to the network manager. with enhancements such as improved disk I/O performance. For users with a strong requirement for security. It has many of the same features as Windows 95. and then with the Windows user interface. designed specifically for interactive multiuser applications developed by the leading systems vendors. Windows NT. making it far more accessible. Windows 3.g. you normally interact with the operating system through a set of commands.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 As a user. and video playback. Windows NT 3. Windows 95 is a true operating system. and the proprietary operating environments. which runs on a very wide range of hardware platforms from workstations to mid-range systems. better support for NetWare servers.11 was Microsoft’s first peer-to-peer network operating system. floppy drives. improved system administration. Windows 98 is another version of Microsoft Windows. Windows for Workgroups 3. UNIX on midrange servers. It was first launched in response to the need to make PCs easier to use.0 replaced Windows NT 3. Device drivers for NICs control the operation of the NIC and provide an interface for the computer’s operating system. and remote access.. Another product called Windows 2000 has also been released. a graphical overlay for DOS. Microsoft’s 32-bit operating system. Popular OS Microsoft Windows was the initial GUI that ran on top of DOS. management. was first launched in July 1993. Windows NT Workstation requires only 16 MB of RAM. or NICs. better fax and modem support.51.1. Windows NT release 4.1. It is similar to the Apple Macintosh computer. and proprietary environments on mid-range systems and mainframes that need higher-than-average reliability and security. The mid-range software market is characterized by competition between UNIX. The commands are accepted and executed by a part of the operating system called the command processor or command line interpreter. and NetWare on LAN servers. not just a GUI as found in standard Windows. Windows 95 is the first operating system to support Plug and Play. which makes system setup. Some vendors only offer UNIX on their platforms (e. and remote network access. first with its command line-based disk operating system (DOS). Sun with Solaris). and upgrading considerably easier. which runs on Macintosh platforms and not PC-based platforms. C2 versions of Windows NT are also available. Other vendors accept and support a multiplicity of operating environments: Windows on PCs. and 3. Page 13 of 85 .1 and the Microsoft Windows Network software (which provides the peer-to-peer networking capability). and Digital Equipment’s Alpha chip family. Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allow you to enter commands by pointing and clicking at objects that appear on the screen. connectivity. The operating system and associated applications on the computer can use the device driver to communicate with the NIC and send and receive information on a network.1 was the most popular Windows software. The Macintosh operating system is a competitor. Other enhancements include improvements to the user interface. These specific pieces of hardware can be disk drives. but includes a different user interface and Web-related features. known for its easy-to-use operating system. 3.
such as letters. Graphics—Graphics programs are used to create pictures and artwork that are used by themselves or imported into other documents using programs such as desktop publishing packages. such as magazines and newsletters. such as Windows 98. They are primarily used to go directly to another Internet Web site or search the Internet for specific information. If you are using a word processor and want to store a file on a hard drive. others run almost exclusively as a networked application. Web browsers—Web browsers are used to locate and retrieve information from the World Wide Web. Microsoft Access is a common database program. This includes accepting keystrokes from a keyboard and displaying the typed information on a computer screen. Some applications run primarily as a single-user application. and save documents. They provide an easy mechanism to manipulate numbers and compute mathematical equations. edit. An example of a word processor is Microsoft Word. and on a server. Novell NetWare provides print services to NetWare clients. Application-to-Application Communication Applications use the underlying operating system. These programs are designed to produce various documents for organizations. Print services—Clients generate print requests that are serviced by a print server. the application would rely on the operating system to store the information. The operating system stores the information on the hard drive by communicating with the appropriate hard drive device driver to physically place the word processor’s information on the drive. Spreadsheets—Spreadsheet applications are primarily used to create financial reports and organize financial information. When users log on to a network. Jobs are queued by the print server. analyze. Some applications can run in both modes. Network applications include: Database access—Database requests from client to server are made to retrieve records from a single source. Applications can be divided into two basic categories: single-user applications. the e-mail server downloads email messages to the individual clients in the network. and networked or multiuser applications. E-mail—E-mail programs typically reside on both a client. Netscape Navigator is an example of an Internet browser. store. Microsoft Windows NT Small Business Sever provides built-in fax services. Perhaps you want to store the information on a hard drive Page 14 of 85 . format. print. with packages such as Eudora. Commonly used applications are described below. and reports. It is used to design professional publications. Oracle is an example of a client/server database. memos. and the client is notified when the print job has been completed. such as a local hard drive. The Information is stored in records and is managed by a database program. Single-user applications include: Word processors—A word processor is used to enter. and retrieve information on a computer system. Networks are used to move application information from source to destination. An example of a desktop publishing package is Adobe Framemaker. Desktop publishing—Desktop publishing goes beyond basic word processing. Fax services—Clients generate fax requests that are serviced by the server similar to print requests. Examples of graphics programs are Adobe Illustrator and Shapeware Visio.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Application Software Applications are computer programs that are used for productivity and automation of tasks. Database—A database program provides the capability to input. Lotus 123 is a spreadsheet program that is commonly used. Applications are software programs used to perform work. to carry out the needed tasks of the application.
including a hard drive located in our computer. The following steps are typical 1. while others provide the capability to connect to shared resources on other computers. 5. Page 15 of 85 . but is destined for a remote disk drive. must first be installed in the computer. Key Point Client software requests are placed inside protocol headers for delivery across a network. The communication software adds the appropriate communication information on the “store file” request. Computer software on the client machine (also known as a redirector) determines the file is not destined for a local disk drive. 2. It is up to the local operating system to make sure the file gets properly stored on the local computer hardware. The NIC transmits the information across the networking cables to the final destination. across the local bus to the NIC. The user of the application requests that a file be stored on a drive other than a local drive (a network drive). such as a TCP/IP protocol stack. such as a file server on the network. in other words. we have the ability to store files at multiple locations. the request must be redirected out of the computer via a NIC to the appropriate machine located on the network. When we want to store information across a network. Ethernet device driver software must also be installed. Client software is also needed to provide an interface between the local operating system and communication software. If you install a 3Com Ethernet NIC. What must happen in this case? The following three items must be installed on the local machine by the local operating system to provide for communication across a network: NIC and NIC device driver Client software Communication software The appropriate accessory card. along with the corresponding device driver. The redirector takes the “store file” request from the application and requests the services of the communication software. 4. The request is sent from the main CPU of the computer. over the network. such as a NIC. 6. or other hard drives on the network. You must also have communication software loaded on the machine. Some client software provides file and print sharing capabilities for computers.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 located on the other side of the building. 3. From the user’s perspective.
in two basic forms. GAN Local Area Networks .local to a single limited geographical area. MAN uses similar technology as that of LAN. or sine wave. This makes them particularly susceptible to errors. Where: A circuit/channel is a transmission path for a single type of transmission service (voice or data) and is generally referred to as the smallest subdivision of the network. Wide Area Networks . on the other hand. Digital transmissions are discrete in both time and value. Local area networks can be defined as privately owned networks that generally span an entire building or up to a few kilometers in size.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 2 – Network Media. Cables and Connectors Digital and Analog Transmission The telecommunications network can transmit a variety of information. CAN. This allows compression and encryption that is not possible with analog signals. The exact digital value can be received at the destination with very few errors. LAN.covers a large campus that has might include several city blocks. is a transmission path in which one or more channels of information are processed.Group of multiple LANs and/or CANs that communicate over a city and/or several city blocks. MAN. WAN. A carrier. Typically. analog and digital. department within a floor. a MAN has one or two cables and does not require a switching element. which suggest that digital networks can be used for integrated services (ISDN).floor of a building. Campus Area Networks . digital signals vary from dial tone pulses to complex computer and data signals. All types of media can be decomposed into bits. Analog Signals An analog signal. This information may be transmitted over a circuit/channel or over a carrier system. it will distinguish between say the Microsoft HQ CAN and the MAN which covers the city that the CAN is in. MANs are limited to within a single city.digital Digital Transmission This is the single fastest growing family of signals. have low delays and make few errors. Page 16 of 85 . The two types of carrier systems are: FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) -. is a continuously varying signal Analog transmissions are continuous in both time and value. Metropolitan Area Networks . The difference is that the area coverage of MANs is more than LANs. LANs often use a single cable to connect the resources. This property enables them to be efficiently used for cable television. In this lesson we will examine both. LANs operated at 10 to 100 Mbps. LAN can be effectively used to connect personal computers and other resources like printers. WANs span city to city and State to state but will stay within a country. this level allows for more refinement in our definitions. or one entire building.analog TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) . Typically.Groups of MANs that communicate over larger geographical distances like cities or states. converted to a suitable format and transported to the proper destination. It is discrete and well defined. Broadcast LANs follow many topologies. They support both voice and data.
Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Wide area networks. In such a situation. The subnet. One can think of a topology as a network's "shape. The Internet is the most famous example of the GAN Network Topologies (Ring. A single cable. the computers on a home LAN may be arranged in a circle. it stores the packet until the required output line is free and then forwards it. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a bus. Hybrid) In networking. in turn. spans a large geographical area. those devices attach or tap into with an interface connector. Global Area Networks . Data is actually transferred via the transmission lines. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. the term topology refers to the layout of connected devices on a network. as the name suggests. Star. if the backbone cable fails. also referred to as routers. Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types: Bus Ring Star Tree Mesh More complex networks can be built as hybrids of two or more of the above basic topologies. Not all routers are connected to each other. bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. The switching elements connect two or more transmission lines and decide in which outgoing line to forward the data. unconnected routers interact with each other indirectly via other routers. In addition. but it would be highly unlikely to find an actual ring topology there. performance problems will likely result. the entire network effectively becomes unusable. This article introduces the standard topologies of computer networking. GANs span countries and are our International level of Networking. Page 17 of 85 . A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see. Bus Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) Bus Topology use a common backbone to connect all devices. Thus. the backbone functions as a shared communication medium. The typical structure of a WAN consists of a number of host machines (which run applications) connected by a communication subnet. Typically in a WAN. there are a number of transmission lines connected to a router. For example. Bus. Subnets employing such a technique are called point-to-point or store-and-forward subnets. 10Base-2 ("ThinNet") and 10Base-5 ("ThickNet") both were popular Ethernet cabling options years ago." This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. consists of two components – transmission lines and switching elements. The main function of the subnet is to transfer data from one host to another. However. but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message.covers a country's geographical area or a larger area worldwide. when a router receives a packet. This level was added to differentiate a WAN from the larger Global Networks.
A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (effectively either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). one typically uses FDDI.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Ring Topology Ring In a ring network. or Token Ring technology. SONET. Page 18 of 85 . every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. Rings are found in some office buildings or school campuses. To implement a ring network.
only hub devices connect directly to the tree bus and each hub functions as the "root" of a tree of devices. but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LAN. a star network generally requires more cable. the entire network also fails. (If the hub Star Topology fails.) Tree Tree topologies integrate multiple star topologies together onto a bus.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Star Many home networks use the star topology. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Ethernet. Mesh Page 19 of 85 . A star network features a central connection point called a "hub" that may be an actual hub or a switch. however. Compared to the bus topology. In its simplest form. This bus/star hybrid approach supports future expandability of the network much better than a bus (limited in the number of devices due to the broadcast traffic it generates) or a star (limited by the number of hub ports) alone.
messages sent on a mesh network can take any of several possible paths from source to destination. although two cable paths exist. Unlike each of the previous topologies. like the Internet. employ mesh routing. (Recall that in a ring. Page 20 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Mesh topologies involve the concept of routes. messages can only travel in one direction.) Some WANs.
however. Page 21 of 85 . Longer cables may also be used. Guided medium can be termed as that medium where the packets are directed towards the destination. These two wires are twisted together in a helical form. Typically. Unguided medium refers to that medium in which the information is transmitted irrespective of the location of the destination machine. The baseband coaxial cable is a 50-ohm cable and is commonly used for digital transmission. A plastic coating then covers this entire setup. typically about 1mm thick. The bandwidth that can be achieved with twisted pair depends on the thickness and the distance traveled. The broadband coaxial cable is a 75-ohm cable mostly used for analog transmission. 1 to 2 Gbps1 is possible for a 1km cable. provide lower data rates unless used with amplifiers or repeaters. Due to the shielding structure. which is surrounded by an insulating material. This twisting reduces the electrical interference from similar cables close by. The telephone system is an excellent example of a twisted pair network. Coaxial cable has better shielding than twisted pair. These mediums can be broadly classified into guided and unguided medium.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Media The actual transmission of information in a computer network takes place via a transmission medium. Twisted Pair The twisted pair transmission medium consists of two insulated copper wires. Two types of coaxial cables that are widely used. a transmission rate of several megabits per second can be achieved for a few kilometers. Typically. The broadband coaxial cables can give up to 450 MHz and can span for nearly 100 kms for analog transmission. Each channel can transmit analog or digital data. A cylindrical conductor in the form of a closely woven braided mesh surrounds the insulator. A coaxial cable consists of a stiff copper wire as the core. Good examples of guided medium can be copper wire and optical fibers. Twisted pair can be used for both analog and digital transmission. Broadband systems can be subdivided into a number of independent channels. they give excellent noise immunity. Thus. The standard cable television network is an excellent example where broadband coaxial cables are used. they have the advantage that they can span longer distance at relatively higher speed. The bandwidth depends on the length of the cable. They.
In addition. Thus. Optical fibers are typically used to provide a bandwidth of 1 Gbps although bandwidth in excess of 50. Communication in these types of setup is carried out by employing various other mediums such as microwaves. as the name suggests. transmission medium and the detector. information can be transmitted at very high speed . connected at one end of the transmission medium. employ the medium of light to transmit information. The transmission medium used is an ultra-thin fiber of glass. They may also be out of phase with the direct wave thus creating a situation called multipath fading where the delayed wave tend to cancel out the direct wave. The detector at the other end of the transmission medium detects the presence of light pulses and generates an electrical signal accordingly. The light source. it necessitates the transmitter and the receiver to be aligned in a straight line without interference. They can also be used long distance transmission.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Optical fibers. However. At high frequencies. it becomes necessary to provide repeaters for long distances since the curvature of the earth becomes an obstacle. radio waves have the disadvantage that arises from the fact that radio waves are frequency dependent. is called wireless communication. generates a pulse of light that corresponds to 1 bit of data.000 Gbps is possible. Communication. The technology behind optical fibers employs three components: the light source. However. because of the fact that microwaves travel in a straight line. the power of the radio waves deteriorates as the distance traveled from the source increases. can travel longer distances. Wireless Transmission The transmission media described above provides a physical connection between two computers. Some waves may be refracted off low-lying atmospheric layers and thus may take slightly longer to arrive. Page 22 of 85 . the radio waves tend to travel in a straight line and bounces of obstacles. Microwave Transmission Microwave transmission offers a high signal to noise ratio. Microwaves have the advantage that they are relatively inexpensive and require less space to setup antennas. This limitation is due to the unavailability of technology that can convert optical signals to electrical signals and vice versa at such a fast rate. employing these types of mediums. Radio Transmission The obvious advantage of using radio waves comes from the fact that radio waves are easily generated. radio waves etc.the speed of light and it eliminates problems like heat dissipation. This is quite often not feasible especially when the geographical distance between the two computers is very large. They are also absorbed by rain and are subjected to interference from motors and other electrical equipment. The presence of no light is equivalent to 0 bit. can penetrate buildings and are omnidirectional. At low frequencies.
perform the cross-over function. each having a network interface card (NIC) or network adapter and running network software. The next step up would be a network consisting of three or more computers and a hub. Here are the diagrams: Note that the TX (transmitter) pins are connected to corresponding RX (receiver) pins. one of the two units must. plus to plus and minus to minus. Two wire color-code standards apply: EIA/TIA 568A and EIA/TIA 568B. If you use a straight-through cable. Modular Plug Crimp Tool. A crossover cable has different ends. You don't need a lot of bells and whistles. Let's start with simple pin-out diagrams of the two types of UTP Ethernet cables and watch how committees can make a can of worms out of them. a 568A patch cable will work in a network with 568B wiring and 568B patch cable will work in a 568A network. The electrons couldn't care less. And that you must use a crossover cable to connect units with identical interfaces. You can start a crossover cable with either standard as long as the other end is the other standard.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Cabling A LAN can be as simple as two computers. Connectors and Terminators Twisted Pair (Shielded Twisted Pair and Unshielded Twisted Pair) is becoming the cable of choice for new installations. Each of the computers is plugged into the hub with a straight-thru cable (the crossover function is performed by the hub). in effect. connected together with a crossover cable. A straight-thru cable has identical ends. It makes no functional difference which end is which. just a tool that will securely crimp RJ-45 connectors. Despite what you may have read elsewhere. Twisted pair cable is readily accepted as the preferred solution to Page 23 of 85 . It makes no functional difference which standard you use for a straight-thru cable. This one is very similar to the one I have been using for many years for all kinds of telephone cable work and it works just fine for Ethernet cables. You will need a modular crimp tool.
