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Unit1 There is one thing that everyone on earth has in common. We all live, eat and breathe within the human body. For two years I’ve been exploring this unique dwelling place. I want to show you what I've seen. To come with me, you'll have to cross the globe from Australia through Africa to America. You'll have to
journey into space and into a place as mysterious but much closer to home. We've developed new
techniques to help you get there, new cameras to show you the way. (ah) And we'll look at familiar things
with a fresh eye. You'll journey with me on the road that your body takes, through dangers, through
miracles and through time. We will see the human body in all its forms, from our beginning to all our ends. I am a doctor and a scientist. I've spent my working life looking at the human body. Now I am going to see
it in a new light. Come with me. This is Charlotte. She was born just a few hours ago. Like most of us at birth, there's really nothing to her.
A bit of fat, a little sugar, a bit of protein, actually She is 75 percent water! She is really just a collection of
chemicals. And yet she is the most complicated thing on earth. And during her lifetime, she'll achieve the
She'll fall in love twice.5 million balloons of air. she'd have breathed over 3. She will dribble 145 liters of saliva before her first birthday. and 160 kilograms of chocolate . She'll be able to put a name to 2. She will spend 2 weeks kissing. her heart would have beaten 368 million times.she will produce 40. Unit2 She'll crawl 150 kilometers before she's two.000 people. By the age of 21. She'll blink 415 million times . She'll grow 28 meters of fingernails and 950 kilometers of hair on her head and more than 2 meters up her nose. And she'll produce 200 billion new red blood cells each and every day. From then on. consuming 7.300 eggs. she'll learn a new word every two hours for the next 10 years. 150 of them she’ll call her friends. She'll spend a little over 12 years watching TV and two and a half years on the telephone. She will shed 19 kilograms of dead skin. She'll have sex 2.580 times with 5 different people.000 liters of urine and spend over 6 months on the loo. By the time she's ten.most amazing things. She'll work for a total of just over 8 years. She will eat for nearly three and a half years.
she'll spend 6. I can do at least a bit of it on autopilot. It's my brain that lets me do that.and her eyes will be able to distinguish over a million colours. a little bit of it. By that time she'll have walked over 22. But although I have only been doing it for a few hours. And the driving force behind everything we do is the most complicated organ in our bodies and also the most mysterious. and you need to be able to use them almost automatically. We'll each in our time do an incredible amount. in France 82. In Britain she's likely to live for 79 years. It's our brain. She'll have 2 children and 4 grandchildren. "This is something I've never done before in my life. in North America 80 and in Africa only 55.000 kilometers and talked for 12 years. Unit3 It's an amazing list. anyway. If she gets married. Well. " This kind of driving takes a whole new range of skills. And when they grow up. And there is a 60% chance she will stay married to the same person for the rest of her life.809 pounds on her wedding day. In fact. And I never thought I would. only 2 of her 8 great- grandchildren will remember what her name was. . no life is an ordinary story.
bus. taxi. all at the same time. it's as if you were not just driving this car. You just thought you were putting your feet on. "Put it in another way. without my even thinking about it. Your brains are doing it right now. but driving every car. almost a fifth of all the calories you eat and drink. That's what you are looking at now. They manage things without us even being conscious of them.on the inside here." To see how busy your brain really is. Because whilst I've been coping with six new tricky things. Unit4 Everything that's alive and quite a few things that aren't. your brain is burning up more energy than anything else in your body..."Well. But the hottest bit of you is up here. you gotta look at the world differently. your brains have been doing literally tens of millions of tasks just while you are watching television.. motorbike." And that's what brains are so good at. . Every part of your body is burning up energy and creating heat as it goes about the business of being you. so much so that I can devote some of my thoughts and my attention to speaking to you. lorry in the country.. my brain is now doing half a dozen tricky new jobs all at once. And it uses up almost the same amount whether you are concentrating on something really difficult or just wondering whether to put the cat out. gives off heat. because day . .