100baset (100Mbps) Reasonably cheap Reasonably easy to terminate [special crimp connector tools are necessary for reliable operation UTP often already installed in buildings UTP is prone to interference. and wall outlet to wiring closet of 90 meters. In 10BaseT. It provides support for a range of speeds and configurations. each PC is wired back to a central hub using its own cable. where they are then patched accordingly. All workstations are wired back to a central wiring closet. which helps to reduce unwanted interference. Within an organization. 10baset (Ethernet 10mbps). the IT department either performs this work or sub-contracts it to a third party. Used in token ring (4 or 16mbps). which surrounds all the other wires. the length of the horizontal wiring. the limitations effectively limit a workstation to wall outlet of 3 meters. The various jack connectors used in the wiring closet look like. The features of twisted pair cable are. and from the wall outlet to the wiring closet. which limits speed and distances Low to medium capacity Medium to high loss Category 2 = up to 1Mbps (Telephone wiring) Category 3 = up to 10Mbps (Ethernet and 10baset) Category 5 = 100mbps (supports 10baset and 100baset) Unshielded Twisted Pair cable used in Category 5 looks like Category 5 cable uses 8 wires. Shielded twisted pair uses a special braided wire. Page 24 of 85 . and is widely supported by different vendors. Distance limitations exist when cabling. There are limits imposed on the length of drop cable from the PC network card to the wall outlet.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 cabling. For category 5 cabling at 100Mbps.
Persons with minimal network understanding can readily build a LAN using coax components. One application of patch cables is for patching between modular patch panels in system centers. the cable is straight through. Make sure they are rated for CAT 5 wiring. Page 25 of 85 . The T-connectors and terminators look like The straight through and cross-over patch cables discussed in this article are terminated with CAT 5 RJ-45 modular plugs. Others are designed specifically for one kind of wire or the other. Reversed cables are normally used for voice systems. These are the straight through variety. This has been mainly due to its ease of use and low cost. (RJ means "Registered Jack"). Another application is to connect workstation equipment to the wall jack. which can often be purchased in kit ready format. as used in Ethernet LAN's. If the colors are in the same order on both plugs. and then compare the colors from left to right. there are RJ45 plugs designed for both solid core wire and stranded wire. looks like The connectors used in thin-net Ethernet LAN's are T connectors (used to join cables together and attach to workstations) and terminators (one at each end of the cable). If the colors appear in the reverse order. and these could be either straight through or reversed depending upon the manufacturer. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable has traditionally been the cable of choice for low cost. small user networks. How to determine the type of patch cable Align the ends of the cable side by side so that the contacts are facing you. the cable is reversed.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Patch Cables Patch cables come in two varieties. Also. straight through or reversed. The general features of coaxial cable are. Medium capacity Ethernet systems (10mbps) Slighter dearer than utp More difficult to terminate Not as subject to interference as utp Care when bending and installing is needed 10base2 uses rg-58au (also called thin-net or cheaper net) 10base5 uses a thicker solid core coaxial cable (also called Thick-Net) Thin coaxial cable [RG-58AU rated at 50 ohms]. RJ-45 plugs are similar to those you'll see on the end of your telephone cable except they have eight versus four or six contacts on the end of the plug and they are about twice as big.
Protocols: Define the procedures to be used by systems involved in the communication process In data communications. They form communication architecture. a protocol is a formal description of messages to be exchanged and rules to be followed for two or more systems to exchange information.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 3 . to communicate between systems. reliability. or may even include different types of systems that need to communicate. Model = Structure Layer = Function Protocol = Rules Some of the advantages of using a layered model are: Allows changes or new features to be introduced in one layer leaving the others intact Divides the complexity of networking into functions or sublayers which are more manageable Provides a standard that. sometimes referred as “protocol stack” such as the TCP/IP family protocols. These protocols define the procedures to use for the systems involved in the communication process. ultimately. The challenge when connecting various systems is to support communication among disparate technologies. You can think of a layer as a step that must be completed to go on to the next step and. Each area is the key in establishing an efficient and effective internetwork. especially in the areas of connectivity. Different sites. are a set of rules that must be followed for devices to communicate Are implemented in software/firmware Each protocol provides for a function that is needed to make the data communication possible. Many protocols are used so that the problem can be broken into manageable pieces.Communication Protocols and Services Protocols Computer networks use protocols to communicate. network management. Recall that a protocol is a set of rules governing the exchange of data between two entities. Each software module that implements a protocol can be developed and updated independently of other modules. Many protocols are used to provide and support data communications. allows interoperability between software and hardware vendors Eases troubleshooting Implementing a functional internetwork is no simple task. As described previously. Page 26 of 85 . These models consist of layers. if followed. as long as the interface between modules remains constant. and flexibility. may use different types of media operating at varying speeds. These rules cover: Syntax – Data format and coding Semantics – Control information and error handling Timing – Speed matching and sequencing Layered Approach A networking model represents a common structure or protocol to accomplish communication between systems. Many challenges must be faced. for example. A data communication protocol is a set of rules that must be followed for the two electronic devices to communicate.
There are many functions which may be need to be performed by a protocol. The layered approach to OSI offers several advantages to system implementers. The packets exchanged between nodes are defined by a protocol . however. that a set (also known as suite or stack) of protocols are usually defined. This is an unpredictable world. for example. By separating the job of networking into logical smaller pieces. so many large internetworks include redundancy to allow for communication even when problems occur. and what the network can transport. In practice there are so many different functions. internetworks must provide a certain level of reliability. Protocol Layers The communication between the nodes in a packet data network must be precisely defined to ensure correct interpretation of the packets by the receiving intermediate and the end systems. These range from the specification of connectors. options. An ordered approach to network communication is a way out. simple changes such as adding one terminal type to the list of those supported by an architecture often required changes to essentially all communications software at a site. The basic idea of a layered architecture is to divide the design into small pieces. which ensure data exchanged are in correct and understandable form. All major telecommunication network architectures currently used or being developed use layered protocol architectures. will be much more likely to interoperate with another vendor's Layer 3 product when both vendors follow this standard model. A basic principle is to ensure independence of layers by defining services provided by each layer to the next higher layer without defining how the services are to be performed. synchronization. there is a distinction between the functions of the lower (network) layers. This permits changes in a layer without affecting other layers. etc. error reporting. vendors can more easily solve network "problems" through divide-andconquer. The protocols are usually structured together to form a layered design (also known as a "protocol stack").Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Because companies rely heavily on data communication. New protocols and other network services will generally be easier to add to a layered architecture than to a monolithic one. reliability. identification of interfaces. addresses of the communications nodes. Page 27 of 85 . The transport layer provides the connection between the upper (applications-oriented) layers and the lower (or network-oriented) layers. In each case. flow control. which are primarily designed to provide a connection or path between users to hide details of underlying communications facilities. A product from one vendor that implements Layer 2. Each layer adds to the services provided by the lower layers in such a manner that the highest layer is provided a full set of services to manage communications and run distributed applications. Each protocol in the suite handles one specific aspect of the communication. The precise functions in each layer vary.or communications language. Finally. The upper layers are sometimes known as "middleware" because they provide software in the computer which convert data between what the applications programs expect. and the upper (or higher) layers. the OSI layers afford extensibility. Prior to the use of layered protocol architectures.
Once computers became readily available at economic prices. since for each pair of protocols a separate "gateway" product had to be developed. all computers on the network generally could host those services on short notice. Page 28 of 85 . the computers will typically be situated near each other physically and will run the same networking protocols. This definition captures the traditional meaning of peer-to-peer networking. Many types of client/server systems remain popular today. devices can now join the network from anywhere with little effort. This approach was appropriate when the cost of computers was very high and communications software was "cheap" in comparison. but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads. in which some computers are dedicated to serving the others. It was costly to connect computers with different proprietary protocols.each manufacturer wrote a comprehensive document describing the protocol. In particular. This process was made more complicated in some cases. particularly PC-based LANs running end-user database applications. a new approach to computer networking called "client/server" emerged. instead of dedicated LANs. Computers in a workgroup. since variants of the protocol existed and not all variants were defined by published documents. Easier configuration and control over the application allows non networking-savvy people to join the user community. In effect. Client/server proved to be a more costeffective way to build many types of networks. This differs from client/server architectures. Although one computer may act as the file server or FAX server at any given time. or home computers. users saw the need to interconnect the computers from different manufacturers using computer networks. P2P systems involve seven key characteristics: User interfaces load outside of a web browser User computers can act as both clients and servers The overall system is easy to use and well-integrated The system includes tools to support users wanting to create content or add functionality The system provides connections with other users The system does something new or exciting The system supports "cross-network" protocols like SOAP or XML-RPC In this updated view of peer-to-peer computing. Network Communication Network Architectures Peer to Peer Client Server Console Terminal Peer To Peer A peer-to-peer type of network is one in which each workstation has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. are configured for the sharing of resources such as files and printers. Peer-to-peer networks are generally simpler. when mainframe dinosaurs roamed the Earth. Client Server Ages ago (in Internet time). the Internet itself becomes the network of choice.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Protocol Stacks The protocol stacks were once defined using proprietary documentation . P2P signifies a shift in emphasis in peer networking from the hardware to the applications.
com). Although a person may start a Web surfing session by entering a particular server name (such as www. Likewise. each customized for their designed purpose. Usually a client computer and a server computer are two separate devices. focuses primarily on the applications rather than the hardware. the name or address of the server appears in the URL of each request. Microsoft's Internet Connection Sharing (ICS).or text-based) in a client process that allows the user to connect to servers. client/server maintains a distinction between processes and network devices. Web server hardware functions as both client and server when local browser sessions are run there. For example. In the case of email and FTP. Cable modem and DSL routers also include a DHCP server with the hardware unit. Client/Server at Home Many home networker’s use client/server systems without even realizing it. Client/Server Applications Some of the most popular applications on the Internet follow the client/server design: Email clients FTP (File transfer) clients Web browsers Each of these programs presents a user interface (either graphic. a Web server will often contain large amounts of memory and disk space. relies on DHCP server and client functionality built into the operating system. In the Web model. however. the name regularly changes as they click links on the pages. When using a Web browser. Many home LAN gaming applications also use a single-server/multiple-client configuration. a device that is a server at one moment can reverse roles and become a client to a different server (either for the same application or for a different application). the HTML content developer encoded in the anchor tags provides server information. The same device may function as both client and server. the user enters a computer name (or sometimes an IP address) into the interface to set up future connections to the server process. In general. whereas Web clients often include features to support the graphic user interface of the browser such as high-end video cards and large-screen displays. Client/server networking. The terminals are also some times referred to as ‘thin clients’. Page 29 of 85 . Console Terminal The Console-Terminal architecture is one in which the Terminal has to access the Console for every piece of information. for example.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 What Is Client/Server? The most basic definition of client/server Client/server is a computational architecture that involves client processes requesting service from server processes. for example.about.
Each layer should perform a well defined function. The Seven Layers Model Seven layers are defined: Application : Provides different services to the applications Presentation : Converts the information Session : Handles problems which are not communication issues Transport : Provides end to end communication control Network : Routes the information in the network Data Link : Provides error control between adjacent nodes Physical : Connects the entity to the transmission media Page 30 of 85 . The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions need not be thrown together in the same layer out of necessity. The OSI Reference Model is based on a proposal developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 4 .that is.OSI Reference Model The OSI Reference Model Modern computer networks are designed in a highly structured way. systems that are open for communication with other systems. The OSI model has seven layers. and small enough that the architecture does not become unwieldy. The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the interfaces. The model is called ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model because it deals with connecting open systems . The principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers are as follows: A layer should be created where a different level of abstraction is needed. To reduce their design complexity. most networks are organized as a series of layers. The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining internationally standardized protocols. each one built upon its predecessor.
The job of managing these abstract data structures and converting from the representation used inside the computer to the network standard representation is handled by the presentation layer. there are hundreds of incompatible terminal types in the world. and so on. A session might be used to allow a user to log into a remote time-sharing system or to transfer a file between two machines. agreed upon way. different ways of representing text lines.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 The Application Layer The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly needed. but it also provides some enhanced services useful in a some applications. the session layer provides tokens that can be exchanged. Consider the plight of a full screen editor that is supposed to work over a network with many different terminal types. it is essential that both sides do not attempt the same operation at the same time. Only the side holding the token may perform the critical operation. Page 31 of 85 . In particular. The Presentation Layer The presentation layer performs certain functions that are requested sufficiently often to warrant finding a general solution for them. as do electronic mail. and various other general-purpose and special-purpose facilities. unlike all the lower layers. A typical example of a presentation service is encoding data in a standard. as does the transport layer. Transferring a file between two different systems requires handling these and other incompatibilities. each with different screen layouts. belongs to the application layer. along with a standard encoding to be used "on the wire". A related session service is token management. dates. the session layer can help keep track of whose turn it is. Sessions can allow traffic to go in both directions at the same time. when the editor moves the virtual terminal's cursor to the upper left-hand corner of the screen. remote job entry. The Session Layer The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions between them. or in only one direction at a time. moving the cursor. For example. Most user programs do not exchange random binary bit strings. A session allows ordinary data transport. They exchange things such as people's names. Different file systems have different file naming conventions. For example. integers and so on. For some protocols. a piece of software must be written to map the functions of the network virtual terminal onto the real terminal. rather than letting each user solve the problems. data compression can be used here to reduce the number of bits that have to be transmitted and cryptography is frequently required for privacy and authentication. etc. This work. Different computers have different codes for representing character strings. All the virtual terminal software is in the application layer. the presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information transmitted. For example. amounts of money. floating point numbers. To handle each terminal type. directory lookup. this software must issue the proper command sequence to the real terminal to get its cursor there too. These items are represented as character strings. and invoices. Another application layer function is file transfer. and data structures composed of several simpler items. the data structures to be exchanged can be defined in an abstract way. integers. escape sequences for inserting and deleting text. To manage these activities. In order to make it possible for computers with different representation to communicate. The presentation layer is also concerned with other aspects of information representation. One of the services of the session layer is to manage dialogue control. too. If traffic can only go one way at a time. One way to solve this problem is to define an abstract network virtual terminal for which editors and other programs can be written to deal with. which are just interested in moving bits reliably from here to there.
However. At the very least. the session layer provides a way to insert checkpoints into the data stream. being determined anew for each packet. they will get in each other's way. To eliminate this problem. The transport layer also determines what type of service to provide to the session layer. There needs to be some way to tell which message belongs to which connection. Many hosts are multi-programmed. If too many packets are present in the subnet at the same time. Finally. In other words. only the data after the last checkpoint has to be repeated. for example a terminal session. so that after a crash. the transport layer might multiplex several transport connections onto the same network connection to reduce the cost. This requires some kind of naming mechanism. The Transport Layer The basic function of the transport layer. and in a way that isolates the session layer from the inevitable changes in the hardware technology. The type of service is determined when the connection is established. other possible kinds of transport. dividing the data among the network connections to improve throughput. to produce billing information. The control of such congestion also belongs to the network layer. Page 32 of 85 . if creating or maintaining a network connection is expensive. and would probably fail again with the next network crash. and ensure that the pieces all arrive correctly at the other end. to reflect the current network load. forming bottlenecks. In all cases. Routes could be based on static tables that are "wired into" the network and rarely changed. Since the operators of the subnet may well expect remuneration for their efforts. so that a fast host cannot overrun a slow one. there is often some accounting function built into the network layer. a program on the source machine carries on a conversation with a similar program on the destination machine. If the transport connection requires a high throughput. After each transfer was aborted. the transport layer is required to make the multiplexing transparent to the session layer. all this must be done efficiently. They could also be determined at the start of each conversation. service and transport isolated messages with no guarantee about the order of delivery. The Network Layer The network layer is concerned with controlling the operation of the subnet. using the message headers and control messages. pass these to the network layer. so that process on one machine has a way of describing with whom it wishes to converse. the transport layer creates a distinct network connection for each transport connection required by the session layer. although similar principles apply to both. the users of the network. which implies that multiple connections will be entering and leaving each host. There must also be a mechanism to regulate the flow of information. Furthermore.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Another session service is synchronization. A key design issue is determining how packets are routed from source to destination. however. split it up into smaller units if need be. Under normal conditions. Consider the problems that might occur when trying to do a two-hour file transfer between two machines on a network with a 1 hour mean time between crashes. Flow control between hosts is distinct from flow control between switches. The transport header is one place this information could be put. is to accept data from the session layer. the transport layer musk takes care of establishing and deleting connections across the network. In addition to multiplexing several message streams onto one channel. the transport layer might create multiple network connections. The transport layer is a true source-to-destination or end-to-end layer. they could be highly dynamic. On the other hand. and ultimately. the software must count how many packets or characters or bits are sent by each customer. and broadcasting of messages to multiple destinations. the whole transfer would have to start over again. The most popular type of transport connection is an errorfree point-to-point channel that delivers messages in the order in which they were sent.
The Physical Layer The physical later is concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication channel. The second one may not accept the packet at all because it is too large. The data link layer should provide error control between adjacent nodes. and the physical transmission medium. and process the acknowledgment frames sent back by the receiver. Physical layer design can properly be considered to be within the domain of the electrical engineer. The Data Link Layer The main task of the data link layer is to take a raw transmission facility and transform it into a line that appears free of transmission errors in the network layer. The problem is that the acknowledgment frames for A to B traffic compete for the use of the line with data frames for the B to A traffic. transmit the frames sequentially. In this case. which lies below the physical layer. this introduces a new complication that the data link layer software must deal with. each of a different quality and with a different price. Frequently. It is up to this layer to solve the problems caused by damaged. If the line can be used to transmit data in both directions. whether transmission may proceed simultaneously in both directions. with different rates on each side. The design issues here deal largely with mechanical. the accounting can become complicated. When a packet has to travel from one network to another to get to its destination. It is up to the network layer to overcome all these problems to allow heterogeneous networks to be interconnected. If there is a chance that these bit patterns might occur in the data. and how many pins the network connector has and what each pin is used for. special care must be taken to avoid confusion. not as a 0 bit. the routing problem is simple. so the network layer is often thin or even nonexistent. multiple transmissions of the same frame introduce the possibility of duplicate frames. It accomplishes this task by having the sender break the input data up into data frames (typically a few hundred bytes). Some traffic regulation mechanism must be employed in order to let the transmitter know how much buffer space the receiver has at the moment. electrical. The addressing used by the second network may be different from the first one. flow regulation and error handling are integrated. it is received by the other side as a 1 bit. The protocols may differ. A duplicate frame could be sent. for convenience. Typical questions here are how many volts should be used to represent a 1 and how many for a 0. how many microseconds a bit lasts. The Data Link Layer: Error Control A noise burst on the line can destroy a frame completely. many problems can arise. for example. and so on. However. The data link layer may offer several different service classes to the network layer. The design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends a 1 bit. In broadcast networks. Page 33 of 85 . Another issue that arises in the data link layer (and most of the higher layers as well) is how to keep a fast transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data. This can be accomplished by attaching special bit patterns to the beginning and end of the frame.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 When a packet crosses a national border. and duplicate frames. Since the physical layer merely accepts and transmits a stream of bits without any regard to meaning of structure. how the initial connection is established and how it is torn down when both sides are finished. if the acknowledgment frame from the receiver back to the sender was destroyed. the data link layer software on the source machine must retransmit the frame. it is up to the data link layer to create and recognize frame boundaries. list. and procedural interfaces.
Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Sending Data via the OSI Model Each layer acts as though it is communicating with its corresponding layer on the other end. data is passed from one layer down to the next lower layer at the sending computer. the message is passed upwards to the desired layer. In reality. the encapsulation information is stripped off. and as it passes upwards through each layer. At the receiving end. Page 34 of 85 . till the Physical Layer finally transmits the data onto the network cable. each layer adds its own layer information to that which it receives from a higher layer). it is encapsulated into a larger unit (in effect. As the data it passed down to a lower layer.
1. Data-link addresses sometimes are referred to as physical or hardware addresses. The sending station sends one or more frames with a sequence numbers them. Selective repeat The last two allow several frames to be in transit. The sending station 1. Datalink addresses usually exist within a flat address space and have a pre-established and typically fixed relationship to a specific device. 3. Routers and other internetworking devices typically have multiple physical network connections and therefore have multiple data-link addresses. Go back n 3. This requires only two sequence numbers 2. Three protocols for the data link layer. The IEEE MAC specification defines MAC addresses. which enable multiple devices to uniquely identify one another at the data link layer. Data Link Layer Addresses A data link layer address uniquely identifies each physical network connection of a network device. Each frame is a packet of data with a sequence number that is used to ensure delivery and a checksum to track corrupted frames. End systems generally have only one physical network connection and thus have only one datalink address. IEEE 802.2 defines a number of fields in data link layer frames that enable multiple higher-layer protocols to share a single physical data link. The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer of the data link layer manages communications between devices over a single link of a network. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has subdivided the data link layer into two sublayers: Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC).2 specification and supports both connectionless and connection-oriented services used by higher-layer protocols. Page 35 of 85 . Note that there must be a large enough range for the sequence numbers so that the receiving station can distinguish between resends (this will happen if an ACK gets lost) and new frames. Stop and Wait. If no acknowledgement for a particular frame arrives within a fixed time the frame is retransmitted The Receiving Station The receiving station acknowledges uncorrupted frames as they are received. The basic protocol works as follows. LLC is defined in the IEEE 802. The Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer manages protocol access to the physical network medium. 2. The sending station awaits acknowledgements of the sent frames before transmitting further frames. Several algorithms are available for use to acknowledge delivery of packages.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 5 – LAN Protocols & Standards Data Link Layers Protocols (LLC and MAC) The logical link layer deals with the transmission of frames.
Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet 802. MAC addresses sometimes are called burned-in addresses (BIAs) because they are burned into readonly memory (ROM) and are copied into random-access memory (RAM) when the interface card initializes. Page 36 of 85 . identify the manufacturer or vendor and thus comprise the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI). FAST Ethernet. each station has access to the common cable. which are administered by the IEEE. MAC addresses identify network entities in LANs that implement the IEEE MAC addresses of the data link layer. MAC addresses are 48 bits in length and are expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. data-link addresses. As with most data-link addresses. The first 6 hexadecimal digits. Figure 1-14 illustrates the relationship between MAC addresses. MAC addresses are unique for each LAN interface. Carrier sense refers to the fact that each station listens to see if no other station is transmitting before sending data. or another value administered by the specific vendor.This protocol is commonly used in bus (Ethernet) implementations.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 MAC Addresses Media Access Control (MAC) addresses consist of a subset of data link layer addresses. and the IEEE sublayers of the data link layer.3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) . Multiple access refers to the fact that in bus systems. The last 6 hexadecimal digits comprise the interface serial number. Ethernet.
Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Collision detection refers to the principle of listening to see if other stations are transmitting whilst we are transmitting. In bus systems, all stations have access to the same cable medium. It is therefore possible that a station may already be transmitting when another station wants to transmit. Rule 1 is that a station must listen to determine if another station is transmitting before initiating a transmission. If the network is busy, then the station must back off and wait a random interval before trying again. Rule 2 is that a station, which is transmitting, must monitor the network to see if another station has begun transmission. This is a collision, and if this occurs, both stations must back off and retry after a random time interval. As it takes a finite time for signals to travel down the cable, it is possible for more than one station to think that the network is free and both grab it at the same time. CSMA/CD models what happens in the real world. People involved in-group conversation tend to obey much the same behavior. Fast Ethernet The growing importance of LANs and the increasing demand for data in a variety of forms (text, digital images, and voice) are fueling the need for high-bandwidth networks. To continue to support business operations, information systems (IS) managers must consider extending or replacing traditional network technologies with new, high-performance solutions. Managers with networks already running on 10megabit per second (Mbps) Ethernet have an advantage. They can easily upgrade to Fast Ethernet for 100 Mbps performance with minimal cost and service disruption. As a simple evolution of the familiar IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard, 100Base-T Fast Ethernet preserves the core structure of Ethernet and includes support for up to 100Mbps and the most widely used cabling schemes. It can be easily integrated with existing 10 Mbps Ethernet networks to provide ten times more network throughput to the desktop at a minimal incremental cost. Its interoperability with other low- and high-bandwidth networking technologies offers network administrators more flexibility in structuring high-speed LANs and WAN. Fast Ethernet is a natural extension of the existing 10 Mbps Ethernet technologies. It is backward compatible with existing networking protocols, media, and standards. It is cost-effective, easy to deploy, and offers 10times the speed of 10Base-T Ethernet at a low cost of ownership. 100BaseT's backward compatibility allows information resource departments to protect their investment in Ethernet expertise while delivering the performance required by power users. 100Base-T Fast Ethernet consists of five component specifications: the Media access Control (MAC) layer, the Media Independent Interface (MII), and three physical layers supporting the most widely used cabling types. Each of these components was designed to preserve compatibility with 10 Mbps Ethernet and existing installations. The Fast Ethernet architecture allows scalable performance up to 100 Mbps, meaning that higher throughput of the workstation at the sending or receiving end directly translates into more performance through the network. With a Fast Ethernet connection, users can finally tap into the network I/O performance of their high-end workstations and servers. The growing importance of LANs and the increasing complexity of desktop computing applications are fueling the need for high performance networks. A number of high-speed LAN technologies are proposed to provide greater bandwidth and improve client/server response times. Among them, Fast Ethernet, or 100BASE-T, provides a non-disruptive, smooth evolution from the current 10BASE-T technology. The dominating market position virtually guarantees cost effective and high performance Fast Ethernet solutions in the years to come. 100Mbps Fast Ethernet is a standard specified by the IEEE 802.3 LAN committee. It is an extension of the 10Mbps Ethernet standard with the ability to transmit and receive data at
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Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 100Mbps, while maintaining the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Ethernet protocol Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet is based on the same Ethernet standard that IT managers already know and use. One of the original network architectures, defined during the 1970s, Ethernet is now widespread throughout the world. From the first implementation of the Ethernet specification — jointly developed by Digital, Intel and Xerox — this networking technology has proven itself in terms of performance, reliability and an ever-growing number of established network installations. Gigabit Ethernet builds on these proven qualities, but is 100 times faster than regular Ethernet and 10 times faster than Fast Ethernet. The principal benefits of Gigabit Ethernet include: Increased bandwidth for higher performance and elimination of bottlenecks Broad deployment capabilities without re-wiring, using 1000BASE-T Gigabit over Category 5 copper cabling Aggregate bandwidth to 16Gbps through IEEE 802.3ad and Intel® Link Aggregation using Intel server adapters and switches Full-duplex capacity, allowing data to be transmitted and received at the same time so that the effective bandwidth is virtually doubled Quality of Service (QoS) features which can be used to help eliminate jittery video or distorted audio Low cost of acquisition and ownership Standards Evolution Gigabit Ethernet is a function of technological evolution in response to industry demand. It is an extension of the 10Mbps Ethernet networking standard, 10Base-T, and the 100Mbps Fast Ethernet standards, 100Base-TX and 100Base-FX (Table 1). Two benefits leading to Ethernet's longevity and success are its low cost and ease of implementation. Besides offering high-speed connectivity at an economical price and support for a variety of transmission media, the Ethernet standard also offers a broad base of support for a huge and ever-growing variety of LAN applications. It is also easily scalable from 10Mbps to systems with higher-speed 100Mbps and 1000Mbps throughput. Nomenclature 10BASE-T 100BASE-TX 100BASE-FX 1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-CX 1000BASE-T Speed 10Mbps 100Mbps 100Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps 1000Mbps Distance 100m 100m 2Km 5Km 550m 550m 275m 25m 100m Media Copper Copper Multimode Fiber Singlemode Fiber Multimode Fiber Multimode Fiber (50u) Multimode Fiber (62.5u) Copper Copper
In June of 1998, the IEEE approved the Gigabit Ethernet standard over fiber (LX and SX) and short-haul copper (CX) as IEEE 802.3z. The fiber implementation was widely supported. With approval of 802.3z, companies could rely on a well-known, standards-based approach to improve traffic flow in congested areas without having to upgrade to an unproven or non-standardized technology.
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Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Gigabit Ethernet was originally designed as a switched technology, using fiber for uplinks and for connections between buildings. Since then, Gigabit Ethernet has also been used extensively in servers with Gigabit Ethernet network adapters and along backbones to remove traffic bottlenecks in these areas of aggregation. In June of 1999, the IEEE further standardized IEEE 802.3ab Gigabit Ethernet over copper (1000BASE-T); allowing 1Gb speeds to be transmitted over Category 5 cable. Since Category 5 makes up a large portion of the installed cabling base, migrating to Gigabit Ethernet has never been easier. Organizations can now replace network adapters with Gigabit Ethernet and migrate to higher speeds more extensively without having to re-wire the infrastructure. This is especially important in areas where existing network wiring is difficult to access, such as the utility risers typically located between floors in large office buildings. Without the new standard, future deployment of Gigabit Ethernet might have required costly replacement of cabling in these risers. However, even with the new standard, existing cabling must meet certain characteristics. Gigabit Ethernet is fully compatible with the large installed base of Ethernet and Fast Ethernet nodes. It employs all of the same specifications defined by the original Ethernet standard, including: CSMA/CD protocol Ethernet frame or "packet" format Full duplex Flow control Management objects as defined by the IEEE 802.3 standard Because it's part of the Ethernet suite of standards, Gigabit Ethernet also supports traffic management techniques that deliver Quality of Service over Ethernet, such as: IEEE 802.1p Layer 2 prioritization ToS coding bits for Layer 3 prioritization Differentiated Services Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) Gigabit Ethernet can also take advantage of 802.1Q VLAN support, Layer 4 filtering, and Layer 3 switching at Gigabit speeds. In addition, bandwidth up to 16Gbps can be achieved by trunking either several Gigabit switch ports or Gigabit server adapters together using IEEE 802.3ad or Intel Link Aggregation. All of these popular Ethernet technologies, which are deployed in a variety of network infrastructure devices, are applicable to Gigabit Ethernet.
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Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 6 – Network Components Network Segments A network segment: Is a length of cable Devices can be attached to the cable Has unique address Has a limit on its length and the number of devices, which can be attached to it
Combining several individual network segments together, using appropriate devices like routers and/or bridges, makes large networks.
In the above diagram, a bridge is used to allow traffic from one network segment to the other. Each network segment is considered unique and has its own limits of distance and the number of connections possible. When network segments are combined into a single large network, paths exist between the individual network segments. These paths are called routes, and devices like routers and bridges keep tables, which define how to get to a particular computer on the network. When a packet arrives, the router/bridge will look at the destination address of the packet, and determine which network segment the packet is to be transmitted on in order to get to its destination.
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There are limits on the number of repeaters. which can be used. They amplify the incoming signal received from one segment and send it on to all other attached segments. Disconnecting one side of a repeater effectively isolates the associated segments from the network. The repeater counts as a single node in the maximum node count associated with the Ethernet standard (30 for thin coax). such as the gateway address and your computer's IP address. Repeaters and Hubs Repeaters EXTEND network segments. you need to configure Dial-Up Networking (DUN) to dial a Point of Presence (POP) and log into your Internet Service Provider (ISP). It does not give you any more bandwidth or allow you to transmit data faster. Repeaters also allow isolation of segments in the event of failures or fault conditions. Your ISP will need to provide certain information. This allows the distance limitations of network cabling to be extended. Using repeaters simply allows you to extend your network distance limitations. If your computer is not connected to a LAN and you want to connect to the Internet.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Introduction to Dial-Up Networking Dial-up networking refers to the technology that enables you to connect your computer to a network via a modem. Page 41 of 85 .
which make them radically different from the older hubs. SNMP management is also a common feature. the traffic generated on one segment is propagated onto the other segment. thus there is no contention to worry about like in Ethernet. This causes a rise in the total amount of traffic. These 10BaseT hubs also include buffering of packets and filtering. In addition. hub concentrators are being very popular. Passive hubs are simple splitters or combiners that group workstations into a single segment. These are very sophisticated and offer significant features. Each workstation plugs into a separate port. Nowadays. so if the network segments are already heavily loaded. which runs at 10Mbps and is for the exclusive use of that workstation. Page 42 of 85 . the network number assigned to the main network segment and the network number assigned to the other side of the repeater are the same. Repeater features Increase traffic on segments Have distance limitations Limitations on the number that can be used Propagate errors in the network Cannot be administered or controlled via remote access Cannot loop back to itself (must be unique single paths) No traffic isolation or filtering There are many types of hubs. with the advent of 10BaseT.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 It should be noted that in the above diagram. unlike bus networks where the bandwidth is shared. which were available during the 1980's. These 10BaseT hubs provide each client with exclusive access to the full bandwidth. it's not a good idea to use a repeater. so that unwanted packets (or packets which contain errors) are discarded. A repeater works at the Physical Layer by simply repeating all data from one segment to another. whereas active hubs include a repeater function and are thus capable of supporting many more connections.
Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 In standard Ethernet. the source address is stored. Each port has exclusive access to its bandwidth (no CSMA/CD) Hubs may be cascaded to add additional ports SNMP managed hubs offer good management tools and statistics Utilize existing cabling and other network components Becoming a low cost solution Bridges and Switches Bridges interconnect Ethernet segments. which identifies the segment to which the device is located on. hubs can be stacked or cascaded (using master/slave configurations) together. Traffic on the bus is controlled using the CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) protocol. allowing informed decisions to be made concerning the state of the network. The workstations attach to the hub using UTP. This allows the use of network management software to remotely administer and configure the hub. The hub provides a number of ports. all stations are connected to the same network segment in bus configuration. In addition. The advantages for these newer 10BaseT hubs are. Packets are passed onto other network segments based on the MAC layer. to allow packets to be held in case the hub or port is busy. and all stations share the available bandwidth. And. because each workstation has its own port. Hub options also include an SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) agent. which are logically. having the entire bandwidth available for its exclusive use. During initialization. it does not contend with other workstations for access. Page 43 of 85 . Each time the bridge is presented with a frame. this is a better option for adding more workstations than the use of a repeater. As hubs do not count as repeaters. The size of this table is important. especially if the network has a large number of workstations/servers. to add more ports per segment. which often runs at a much higher data rate than that of the ports. The ports on a hub all appear as one Ethernet segment. 10BaseT Hubs dedicate the entire bandwidth to each port (workstation). This internal table is then used to determine which segment incoming frames should be forwarded to. Detailed statistics related to port usage and bandwidth is often available. the bridge learns about the network and the routes. combined using a single backplane. Ports can also be buffered. The bridge builds up a table.
they are transparent to higher level protocols By subdividing the LAN into smaller segments. the best place to locate that server is on the same segment as the workstations. Page 44 of 85 . overall reliability is increased and the network becomes easier to maintain Used for non routable protocols like NETBEUI which must be bridged Help localize network traffic by only forwarding data onto other segments as required (unlike repeaters) The disadvantages of bridges are The buffering of frames introduces network delays Bridges may overload during periods of high traffic Bridges. require the frames to be modified before transmission onto the new segment. Ideally. and avoids the delay incurred by the bridge. each operating more or less independent of each other. Bridges do not offer performance improvements when used in diverse or scattered workgroups. as this minimizes traffic on the other segment.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 The advantages of bridges are Increase the number of attached workstations and network segments Since bridges buffer frames. where the majority of access occurs outside of the local segment. giving rise to broadcast storms on the network Bridges are ideally used in environments where there a number of well defined workgroups. Note that each segment must have a unique network address number in order for the bridge to be able to forward packets from one segment to the other. The diagram below shows two separate network segments connected via a bridge. data may be sent over redundant paths. if workstations on network segment A needed access to a server. with occasional access to servers outside of their localized workgroup or network segment. This causes delays In complex networks. which combine different MAC protocols. it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols Since bridges work at the MAC layer. and the shortest path is not always taken Bridges pass on broadcasts. A bridge works at the MAC Layer by looking at the destination address and forwarding the frame to the appropriate segment upon which the destination computer resides.
This prevents the packet being "broadcasted" onto unnecessary segments. Higher protocols like IPX and TCP/IP are buried deep inside the packet. the header is checked to determine which segment the packet is destined for. so are invisible to the switch. hence better performance. and then it’s forwarded to that segment. the packet is dropped and not retransmitted. offering fewer delays through the network. However. In addition. and decides which segment to forward the packet to. Switches work at the MAC layer level. it looks at the MAC address in the header. Switches divide the network into smaller collision domains [a collision domain is a group of workstations that contend for the same bandwidth]. Nodes. If the packet is destined for the same segment that it arrives on. should be placed on the same segment. In this way. Ethernet switches work and function like bridges at the MAC layer. Once the destination segment has been determined.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Bridge features Operate at the MAC layer (layer 2 of the OSI model) Can reduce traffic on other segments Broadcasts are forwarded to every segment Most allow remote access and configuration Often SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) enabled Loops can be used (redundant paths) if using spanning tree algorithm Small delays introduced Fault tolerant by isolating fault segments and reconfiguring paths in the event of failure Not efficient with complex networks Redundant paths to other networks are not used (would be useful if the major path being used was overloaded) Shortest path is not always chosen by spanning tree algorithm Ethernet switches increase network performance by decreasing the amount of extraneous traffic on individual network segments attached to the switch. the segments are still part of the same broadcast domain [a broadcast domain is a group of Page 45 of 85 . Each segment into the switch has its own collision domain (where the bandwidth is competed for by workstations in that segment). which inter-communicate frequently. the packet is forwarded without delay. They also filter packets a bit like a router does. reducing the traffic. As packets arrive at the switch. switches forward frames faster than bridges. usually only read the destination address in the frame before re-transmitting it to the correct segment. Each segment attached to the switch is considered to be a separate collision domain. but instead of reading the entire incoming Ethernet frame before forwarding it to the destination segment. When a packet arrives.
an internal WWW server can be allowed IP access from external networks. in TCP/IP this is defined by the subnet mask]. then forwards the frame to the appropriate segment upon which the destination computer resides. Routers generally work at the protocol level. a TCP/IP router can segment the network based on groups of TCP/IP addresses. By configuring the router with access lists (which define what protocols and what hosts have access) this enforces security by restricted (or allowing) access to either internal or external hosts. This is essentially a barrier. which connects to the Internet. Filtering at this level (on TCP/IP addresses. Ethernet is a widely used standard Improved efficiency and faster performance due to low latency switching times Each port does not contend with other ports. A major feature of routers. will be forwarded to all other segments (unlike a router). will install a router as the main gateway link between their network and the outside world. Ethernet Switching: Advantages Existing cabling structure and network adapters is preserved Switches can be used to segment overloaded networks Switches can be used to create server farms or implement backbones Technology is proven. which only looks at the MAC layer. Routers were devised in order to separate networks logically. is to act as a firewall. also known as level 3 switching) will take longer than that of a bridge or switch. Some vendors implement a broadcast throttle feature. so that external hosts outside the company are prevented access (you could even deny internal workstations access if required). Broadcast packets. For instance. whereby a limit is placed on the number of broadcasts forwarded by the switch over a certain time period. an organization. which prevents unwanted packets either entering or leaving designated areas of the network. Most routers can also perform bridging functions. For example. like a TCP/IP address. A router works at the Network Layer or higher. it is possible to disable this broadcast traffic. They work similar to bridges and switches in that they filter out unnecessary network traffic and remove it from network segments. On some switches. each having their own full bandwidth (there is no contention like there is on Ethernet) Routers and Gateways Packets are only passed to the network segment they are destined for. no additional broadcasts are forwarded till the time period has expired and a new time period begins. by looking at information embedded within the data field. Typically. Once a threshold level has been reached. Page 46 of 85 . but other company servers which contain sensitive data can be protected. because they can filter packets at a protocol level. which originate on any segment.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 workstations which share the same network subnet.
which provides the actual path for the packet in and out of the gateway. These two devices are host nodes. not gateways. IGRP and OSPF] A Gateway is a machine on a network that serves as an entrance to another network. the gateway is the ISP that connects the user to the Internet.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Router features Use dynamic routing Operate at the protocol level Remote administration and configuration via SNMP Support complex networks The more filtering done. The gateway is also associated with both a router. the gateway is the computer that routes the traffic from a workstation to the outside network that is serving the Web pages. For example. In enterprises. that person essentially connects to a server that issues the Web Pages to the user. Page 47 of 85 . when a user connects to the Internet. which use headers and forwarding tables to determine where packets are sent. and a switch. In enterprises. the lower the performance Provides security Segment networks logically Broadcast storms can be isolated Often provide bridge functions also More complex routing protocols used [such as RIP. the gateway node often acts as a proxy server and a firewall. In homes.
Whenever a device connected to the LAN switch sends a packet to an address that is not in the LAN switch's table (for example. Operations of these industries depend on computers and networking. the switch builds a table that associates the MAC address of each local device with the port number through which that device is reachable. The data is stored on computers than on paper. thereby increasing the average available bandwidth per user. insurance companies and many government organizations would stop functioning if there were a network failure. The earliest LAN switches were developed in 1990. The trend toward fewer users per segment is known as micro segmentation. If Host C needs to send data to Host D at the same time that Host A sends data to Host B. we have to address some of the bandwidth problems this has caused and find ways to tackle them. LAN switches are being used to replace hubs in the wiring closet because user applications are demanding greater bandwidth. Although Ethernet LAN switches are most common. or 155-Mbps ATM). Fiber Distributed Data Interface [FDDI].Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 7 – Switching Switched Ethernets Local Area Network (LAN) technology has made a significant impact on almost every industry. thus sparing other hosts on Port 3 from responding to frames destined for Host B. A LAN switch forwards frames based on either the frame's Layer 2 address (Layer 2 LAN switch). in turn. and the dependence on networking is so high that banks. A LAN switch has dedicated bandwidth per port. A LAN switch is also called a frame switch because it forwards Layer 2 frames. to a device that is beyond the LAN switch). the LAN switch forwards frames from Port 1 to Port 2. A LAN switch is a device that provides much higher port density at a lower cost than traditional bridges. As a result. the LAN switch sends the packet out all ports (except for the port from which the packet originated) ---a technique known as flooding. that is. Each user receives instant access to the full bandwidth and does not have to contend for available bandwidth with other users. For this reason. LAN switches can accommodate network designs featuring fewer users per segment. or whenever the device sends a broadcast or multicast packet. and each port represents a different segment. the reliance on networks is so high and the network traffic is increasing. A LAN switch is a device that typically consists of many ports that connect LAN segments (Ethernet and Token Ring) and a high-speed port (such as 100-Mbps Ethernet. or in some cases. They were Layer 2 devices dedicated to solving bandwidth issues. Token Ring and FDDI LAN switches are becoming more prevalent as network utilization increases. Page 48 of 85 . the frame's Layer 3 address (multi-layer LAN switch). Micro segmentation allows the creation of private or dedicated segments. airlines. This chapter provides a summary of general LAN switch operation and maps LAN switching to the OSI reference model. it can do so because the LAN switch can forward frames from Port 3 to Port 4 at the same time it forwards frames from Port 1 to Port 2. when Host A on Port 1 needs to transmit to Host B on Port 2. Recent LAN switches are evolving to multi-layer devices capable of handling protocol issues involved in high-bandwidth applications that historically have been solved by routers. collisions (a normal phenomenon in shared-medium networks employing hubs) do not occur. When a LAN switch first starts up and as the devices that are connected to it request services from other devices. That way. connects the LAN switch to other devices in the network. The high-speed port. Today. Since. whereas an ATM switches forwards cells. one user per segment.
However. The reason it works is simple. Coupled with bandwidth hungry multimedia applications and unmanaged and bursty traffic this problem is further aggravated. With the increasing use of client-server architecture in which most of the software is stored in the server. This is another cause of increased traffic per workstation. More and more users are being added to the existing LANs. with virtually every network vendor marketing its products. the use of a large number of GUI applications means more pictures and graphics files need to be transferred to the workstations. Ethernet in full duplex mode doesn't require collision detection when only one port station is attached to each port. Although this is mostly what all switches do. Bridges and routers can be used to keep the number of users per LAN at an optimal number. Consequently. Conventional Ethernet is bridged or routed. If a segment is attached to a port of a switch then CSMA/CD is used for media access in that segment. LAN switches dissolve previously welldefined workgroup or department boundaries. these networks are liable to suffer the problems inherent in flat (or bridged) networks---that is. Another big advantage of full duplex is that since there cannot be a collision in full duplex. e. LAN switching is a fast growing market. This may lead to frame loss and eventual loss of connection to the server. however. Note. the traffic from workstations to server has increased. A network built and designed only with LAN switches appears as a flat network topology consisting of a single broadcast domain. One catch to this is. Full duplex mode of Ethernet allows simultaneous flow of traffic from one station to another without collision. So. switching routers.g. minimizing network downtime. and a station can transmit whenever a frame is queued in the adapter. The source and destination Medium Access Control (MAC) address of incoming frame is looked up and if the frame is to be forwarded. The user is unaware of full duplex operation. A 100 Mbps Ethernet will have to divide its bandwidth over a number of users because of shared access. Another advantage of switches is that most of them are self-configuring. If this was the only problem. upgrading the backbone that connects various LANs could solve it. To avoid such a situation. Switches can also maintain multiple connections at one point. There is no contention between stations to transmit over a medium. Besides LAN switches. 2500 m for Ethernet. it is sent to the destination port. Ethernet. there is no MAC layer limitation on the distance. Since there is reduced media sharing more bandwidth is available. Local Area Networks in many organizations have to deal with increased bandwidth demands. This has a potential to double the performance of the server. However with increase in the speed of workstation the bandwidth requirement of each machine has grown more that five times in the last few years. The limitation now is at physical layer. there are a variety of features that distinguish them. There is no contention to gain access and LAN switch architecture is scalable. switching hubs are also sold. and no new software applications are needed for this enhancement. at peak loads server might be overburdened. However with a switched network one can connect each port directly so bandwidth is shared only among a number of users in a workgroup (connected to the ports). token ring and FDDI all use shared media. flow control at the client level may be used. if the port has only one station attached then there is no need for any media access protocol. Further. like the following. Thus. although ways for manual configuration are also available. Page 49 of 85 . One can have a 100 km Ethernet using a single mode fiber. These multiple independent data paths increase the throughput capacity of a switch. they do not scale well.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Because they work like traditional "transparent" bridges. The basic operation of a switch is like a multiport bridge. that LAN switches that support VLANs are more scalable than traditional bridges. The effective bandwidth is equal to the number of switched ports times the bit rate on medium/2 for half duplex and for full duplex equal to number of switched ports times the bit rate on medium. media speed rates can be sustained depending upon the station and the switch to which it is attached. that while a client can send as well as receive the frames at the same time. The station can also receive at the same time. Switches normally have higher port counts than bridges and divide network into several dedicated channels parallel to each other.
when the frames have to be buffered since the output port may be busy.1d Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 (L2) protocol designed to run on bridges and switches. Filtering of runts is important as they seriously waste the bandwidth of the network. Store-and-forward switching This type of switches receive whole of the frame before forwarding it. in certain cases they are essential. Switching Methods Cut-through switching Marked by low latency. Even though there are some disadvantages of store-andforward switches. For example when we have a slow port transmitting to a fast port.8 microsecond per byte). Another advantage would be in high traffic conditions. The delay thus for 1500 byte frame is 1200 microsecond. The main purpose of STP is to ensure that you do not run into a loop situation when you have redundant paths in your network. jam packet is like a virtual collision. No Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) verification is done in these switches. Traditional networks do not have a layer 2 flow control mechanism. Thus. The frame must be buffered and transmitted only when it is completely received. Since the buffers are only meant for absorbing peaks traffic. CRC is verified and the frame is directly forwarded to the output port. these switches begin transmission of the frame to the destination port even before the whole frame is received. Some switches upon finding that the destination port is overloaded will send jam message to the sender. Compare this with store-and-forward switches where every frame is buffered (delay: 0. It is a costly operation as delay is of the order of seconds for each dropped frame. This strategy works as only those frames that go to the overloaded destination port are jammed and not the others. Thus frame latency is about 1/20th of that in store-andforward switches (explained later). processing is done. The specification for STP is called 802. in some cases store-and-forward switching has its obvious advantage. with excessive load frames may be dropped. Since the decoding of MAC address is fast and a switch can. Page 50 of 85 . STP IEEE 802. The delay in these switches is about 60 microseconds. in very little time. To the sender. collision or packet loss can be avoided. so even cut-through switches may need to buffer the frames. Switches come with various flow control strategies depending on the vendors.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Flow control is necessary when the destination port is receiving more traffic than it can handle. Cut-through switches with runt (collision fragments) detection will store the frame in the buffer and begin transmission as soon as the possibility of runt is eliminated and it can grab the outgoing channel. so it will wait a random time before retransmit ting. respond with a jam message.1d. While the frame is being received. Upon complete arrival of the frame. and rely mainly on higher layers for this. As traffic increases the chances of a certain output port being busy obviously increase. Loops are deadly to a network.