They squeeze things along in your esophagus at around 4 centimeters per second. tonight's dinner for example.and night. food doesn't fall from your mouth to your stomach. your brain is coordinating a major haulage operation. It's essentially a biological liquidizer. there are quite a few things on your mind. And very probably your dinner is still in there. Its lining is covered in delicate folds which allow it to expand with each mouthful. your brain is challenged with the most difficult task it will ever face. it triggers waves of muscle contractions. Even though the route is usually downhill. When your brain tells you to swallow. so I hope you liked it. Soon it will be released into your small intestine and at a cue from your brain. Inside a mixture of enzymes and hydrochloric acid start to digest your food. bile will be added. Right now for instance. it churns away for about 4 hours. keeping you alive. For starters. When it . The first scheduled stop is the stomach. This will help you break down fats. You will be carrying tonight's dinner for about 24 hours.
Cells are constantly dying and being replaced by new ones. and several million of them working at once is a heartbeat. But don't worry. . too. it will take around 25 grams of dead cells from your gut with it. What this really means is that most parts of your body are in fact a good deal younger than you are. Up to a billion new cells for old every hour. you are constantly replacing cells from head to toe.000 billion cells and most of them don't last more than a few years. it's your head that rules your heart as it's your brain that decides what rate your heart should be beating at. Unit5 They are heart cells. Each one has a natural tendency to twitch. Your body needs to maintain a constant temperature of 37 degrees centigrade and your brain has a range of tricks up its sleeve to do it. The same part of your brain that's controlling your heart is looking after the outside of you.does finally leave you. In this case. But remarkably these cells aren't replaced and they are particularly special. Your brain is managing the body's workforce of approximately 50.
And should your brain decide that staying warm is what's needed. And don't think you will get out of all the hard work by nodding off. goose pimples. They just don't tell us about it. my brainwaves show I'm busy. it's covered in holes. Unit6 . 128 sensors detect tiny signals emitted as my brain cells fire. This strange contraption is covered in electrodes picking up part of my own brain's activity. Even when we are completely relaxed or asleep our brains don't let up.This is skin magnified a thousand times. As the sweat evaporates. There are about 65. They are the openings of tiny ducts--tubes through which sweat can flow.. it will help cool you down. They trap warm air near to the skin and so keep vital heat in.is actually the result of immeasurable activity inside our bodies. your brain switches on your sweat glands.. The truth is our bodies are always busy. . If you are getting too hot. it's got another plan. If you look closely.. What we see as the monotony of our daily lives when it seems that nothing ever really happens. so all that is being controlled from here inside your head. This is the pattern produced when I'm relaxed. Even without a thought in my head. 000 of them on the palm of your hand alone..
when the human body didn't even exist. And just as our bodies hide from us the miracle of everyday life. The earth would have been covered in volcanoes and billowing vents of steam and sulphurous water. It's the story of how we came to be the way we are. you'd have been standing by the most advanced life form on the planet. in America's Yellowstone National Park. It will change the way you think about your body. millions even billions of years ago. you'd have been present as the story of life was unfolding. the way we live. And had you been standing here. They are actually colonies of tiny heat loving . and planet earth was almost unrecognizable.We are performing literally thousands of different tasks every second of every day. even the way we think was decided for us thousands. In this almost boiling water. Here we are.000 feet above sea level. there are thousands of long thin strands. Had you been standing here. If you'd been on the surface of the planet earth three billon years ago. so they hide from us an even bigger surprise. And it is an amazing story. Simply being is part of an intricately complicated balancing act. it would have looked something like this. 8. the mechanics of which are completely hidden from us. the shape we are.
Once. and literally millions of other species developed. . just like it was three billion years ago. withered and died out. long ago. they are bacteria. this has survived practically unchanged.creatures. What's so surprising is that it's still here today. this was the most complex form of life anywhere on earth. Whereas dinosaurs came and went.
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