STP should be used in situations where you want redundant links. Redundant links are as important as backups in case of failover in a network. Consider the following network: In the network diagram above.1d being the most popular and widely implemented. with IEEE 802. but this creates the possibility of having a bridging loop. a redundant link is planned between Switch A and B. for example. STP is implemented on bridges and switches in order to prevent loops in the network. There are different flavors of STP. the backup links are activated so that users can continue using the network. Without STP on the bridges and switches. If your primary fails. Page 51 of 85 .1d-compliant. a broadcast or multicast packet transmitted from Station M and destined for Station N would simply keep circulating again and again between both switches. This is because. such a situation could result in a loop. but not loops.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 STP runs on bridges and switches that are 802.
When implemented in a switching network. 16. Switch B stops advertising its Root ID. which is different from that of a bridge. They are also less likely to be disturbed during moves and changes within the network. while leaving others in a forwarding state. the network logically looks as follows: The following applies to the network diagram above: Switch 15 is the backbone switch. or you can let the switches decide it on their own. as well as for subsequent configuration of the network. It does not necessarily have to be the most powerful switch. with STP running on both switches. STP forces certain redundant data paths into a standby (blocked) state. are made from the perspective of this root bridge. Each VLAN (because it is a separate broadcast domain) must have its own root bridge. The thing to remember in the STP root selection process is that smaller is better. The root for the different VLANs can all reside in a single switch. All other decisions in the network. 201. It is also important that this switch be the least disturbed switch in the network. Note: The selection of the root switch for a particular VLAN is very important. it should be the most centralized switch on the network. The following VLANs are defined on the network: 1. Before configuring STP. This information is carried in Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs).Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 However. All the switches exchange information to use in the selection of the root switch. The BPDU contains parameters that the switches use in the selection process. 203. the key is for all the switches in the network to elect a root bridge that becomes the focal point in the network. You can choose it. The backbone switches are often selected for this function. 200. 13. Each switch compares the parameters in the BPDU that they are sending to their neighbor with the one that they are receiving from their neighbor. the root bridge is usually referred to as the root switch. most likely deals with multiple VLANs. All dataflow across the network will be from the perspective of this switch. The second option is risky because there may be sub-optimal paths in your network if the root selection process is not controlled by you. because they typically do not have end stations connected to them. To provide this desired path redundancy. Page 52 of 85 . 202. A switched environment. STP reconfigures the network and reroutes data paths by activating the appropriate standby path. such as which port is blocked and which port is put in forwarding mode. or it can reside in varying switches. Switch A's information is better. With STP. as well as to avoid loop condition. and 204. and 17 are switches attached to workstations and PCs. you need to select a switch to be the root of the spanning-tree. and instead accepts that of Switch A. 14. If a link in forwarding state becomes unavailable. Switches 12. If the Root ID on Switch A is advertising it is smaller than the Root ID that its neighbor (Switch B) is advertising. STP defines a tree that spans all switches in an extended network. The VTP domain name is STD-Doc.
It could potentially result in a loop. there will be one root switch identified per VLAN. This is only for ports that are connected to other bridges or switches. After a switch figures out its root port. Page 53 of 85 . the switches follow the rules defined below. STP Rule Two: Once a switch determines its root port that port must be set to forwarding mode. The only variable you have to set is the bridge priority. As the BPDU goes out through the network. When the switches first come up. STP Rule Four: All other ports in all the switches (VLAN-specific) must be placed in blocking mode. This switch is called the designated switch. STP Rule One: All ports of the root switch must be in forwarding mode (except for some corner cases where self-looped ports are involved). the switches come to an agreement as to who the root switch is. In addition. STP Rule Three: In a given LAN segment. when enabled on a port. each switch compares the BPDU it sent out to the one it received from its neighbors. The port with the smallest information contained in its BPDU is used to get to the root switch. They determine this path by comparing the information in all the BPDUs received on all their ports. From this comparison. The portfast variable. set the appropriate variables to designate it as the root switch. The 30-60 second delay that occurs when transitioning from blocking to forwarding mode transition prevents a temporal loop condition in the network when connecting two switches. After that root switch has been identified. they remain forwarded. This helps prevent time-outs on clients that use Novell Netware or that use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to obtain an IP address. it proceeds to Rule Two. the switches communicate with each other to determine which switch on that LAN segment is best to use for moving data from that segment to the root bridge. The switch with the lowest priority in the network wins this election process. for each LAN segment. it will be automatically selected by the other switches as the root switch. If this switch has a bridge priority that is lower than all other switches. that port is called the root port. Most other STP variables should be left at their default values. they start the root switch selection process by each switch transmitting BPDU to its directly connected switch on a per-VLAN basis. the designated switch's port that connects to that LAN segment must be placed in forwarding mode. Rules of Operation: The rules for how STP works are listed below. each switch determines the best path to get to the root. causes the port to immediately switch from blocking mode to forwarding mode. However. it is important that you do not use this command when you have switch-to-switch connection. This is done on a per-port basis.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 After you decide which switch should be the root switch. Ports connected to workstations or PCs are not affected by STP. Note: Remember. Clients (end stations) on switch ports: You can also issue the set spantree portfast command. Next.
ARP. Page 54 of 85 . each protocol is only concerned with communicating to its peer—it does not care about the layers above or below it. UDP and MAC TCP/IP An architectural model provides a common frame of reference for discussing Internet communications. Peer-level communications are standardized to ensure that successful communications take place. Volume 1. a layer does not define a single protocol—it defines a data communication function that may be performed by any number of protocols. Layered Approach Generally. The internetwork layer is commonly used to describe TCP/IP. Because each layer defines a function. Each layer in the stack performs a specific function in the process of communicating over a network. it can contain multiple protocols. These three layers are as follows: • Network Access Layer • Host-To-Host Transport Layer • Application Layer An additional layer. It separates the functions performed by communication protocols into manageable layers stacked on top of each other. A peer is an implementation of the same protocol in the equivalent layer on a remote computer. Every protocol communicates with its peer.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 8 – TCP/IP Layered Approach Understanding Architectural Models and Protocols How a Protocol Stack Works Encapsulation of Data for Network Delivery Internet Protocol Suite ICMP. This model consists of a seven-layer protocol stack. Understanding Architectural Models and Protocols In an architectural model. we have chosen the common DoD reference model. The DoD Protocol Model This model is based on the three layers defined for the DoD Protocol Model in the DDN Protocol Handbook. IP. It is used not only to explain communication protocols but to develop them as well. TCP. each of which provides a service suitable to the function of that layer. To describe TCP/IP based firewalls more precisely. which is also known as the Internet reference model. TCP/IP is described using three to five functional layers. the internetwork layer. Another standard architectural model that is often used to describe a network protocol stack is the OSI reference model. Theoretically. has been added to this model.
until it is transmitted over the network by the network access layer protocols. The upper layers rely on the lower layers to transfer the data across the underlying network. As information flows back up the stack. routing controls. A layer carries out its tasks and delivers the message to the next layer in the protocol stack. however. The process of removing headers and trailers from data is called decapsulation. The four layers in this reference model are crafted to distinguish between the different ways that the data is handled as it passes down the protocol stack from the application layer to the underlying physical network. protocols (which compose the various layers) are like a pile of building blocks stacked one upon another. Data is passed down the stack from one layer to the next. the original message is enveloped in multiple. At the remote end. and it places its own header and/or trailer around that information. information received from a lower layer is interpreted as both a header/trailer and data. nested wrappers—one for each layer of protocol through which the data passed. Each layer treats all of the information that it receives from the layer above it as data. some of which may be forwarded or derived from the higher layer. The individual layers do not need to know how the layers above or below them function. This mechanism enables each layer in the transmitting computer to communicate with its corresponding layer in the receiving computer. How a Protocol Stack Works As the reference model indicates. exists between the layers. This control information is called a header and/or a trailer because it is placed in front of or behind the data to be transmitted. they only need to know how to pass data to them. and checksum) to ensure proper delivery. These wrapped messages are then passed into the layer below along with additional control information. An address mechanism is the common element that allows data to be routed through the various layers until it reaches its destination. Each layer strips off its header and/or trailer before passing the data up to the layer above. Each layer in the transmitting computer communicates with its peer layer in the receiving computer via a process called peer-to-peer communication. By the time a message exits the system on a physical link (such as a wire). Because of this structure. and it knows nothing about the procedures that the other layers follow. the opposite happens. the process is called encapsulation. When a protocol uses headers or trailers to package the data from another protocol. the layers must agree on how to pass data between themselves on a single computer. Page 55 of 85 . Each layer has specific responsibilities and specific rules for carrying out those responsibilities. groups of related protocols are often called stacks or protocol stacks. Encapsulation of Data for Network Delivery When data is received. the data is passed up the stack to the receiving application. Each layer in the stack adds control information (such as destination address.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A dependency. Because every layer is involved in sending data from a local application to an equivalent remote application.
processes. such as the packet structure. which is a computer that has two network adapter cards. Two types of devices are responsible for routing messages between networks. The following section describes the Internet reference model in more detail. The communicating entities—which can be computers. Understanding The Internet Reference Model As mentioned earlier. or people—that use the datagram services must specify the destination address (using control information) and the data for each message to be transmitted. They exchange data between the computer and the physical network. maximum frame size. Network Access Layer The network access layer is the lowest layer in the Internet reference model. The second device is a router. The internetwork layer protocols package the message in a datagram and send it off. This layer is responsible for routing messages through internetworks. A physical address is stored in the network adapter card of a computer or other device. Internetwork Layer In the Internet reference model. the layer above the network access layer is called the internetwork layer. To deliver data on the local network. and the application layer. In the following sections. Trailers typically contain a checksum value. the host-to-host transport layer. operating systems. Still. the internet work layer. and it is a value that is "hard-coded" into the adapter card by the manufacturer. which is used to ensure that the data is not modified in transit. The internetwork layer protocols provide a datagram network service. data. Page 56 of 85 . In reality. They deliver data between two devices on the same network. which is a dedicated hardware device that passes packets from one network to a different network. The protocols at this layer perform three distinct functions: They define how to use the network to transmit a frame. such as the destination address. The header contains information. the network access layer protocols must understand the details of the underlying physical network. starting with the network access layer and working our way up to the application layer. Datagrams are packets of information that comprise a header. that the network needs to route the datagram. a layer is unaware of the data structures used by the layers above and below it. which is the data unit passed across the physical connection. This layer contains the protocols that the computer uses to deliver data to the other computers and devices that are attached to the network. We will use this reference model throughout this guide to describe the structure and function of the TCP/IP protocol suite and Cisco Centric Firewall. each layer has its own data structures and its own terminology to describe those structures. we describe the function of each layer in more detail. the network access layer protocols use the physical addresses of the nodes on the network. Unlike higher level protocols. Conceptually. programs. Understanding the details and constraints of the physical network ensures that these protocols can format the data correctly so that it can be transmitted across the network. A header can also contain other information. The first device is called a gateway. and a trailer. and the physical address scheme that is used. the data structures of a layer are designed to be compatible with the structures used by the surrounding layers for the sake of more efficient data transmission.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Each layer also has its own independent data structures. such as the source address and security labels. This computer accepts network packets from one network on one network card and routes those packets to a different network via the second network adapter card. the Internet reference model contains four layers: the network access layer.
If the receiving datagram service detects a transmission error during transmission using the checksum value of the datagram." TCP/IP uses the terms "socket" and "port" to describe the path (or virtual circuit) over which cooperating applications communicate. they became standard protocols for ARPANET. This layer includes all applications protocols that use the host-to-host transport protocols to deliver data. This layer accepts information to be transmitted as a stream of characters. Page 57 of 85 . In 1983. and these functions are performed by the host-to-host transport layer. then called ARPANET. Instead of using the term "session. and it returns information to the recipient as a stream. the DoD Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) began researching the network technology that is now called packet switching. and it is highly specific to the application being performed. A connection is the state of the host-to-host transport layer between the time that an open command is accepted by the receiving computer and the time that the close command is issued by either computer. The abilities to retransmit data and check it for errors are minimal or nonexistent in the datagram services. they must agree about how data is represented. the protocols in the host-to-host transport layer maintain it. In addition to the usual transmit and receive functions. In the early 1980s. In the TCP/IP protocol hierarchy. The TCP/IP protocols played an important role in the development of the Internet. In 1968. TCP/IP originated out of the investigative research into networking protocols that the Department of Defense (DoD) initiated in 1969. Host-to-Host Transport Layer The protocol layer just above the internetwork layer is the host-to-host transport layer. Other functions that process user data. The name is misleading because TCP and IP are only two of dozens of protocols that compose the suite. the TCP/IP protocols were developed. However. can also reside at the application layer. These processes include all of those that users interact with directly. the host-to-host transport layer uses open and close commands to initiate and terminate the connection. the service retains no memory of the entity with which it was communicating. the network that was initially constructed as a result of this research. The original focus of this research was to facilitate communication among the DoD community. it simply ignores (or drops) the datagram without notifying the receiving higher-layer entity. sessions are not identifiable as a separate layer. Its name comes from two of the more important protocols in the suite: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). as well as other processes of which the users are not aware. It provides the services that user applications use to communicate over the network. gradually became known as the Internet.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A datagram service does not support any concept of a session or connection. For cooperating applications to be able to exchange data. and new user services are added often. The application layer is responsible for standardizing the presentation of data. Once a message is sent or received. Application Layer The top layer in the Internet reference model is the application layer. The application layer also manages the sessions (connections) between cooperating applications. and it is the layer in which user-access network processes reside. such as data encryption and decryption and compression and decompression. This layer provides functions for users or their programs. The service employs the concept of a connection (or virtual circuit). Because of the history of the TCP/IP protocol suite. Most of the application protocols in this layer provide user services. it is often referred to as the DoD protocol suite or the Internet protocol suite. The name TCP/IP refers to a suite of data communication protocols. It is responsible for providing end-to-end data integrity and provides a highly reliable communication service for entities that want to carry out an extended two-way conversation. If such a memory is needed.
If the destination address is not on the local network. best-effort delivery of datagrams through an Page 58 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Internet Protocol IP is a connectionless protocol. it acts like any other gateway and is considered to be a gateway. Because it contains no error detection or recovery code. IP makes the routing decision for each individual packet. moving them toward their final destination. IP represents the heart of the Internet protocols. However. Each host-tohost transport layer protocol has a unique protocol number that identifies it to IP. Internet gateways are commonly (and perhaps more accurately) referred to as IP routers because they use IP to route packets between networks. As a datagram is routed through different networks. The TCP/IP protocols were built to transmit data over the ARPANET. When IP receives a datagram that is addressed to the local host. If the destination address is the address of a host on the directly attached network. IP relies on protocols in other layers to establish the connection if connection-oriented services are required. Along with the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). if a host is connected to more than one network (called a multi-homed host). Deciding which gateway to use is called routing. it is necessary to divide the datagram into smaller fragments for transmission. it can forward packets between the networks. Gateways forward packets between networks and hosts do not. the computers are said to have established a connection. A packet is a block of data that carries with it the information necessary to deliver it—in a manner similar to a postal letter that has an address written on its envelope. When the handshaking is successful. If the datagram received from one network is longer than the other network's MTU. IP delivers the datagram by checking the destination address in the header. Each packet travels the network independently of any other packet. The functions performed at this layer are as follows: Define the datagram. it must pass the data portion of the datagram to the correct host-to-host transport layer protocol. Route datagrams to remote hosts. Each type of network has a maximum transmission unit (MTU). there are only two types of network devices: gateways and hosts. IP also relies on protocols in another layer to provide error detection and error recovery. which is the basic unit of transmission in the Internet. IP is documented in RFC 791 and is the primary network-layer protocol in the Internet protocol suite. This division process is called fragmentation. connection-oriented protocol exchanges control information with the remote computer to verify that it is ready to receive data before sending it. Move data between the Network Access Layer and the Host-to-Host Transport Layer. A datagram received from one network may be too large to be transmitted in a single packet on a different network. When a multi-homed host forwards packets. In contrast. which means that IP does not exchange control information (called a handshake) to establish an end-to-end connection before transmitting data. The datagram is the packet format defined by IP. This condition only occurs when a gateway interconnects dissimilar physical networks. the packet is passed to a gateway for delivery. The Internet Protocol (IP) is a network-layer (Layer 3) protocol that contains addressing information and some control information that enables packets to be routed. Fragment and reassemble datagrams. IP has two primary responsibilities: providing connectionless. Define the Internet addressing scheme. which is the largest packet it can transfer. it may be necessary for the IP module in a gateway to divide the datagram into smaller pieces. Gateways and routers are devices that switch packets between the different physical networks. This selection is done by using the protocol number in the datagram header. IP is sometimes called an unreliable protocol. In traditional TCP/IP jargon. which was a packet switching network. the packet is delivered directly to the destination. A packet switching network uses the addressing information in the packets to switch packets from one physical network to another.
Page 59 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 internetwork. and providing fragmentation and reassembly of datagrams to support data links with different maximum-transmission unit (MTU) sizes.
The low-order bit specifies whether the packet can be fragmented. Data—Contains upper-layer information. Header Checksum—Helps ensure IP header integrity. Total Length—Specifies the length. This keeps packets from looping endlessly. Time-to-Live—Maintains a counter that gradually decrements down to zero. including the data and header. IP Header Length (IHL)—Indicates the datagram header length in 32-bit words. Flags—Consists of a 3-bit field of which the two low-order (least-significant) bits control fragmentation. in bytes. Type-of-Service—Specifies how an upper-layer protocol would like a current datagram to be handled. Page 60 of 85 . a host can dynamically discover the MAC-layer address corresponding to a particular IP network-layer address. Identification—Contains an integer that identifies the current datagram. The third or high-order bit is not used. and assigns datagrams various levels of importance. which allows the destination IP process to properly reconstruct the original datagram. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) For two machines on a given network to communicate.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 IP Packet Format The following discussion describes the IP packet fields illustrated in Figure 30-2: Version—Indicates the version of IP currently used. Destination Address—Specifies the receiving node. This field is used to help piece together datagram fragments. By broadcasting Address Resolution Protocols (ARPs). they must know the other machine's physical (or MAC) addresses. Options—Allows IP to support various options. at which point the datagram is discarded. Fragment Offset—Indicates the position of the fragment's data relative to the beginning of the data in the original datagram. The middle bit specifies whether the packet is the last fragment in a series of fragmented packets. Source Address—Specifies the sending node. Protocol—Indicates which upper-layer protocol receives incoming packets after IP processing is complete. of the entire IP packet. such as security.
Page 61 of 85 . end-to-end reliable packet delivery through an internetwork. TCP offers reliability by providing connection-oriented. the cache entry is flushed. RARP relies on the presence of a RARP server with table entries of MAC-layer-to-IP address mappings. the receiving TCP process indicates the highest sequence number it can receive without overflowing its internal buffers. full-duplex operation. An ACK = 20 means the host has received bytes 0 through 19 and expects byte 20 next. Bytes not acknowledged within a specified time period are retransmitted. records the sequence number X. Host A then acknowledges all bytes Host B sent with a forward acknowledgment indicating the next byte Host A expects to receive (ACK = Y + 1). Among the services TCP provides are stream data transfer. which is the logical inverse of ARP. A three-way handshake synchronizes both ends of a connection by allowing both sides to agree upon initial sequence numbers. Finally. which means that. Instead. and multiplexing. It does this by sequencing bytes with a forwarding acknowledgment number that indicates to the destination the next byte the source expects to receive.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 After receiving a MAC-layer address. Each host randomly chooses a sequence number used to track bytes within the stream it is sending and receiving. Data transfer then can begin. RARP. the three-way handshake proceeds in the following manner: The first host (Host A) initiates a connection by sending a packet with the initial sequence number (X) and SYN bit set to indicate a connection request. If the device does not respond within a specified time frame. The reliability mechanism of TCP allows devices to deal with lost. A time-out mechanism allows devices to detect lost packets and request retransmission. when sending acknowledgments back to the source. In addition to the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) is used to map MAC-layer addresses to IP addresses. This service benefits applications because they do not have to chop data into blocks before handing it off to TCP. With stream data transfer. Host B includes its own initial sequence number (SEQ = Y). thus avoiding having to broadcast ARPS when they want to recontact a device. TCP groups bytes into segments and passes them to IP for delivery. This mechanism also guarantees that both sides are ready to transmit data and know that the other side is ready to transmit as well. might be used by diskless workstations that do not know their IP addresses when they boot. Then. or misread packets. TCP corresponds to the transport layer (Layer 4) of the OSI reference model. delayed. TCP delivers an unstructured stream of bytes identified by sequence numbers. reliability. This technique is called forward acknowledgment. This is necessary so that packets are not transmitted or retransmitted during session establishment or after session termination. Full-duplex operation means that TCP processes can both send and receive at the same time. Connection establishment is performed by using a "three-way handshake" mechanism. TCP Connection Establishment To use reliable transport services. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) The TCP provides reliable transmission of data in an IP environment. IP devices create an ARP cache to store the recently acquired IP-to-MAC address mapping. efficient flow control. The second host (Host B) receives the SYN. TCP's multiplexing means that numerous simultaneous upper-layer conversations can be multiplexed over a single connection. TCP offers efficient flow control. duplicate. TCP hosts must establish a connection-oriented session with one another. and replies by acknowledging the SYN (with an ACK = X + 1).
" In a TCP sliding-window operation. By assigning each packet a sequence number.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Positive Acknowledgment and Retransmission (PAR) A simple transport protocol might implement a reliability-and-flow-control technique where the source sends one packet. The receiver would respond with an ACK = 11. This means that a window is the number of data bytes that the sender is allowed to send before waiting for an acknowledgment. In this packet. because a host must wait for an acknowledgment before sending a new packet. In TCP. PAR enables hosts to track lost or duplicate packets caused by network delays that result in premature retransmission. starts a timer. the receiver specifies the current window size in every packet. the receiver would indicate that its window size is 5. for example. Initial window sizes are indicated at connection setup. The sequence numbers are sent back in the acknowledgments so that the acknowledgments can be tracked. Because TCP provides a byte-stream connection. At this point. In the same packet. indicating that it has received bytes 1 to 5 and is expecting byte 6 next. and only one packet can be sent at a time. TCP Packet Format Page 62 of 85 . means "Send no data. and waits for an acknowledgment before sending a new packet. TCP Sliding Window A TCP sliding window provides more efficient use of network bandwidth than PAR because it enables hosts to send multiple bytes or packets before waiting for an acknowledgment. A window size of zero. but might vary throughout the data transfer to provide flow control. the receiver might indicate that its window size is 0 (because. the sender might have a sequence of bytes to send (numbered 1 to 10) to a receiver who has a window size of five. The sender then would move the sliding window five bytes to the right and transmit bytes 6 to 10. If the acknowledgment is not received before the timer expires. the source retransmits the packet. its internal buffers are full). for instance. It would then wait for an acknowledgment. the sender cannot send any more bytes until the receiver sends another packet with a window size greater than 0. PAR is an inefficient use of bandwidth. for example. however. window sizes are expressed in bytes. Such a technique is called positive acknowledgment and retransmission (PAR). The receiver would respond with an ACK = 6. The sender then would place a window around the first five bytes and transmit them together. indicating that it is expecting sequenced byte 11 next.
including the SYN and ACK bits used for connection establishment. Unlike the TCP. Because of UDP's simplicity. length. including the following: File Transfer Protocol (FTP)—Moves files between devices Page 63 of 85 . UDP adds no reliability. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). the buffer space available for incoming data). or error-recovery functions to IP. Sequence Number—Usually specifies the number assigned to the first byte of data in the current message. UDP is the transport protocol for several well-known application-layer protocols. UDP is useful in situations where the reliability mechanisms of TCP are not necessary. UDP is basically an interface between IP and upper-layer processes. Checksum provides an (optional) integrity check on the UDP header and data. A length field specifies the length of the UDP header and data. Data—Contains upper-layer information. Source and destination ports contain the 16-bit UDP protocol port numbers used to demultiplex datagrams for receiving application-layer processes. The UDP packet format contains four fields. flow-control. this field also can be used to identify an initial sequence number to be used in an upcoming transmission. including Network File System (NFS). Window—Specifies the size of the sender's receive window (that is. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless transport-layer protocol (Layer 4) that belongs to the Internet protocol family. Data Offset—Indicates the number of 32-bit words in the TCP header. Reserved—Remains reserved for future use. and the FIN bit used for connection termination. and checksum fields. These include source and destination ports. UDP headers contain fewer bytes and consume less network overhead than TCP. Urgent Pointer—Points to the first urgent data byte in the packet. UDP protocol ports distinguish multiple applications running on a single device from one another. Domain Name System (DNS). Acknowledgment Number—Contains the sequence number of the next byte of data the sender of the packet expects to receive. Options—Specifies various TCP options.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 TCP Packet Field Descriptions Source Port and Destination Port—Identifies points at which upper-layer source and destination processes receive TCP services. Internet Protocols Application-Layer Protocols The Internet protocol suite includes many application-layer protocols that represent a wide variety of applications. and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). Flags—Carries a variety of control information. In the connection-establishment phase. such as in cases where a higher-layer protocol might provide error and flow control. Checksum—Indicates whether the header was damaged in transit.
The left-most (high-order) bits indicate the network class. D. and C are available for commercial use. 32. the IP addressing scheme is integral to the process of routing IP datagrams through an internetwork.C. IP Address Format The 32-bit IP address is grouped eight bits at a time. Each host on a TCP/IP network is assigned a unique 32-bit logical address that is divided into two main parts: the network number and the host number. separated by dots. B. Figure 30-3 illustrates the basic format of an IP address. and Remote Procedure Call (RPC)—Work together to enable transparent access to remote network resources Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)—Provides electronic mail services Domain Name System (DNS)—Translates the names of network nodes into network addresses IP Addressing As with any other network-layer protocol. 64. 4. 1). The network number identifies a network and must be assigned by the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC) if the network is to be part of the Internet. 2. B. Each IP address has specific components and follows a basic format. 16. and E. These IP addresses can be subdivided and used to create addresses for subnetworks. The minimum value for an octet is 0. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) can obtain blocks of network addresses from the InterNIC and can itself assign address space as necessary.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Simple Network-Management Protocol (SNMP)—Primarily reports anomalous network conditions and sets network threshold values Telnet—Serves as a terminal emulation protocol X Windows—Serves as a distributed windowing and graphics system used for communication between X terminals and UNIX workstations Network File System (NFS). and the maximum value for an octet is 255. Page 64 of 85 . 8. as discussed in more detail later in this chapter. and represented in decimal format (known as dotted decimal notation). Each bit in the octet has a binary weight (128. External Data Representation (XDR). Only classes A. The host number identifies a host on a network and is assigned by the local network administrator. IP Address Classes IP addressing supports five different address classes: A.
and C are available for commercial use.H N.2.31.255. but 0 can be used as the second and/or third octet (e.255.0.0.0 to 223. This is useful when testing internal operations.0. the first octet is 172.2) 245 (28 . regardless of what network it is really in. 0 1.N.0.1. 10. The class of address can be determined easily by examining the first octet of the address and mapping that value to a class range in the following table.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Reference Information about the Five IP Address Classes IP Address Class A B C D E 1 2 Format Purpose Few large organizations Medium-size organizations Relatively small organizations Multicast groups (RFC 1112) Experimental HighOrder Bit(s) 0 1. 543 (216 .0.0. One address is reserved for the broadcast address.N. IP address formats A. 1. 1.0 128.H N/A N/A N = Network number. for example. 1.31.N.0.0. H = Host number.H.0.0 to 254.1.1. 1.2) N/A N/A N. 172. and one address is reserved for the network.255.H.2.2) 65.255 240.H. Octets 0 and 255 are not acceptable values in some situations.0 224.0 to 191. 1 Address Range 1.0.0 192. 1.2 is a Class B address. In an IP address of 172. 0 1.0.1. B.0 to 126. Bits Network/H ost 7/24 14/16 22/8 N/A (not for commercia l use) N/A Max.777.0 to 239.g.255. 0 1.254. Because 172 falls between 128 and 191. First octet 224 and above are reserved for special purposes such as multicasting. Page 65 of 85 .254.100).255. Address Class First Octet in Decimal High-Order Bits Class A 1 !Ð 126 0 Class B 128 !Ð 191 10 Class C 192 !Ð 223 110 Class D 224 !Ð 239 1110 Class E 240 !Ð 254 1111 Some first-octet values have special meanings: First octet 127 represents the local computer.0.255 No. Hosts 16.H1 N. 2142 (224 .
however. The number of borrowed bits varies and is specified by the subnet mask.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A class A network does not necessarily consist of 16 million machines on a single network. Class A addresses are not discussed in this chapter because they generally are subnetted on an 8-bit boundary. Details of Class B and C subnet mask types follow. a large company is assigned a class A network. The subnet mask. and binary 0s in all bits specifying the host field. the class labels are still commonly used as broad descriptors. Subnet masks use the same format and representation technique as IP addresses. Subnets are under local administration. As such. which would excessively burden most network technologies and their administrators. Instead. has binary 1s in all bits specifying the network and subnetwork fields. and the capability to contain broadcast traffic (a broadcast will not cross a router). more efficient use of network addresses. However. Subnetting provides the network administrator with several benefits. IP Subnet Mask A subnet address is created by "borrowing" bits from the host field and designating them as the subnet field. the outside world sees an organization as a single network and has no detailed knowledge of the organization's internal structure. including extra flexibility. Page 66 of 85 . Subnet mask bits should come from the high-order (left-most) bits of the host field. IP Subnet Addressing IP networks can be divided into smaller networks called subnetworks (or subnets). and segregates it further into smaller sub-nets using Classless Inter-Domain Routing.
255.255.255. The subnet mask for a Class C address 220.127.116.11.252.With five bits available for subnetting. The default subnet mask for a Class B address that has no subnetting is 255. 25 .255.192 3 255.240 13 255.0 that specifies eight bits of subnetting is 255.255.240.0 8 255.224.0.0 6 255.255.255.255.240 5 255.0 7 255.255.255.0 5 255.255.255.0.224 12 255. with 28 .0 4 255.192.248 6 255.2 = 30 subnets possible. with 23 . The reason for this is that eight bits of subnetting or 28 .255.255.2 (1 for the network address and 1 for the broadcast address) = 254 subnets possible.255.248.255.255.192 11 255.248 14 255.0 9 255.252 Number of Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 126 254 510 1022 2046 4094 8190 16382 Number of Subnets 2 6 14 30 62 Number of Hosts 16382 8190 4094 2046 1022 510 254 126 62 30 14 6 2 Number of Hosts 62 30 14 6 2 Page 67 of 85 .2 = 6 hosts per subnet.255. Class B Subnetting Reference Chart Number of Bits Subnet Mask 2 255.0.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Various types of subnet masks exist for Class B and C subnets.0 that specifies five bits of subnetting is 255.248.252 Class C Subnetting Reference Chart Number of Bits Subnet Mask 2 255.255. while the subnet mask for a Class B address 18.104.22.168.255.224 4 255.255.255.255.255.2.0.0 3 255.2 = 254 hosts per subnet.255.255.128 10 255.254.16.255.255.255.255.
The truth table provided in table 30-4 illustrates the rules for logical AND operations. Although packet switching is relatively straightforward. IP Routing Routing is the act of moving information across an internetwork from a source to a destination. To aid the process of path determination. such as path bandwidth. Routing algorithms fill routing tables with a variety of information. whereas routing occurs at Layer 3 (the network layer). Along the way. Path Determination Routing protocols use metrics to evaluate what path will be the best for a packet to travel. 1 "ANDed" with 1 yields 1. Destination/next hop associations tell a router that a particular destination can be reached optimally by sending the packet to a particular router representing the "next hop" on the way to the final destination. it checks the destination address and attempts to associate this address with a next hop. When a router receives an incoming packet. routing algorithms initialize and maintain routing tables. First. it forwards the frame to the destination IP address. Routing involves two basic activities: determining optimal routing paths and transporting information groups (typically called packets) through an internetwork. Only relatively recently has large-scale internetworking become popular. 0 "ANDed" with 0 yields 0. Second. Three basic rules govern logically "ANDing" two binary numbers. A metric is a standard of measurement. This distinction provides routing and bridging with different information to use in the process of moving information from source to destination. The router then looks up the destination network number and matches it with an outgoing interface. Specifics regarding the logical AND operation are discussed in the following section. Finally. path determination can be very complex. Finally. Route information varies depending on the routing algorithm used. First. while the destination network number remains. Routing is often contrasted with bridging.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 How Subnet Masks are Used to Determine the Network Number The router performs a set process to determine the network (or more specifically. at least one intermediate node typically is encountered. that is used by routing algorithms to determine the optimal path to a destination. so the two functions accomplish their tasks in different ways. the latter of these is referred to as packet switching. which might seem to accomplish precisely the same thing to the casual observer. 1 "ANDed" with 0 yields 0. It then performs a logical AND operation to obtain the network number. The primary difference between the two is that bridging occurs at Layer 2 (the link layer) of the OSI reference model. the router extracts the IP destination address from the incoming packet and retrieves the internal subnet mask. The topic of routing has been covered in computer science literature for more than two decades. Destination/Next Hop Associations Determine the Data's Optimal Path Page 68 of 85 . but routing achieved commercial popularity as late as the mid-1980s. This causes the host portion of the IP destination address to be removed. which contain route information. the subnetwork) address. The primary reason for this time lag is that networks in the 1970s were simple. homogeneous environments. In the context of the routing process.
this time with the protocol (network layer) address of the destination host. however. it is the same for most routing protocols. The next hop may be the ultimate destination host. Switching Switching algorithms is relatively simple. If not. Routers compare metrics to determine optimal routes. Routers communicate with one another and maintain their routing tables through the transmission of a variety of messages. By analyzing routing updates from all other routers. but intradomain routing protocols are still used for switching both within and between areas. Page 69 of 85 . Using this terminology. As the packet moves through the internetwork. A routing domain generally is considered a portion of an internetwork under common administrative authority that is regulated by a particular set of administrative guidelines. As it examines the packet's destination protocol address. the source host sends a packet addressed specifically to a router's physical (Media Access Control [MAC]-layer) address. If the router does not know how to forward the packet. but its protocol address remains constant. it changes the destination physical address to that of the next hop and transmits the packet. informs other routers of the state of the sender's links. another example of a message sent between routers. a host determines that it must send a packet to another host. Having acquired a router's address by some means. it typically drops the packet. ISs are further divided into those that can communicate within routing domains (intradomain ISs) and those that communicate both within and between routing domains (interdomain ISs). whereas network devices with these capabilities are called intermediate systems (ISs). The routing update message is one such message that generally consists of all or a portion of a routing table. In most cases. and these metrics differ depending on the design of the routing algorithm used. If the router knows how to forward the packet. which executes the same switching decision process. routing domains can be divided into routing areas. A link-state advertisement. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has developed a hierarchical terminology that is useful in describing this process. The preceding discussion describes switching between a source and a destination end system. such as data about the desirability of a path. a router can build a detailed picture of network topology. network devices without the capability to forward packets between subnetworks are called end systems (ESs). With certain protocols. the next hop is usually another router. its physical address changes.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Routing tables also can contain other information. A variety of common metrics will be introduced and described later in this chapter. Link information also can be used to build a complete picture of network topology to enable routers to determine optimal routes to network destinations. Routing domains are also called autonomous systems. the router determines that it either knows or does not know how to forward the packet to the next hop.
the particular goals of the algorithm designer affect the operation of the resulting routing protocol. such as hardware failures. routing protocols must define their metric calculation algorithms strictly. Efficiency is particularly important when the software implementing the routing algorithm must run on a computer with limited physical resources. The best routing algorithms are often those that have withstood the test of time and that have proven stable under a variety of network conditions. and incorrect implementations.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Numerous Routers May Come into Play during the Switching Process Routing Algorithms Routing algorithms can be differentiated based on several key characteristics. Because routers are located at network junction points. but it may weigh delay more heavily in the calculation. and each algorithm has a different impact on network and router resources. routing algorithms use a variety of metrics that affect calculation of optimal routes. high load conditions. they can cause considerable problems when they fail. Naturally. Routing algorithms also are designed to be as simple as possible. Second. one routing algorithm may use a number of hops and delays. Routing algorithms must be robust. In other words. various types of routing algorithms exist. Finally. with a minimum of software and utilization overhead. Page 70 of 85 . First. which means that they should perform correctly in the face of unusual or unforeseen circumstances. Routing algorithms often have one or more of the following design goals: Optimality Simplicity and low overhead Robustness and stability Rapid convergence Flexibility Optimality refers to the capability of the routing algorithm to select the best route. which depends on the metrics and metric weightings used to make the calculation. the routing algorithm must offer its functionality efficiently. For example.
it believes that the optimal next hop is Router 1. Because static routing systems cannot react to network changes. Router 2 therefore forwards the packet back to Router 1. Algorithm Types Routing algorithms can be classified by type. and the packet continues to bounce back and forth between the two routers until Router 2 receives its routing update or until the packet has been switched the maximum number of times allowed. When a network event causes routes to either go down or become available. stimulating recalculation of optimal routes and eventually causing all routers to agree on these routes. routing algorithms must converge rapidly. the routing software recalculates routes and sends out new routing update messages. for example. they generally are considered unsuitable for today's large. constantly changing networks. As many routing algorithms become aware of the problem. but because this router has not yet been updated. In the routing loop displayed in Figure 5-3. Routing algorithms that converge slowly can cause routing loops or network outages. router queue size. Slow Convergence and Routing Loops Can Hinder Progress Routing algorithms should also be flexible. they will quickly select the next-best path for all routes normally using that segment. Most of the dominant routing algorithms today are dynamic routing algorithms. These mappings do not change unless the network administrator alters them. Assume. stimulating routers to rerun their algorithms and change their routing tables accordingly. and are nothing but table mappings established by the network administrator before the beginning of routing.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 In addition. Router 1 already has been updated and thus knows that the optimal route to the destination calls for Router 2 to be the next stop. on optimal routes. by all routers. Algorithms that use static routes are simple to design and work well in environments where network traffic is relatively predictable and where network design is relatively simple. routers distribute routing update messages that permeate networks. If the message indicates that a network change has occurred. among other variables. which means that they should quickly and accurately adapt to a variety of network circumstances. and network delay. These messages permeate the network. Page 71 of 85 . that a network segment has gone down. a packet arrives at Router 1 at time t1. which adjust to changing network circumstances by analyzing incoming routing update messages. Router 1 therefore forwards the packet to Router 2. Convergence is the process of agreement. Key differentiators include these: Static versus dynamic Link-state versus distance vector Static versus Dynamic Static routing algorithms are hardly algorithms at all. Routing algorithms can be programmed to adapt to changes in network bandwidth.
But how. Consequently. while distance vector algorithms send larger updates only to neighboring routers. A router of last resort (a router to which all unroutable packets are sent). link-state algorithms require more CPU power and memory than distance vector algorithms. which describes RIP 2 (the second version of RIP). is formally defined in two documents: Request For Comments (RFC) 1058 and Internet Standard (STD) 56. is one of the most enduring of all routing protocols. link-state algorithms send small updates everywhere. which was then superceded in November 1994 by RFC 1723. These algorithms emerged from academic research that dates back to 1957. Routing Metrics Routing tables contain information used by switching software to select the best route. can be designated to act as a repository for all unroutable packets. the IETF released RFC 1388 in January 1993. Link-state protocols are generally more scalable than distance vector protocols. Because they converge more quickly. combining them in a single (hybrid) metric. specifically. In link-state algorithms. ensuring that all messages are at least handled in some way. In essence. each router builds a picture of the entire network in its routing tables. it became apparent to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) that RIP needed to be updated. As IP-based networks became both more numerous and greater in size. but only to its neighbors. therefore. for example. are routing tables built? What is the specific nature of the information that they contain? How do routing algorithms determine that one route is preferable to others? Routing algorithms have used many different metrics to determine the best route. Distance vector algorithms know only about their neighbors. Each router. which permitted the use of a simple authentication Page 72 of 85 . as it is more commonly called. can be more expensive to implement and support. or RIP. Today's open standard version of RIP. RIP is also one of the more easily confused protocols because a variety of RIP-like routing protocols proliferated. Distance vector algorithms (also known as Bellman-Ford algorithms) call for each router to send all or some portion of its routing table. however. some of which even used the same name! RIP and the myriad RIP-like protocols were based on the same set of algorithms that use distance vectors to mathematically compare routes to identify the best path to any given destination address.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Dynamic routing algorithms can be supplemented with static routes where appropriate. These RFCs described an extension of RIP's capabilities but did not attempt to obsolete the previous version of RIP. sometimes referred to as IP RIP. Link-state algorithms. sends only the portion of the routing table that describes the state of its own links. On the other hand. Link-State Versus Distance Vector Link-state algorithms (also known as shortest path first algorithms) flood routing information to all nodes in the internetwork. Sophisticated routing algorithms can base route selection on multiple metrics. link-state algorithms are somewhat less prone to routing loops than distance vector algorithms. All the following metrics have been used: Path length Reliability Delay Bandwidth Load Communication cost Routing Protocols Routing Information Protocol The Routing Information Protocol. RIP 2 enabled RIP messages to carry more information.
An IP RIP 2 Packet Consists of Fields Similar to Those of an IP RIP Packet Command—Indicates whether the packet is a request or a response. ROUTING UPDATES RIP sends routing-update messages at regular intervals and when the network topology changes. Generally. RIP ROUTING METRIC RIP uses a single routing metric (hop count) to measure the distance between the source and a destination network. with a small random amount of time added whenever the timer is reset. The routing-update timer clocks the interval between periodic routing updates. this value is set to 2. The request asks that a router send all or a part of its routing table. and the sender is indicated as the next hop. If a router receives a routing update that contains a new or changed entry. RIP implements the split horizon and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated. it updates its routing table to reflect the new route. When a router receives a routing update that contains a new or changed destination network entry. which is typically 1. RIP 2 Packet Format The RIP 2 specification (described in RFC 1723) allows more information to be included in RIP packets and provides a simple authentication mechanism that is not supported by RIP. These features are designed to provide stability despite potentially rapid changes in a network's topology. These updates are sent independently of the regularly scheduled updates that RIP routers send. RIP STABILITY FEATURES RIP prevents routing loops from continuing indefinitely by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from the source to a destination. Responses contain routing table entries. These include a routing-update timer. and if increasing the metric value by 1 causes the metric to be infinity (that is. After updating its routing table. a critical feature that was not available in RIP. which could result from all routers simultaneously attempting to update their neighbors. 16). RIP 2 supported subnet masks. and a route-flush timer. The IP address of the sender is used as the next hop. Version—Specifies the RIP version used. When the route-timeout timer expires. The response can be an unsolicited regular routing update or a reply to a request. For example. Each hop in a path from source to destination is assigned a hop count value. When a router receives a routing update that includes changes to an entry. The maximum number of hops in a path is 15. The metric value for the path is increased by 1. RIP includes a number of other stability features that are common to many routing protocols. The downside of this stability feature is that it limits the maximum diameter of a RIP network to less than 16 hops. the router adds 1 to the metric value indicated in the update and enters the network in the routing table. Each routing table entry has a route-timeout timer associated with it. the router immediately begins transmitting routing updates to inform other network routers of the change. Page 73 of 85 . This is done to help prevent congestion. Multiple RIP packets are used to convey information from large routing tables. RIP routers maintain only the best route (the route with the lowest metric value) to a destination.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 mechanism to secure table updates. the route is marked invalid but is retained in the table until the route-flush timer expires. it is set to 30 seconds. More importantly. RIP TIMERS RIP uses numerous timers to regulate its performance. In a RIP packet implementing any of the RIP 2 fields or using authentication. Unused—Has a value set to zero. the network destination is considered unreachable. a route-timeout timer.
In the mid-1980s. learn of failures in the network. IP address—Specifies the IP address for the entry. Subnet mask—Contains the subnet mask for the entry. IGRP uses a composite metric that is calculated by factoring weighted mathematical values for internetwork delay. bandwidth can take on values reflecting speeds from 1200 bps to 10 Gbps. its limits were being pushed by network growth. This flexibility allows administrators to fine-tune IGRP's automatic route selection. The popularity of Cisco routers and the robustness of IGRP encouraged many organizations with large internetworks to replace RIP with IGRP. calculate distances to all known destinations. Distance vector routing protocols are often contrasted with link-state routing protocols. with one exception: If the AFI for the first entry in the message is 0xFFFF. This measurement is known as the distance vector. To provide additional flexibility. relatively homogeneous internetworks. Inc. which send local connection information to all nodes in the internetwork. This value is between 1 and 15 for a valid route. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a routing protocol that was developed in the mid-1980s by Cisco Systems. no subnet mask has been specified for the entry. RIPv2's AFI field functions identically to RFC 1058 RIP's AFI field. Page 74 of 85 . while delay can take on any value from 1 to 2 24. the most popular Interior Gateway Routing Protocol was the Routing Information Protocol (RIP). IGRP PROTOCOL CHARACTERISTICS IGRP is a distance vector Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). Network administrators can set the weighting factors for each of these metrics. Dual equal-bandwidth lines can run a single stream of traffic in round-robin fashion. most importantly. the only authentication type is simple password.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Address-family identifier (AFI)—Specifies the address family used. single metric (hop count) support of only equal-cost load balancing did not allow for much routing flexibility in complex environments. Metric—Indicates how many internetwork hops (routers) have been traversed in the trip to the destination. routers can identify new destinations as they are added to the network. although great care should be taken before any default values are manipulated. Such protocols are known as Interior Gateway Routing Protocols. reliability. and each other. composite metric. Currently. in an algorithm that yields a single. can take on any value between 1 and 255. or 16 for an unreachable route. Multiple paths can have unequal metrics yet still be valid multipath routes. RIP's small hop-count limit (16) restricted the size of internetworks. IGRP permits multipath routing. Routers using a distance vector protocol must send all or a portion of their routing table in a routing-update message at regular intervals to each of their neighboring routers. Cisco's principal goal in creating IGRP was to provide a robust protocol for routing within an autonomous system (AS). Route tag—Provides a method for distinguishing between internal routes (learned by RIP) and external routes (learned from other protocols). IGRP provides a wide range for its metrics. and. Thus. These wide metric ranges are further complemented by a series of user-definable constants that enable a network administrator to influence route selection. Although RIP was quite useful for routing within small. If this field is zero. As routing information proliferates through the network. and load. In particular. with automatic switchover to the second line if one line goes down. Next hop—Indicates the IP address of the next hop to which packets for the entry should be forwarded. bandwidth. the remainder of the entry contains authentication information.to moderatesized. Distance vector routing protocols mathematically compare routes using some measurement of distance. Reliability and load. the network administrator can influence route selection by giving higher or lower weighting to specific metrics. for example. These constants are hashed against the metrics.
The invalid timer specifies how long a router should wait in the absence of routingupdate messages about a specific route before declaring that route invalid. and poison-reverse updates. The working group was formed in 1988 to design an IGP based on the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm for use in the Internet. These triggered updates do not instantly arrive at every network device. Similar to the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Increases in routing metrics generally indicate routing loops. The IGRP default for this variable is three times the update timer period plus 10 seconds. This activity begins a wave of triggered updates that filter through the network. OSPF was created because in the mid-1980s. the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Page 75 of 85 . The IGRP default for this variable is 90 seconds. Stability Features IGRP provides a number of features that are designed to enhance its stability. The IGRP default is seven times the routing update period. Split horizons derive from the premise that it is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which it came. poison-reverse updates are sent if a route metric has increased by a factor of 1. neighboring routers detect this via the lack of regularly scheduled update messages. and a flush timer. In Cisco's implementation of IGRP. Only routes with metrics that are within a certain range or variance of the best route are used as multiple paths. but poison-reverse updates are necessary to defeat larger routing loops. Variance is another value that can be established by the network administrator. The IGRP default for this variable is three times the update period. These include an update timer. The Split-Horizon Rule Helps Protect Against Routing Loops Split horizons should prevent routing loops between adjacent routers. The hold-time variable specifies the holddown period. split horizons. Holddowns tell routers to hold down any changes that might affect routes for some period of time. the latter device would contain (and potentially advertise) incorrect routing information. Finally. In this case. Open Shortest Path First Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is a routing protocol developed for Internet Protocol (IP) networks by the Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). the better path will be used three times as often. if one path is three times better than another path (its metric is three times lower). The holddown period usually is calculated to be just greater than the period of time necessary to update the entire network with a routing change. a hold-time period. Thus. The update timer specifies how frequently routing update messages should be sent. the flush timer indicates how much time should pass before a route should be flushed from the routing table.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 For example. When a router goes down. Timers IGRP maintains a number of timers and variables containing time intervals. which advertises a failed route as being valid to a device that has just been notified of the network failure.1 or greater. These routers then calculate new routes and send routing update messages to inform their neighbors of the route change. an invalid timer. Holddowns are used to prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that might have gone bad. Poison-reverse updates then are sent to remove the route and place it in holddown. These include holddowns. it is possible for a device that has yet to be informed of a network failure to send a regular update message.
Page 76 of 85 . and Newman's (BBN's) SPF algorithm developed in 1978 for the ARPANET (a landmark packet-switching network developed in the early 1970s by BBN). and an early version of OSI's Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) routing protocol. they use the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 was increasingly incapable of serving large. which sometimes is referred to as the Dijkstra algorithm. Dr. heterogeneous internetworks. This chapter examines the OSPF routing environment. OSPF was derived from several research efforts. named for the person credited with its creation. OSPF contrasts with RIP and IGRP. and general protocol components. The OSPF specification is published as Request For Comments (RFC) 1247. Information on attached interfaces. The second principal characteristic is that OSPF is based on the SPF algorithm. which means that its specification is in the public domain. and other variables is included in OSPF LSAs. Beranek. OSPF is a link-state routing protocol that calls for the sending of link-state advertisements (LSAs) to all other routers within the same hierarchical area. metrics used. including Bolt. OSPF has two primary characteristics. As a link-state routing protocol. Radia Perlman's research on fault-tolerant broadcasting of routing information (1988). underlying routing algorithm. BBN's work on area routing (1986). which are distance-vector routing protocols. As OSPF routers accumulate link-state information. The first is that the protocol is open. Routers running the distance-vector algorithm send all or a portion of their routing tables in routing-update messages to their neighbors.
such as a telephone company. the switched circuit is initiated with the circuit number of the remote network. These circuits are generally priced based on bandwidth required and distance between the two connected points. When the data transmission is complete. the data link layer. This works much like a normal telephone line works for voice communication. Point-to-point lines are usually leased from a carrier and thus are often called leased lines. the device actually places a call to the telephone number of the remote ISDN circuit. Page 77 of 85 . Point-to-point links are generally more expensive than shared services such as Frame Relay.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Chapter 9 – WAN Technologies Fundamentals of WAN A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers. the call can be terminated. to a remote network. such as telephone companies. they can transfer data. When a router has data for a remote site. the carrier allocates pairs of wire and facility hardware to your line only. For a point-to-point line. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer. WAN Technologies Operate at the Lowest Levels of the OSI Model A point-to-point link provides a single. A Typical Point-to-Point Link Operates Through a WAN to a Remote Network Switched circuits allow data connections that can be initiated when needed and terminated when communication is complete. In the case of ISDN circuits. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a good example of circuit switching. and the network layer. pre-established WAN communications path from the customer premises through a carrier network. When the two networks are connected and authenticated.
The establishment phase involves creating the virtual circuit between the source and destination devices. Because this allows the carrier to make more efficient use of its infrastructure. SVCs are used in situations in which data transmission between devices is sporadic. networks have connections into the carrier's network. the cost to the customer is generally much better than with point-to-point lines. and many customers share the carrier's network. In a packet switching setup. Packet Switching Transfers Packets Across a Carrier Network Virtual Circuits A virtual circuit is a logical circuit created within a shared network between two network devices.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 A Circuit-Switched WAN Undergoes a Process Similar to That Used for a Telephone Call Packet switching is a WAN technology in which users share common carrier resources. SVCs are virtual circuits that are dynamically established on demand and terminated when transmission is complete. and circuit termination. Page 78 of 85 . but they decrease the cost associated with constant virtual circuit availability. and the circuit termination phase involves tearing down the virtual circuit between the source and destination devices. largely because SVCs increase bandwidth used due to the circuit establishment and termination phases. The carrier can then create virtual circuits between customers' sites by which packets of data are delivered from one to the other through the network. Communication over an SVC consists of three phases: circuit establishment. Two types of virtual circuits exist: switched virtual circuits (SVCs) and permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). data transfer. Data transfer involves transmitting data between the devices over the virtual circuit. The section of the carrier's network that is shared is often referred to as a cloud.
PVCs are generally configured by the service provider when an order is placed for service. WAN Devices WANs use numerous types of devices that are specific to WAN environments. The dial backup line then supports the WAN connection until the primary circuit is restored. and multiplexers. and ISDN terminal adapters are discussed in the following sections. When this occurs. the switched circuit is used to provide backup service for another type of circuit. When the connection is made. Two Routers at Remote Ends of a WAN Can Be Connected by WAN Switches An access server acts as a concentration point for dial-in and dial-out connections. the router is configured to initiate the call when certain criteria are met. Two popular dialup implementations are dial-on-demand routing (DDR) and dial backup. Dialup services offer cost-effective methods for connectivity across WANs. DDR is a technique whereby a router can dynamically initiate a call on a switched circuit when it needs to send data. Page 79 of 85 . such as a particular type of network traffic needing to be transmitted. The router is configured so that when a failure is detected on the primary circuit. such as point-to-point or packet switching. PVCs are used in situations in which data transfer between devices is constant. A WAN switch is a multiport internetworking device used in carrier networks. modems. and SMDS. in dial backup. and operate at the data link layer of the OSI reference model. PVCs decrease the bandwidth use associated with the establishment and termination of virtual circuits. ATM switches. However.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 PVC is a permanently established virtual circuit that consists of one mode: data transfer. the dial backup line is initiated. Other devices found in WAN environments that are used in WAN implementations include routers. Dial backup is another way of configuring DDR. X. but they increase costs due to constant virtual circuit availability. These devices typically switch such traffic as Frame Relay.25. traffic passes over the line. WAN switches. CSU/DSUs. The router configuration specifies an idle timer that tells the router to drop the connection when the circuit has remained idle for a certain period. the dial backup connection is terminated. In a DDR setup. access servers.
although it is called a terminal adapter because it does not actually convert analog to digital signals. these analog signals are returned to their digital form. The term xDSL covers a number of similar yet competing forms of DSL technologies. At the source. G. and VDSL. IDSL. SDSL. enabling data to be transmitted over voice-grade telephone lines. xDSL is drawing significant attention from implementers and service providers because it promises to deliver high-bandwidth data rates to dispersed locations with relatively small changes to the existing telco infrastructure. The CSU/DSU also provides signal timing for communication between these devices. ISDN Terminal Adapter An ISDN terminal adapter is a device used to connect ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) connections to other interfaces. CSU/DSU A channel service unit/digital service unit (CSU/DSU) is a digital-interface device used to connect a router to a digital circuit like a T1. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Page 80 of 85 . such as EIA/TIA-232 on a router. A terminal adapter is essentially an ISDN modem. including ADSL. Digital Subscriber Line Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology is a modem technology that uses existing twisted-pair telephone lines to transport high-bandwidth data. to service subscribers.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Modem A modem is a device that interprets digital and analog signals. HDSL-2.SHDL. such as multimedia and video. At the destination. digital signals are converted to a form suitable for transmission over analog communication facilities. HDSL.
such as DTE. text. In most other parts of the world. additional telephone lines in homes to serve the telecommuting industry. WAN PROTOCOLS Integrated Services Digital Network Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is comprised of digital telephony and data-transport services offered by regional telephone carriers. and network and internetwork capabilities. and other source material to be transmitted over existing telephone wires. text. and V. An NT1/2 device also exists as a single device that combines the functions of an NT1 and an NT2. The NT2 is a more complicated device that typically is found in digital private branch exchanges (PBXs) and that performs Layer 2 and 3 protocol functions and concentration services.35. This asymmetry. video. These are network-termination devices that connect the four-wire subscriber wiring to the conventional two-wire local loop. Such rates expand existing access capacity by a factor of 50 or more without new cabling. TE1s connect to the ISDN network through a four-wire. S—The reference point between user terminals and the NT2. ISDN DEVICES ISDN devices include terminals. The emergence of ISDN represents an effort to standardize subscriber services. ubiquitous system capable of bringing multimedia. and remote LAN access. user/network interfaces. In North America. This chapter summarizes the underlying technologies and services associated with ISDN. Beyond the TE1 and TE2 devices. terminal adapters (TAs). ADSL transmits more than 6 Mbps to a subscriber and as much as 640 kbps more in both directions. and exchange-termination equipment. Users of these applications typically download much more information than they send. If the TE2 is implemented as a standalone device. the next connection point in the ISDN network is the network termination type 1 (NT1) or network termination type 2 (NT2) device. ISDN specifies a number of reference points that define logical interfaces between functional groups. high-speed file transfer. music. twisted-pair digital link. the NT1 is part of the network provided by the carrier. it connects to the TA via a standard physical-layer interface. ISDN involves the digitization of the telephone network. U—The reference point between NT1 devices and line-termination equipment in the carrier network. ISDN terminals come in two types. Page 81 of 85 . data. graphics. where the NT1 function is not provided by the carrier network. to every home this century. Examples include EIA/TIA-232-C (formerly RS-232-C). which permits voice.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) technology is asymmetric. makes ADSL ideal for Internet/intranet surfing. the NT1 is a customer premises equipment (CPE) device. Non-ISDN terminals. including full-motion video. and videoconferencing. The ISDN TA can be either a standalone device or a board inside the TE2. It allows more bandwidth downstream—from an NSP's central office to the customer site—than upstream from the subscriber to the central office. such as TAs and NT1s. ISDN reference points include the following: R—The reference point between non-ISDN equipment and a TA. video-on-demand. linetermination equipment. Specialized ISDN terminals are referred to as terminal equipment type 1 (TE1). TE2s connect to the ISDN network through a TA. network-termination devices. that predate the ISDN standards are referred to as terminal equipment type 2 (TE2). The U reference point is relevant only in North America. Voice service is also an application for ISDN. V. combined with always-on access (which eliminates call setup). ISDN applications include high-speed image applications (such as Group IV facsimile). and low-resolution graphics to a powerful.24. T—The reference point between NT1 and NT2 devices. ADSL can literally transform the existing public information network from one limited to voice.
The third device (a standard. although they are not shown. In addition. non-ISDN telephone) attaches through the reference point to a TA.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Figure illustrates a sample ISDN configuration and shows three devices attached to an ISDN switch at the central office. which would replace both the NT1 and the NT2. similar user stations are attached to the far-right ISDN switch. Two of these devices are ISDN-compatible. Page 82 of 85 . Any of these devices also could attach to an NT1/2 device. so they can be attached through an S reference point to NT2 devices.
Statistical multiplexing techniques control network access in a packet-switched network. Frame Relay is an example of a packet-switched technology. bringing its total bit rate to 192 kbps. BRI B-channel service operates at 64 kbps and is meant to carry user data. and other parts of the world provides 30 B channels plus one 64kbps D channel and a total interface rate of 2. such as Ethernet and Token Ring. BRI also provides for framing control and other overhead. yielding a total bit rate of 1. Frame Relay Frame Relay is a high-performance WAN protocol that operates at the physical and data link layers of the OSI reference model. are packet-switched networks. BRI D-channel service operates at 16 kbps and is meant to carry control and signaling information. The advantage of this technique is that it accommodates more flexibility and more efficient use of bandwidth. The PRI physical layer specification is ITU-T I. Frame Relay originally was designed for use across Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) interfaces. The D channel signaling protocol comprises Layers 1 through 3 of the OSI reference model. it is used over a variety of other network interfaces as well.048 Mbps. Most of today's popular LANs.544 Mbps (the PRI D channel runs at 64 kbps).430. Packet-switched networks enable end stations to dynamically share the network medium and the available bandwidth. The BRI physical layer specification is International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunications Standards Section (ITU-T) (formerly the Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone [CCITT]) I. Today. This chapter focuses on Frame Relay's specifications and applications in the context of WAN services. ISDN PRI Service ISDN Primary Rate Interface (PRI) service offers 23 B channels and 1 D channel in North America and Japan. Page 83 of 85 .Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Sample ISDN Configuration Illustrates Relationships between Devices and Reference Points There are two types of services associated with ISDN: BRI PRI ISDN BRI Service The ISDN Basic Rate Interface (BRI) service offers two B channels and one D channel (2B+D). Australia. ISDN PRI in Europe. although it can support user data transmission under certain circumstances.431.
The purpose of DCE equipment is to provide clocking and switching services in a network. The connection between a DTE device and a DCE device consists of both a physical layer component and a link layer component. Virtual circuits provide a bidirectional communication path from one DTE device to another and are uniquely identified by a data-link connection identifier (DLCI). Examples of DTE devices are terminals. such as windowing and retransmission of last data that are offered in X.25.25. offering fewer of the robust capabilities. these are packet switches.25. and the DCE device. which are the devices that actually transmit data through the WAN. This service is implemented by using a Frame Relay virtual circuit. they may be owned by the customer. whereas X. This chapter examines a commonly utilized protocol specification used in WAN networking: the Frame Relay protocol. A number of virtual circuits can be multiplexed into a single physical circuit for transmission across the network. As mentioned earlier. and bridges. This is because Frame Relay typically operates over WAN facilities that offer more reliable connection services and a higher degree of reliability than the facilities available during the late 1970s and early 1980s that served as the common platforms for X.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 Frame Relay often is described as a streamlined version of X. The link layer component defines the protocol that establishes the connection between the DTE device. Frame Relay is strictly a Layer 2 protocol suite. routers. which is a logical connection created between two data terminal equipment (DTE) devices across a Frame Relay packet-switched network (PSN). electrical.25 provides services at Layer 3 (the network layer) as well. and makes Frame Relay suitable for current WAN applications. such as LAN interconnection. In most cases. This capability Page 84 of 85 . This enables Frame Relay to offer higher performance and greater transmission efficiency than X. functional. and procedural specifications for the connection between the devices. One of the most commonly used physical layer interface specifications is the recommended standard (RS)-232 specification.25 WANs. such as a switch. such as a router. Devices attached to a Frame Relay WAN fall into the following two general categories: Data terminal equipment (DTE) Data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) DTEs generally are considered to be terminating equipment for a specific network and typically are located on the premises of a customer. The physical component defines the mechanical. personal computers. DCEs are carrier-owned internetworking devices. Frame Relay Virtual Circuits Frame Relay provides connection-oriented data link layer communication. This means that a defined communication exists between each pair of devices and that these connections are associated with a connection identifier. In fact.
PVCs will not be terminated under any circumstances when in an idle state. Data transfer—Data is transmitted between the DTE devices over the virtual circuit. Call termination – The virtual circuit between DTE devices is terminated. Data-Link Connection Identifier Frame Relay virtual circuits are identified by data-link connection identifiers (DLCIs). Communication across a PVC does not require the call setup and termination states that are used with SVCs. If an SVC remains in an idle state for a defined period of time. Permanent Virtual Circuits Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) are permanently established connections that are used for frequent and consistent data transfers between DTE devices across the Frame Relay network. Frame Relay virtual circuits fall into two categories: switched virtual circuits (SVCs) and permanent virtual circuits (PVCs). Unlike SVCs. maintained. DLCI values typically are assigned by the Frame Relay service provider (for example. but not necessarily in the Frame Relay WAN. Frame Relay DLCIs have local significance. the call can be terminated. Switched Virtual Circuits Switched virtual circuits (SVCs) are temporary connections used in situations requiring only sporadic data transfer between DTE devices across the Frame Relay network. A virtual circuit can pass through any number of intermediate DCE devices (switches) located within the Frame Relay PSN. but no data is transferred. the DTE devices must establish a new SVC if there is additional data to be exchanged. but no data is transferred. DTE devices can begin transferring data whenever they are ready because the circuit is permanently established. PVCs always operate in one of the following two operational states: Data transfer—Data is transmitted between the DTE devices over the virtual circuit. which means that their values are unique in the LAN. the telephone company). After the virtual circuit is terminated. A communication session across an SVC consists of the following four operational states: Call setup—The virtual circuit between two Frame Relay DTE devices is established. It is expected that SVCs will be established.Network Communications – Networking Essentials – MIM0609 often can reduce the equipment and network complexity required to connect multiple DTE devices. and terminated using the same signaling protocols used in ISDN. Idle—The connection between DTE devices is active. Idle—The connection between DTE devices is still active. A Single Frame Relay Virtual Circuit Can Be Assigned Different DLCIs on Each End of a VC Page 85 of 85 .
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